The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Sam Colver
Please note that Samuel Colver was not Indian Agent Samuel H. Culver.

Samuel Colver to Rachel Curry, by James Bishop, J.P., July 25.
Urbana Citizen and Gazette, Urbana, Ohio, January 20, 1881, page 1

    Samuel Colver, a native of New England, married Miss Curry, daughter of a former Treasurer of the State; settled near Irwin Station around 1808, and became one of the most enterprising and wealthy farmers of this vicinity, and at the age of seventy years, about 1851-52, emigrated to Oregon, where he died.
Pliny Durant, ed., The History of Union County, Ohio, 1883, page 167

    …Mr. Samuel Colver…is now living with us here at the Bend; his society is of much interest to me and tends to amuse and relieve me of those gloomy thoughts.… Mr. Colver is a young man whose society is worth counting in any situation.… He posses[ses] a considerable share of information for one of his age, and is desirous of accumulating, he is entirely without affectation and pedantry; and…has a feeling heart and the impression of honesty and upright principles…and he looks with horror and detestation upon the vices of villainy so conspicuously displayed in this Southern world.…
Moses Lapham, Fort Bend, Texas, writing to Amos Lapham, Mechanicsburg, Ohio, March 4, 1837, in "Moses Lapham, His Life and Some Selected Correspondence," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 54, page 470

    …Colver was here a few days ago.… He has gone back to Matagorda for a large stock of goods and I expect him here every day.…
Moses Lapham, Richmond, Texas, writing to Levi Lapham, Mechanicsburg, Ohio, December 1, 1837, in "Moses Lapham, His Life and Some Selected Correspondence," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 54, page 472

Muster of Edward Burleson's Volunteers Against Cordova's Rebels, Mill Creek Fight, March 29, 1839
. . . Colver, Samuel . . .
Stephen L. Moore, Savage Frontier: Rangers, Riflemen and Indian Wars in Texas, vol. II, page 189

Texian participants in the Córdova Fight [in April 1839] under Gen. Burleson near Seguin according to Donaly E. Brice in The Great Comanche Raid: Boldest Indian Attack of the Texas Republic:
. . . Colver, Samuel . . .

LIST OF LETTERS remaining in the post office at Austin, on the 1st April, 1841.
. . . . Colver, Samuel . . .
Austin City Gazette, Austin, Texas, April 14, 1841, page 3

REMAINING in the post office at the city of Austin, October 1st, 1841.
. . . . Colver, Samuel . . .
Austin City Gazette, Austin, Texas, October 6, 1841, page 2

N O T I C E .
THERE will be a Petition presented to the Commissioners of Champaign County, at their next session, for a Road commencing near Henry Fairchild's, where the Road from Urbana intersects the Road from Urbana intersects the Road from Mechanicsburgh to Woodstock, running [in] an easterly direction, until it strikes the line between Anson Howard and Nathaniel Kidder, at or near the bars on said line; thence with said line until it strikes the Road leading from Samuel Colver's to Joseph Meachem's; from thence to Union County line, to intersect a Road that may be laid out from Milford, in Union county.
Feb. 4, 1840.
Western Citizen and Urbana Gazette, Urbana, Ohio, February 18, 1840, page 4

Liberty Convention.
    A Convention of the Liberty men of Champaign and Union counties will meet at Woodstock on the 18th of Sept. inst. for the purpose of nominating candidates for the fall election.
    Several of the most distinguished speakers of all parties are invited.
S. COLVER, Committee.
Western Citizen and Urbana Gazette, Urbana, Ohio, September 9, 1845, page 3

    Have the Free Soilers of Champaign forgotten how Weller abused them, when he addressed the Democracy at the Court House, in this place, about a year ago? Our friend Colver, who was singled out by the gallant Col., and denounced as an "infernal Abolitionist," to the infinite joy and merriment of the crowd, will remember it! Who would have then thought that the Free Soilers of Champaign would so soon kiss the foot that kicked them, and coalesce with the very men who smiled and grinned so lustily over the torrent of abuse poured upon them by the Mexican killer.
Western Citizen and Urbana Gazette, Urbana, Ohio, September 28, 1849, page 2

Farewell to my shade trees around my dooryard and door
Farewell I must leave you to see you no more.
They say I must travel although I am so old
Away to California, the country of gold.

Farewell to my homestead, I must leave you they say,
You were the place of my childhood where I now love to stay.
But ah I will travel through sunshine and snow,
I will go with my children, where ever they go.

Farewell to my neighbors that were kind unto me,
I will often think of you and wish you to see..
Yes, all those affections, awhile with us stay,
Our life is a shadow that passeth away.

This is rather a late hour in my lifetime to roam,
To leave the state of Ohio for a far distant home.
Ah yes, I will find one, my home I will leave,
I will go to California, and there find my grave.

My heart is heavy, it aches through my soul,
Farewell to all that knew me, farewell to you all.
I know I am helpless, I am but dust and clay,
My hopes brightest flowers have faded away.

Rachel Colver
My heart it beats heavy it aches through my soul.
Colver Papers, University of Oregon Special Collections Ax 126.

For the Statesman.
Spiritual Knockings.
There's a voice from the Desert Plain
    Comes floating on the air,
In a deep and mournful strain
    From the weary, sleeping there.
'Tis the voice of the emigrant dead
    Who rest beneath the sand,
Who ask for a better road across--
    A better road by land.
There's a voice from the Isthmus, too,
    Where pestilence and death
Guard every avenue,
    And poison every breath.
'Tis the voice of that countless host
    Whom pestilence hath slain,
Who ask for a road across-
    A railroad o'er the Plain.
There's a voice from the stormy Cape,
    'Tis heard in the ocean's moan;
'Tis the voice of those who sleep
    'Neath the briny waves' white foam.
'Tis the voice of the shipwrecked dead
    Above the wild ocean's roar,
Who plead for a road across our land--
    A road from shore to shore.
Lane County, Oregon.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 14, 1851, page 1

Rogue River Dec. 28th 1851
Mr. Anson Dart
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        for the Territory of Oregon
    We, the undersigned citizens of Rogue River Valley, present this as our testimony of the character of Worthington Bills, now under arrest, charged with attempting to excite the Indians to hostilities.
    Testimony of T. Thompson
    On or about the 19th of Dec. last I was conversing with Mr. Worthington Bills as to the best method of ejecting one Mr. Gibbs from a claim I had commenced work on, which said Gibbs had jumped in my absence on business to the Willamette Valley. Mr. Worthington Bills said to me, "Never mind, I can get Gibbs off. I will get the Indians on him." I told him I did not wish such assistance.
[signed] T. Thompson
    Testimony of Sam Colver
    I called on Worthington Bills a few days previous to his arrest. He told me to look sharp, to use his own words, "that Hell was a-brewing," that the Indians were going to give us a turn. I told him I had no fears from what I saw. He evidently wished to alarm me by his statement and, as I believe, for bad purposes, that I might assume a hostile or defensive bearing towards the Indians, that would at once lead to open hostilities. I was present at his arrest and trial before Judge Skinner, heard the testimony of Sam, the war chief, as interpreted from the jargon, who stated that said Bills told him that the whites were going to make an attack on the Indians and that they were going to shoot him through a crack in his house. The chiefs stated also that Mr. Bill had planned the conquest of the valley by the Indians from Long's ferry up to the foot of the Siskiyou Mountains. This last statement by the chiefs was interpreted by Wm. H. Corkins. In these and the statements of others who will be called on as witness in the case whose lives were threatened and menaced by the Indians are sufficient reasons we think for his removal from our midst; we regard him as a very dangerous man on our frontier.
[signed] Sam Colver
Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1852, enclosure to No. 6.

    And for additional reasons for adopting the course I have with reference to the prisoner I beg leave to refer you to the accompanying statement of Saml. Colver Esqr. who is acquainted with all the facts connected with the case.
    Mr. Colver has resided since the fall of 1851 in the upper part of the Willamette and is now here making arrangements to remove his family here in the spring.
A. A. Skinner, Letter of December 29, 1851,
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 12; Letters Received, 1851, No. 6.

    Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon, That Joseph W. Drew, Samuel Colver and R. P. Daniels be and they are hereby constituted commissioners to locate and establish a Territorial road from Winchester in Douglas County to the south line of this Territory, at or near Shasta Butte City, in Jackson County.… Passed by the House of Representatives, January 19th, 1852.
Local Laws and Joint Resolutions of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon, 1852, page 21

For the Oregonian.
ROGUE RIVER, April 18, 1852.
    MR. EDITOR.--As an apology for this communication, I would say that the country has been flooded with a pamphlet, styled "The Opinion of O. C. Pratt upon the Location Law." Now, the extreme solicitude manifested in procuring such numbers of his production sent to this remote corner of the territory is in itself a circumstance truly ominous. And as Judge Pratt would undoubtedly like to hear from his prospective constituents in these diggings, we give him an opportunity. Judge P. commences his famous argument with paying a high compliment to the forbearance and virtue of the people. Just as all demagogues have done before him. Just as Collins complimented the devil, when he expected soon to fall into his satanic majesty's keeping. God knows the people of this western coast are bad enough; and that the gold mania, which has raged so long upon this shore, has taken a deep hold upon the morals of its victims, is a truth which cannot be disguised. The people have, nevertheless, sufficient moral perception left to discover the extreme hypocrisy of those who would seek to flatter them into the belief and conceit of their GREAT MORALITY.
    Having put the dear people in a high opinion of themselves, Judge P. proceeds to confess that the supreme court are the "true and final expositors" of the question, but denies that there has been, or can be, a supreme court holden, UNTIL the legislative assembly locate that seat of government referred to in the organic act. As the LOGIC Judge P. makes use of is perhaps the most rare and curious of modern times, we shall present a few specimens. First; "the judges when lawfully assembled at the proper time and PLACE may then decide where the seat of government is," and as the seat of government is the only place where the judges can clothe themselves with authority to decide where the seat of government is, the court must therefore keep sitting about the country till they FIND the seat of government! Judge P.'s proposition reduces to this, viz: "The supreme judges when legally assembled may decide WHERE they may legally assemble!" Poor judges! they have a hard task; they must be at the seat of government before they can find where that place is! Can any logician help us to classify this singular species of argument? Petitio principii? Poor judges! They have a hard task; they must be at the seat of government before they can find where that place is! Can any logician help us to classify this singular species of argument? Petitio principii? No, that will not describe it. Perhaps the old woman who told her sons "never to go into the water till they learned to swim," could help us to a definition. Suppose the judges had met at Salem. Now, as Judge Pratt says this is the seat of government, of course the court when assembled there is "legally assembled," by the first part of Judge P.'s proposition, and by the same proposition are competent then to decide where the seat of government is. Suppose further then, that when so assembled at Salem they solemnly decide that Salem is NOT the seat of government, what exceptions could Judge Pratt take to such a decision? None whatever; for it is supposed to have been made at Salem by a QUORUM of judges, and a place, too, where P. contends it would have binding force. But lo! they decide that Salem is not the right place! and by another one of Pratt's propositions, therefore it would have no force, because the judges had themselves decided that they were NOT at the seat of government when pronouncing this decree! A binding decree without any force!!
    Now, I have only to say to all this tissue of absurdity, and I make the proposition fearlessly, that the judges are competent to decide in their own minds as to the rightful place of assembling themselves--otherwise, how could they ever get together? This decision each is bound to make for himself, and the place is immaterial. It is that kind of knowledge which courts are bound to exercise by virtue of their office, and comes under the head of ex-officio duties. Indeed, has not Judge Pratt quoted authority showing that "courts are bound to know the places of holding their terms," and will he tell us that this knowledge cannot be exercised until the judges are first assembled at the place where their terms are to be holden? He would reduce a judge to a lower level than an ass. Now, when the judges have met in pursuance to this ex-officio duty they may make a formal decree, and he that seeks to disturb that decree through any "irregular" channel is a REVOLUTIONIST. There is no halfway ground, gentlemen, between a resort to REGULAR modes of redress and revolution. An irregular course is a treasonable course, and the people in this country will sustain no man who is an apologist for TREASON. Judge P., after laying down the unqualified proposition that no supreme court CAN be holden at any other place than that seat of government referred to in the organic act, and stating that he always or "early" entertained the same doctrine, confesses that HE DID hold a term and act as judge at another place! thus plainly implicating himself in a disregard to his official OATH. "O! but there was a LAW passed authorizing a special term!" What authority could he derive from a law which he plainly tells us he considered as contravening the law of Congress? Judge P., after speaking of this doctrine as an early settled opinion, proceeds to say, "this doubt will be remembered by my fellow judges." What right has he to speak of his "early entertained opinions," and call them "DOUBTS"? Are doubts opinions? If so, Judge P. should alter his title page, and call his little dirty thing "The Doubts of O. C. Pratt, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of Oregon." Doubt? Indeed! Well, if Mr. P. doubted, then the people will just take the liberty to DOUBT whether an honest man will mention his doubts as his opinions.
    Judge P. contends that if the first assembling at Oregon City had the effect to make that place the seat of government, why then the assembly could not "proceed to locate it." Now whoever contended that Oregon City had by virtue of the assembling of the assembly there, become that seat of government referred to in the organic act? A man who will not state his opponent's argument fairly is not entitled to the confidence of the people. He says that all the assembly could then do would be to alter and change. The difference between Tweedle-dee and Tweedle-dum is wide in Judge Pratt's opinion! "Alter" and "change"--pretty small fry this! Suppose in the long course of human events that the people should take it into their heads to locate the seat of government referred to in the organic act at some different place from the one where it may be first located, and a bill should be brought forward for that purpose, Judge P. of course will write to the assembly and tell them that they "cannot proceed to locate it at the place named in the bill," but they can "change it there."
Oregonian, Portland, May 29, 1852, page 2

Notice to Miners.
have taken claims in Rogue River Valley, eight miles from the Willow Spring, where they will take charge of all stock left in their care by miners and traders, on the following terms:
For horses or mules per month $2 each head.
For horses or mules per week 50 cts. each head.
    Being situated in the finest part of this valley for grazing, they respectfully solicit a share of the public patronage. They have a large corral well supplied with running water and packer's quarters. Provisions and groceries constantly on hand and for sale cheap.
    Beef, wholesale or retail.
JACOB SPORES,      Forks of the
ELIAS BRIGGS.         Willamette.

SMITH & AKINS, Umpqua Ferry.
Jan. 2, 1852.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, June 29, 1852, page 3

ALBANY, Linn Co., O.T., July '52.
    At a meeting called this evening, and attended by all the citizens of the place, and a number from the vicinity, to hear a representation of certain public grievances complained of by the overland emigrants now entering this valley, and after hearing Mr. Samuel Colver, the delegate appointed by the advance emigrants to represent their case--the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:
    1. That the sum of five dollars per wagon and stock, and other things in proportion, exacted off the emigrants by N. Cluny and whoever may be associated with him, under cover of a charter obtained from the last legislature of this territory, is oppressive, inhospitable and cruel, in proportion to the amount of labor expended and the facilities afforded, according to the representations heard, of the correctness of which we have no reason to doubt.
    2. We regret that owing to the advanced state of the emigration this season, we can do little more at present than express our sympathy with them in the case.
    3. That we will use all lawful means to obtain a repeal of the charter and all other existing similar ones, as speedily as possible.
    4. That we will aid and encourage such young men in their philanthropic enterprise as have volunteered to meet the emigration for the purpose of assisting them to arrive in this territory.
    5. That Rev. James P. Miller, Dr. S. A. Smith and J. W. Schutt be a committee to prepare, circulate and attend to the presentation of a memorial to the next legislature in favor of a repeal of said charter.
    6. That a copy of the proceedings of this meeting be forwarded to the Oregonian and Statesman with a request for their publication.
Oregonian, Portland, August 14, 1852, page 2

Mass Meeting in Jackson County.
    A pursuant to general notice, a mass meeting of the citizens of Jackson County met at Table Rock City, on the 11th of December, 1852.
    On motion, SAMUEL COLVER was called to the chair, and D. C. LEWIS to act as secretary.
    After some remarks from the chair, explaining the object of the meeting, Mr. W. G. T'Vault and Judge Skinner were severally called upon to address the meeting, which they did in an able and eloquent manner.
    On motion of Judge Skinner, a committee of five persons were selected by the meeting to draft a series of resolutions expressive of the sense of this meeting. Said committee consisted of the following gentlemen, viz: Dr. V. W. Coffin, D. M. Kenney, Dr. C. E. Alexander, W. G. T'Vault, and W. W. Fowler.
    On motion, the meeting adjourned until the 18th Dec.
    DEC. 18.--The meeting met pursuant to adjournment. Mr. Colver being absent, Mr. U. S. Hayden was called to the chair, when the committee reported the following resolutions, which were adopted unanimously:
    Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, the present apportionment of representation in the territorial legislative assembly is unequal and unjust--that our representative and councilman be instructed to use their influence to procure the passage of a law causing the census to be taken, thereby making a new apportionment of representation previous to the next general election.
    Resolved, That the peculiar situation of the business affairs of this county (it being almost exclusively a mining county, and as such the population very fluctuating) demands that there should be at least three terms of the district court in each year, and that a special local act should confer upon our justices of the peace a jurisdiction sufficient to take cognizance over all sums not exceeding five hundred dollars, and further, that a special fee bill be passed, in order that there will be sufficient inducement for a responsible sum to accept of office within the county, as the present fee bill would not pay an officer laborer's wages.
    Resolved, That we view with indignation the conduct of our representative in the efforts he used, during the last called session of the legislative assembly, to prevent the holding of a term of the district court in this county.
    Resolved, That our representative and councilman be further instructed to procure the passage of an act legalizing all the judgments rendered heretofore in the justice's court, said justices having been selected by the people.
    On motion of D. M. Kenney, the proceedings of this meeting be forwarded to Mr. M. P. Deady of the council, and some member of the assembly; also, a copy to each newspaper of the territory, with request to publish the same.
    On motion, the meeting adjourned sine die.
U. S. HAYDEN, President.
D. C. LEWIS, Secretary.
Oregonian, Portland, February 5, 1853, page 2

    TERRITORIAL CONVENTION.--In pursuance of a call heretofore noticed, delegates from Siskiyou County, Cal., and Umpqua, Jackson and Coos counties, Oregon Territory, met in convention in Jacksonville, on the 28th January and organized by the election of H. G. Ferris of Siskiyou, as president; E. Steel of Yreka, and Samuel Colver of Jacksonville, vice presidents, and T. McF. Patton, and C. S. Drew, secretaries. There were 21 delegates present, several counties not being represented at all.
    The convention resolved to use "every exertion to prevent the formation of a state government in Oregon with its present boundaries." Three committees were appointed to draft memorials--1st, to Congress; 2nd, to the California Legislature; 3rd to the Oregon Legislature. A committee was also appointed "to draft a petition to circulate among the citizens of the proposed new territory--said committee to consist of the sheriffs of the said counties."
    The convention then adjourned to meet at Jacksonville on the third Monday of April (the 17th). We are of the opinion that this movement is premature. However, the people of the counties directly interested ought to he the best judges of their wants.--Shasta Courier.
Grass Valley Telegraph,
Grass Valley, California, March 2, 1854, page 4

Territory of Oregon, Jackson County
Breach of the peace
    "Personally appeared before me one of the justices of the peace in and for said county Horace Ish and confessed that he was guilty of breaking the peace by kicking one Thompson, given name not known, but did not kick him with any other intention but to kick his (ass) seat of Hanlon but did not kick one Samuel Colver who was in the house at the time and he did not kick said Thompson with any intentions of killing or shooting at or stabbing or injuring him in any other manner but to kick him once and prays that the court will acquit him with a reasonable fine for thus breaking the peace.
    "In witness whereof he has set his hand and seal this May 11th 1855.
"H. L. Ish
    "Subscribed and sworn to before me this May 11th 1855.    Hiram Abbott, J.P.
    "The decision of the court was that the said Horace Ish pay the sum of $5.00 five dollars and costs taxed at $3.75.
"Hiram Abbott, J.P."
Jacksonville Justice of the Peace Docket, filed with the Jackson County Record of Mining Claims, Blossom Family Papers, Mss 746, Box 1, Oregon Historical Society Research Library, Portland

Territory of Oregon, Jackson County
Breach of the peace
    "Personally appeared before me one of the justices of the peace in and for said county William Ish and acknowledged that on or about the 27 day of Feb. 1855 did break the peace by fighting with one Samuel Colver
of the same county aforesaid and one Thompson, given name not known, at the house of W. W. Fowler & Brown known as the Eldorado at Jacksonville in said county and was willing to pay his fine and after being put under oath testified as follows I did not fight with the said Samuel Colver and Thompson with any intention of killing, stabbing or shooting at or injuring them in any [way] but to give them a little drubbing but when Colver told me that he was sick I threw down the little stick I had but did not intend to use it. In witness whereof he has hereunto set his hand and seal this May 11th 1855.
"William Ish
    "Subscribed and sworn to before me this May 11th 1855.    Hiram Abbott, J.P.
    "The court considering the case decided that the said William Ish pay the sum of $5.00 dollars fine and costs taxed at $3.75.
"Hiram Abbott
"Justice of the peace"
Jacksonville Justice of the Peace Docket, filed with the Jackson County Record of Mining Claims, Blossom Family Papers, Mss 746, Box 1, Oregon Historical Society Research Library, Portland

For the Argus.
    Pursuant to call, gentlemen from different portions of Oregon Territory assembled in the court house in Albany, Linn County, on Wednesday, June 27th, 1855, and organized by calling B. F. WHITSON, Esq., to the Chair, and appointing W. C. JOHNSON Secretary.
    The Chairman explained the object of the meeting to be to take under consideration the proper course to be pursued by those in Oregon who are opposed to the extension of slavery.
    As this was the first anti-slavery meeting ever held in the Territory of Oregon, it was proposed, and carried by acclamation, that a list of the names of those desiring to be known as members of this convention be taken and preserved for future reference. Whereupon the following named gentlemen came forward and recorded their names, to wit:
    Origen Thomson, H. H. Hicklin, T. S. Kendall, Jno. R. McClure, Wm. T. Baxter, Wilson Blain, Jno. McCoy, Samuel Hyde, W. L. Coon, Wm. Marks, W. C. Hicklin, H. F. McCully, David Irwin, John Smith, Isaac Pest, J. W. Stewart, G. W. Lambert, J. B. Forsyth, J. M. McCall, John Conner, Thos. Cannon, B. F. Whitson, W. C. Johnson, Hezekiah Johnson, J. T. Craig, D. C. Hackley, S. R. McLelland, Robt. A. Buck, Samuel Bell, J. P. Tate, U. H. Dunning, Alfred Wheeler, Samuel Colver, D. H. Bodinn, W. C. Garwood, D. Beach, Charles Ferry, J. F. Thompson, Milton B. Starr.
    On motion, a committee of three, consisting of Hezekiah Johnson, Origen Thomson, and Wilson Blain was appointed to arrange business, and report this afternoon.
    Adjourned till 2 o'clock P.M.
    Called for report of committee on arrangement of business.
    Whereupon, through their chairman, Hezekiah Johnson, they presented a preamble and resolutions, which, after being considered section by section, amended, and unanimously adopted, read as follows:
    WHEREAS the institution of American slavery has, for some few years past, been exhibiting unwonted energy and resolution in the maintenance of its wide-spreading control over the destiny of our country--its advocates working with audacity and boldness for its nationalization, and to clothe it with the sovereign power;
    AND WHEREAS this pro-slavery effort has already resulted in the enactment of laws unjust and anti-Republican, oppressive and cruel; and
WHEREAS the people of Oregon, blessed with a free and fruitful land, are deeply interested in the preservation of their Territory from the blighting influence of this despotic institution; therefore
    1. Resolved, That we regard the whole system of legislation on the subject of slavery by the U.S. Congress since 1850, including the Fugitive Slave Act and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, as a flagrant outrage on the civilization of the age, and disgraceful to the patriotism and religion of the whole country.
    2. Resolved, That the artfulness and treachery displayed in the aggressions of the slave power in our country should awaken in the heart of every lover of free institutions in Oregon a most jealous watchfulness in regard to its movements in thus direction, as we know not at what moment, by some artful ruse, it may be precipitated upon oar Territory.
    3. Resolved, That we regard the question of slavery as the great agitating element in the politics of our country, which can never be compromised or settled but by the overthrow of an institution so utterly opposed to every principle of political, as well as of all moral and religious right.
    4. Resolved, That we would deprecate the introduction of slavery into any of the territory on the Pacific Coast as a real calamity, and laying the foundation for strife and disaffection among the future Pacific states.
    5. Resolved, That we recommend the friends of Free Soil, in the several counties of this Territory, to hold county meetings, and later to direct public attention to the growing evil of slavery, and to secure the election to office of those who can be relied on to act in opposition to the aggressive movements of slavery at the present time.
    6. Resolved, That we recommend to the Free Soil men of this Territory to extend all their influence and support to those newspapers which will have the moral courage to favor the promotion of anti-slavery sentiments.
    7. Resolved, That a general meeting of the anti-slavery men of Oregon be called to meet at Corvallis, Benton Co., on the last Wednesday in Oct., 1855; and that a committee of five be appointed to prepare a declaration of sentiment, as a
PLATFORM for the ANTI-SLAVERY party in Oregon, and report at that meeting.
    S. Resolved, That the secretary be instructed to forward a copy of the proceedings of this meeting to the several papers of the Territory, and request its publication.
    The following resolution was presented by D. C. Hackley Esq., and carried by acclamation:
    Resolved, That the ladies who have favored us with their presence be requested to receive the thanks of this meeting for the manifestation they have thus made in favor of HUMAN LIBERTY.
    Messrs. John Conner, B. F. Whitson, Thos. S. Kendall, Origen Thomson, and J. P. Tate were constituted the committee contemplated in resolution 7th.
    On motion the thanks of the meeting were voted to the citizens of Albany and vicinity, for their kindness in entertaining us during our stay in their midst.
    Adjourned to meet in Corvallis, Benton County, on Wednesday, October 31, A.D., 1855, at 10½ o'clock, A.M.
B. F. WHITSON, Ch'n.
W. C. JOHNSON, Sec'y.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, July 7, 1855, page 1

Phoenix Mills Octo. 29th, 1855
Col. John E. Ross
    Sir  The citizens of this vicinity are desirous of forming a company for military protection subject to your orders whenever you may deem their services necessary in the present campaign. The isolated and defenseless condition of a large portion of the families in this part of the valley would make them an easy prey to any considerable body of Indians, especially if attacked in the night. Whatever recommendation or order you may think proper for their security, we think would be promptly obeyed. We would also inform you that there is a great lack of arms. If you could furnish us with 6 or 8 guns they would be very acceptable. If you see proper to grant this our most sincere request, please furnish us a blank muster roll together with all necessary authority to raise a company.
Yours truly,
    S. M. Wait
    S. Colver
    Joseph Tracy
    James F. Kennedy
    M. M. Williams
    J. F. Gray
B. F. Dowell Papers, Bancroft Library Mss. P-A 137

For the Boston Investigator.
    MR. EDITOR:--Not long ago an argument, written by Dr. Hammett [physician George A. Hammett of Providence, Rhode Island], in reply to Mr. Salyards, appeared in the Investigator, to which I call the especial attention of your readers. It is as follows: "Adaptation, uncaused by intelligence, must have always existed, upon the Deist's own showing; since God must in his nature be adapted to act upon matter." Having thus proved that adaptation has always existed, uncaused by intelligence, he concludes--"Therefore, there is no God."
    The fallacy of the above reasoning consists in the non-distribution of the middle term (adaptation). The meaning is that some adaptations are uncaused and eternal; not that all are, for the adaptation of the eye to the nature of light is not eternal. Geology shows a period when no SUCH adaptations existed, and the atmosphere existed prior to the lungs of man, or the wings of birds, and children are born every day with eyes adapted to the light and feet adapted to go upon the earth's surface, who had no existence six years ago. These are but recent examples of adaptation as well as the race itself.
    Let us then reduce the above argument to the regular form, and see if it will fall asunder, or cohere together.
    Major premise--Some adaptations are eternal and uncaused by intelligence;
    Minor premise--The human eye, or hand, or leg, or foot, is an example of adaptation;
    Conclusion--Therefore the adaptation of the eye, hand, foot, &c., was uncaused by intelligence.
    The conclusion does not follow necessarily from the premises; the term (adaptation) being applied only to a part of the predicate.
    Here is a similar example of "non-distribution" (and as an argument equally conclusive as the above), viz.:
Some men have but one eye--Major.
A.B. is a man--Minor.
Therefore, N.B. has but one eye--Conclusion.
    Now, there are uncaused adaptations in the universe. Example--Space is adapted to contain matter; this is an example of eternal uncaused adaptation. Again--God's intelligence is ADAPTED to organize matter; this also is another example of uncaused adaptation. But does it follow that any other example which caprice may select is also equally eternal and UNCAUSED? Does it follow that the eye is also an eternal uncaused adaptation?
    But perhaps the writer only intended to insist that all natural adaptations are uncaused by intelligence, since many of them are not eternal, and many of them have a cause. This is narrowing down the issue wonderfully! and putting only the naked question of intelligence under debate. The proposition would stand thus: "All natural adaptations are uncaused by intelligence." Now what proof has ever yet been offered to establish this affirmative? One, two, or three examples of uncaused adaptation shed no light upon it, since a cause is admitted. No example of eternal adaptation will establish it, since it is admitted that these adaptations are not eternal (at least many of them). The only proof admissible would be to adduce examples of adaptations, HAVING A CAUSE, BUT NOT AN INTELLIGENT CAUSE. Give us the examples and we yield. To assert that the eye or hand is such an example is a plain petitio principii, or assumption of the point in debate. The point made by Mr. Salyards is about this, namely: The steel trap and the lion's jaws are both mechanical adaptations, and the end or use of each is to CATCH AND HOLD; this end or use was designed in case of the trap. Were not the lion's jaws also designed to catch and hold? But the trap is a mental conception, suggested to man by the lion's jaws. Are not the lion's jaws also the result of mental conception, or of God?
    Some adaptations impress the causality of man with the idea of cause, while other adaptations do not thus impress our minds. The adaptation of space to matter raises no idea, conception, feeling, or sentiment of a cause; while all mechanical arrangements, as well as some other arrangements, do thus impress the mind. All such adaptations as produce the notion of an intelligent cause HAVE also an intelligent cause, so far as experience has discovered their causes.
    Yours, truly,    HIRAM COLVER.
    Rogue River Valley, Oregon Territory, April, 1856.
Boston Investigator, June 18, 1856, pages 1-2   The motto of the Investigator was "Devoted to the Development and Promotion of Universal Mental Liberty."


Jackson County Oregon Territory April 12 1856
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Sir, having examined the correspondence of Anson Dart, Com. of Indian Affairs, with the Hon. Luke Lea dated Nov. 1852--also the letter of George W. Manypenny to Joel Palmer of Oct. 29th 1855 and Joel Palmer's letter to A. A. Skinner dated Feb. 18th 1856 relative to the reasonableness of the accounts of A. A. Skinner as charged by him against government for incidental expenses while acting as Indian agent in Southern Oregon during the years fifty-one, two and three, together with the accounts of A. A. Skinner during the above-mentioned years, and after duly considering the same and referring to my business transactions during the same years in this county (which was packing, trading in provisions and groceries and farming in company with T. Thompson) I feel satisfied that the charges in the accounts of A. A. Skinner as above referred to are not only reasonable but in many items below the current prices of those years.
    I find the following to be the price current for '52--flour from 15 to 25 cts. per lb. Beef from 20 to 25 cents per lb.
(sugar 35 to 50, coffee 50 to 60 cts) from fifty-one to fifty-three price variable, from the above quotations still higher. Flour sold in January & February at Jacksonville for from 75 cts. to $1.25 per lb. At the same time salt was from one to four dollars per lb. Meals have always been one dollar at public houses except when higher as in fifty 2 & 3 when they were one dollar without bread and dollar and fifty cents with it. The above is the price current for Jackson County in those years; no doubt but they appear high to persons living at the head of steam navigation on the great rivers in the States, but to those who live in the mines of Southern Oregon at the head of mule navigation they appear reasonable enough.
    And as to gov. policy of conciliating Indians, in our first intercourse with them, in the absence of a military force sufficient for defense sensible men can entertain but one opinion, and even the expensive policy of feeding compares quite favorably with the fighting policy as now adopted, as will be seen by reference to the expenditures of the present war.
I remain yours
    Samuel Colver
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1262-1265.

For the Boston Investigator.
    MR. EDITOR:--There are as vague ideas in the world concerning the word "reason," as the word "adaptation." As an example, take the following from Dr. Hammett:
    "Some men cannot leap the ocean";
    A is a man;
    Therefore, A cannot leap the ocean.
    This, says Dr. Hammett, is "correct reasoning," although not in "FORM" a regular syllogism. Doubtless the conclusion (that A cannot leap the ocean) is true; but does that truth follow necessarily from the premise? If not, though the conclusion be true, the reasoning is false.
    Here is a similar example:
    Some men are Atheists (major),
    Dr. Hammett is a man (minor),
    Therefore, Dr. Hammett is an Atheist (conclusion).
    Here the conclusion (that Dr. H. is an Atheist), although true, does in no way follow from the premise, and as an example of reasoning, is unsound. Again:
    Some adaptations are uncaused by intelligence;
    The eye is an example of adaptation;
    Therefore, the eye is uncaused by intelligence.
    This last is what Dr. Hammett calls "correct reasoning," although it lacks the "regular form." If this last is "correct reasoning," then also is the syllogism preceding it, concerning Dr. Hammett's Atheism. Dr. Hammett, I make no objection to your syllogism on account of "form"; the objection is, it cannot be made to wear the "regular form." All correct reasoning, however elliptically expressed, may and will reduce to the "regular form"--that is, to a syllogism in which the conclusion flows necessarily from the premise.
    Now the Doctor's major premise will always be, "Some adaptations are uncaused by intelligence"--a proposition in which the predicate is affirmed of only a part of the subject. He will not say all adaptations are uncaused by intelligence, since water and carding mills rise up to confront such a proposition. Nothing is proved, therefore, by combining his major and minor premise. And, though the world and its multiplied adaptations possibly may have no intelligent author, still such a conclusion does in no way follow from Dr. Hammett's premise.
    But, since the Dr. denies the reality of time, space, and "extended substance," he is perhaps beyond the arm of help, and with all my sympathy for him, I can do nothing. Permit me, however, to call his attention to the following consideration: Space is exquisitely adapted to contain the globe; now why confound this adaptation, which exists of eternal necessity, with other adaptations, which do not strike the mind as of necessary existence? The cow's udder, to me, seems intended as a reservoir for holding milk, the milk seems intended as food for the young animal, the teat intended for the calf to suck, and the hole in the teat for the milk to pass out of. I have an intuitive and abiding impression that design has been employed in this arrangement of matter, and how does Dr. Hammett relieve this impression? Why, thus: "Intelligence (that is God's intelligence) is exquisitely adapted to organize matter according to your own admission," "and this adaptation had no intelligent cause," and if one adaptation exist without an intelligent cause, why not the cow's udder exist without an intelligent cause?
    The reasoning would then stand thus (and the Dr. says it is correct reasoning):
    Some adaptations are uncaused by intelligence;
    A spinning-jack is an example of adaptation;
    Therefore, why is not a spinning-jack uncaused by intelligence?
    This, as an example of reasoning, is the same MENTAL PROCESS as that concerning the cow. We happen to know, that when applied to the spinning-jack, it does not conduct us to the truth. Why, then, rely upon it to conduct us to truth in the far more complicated and surpassing mechanism in Nature?
    Article 1st. Space and matter are eternal.
    2nd. Matter is of different kinds and qualities.
    3rd. Matter from all eternity had different qualities.
    4th. Intelligence is a quality of one of the kinds of matter.
    5th. Intelligent matter now exists.
    6th. Intelligent matter has always existed.
    7th. If there ever was a time when no intelligence existed in the universe, then no intelligence had existed.
    Still, believing in the reality of time, space, matter, extended substance, and Deity as intelligent matter, I remain a Deist, and think as the force of reason constrains me.
    Rogue River Valley, Sept. 1, 1856.
Boston Investigator, November 19, 1856, page 1

    The resignation of H. H. Church, Esq. as Justice of the peace of Eden Precinct was presented, and accepted. Whereupon it is Ordered by the Board that Samuel Colver be and he is hereby appointed Justice of the peace in and for Eden Precinct, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of H. H. Church, Esq.

Jackson County Commissioners' Journals, March 2, 1857  This might have been Colver Sr.

For the Boston Investigator.
    "For if the most admirable adaptation which is attributed to a supposed Deity, does not indicate that he was produced by a designing cause, how utterly, how grossly absurd it is to infer that such a cause is indicated by the adaptation of a bird, a quadruped, or a man!"--[Dr. Hammett, Boston Investigator, Volume XXVI., No. 12. |
    The above intended argument is fraught with its own refutation, concealed, wrapped up, and implied. Let us see--"For if the most exquisite adaptation which is attributed to a supposed Deity [which adaptation by reason of its eternity can have no cause] does not indicate that he was produced by a designing cause, how utterly, how grossly absurd it is to infer that such a cause is indicated by the adaptation of a bird, a quadruped, or a man [all of which last mentioned adaptations are not eternal (like the other), and therefore have some cause or other]."
    The words in brackets are, of course, our own, and are used merely to bring to view that which is necessarily implied, though which might, if not expressed, be overlooked. Yet when thus filled up, the quotation, as an argument, loses its whole force. But Dr. Hammett admits that adaptations exist without an intelligent cause. I will therefore assume that a God, "exquisitely adapted," &c., does, or may exist, upon HIS own principle. His gun shoots one way as well as the other.
    Now, to argue that "Because eternal adaptations have no intelligent cause, therefore some of those adaptations that are not eternal have, likewise, no intelligent cause," is as though one should argue that, "because a horse wears hair, so does a gander"; or, as though Dr. Hammett should contend that Russell's threshing machine had no intelligent author, "because some eternal adaptations exist which have no intelligent authors, and which, from the nature of the case, could not have an author." Now the adaptation of space to matter is eternal, and could, therefore, have no cause; while the adaptation of man and beast is but recent (at least is conceded to have a beginning), and therefore a cause exists.
    I have shown, in a previous article, that Dr. Hammett's argument cannot be reduced to a regular syllogism, to which form all valid arguments may.
    The trouble with Atheism is, it cannot account for the origin of organized beings, plants, and animals. If the series of human beings does not extend back ad infinitum, then man originated "somehow." Indeed, geology shows a time prior to which man did not exist. Man, then, appeared by a miracle--that is, he came without the intervention of a pair of progenitors, as he now "comes."
    Granting the eternity of matter, and the eternity of all its known laws and properties, still the Atheist cannot get along; he must have organized beings to start with--to breed from. Give him these, and he then can account for their INCREASE; but their origin is incomprehensible.
    We know of the existence of only a little more than fifty elementary substances. Chemistry acquaints us with their properties, and also the nature of the known "imponderable agents." But these, none of them, have ever been observed to combine spontaneously and of their own inherent affinity into the form of a man, a cat, or a rhinoceros of one or two horns. A man must have more credulity than I have, to believe that the KNOWN forms of matter have inherent tendencies to combine into the form of an elephant or the seed of a "cocklebur."
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), March, 1857.
Boston Investigator, May 20, 1857, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
Reply to Dr. Hammett's Article of Oct. 25, 1856.
    "It is generally admitted," says Dr. H., "that in most cases syllogisms are useless." Answer--True; no one insists that an argument should always be stated in the syllogistic form; but everyone acquainted with the laws of mind knows that in all cases, when we reason in the strict sense of that term, the mental process which takes place, when expressed in words, is a syllogism. (See Whately's Logic.)
    Again--"That and the other stone fell, when unsupported. Therefore so will all stones fall when unsupported." This, says Dr. H., is the "Baconian method of reasoning by induction." Answer--There is no "Baconian method of reasoning" as distinguished from other "methods," as is supposed. The process of the mind is the same in every case of pure reasoning. Example--In every case where Dr. H. has reasoned, in the strict sense of the term, his mind (though he may not have noticed) passed through the following process, viz.
    "Nothing which exhibits adaptation alone can indicate a designing cause (major premise),
    The works of Nature exhibit adaptation alone (minor premise),
    Therefore, they cannot indicate an intelligent cause," (conclusion).
    Now, leave out either one of the premises, and you prove nothing. In the above syllogism, Dr. H. reasons correctly; that is, if you grant his major and minor, you cannot avoid the conclusion. But it so happens (as in most of Dr. H.'s arguments) that in the syllogism before us, both premises are false. Take the minor for example--"The works of Nature exhibit adaptation alone"--do they not also resemble the works of man? I do not insist that the resemblance is perfect out and out, neither does a beaver's dam nor a bird's nest resemble the works of man completely in every point throughout, but so nearly that none can doubt (though he never heard of a beaver) that the dam under examination is the work of intelligence: though he may doubt as to what GRADE of intellect to refer it.
    Do not the jaws of the carnivora resemble in structure and arrangement, in a high degree, the steel trap? Does not the hook upon the bat's wing resemble a fireman's hook? If man's works resemble those of Nature, surely those of Nature resemble those of man.
    Again, Dr. H. says of a machine--"We infer design not on account of adaptation alone, but because it differs from the works of Nature and thus resembles those of man." It seems then that adaptation alone, nor its resemblance to man's works alone, do the business for the Dr., but both combined! You do then give some weight to adaptation alone? Who does Dr. H. mean by the pronoun "we" in the above sentence? Not H. Colver? I protest; the remark does not apply to me. I infer intelligence, in such a case, from the order and arrangement of the parts of the machine, because experience has taught me that intelligence alone is capable of producing complicated order,* and this conclusion I have derived by that "BACONIAN METHOD" the Dr. spoke of.
    Secondly, I refer the machine to the class of human contrivances, from those characteristics peculiar to the works of man. Thus, the beaver's dam, I refer, 1st, to intelligence, from its order and arrangement; the tops of the trees being all downstream, and the limbs bracing in the mud, the roots make the dam, leaves stop the crevices, and mud seals the whole.
    2ndly, it must be referred to a grade of intellect inferior to man; because it lacks the peculiar characteristics which distinguish the works of that creature. So also, in regard to Nature's works, order and mechanism. Experience refers to intelligence. (Please remember that "Baconian method"--experience of "part of the facts.")
    3rdly, it must be referred to an order of intellect superior to man, because it is manufactured in a manner above man's comprehension, just as a mill is made in a manner above the comprehension of a beaver.
    Thus we see, 1st, order and arrangement is the peculiar offspring of intelligence; 2nd, each grade of intelligence leaves its own peculiar marks upon its work, by which we can distinguish its grade. Thus, the beaver leaves the marks of his teeth; man leaves the "score marks" and "juggles," while Deity works in a way as incomprehensible to us as the distiller's art of making whiskey is to a baboon or a wildcat.
    Mr. Editor, I would gladly point out the egregious blunders into which Dr. Hammett has fallen, in supposing that Bacon had discovered a DIFFERENT way of reasoning from Plato or Socrates! There is nothing of it.
    Bacon taught the folly of supposing or expecting to advance in the knowledge of Nature by pure reasoning unaided by experiment and observation. Bacon's "method" led him to believe in God.
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), May 1, 1857.
    *I am not bound to maintain that everything in Nature evinces design; far from it.
Boston Investigator, June 10, 1857, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
    MR. EDITOR:--Any given conclusion may be traced back through the successive premises, and no conclusion can depend upon an infinite number of preceding premises. In mathematics we can trace any conclusion back to ultimate axioms, which are the foundations of our conclusions. These axioms, then, are not conclusions, as they do not follow from anything preceding. That "the whole is greater than its part" is not a conclusion, as Dr. Hammett would seem to intimate. In philosophy, these ultimate premises are not always self-evident, as in mathematics; and we should not call them conclusions, because they are not proved, but granted. For example, the maxim that "Nature will remain uniform in her operations" is the ultimate major premise upon which all philosophy rests. Yet it cannot be PROVED in any sense of that term; it is merely a postulate, or judgment, founded upon experience, yet not known by experience; we know absolutely nothing but the past by experience.
    Dr. H. seems to use the term "reason" to signify indiscriminately any act of intelligence. Experience informs us that Nature has been uniform in her operations for an indefinite period, and we expect she will so continue. We do not know she will; nor can we prove it. Indeed, if Atheism be true, Nature does NOT work in a uniform manner. She once produced man without a union of the sexes! She does so, however, no more! Philosophy then, at best, is as uncertain in her deductions as Nature is uncertain in her operations. I repeat, then, that the uniformity of Nature's actions in the FUTURE is not provable, Atheism being judge. A hog has observed, or experienced, that his owner feeds him in the morning "uniformly," and he expects it again. But can he prove it? Just as easily as man can prove the future by the past. This judgment of the hog may have been based upon an induction of facts, extending perhaps through a hog's long lifetime--he always was fed at that time. This hog "reasoned" (Dr. H. would say) "according to the inductive method"--"the Baconian method." That "the stone will fall" (although we do not doubt it) is not provable; and therefore not (as the Dr. asserts) a "conclusion " of reasoning, or from reasoning, but a mere postulatum or ultimate premise. If, however, the Dr. will call it a "conclusion," he of course can use that term in as many senses as he pleases. Thus he may say, if he likes, that "that hog 'reasoned by induction,' and drew his 'conclusion' logically." We prefer, however, to use terms in a fixed sense where that can be done.
    I have shown, in a previous communication, that if "induction" be an infallible method, or any method at all, of reasoning (as Dr. H. mistakenly supposes), that it would prove our major premise, and thus lay a sure foundation for Deism. All mechanism, where we have come to know its cause, is found to be the work of mind. Combining this with the fact that Nature's works do exhibit order and arrangement, Deism follows. But the fact that past experience has found mechanism universally the effect of mind does not prove that all mechanisms will, when their cause is revealed, be found the result of intelligence. The premise that "all mechanism, wherever found, is the work of mind," is not a "conclusion" from reasoning: but is itself the very postulate from which our conclusions flow; it cannot be proved to a mind in which causality predominates. There will be no doubt of its truth. To a mind, in which that power is wanting, mechanism does not, nor cannot raise the idea of a cause.
    True, indeed, is it, that experience always has found order to be the work of mind, in all cases where the cause has come to our knowledge. But it is not this experience alone that makes us feel that such must necessarily be the case. The feeling is intuitive, where there is causality, and not so when that organ is defective. But what higher proof can there be (if there can be any) that Nature's mechanisms are the work of mind, than the simple fact that an organ exists which by virtue of its nature causes this feeling of causation spontaneously to arise?
    Mr. Editor, should the coppers always turn up "heads" for every throw that you can make in a year, I apprehend you would be intuitively impressed that an invisible intelligent cause guided the "luck"; or should you want a stronger case, if the letters of the alphabet should spell out your name, when "ruffled" and thrown out, a hundred times going, you would feel what is called an "intuition" that the cause was intelligent and unseen. Call it, however, if you choose, a conclusion of, or from reasoning; pray, what premises was it derived from? All you can say is, "chance cannot do all this." But PROVE that chance or accident did not do it. You can give me no proof, only the simple fact that you are constituted so to feel. This example will serve to explain what is meant by intuitive impressions. But why should the conviction seize us that there was an unseen mind guiding the coppers? You might say, "experience taught you" that intellect alone was adequate to such a result, and that you "reasoned from experience." Have it so, then. So then do I reason (if you will) that intelligence alone is adequate to the arrangements which I see in Nature.
    The spelling out of your name by accident--letters all right side up--in line, &c., &c.--presents a more difficult problem than the arrangement of the parts of your body. An unthinking cause produces an Atheist--"right side up"--in line--teeth mash together, eyes adjusted upon the known (though long unknown) principles of optics--eyes at the top--feet at bottom--a hinge at the knee, a ball and socket where rotatorial motion is wanted, &c. Why, Sir, it seems, when all is enumerated, that the spelling of a name by a chance throw is not a "patching!"
    Atheism, says George Combe, is the result of a peculiar defect, or minus development of causality. The truth of this I do not vouch; but true it is, that Cook found the New Hollanders without any ideas of an intelligent Providence, and phrenology shows that they rank lowest in this part of the brain.
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), May 22, 1857.
Boston Investigator, July 15, 1857, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
    MR. EDITOR:--Belief, I find, is not under the control of the will. I had resolved, like yourself, not to believe that a table was ever moved, except by mechanical force. But I see so many statements of such facts having occurred, and see so many persons who say they have seen the like, that I find myself believing notwithstanding my natural skepticism. But what if tables do dance and cut up shines--what then? It only shows that we have made one more discovery in natural science, viz., that the will-influence can be made to operate beyond the circumference of the magnet; and when the phenomena of table-moving becomes as common as the phenomena of the common magnet, it will then be no more miraculous. And a certain amount of testimony, from a credible source, will convince a person who is ignorant of the fact of table-moving, just as easily as one who is ignorant of the common magnet. Had both been discovered at the same time, the public would have been as incredulous of the one as the other; and, as there are no known principles by which to account for table-moving, so also there are no known principles which will explain the phenomena of the common magnet.
    If anybody has discovered WHY the common magnet attracts steel, let him show how the thing is done! Table-tipping is "incredible" simply because of its newness. When we say--"Such and such a thing is contrary to Nature's laws," all we can reasonably mean is, that it is not in conformity with our past experience. When we get to know each and all the laws of Nature, we will then be able to decide whether a particular story is false or true. There can nothing happen contrary to Nature's laws; yet many things may occur which are not in conformity to our limited KNOWLEDGE of Nature's laws. A more extensive acquaintance with Nature would have led the Islander to understand and believe that water becomes so hard that elephants could walk upon its surface. As it was, however, this fact, when stated, was contrary to his experience of Nature's law. A miracle is only something out of the line of general experience. Thus the miraculous conception of Christ was out of the line of common experience. Man first came into being in a way not in conformity to our present general experience.
    Mr. Editor, has man already reached the ultimatum of knowledge? Who believes so? If not now at the end of his rope, tell when, if you can, he will arrive at the end of discovery? Why not then just say at once that we have lately made one of those new discoveries, viz., that the will-influence may act beyond the limits of the body? Now, if the thoughts of one person may become known to another by some other means than light or sound, this too should be classed, not as a falsehood, but as a new step in Nature's secrets. And if Nature keeps on and continues to yield her secrets, why despair of at length proving the humbug of the soul's existence? Hume's old argument was that "it is much more common for man to lie than for tables to 'tip'"--that is quite true; but its force as an argument is at an end. It was much more common for men to lie than new continents to be discovered, but the continent is discovered notwithstanding; and so, also, do the tables tip. When spirit communication is fully proven, we will then just simply class it along with its fellows, and call it a new discovery; but we say it is not proven yet to our satisfaction. There is not one fact in Spiritualism but may be accounted for without supposing that man has any conscious existence beyond this life. What if a table does move? Does that prove that immortal spirits of the dead exist? What if the answers are intelligent? Does that prove that the intelligence manifested is due to none but the departed? What if the fiddles do play without a visible performer? Does that show that living men do not do it in some unknown way?
    I acknowledge that the playing of a harp without mechanical force is strange indeed; but it is just as easy to conceive that the spirit which plays it is in the flesh, as that it is out of the flesh; and why not refer it to an intelligent cause, known to exist, than to a like cause, not known to exist? Man, we know, exists: Spirits we do not know to exist. Nevertheless, if the phenomena could not be accounted for upon any other hypothesis, then we, of course, would receive the spirit theory.
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), July 1st, 1857.
Boston Investigator, August 26, 1857, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
    MR. EDITOR:--Philosophers are well agreed that a certain configuration of brain is constantly attended with certain peculiar mental characteristics; that the absence of certain portions of brain is always attended by absence of certain mental qualities, and the presence of certain portions always attended with certain mental qualities--hence we call this constant coincidence a law of Nature. Up to this point, all observers are agreed. But now the questions arise, 1st, do these constantly attendant phenomena stand in the relation of cause and effect? and if so, 2ndly, which is the efficient cause? 1st, is the organ of cautiousness in the living brain and the corresponding function related as cause and effect? 2nd, if so, is the presence of this organ the efficient cause of terror, fear, and circumspection? Upon this most vital point hinges great and important issues. Let us first place upon the record, following each other, the opinions of O. S. Fowler and Geo. Combe--the latter acknowledged to be the greatest of living philosophers:
    "The organs of acquisitiveness, destructiveness, &c., are only instruments of the corresponding propensities, and not the propensities themselves, nor the CAUSES of them; and their development is in a great degree the EFFECT and not the cause of the exercise of the corresponding passions; hence very large acquisitiveness, destructiveness, instead of urging their possessors to theft and violence, are merely instruments by means of which these vicious passions are exercised."--[Practical Phrenology by O. S. Fowler, page 385.
    "The leading fact, then, which arrests our attention in this inquiry is that every crime proceeds from some abuse of some faculty or other; and the question immediately arises, whence originates the tendency to abuse? Phrenology enables us to answer, from three sources. 1st, from particular organs being too large, and spontaneously active; 2nd, from great excitement produced by external causes, or 3rd, from ignorance of what are uses and what are abuses of the faculties."--[Combe's Constitution of Man, page 295.
    Here we see, while Mr. Fowler is stoutly maintaining that "very large" animal organs have no tendency to even "URGE" their possessor to abuse them, Mr. Combe is maintaining that the tendency to abuse them originates in their being unduly developed; but let us contrast their views a little farther:
    "And size of these organs shows only how much their guilty possessor has chosen to exercise the corresponding propensities. The size of an organ, then, does not cause the strength of the corresponding propensity, but is itself caused by the strength of the passion. It is true, indeed, that when an organ is very large, the corresponding faculty is spontaneously the more powerful and well nigh uncontrollable; but the guilty individual had no right thus to indulge the passion and thereby enlarge the organ. The same principle, reversed, applies to the small organs. When a given organ, say conscientiousness or veneration, is small, this deficiency shows, not that the individual cannot be just or worship his Maker, but simply that he has not been and done so."--[Pract. Phrenology by O. S. Fowler, p. 389.
    "The moral and intellectual powers next demand, what is the cause of particular organs being too large and active in individuals? Phrenology, for answer, points to the law of hereditary descent, by which the organs most energetic in parents determine those which shall predominate in the child. Intellect then infers that, according to this view, certain individuals are unfortunate at birth, in having received organs from their parents so ill proportioned that abuse of them is almost an inevitable consequence if they are left to the sole guidance of their own suggestions. Phrenology replies that the fact appears to be exactly so. Moreover, intellect perceives, and the moral sentiments acknowledge, that these causes exist independently of the will of the offender. The criminal is not the cause of the unfortunate preponderance of the animal organs in his own brain."--[Combe's Constitution of Man, p. 296.
    Here we see while Mr. Fowler maintains that the "guilty" individual is the "guilty" cause of the spontaneous activity and great size of his animal organs, Mr. Combe maintains the exact opposite. Mr. Editor, it is a sad commentary upon the fallibility of human reason to witness such conflicting opinions by those who pretend to be the true expounders of the book of Nature to mankind! Mr. Fowler tells us, in his chapter on "Causality," that the only cause of failure in not arriving at true conclusions is the want of sufficient data or from feebleness of the organ of causality. Now, either himself or Mr. Combe has "feeble" causality, or else there is not sufficient data to enable one to arrive only at conjectural opinions in relation to the points in dispute between them, himself being judge. When Mr. Fowler says that "a deficient organ of conscientiousness shows not that the individual cannot be honest, but simply that he has not been and done so," and by parity of reasoning that "defective reasoning organs show not that the individual cannot be a good reasoner, but simply that he HAS not been and done so," he leaves me no room only to suspect that his causality is not as strong as it might be!
    The fallacy of petitio principii lurks through all that Mr. Fowler has ever written upon moral philosophy. For example, take the following: "If an individual wish to reduce the size of an organ, let him cease to exercise the corresponding faculties, and it will be done; let the blacksmith swing up in a sling his hand which he has made strong by exercise, and it will soon dwindle away." (Ph. p. 339.) Here are two points covertly assumed: 1st, that an individual in whom the animal organs entirely predominate can "cease" and choose to cease to exercise them from an act of free will. Now this is the very point in dispute, and which he all the while pretends to be establishing! Combe says, "Predominant animal organs will not guide themselves to virtue, and the directing power then must be supplied by other minds," 2nd, it is covertly assumed that an abstract entity called mind exists; that this mind has a free will power; that the organs are the mere "instruments" of this mind; that this free-will mind can exercise any organ of the brain at pleasure, or let it alone, just as a carpenter uses his adz, or a blacksmith his right arm; that the same relation exists between this mind's free will as exists between our will and the voluntary muscles. What a tissue of assumptions! If the chances of his being wrong in his conclusions be in proportion to the joint product of his doubtful premises, there are some 700 chances of his being: wrong to 1 of being right!
    Let us see. Mr. Fowler says, "Sir, if you wish to "reduce the inordinate size of your organ of 'love of life,' just cease to exercise its functions; cease to care anything about your life, and the organ will soon dwindle away!" Mr. Editor, is not such philosophy what you sometimes call "twaddle"? "If you wish to lessen your inordinate 'bump' of caution, cease being terrified at approaching danger, and the organ will soon grow smaller!" If you wish to diminish your combativeness and destructiveness, cease to get angry when a fellow spits in your face! In maintaining this doctrine, that the will bears to the animal organs the same relation that it does to the voluntary muscles, Mr. Fowler has evidently got the cart before the horse.
    If this hypothesis of Mr. Fowler is true, that the organs are, in a true and proper sense, only INSTRUMENTS, then the mind or will acts first, and the brain is acted upon by the will power. When I lift a hoe, I move before the hoe; and if this figure or relation is the same as that subsisting between the supposed mind and brain, then mind first moves, and then communicates this motion to the organs. Thus mind is supposed to act independent of brain, and on the brain; but it is said, "Mind cannot act without brain in this life." Again, if the mind possesses this free will power of suspending the action of the organs, what evidence have we that the best developed brains will not yet turn out in the end the worst of characters? How do we know but the free will powers of the individuals will not "cease" to exercise their highly developed moral organs, and let them all "dwindle away" like a blacksmith's arm in a "sling"? and what assurance does Mr. Fowler's hypothesis give us that he himself will not, by his free will power, obtain lodgings in Sing Sing or Auburn? None whatever. His will, being free, is governed by no law of Nature in its determinations, and is, therefore, no longer within the sphere or range of causality.
    How, I ask, can causality predict the course which a being will choose, if that being's choice is governed by no law? (Deity himself is governed by the eternal laws of his own essence and nature.) Again, what assurance does Mr. Fowler's hypothesis give us that those old and inveterate criminals, which Mr. Combe pronounced to be incorrigible, will not, by an act of volition or free will, so "dwindle" down their great animal organs and increase their moral organs, that they will become patterns of piety in--"a very short time"? I ask, who knows, since Mr. F. declares, on page 390, that "they are as free to cultivate one organ as another, and perfectly free to cultivate any organ to any desirable extent?"
    Mr. Editor, as I write from a great distance, please insert the whole of this much too long communication. My intention is simply to call the attention of philosophers to an important question, and to prevent science from becoming corrupted by false dogmas.
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), Aug. 1st, 1857.
Boston Investigator, September 16, 1857, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
(Reply to Dr. Hammett's Article of July 15.)
    MR. EDITOR:--All I intended at the outset was to show that the conclusion of Dr. Hammett, that "no Deity exists," did not follow from his premises. Dr. Hammett commits the fallacy of assuming as demonstrated, "that no Deity exists," merely because he is able to show that a certain argument, used to prove God's existence, is fallacious! Because "adaptation alone" does not prove a Deity, "therefore no Deity exists"! Would he deny the truth of a proposition merely because he sees that someone's argument in support of that proposition is fallacious?
    Deists do not maintain that "adaptation alone" proves a Deity. On the contrary, they say that the eternal adaptations of space and matter, as well as the eternal adaptations of God and matter, do not and cannot indicate a designing cause. The Dr.'s syllogism is at last before your readers:
    Major--"If one admitted instance of regular adaptation had no designing cause, it cannot be inferred that the world and its inhabitants were formed by design from the fact alone that their structure exhibits regular adaptation;
    Minor--But (whether a Deity exists or not) some admitted instance of regular adaptation had no designing cause--
    Conclusion--Therefore, it cannot be inferred that the world and its inhabitants were formed by design from the fact alone that their structure exhibits regular adaptation."
    Now, instead of the conclusion here expressed, the Dr. dexterously substitutes another, viz., "Therefore no Deity exists." Let us take a similar syllogism, viz.--
    Major--"If one admitted instance of an animal exists without a liver, it cannot be inferred that the lion has a liver from the 'fact alone' that he is an animal;
    Minor--But one animal is admitted as existing without a liver--
    Conclusion--Therefore, it cannot be inferred that the lion has a liver from the 'fact alone' that he is an animal."
    Now, suppose that, instead of the conclusion here expressed, another and different one had been artfully submitted, viz., "Therefore, the lion has no liver"? This would be doing just what Dr. Hammett has done in the syllogism he has placed before your readers.
    Now, is it not plain that the admission, that the bear has no liver, does not necessarily involve the admission that the lion may have no liver, only from him who should infer or contend so "from the fact alone" that the lion was an animal?
    He who contends that "adaptation alone" proves a Deity stands confuted whenever he admits that some, or one, adaptation exists without design; yet he, who so refutes his opponent, does not thereby prove that "no Deity exists."
    Now mark! We do not infer that goats ruminate from the "fact alone" that they are animals.
    So, neither do we infer that the knee joint was designed to bend, from the "fact alone" that it exhibits adaptation.
    We infer that the goat ruminates from the fact that it belongs to the class of horned animals.
    We infer that the knee was designed to bend, from the fact that we are able to refer it to the class of mechanical arrangements.
    Oh! but says the Dr., "This is virtually to infer design from its adaptation alone." Not so; no more than the inference that an animal ruminates from the fact that it wears horns "is virtually to infer" the same from the fact that it is an animal only.
    Dr. Hammett grants not one "fact alone," but two, viz., 1st, Man had a cause; 2nd, His structure exhibits adaptation.
    Now is this not sufficient to establish Deism? I know, indeed, that some Deists have used the word "adaptation" in a careless and indefinite manner; and if I should say that man must have had a cause, from the fact that his structure exhibited adaptation, the Dr. would reply--"You admit that some adaptations are eternal," "therefore man is eternal"; and this conclusion would be just as fairly proven, and in the same manner, as the one that "no Deity exists." Thus, the Dr. can prove, out of a man's own admissions, that man is eternal, and yet he don't feel like receiving the conclusion as a truth.
    But Deists do infer that man had a beginning, and an intelligent cause, from the mechanical arrangement of his structure. The Dr. replies that this is "virtually" to infer from adaptation "alone." This constitutes his constant blunder. True is it, that all mechanical arrangements are adaptations, but all adaptations are not mechanical arrangements. All goats are animals, but all animals are not goats. He who infers a quality from the fact that A is a goat, does not do so from the fact that A is an animal. So, he who infers from mechanism does not do so from the fact that mechanism is adaptation.
    The Dr. has it this way: "He who infers a quality of a goat, infers from an animal, because a goat is an animal." "He who infers from mechanism, infers from adaptation, because mechanism is adaptation." It is not the fact that goats are animals only, or that mechanisms are adaptations only, that the respective inferences are drawn from.
    Thus, Mr. Editor, have I trailed this wary skeptic through all his winding labyrinths. His logic bears not the test of scientific analysis. But why, after all, have I not a right to use his admissions against himself, as well as he my admissions against myself? He admits that man had a beginning and a cause, viz., old "regular adaptation," and he likewise admits that our structure exhibits adaptation.
    Well, are not here two important premises conceded? and does he who argues from both of them, infer from adaptation "alone"? Now, if Deists had admitted that some adaptations had non-intelligent causes, the Dr. would have had them fast; but, as it happens, the eternal adaptations, admitted by Deists, have no cause by hypothesis.
    But the Dr. said, "The works of Nature exhibit adaptation alone." True, the works of Nature all exhibit adaptation, and also the things adapted; so does a certain enclosure contain only animals; but remember, that the word "animal" includes both frogs and lizards.
    But Dr. Hammett is author of another syllogism, besides the famous one above considered. It is as follows:
    Major--"No one can infer an intelligent cause from the fact that the works of Nature exhibit adaptation only;
    Minor--The works of Nature exhibit adaptation only--
    Conclusion--Therefore, no one can infer that the works of Nature have an intelligent cause."
    Here follows a similar syllogism:
    Major--No one can infer that a hole can be bored, from the fact that his "kit" exhibits implements only;
    Minor--The "kit" of a mechanic exhibits implements only--
    Conclusion--Therefore, no mechanic can infer that a hole can be bored.
    Both these syllogisms look specious at first sight. The answer is, to the first, that the term "adaptation" includes mechanism, order, and a host of other species, from which intelligence is inferred. The answer to the second is, that the word "implement" embraces bits, gouges, and augers, by either of which a mechanic can easily make a hole.
    We now give Dr. Hammett over to hardness of heart and reprobacy of mind.
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), Sept. 1st, 1857.
Boston Investigator, December 2, 1857, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
(Reply to Dr. Hammett's Articles of Aug. 12 and 19.)
    MR. EDITOR:--In maintaining that the human mind is so constituted as to believe that "like causes will produce like effects under like circumstances," and that "peculiar arrangements of matter are the effects of mind," we do not wish to be understood as maintaining that these maxims are true simply from the fact that they are universally believed. Neither do we insist that there is a material "extended" universe simply because such is the universal belief of mankind. The earth was once believed to be a flat plane, around which the sun and stars revolved, but this universal belief did not prove that it was flat. Does the fact that "man is constantly liable to err in his conclusions," in the least shake Dr. Hammett's confidence in that particular maxim, which asserts "that like causes will produce like effects"? if so, why does he quote this maxim so often? According to Dr. H., this maxim is as much a "conclusion" of or from reasoning as any other conclusion; and if so, then, according to Dr. H., it may be erroneous.
    Now, while he maintains it to be a "conclusion" of reason, I, on the contrary, maintain that it lies at the foundation of all reasoning; and that we cannot begin to reason until we first assume the truth of this maxim as a premise; that, therefore, the maxim itself is not a conclusion derived from reasoning, but an ultimate judgment, derived from "simple perception" or comparison of facts. This distinction is of vital importance, and should be borne in mind. By the phrase "ultimate judgment," is not meant a self-evident judgment, as Dr. H. mistakenly supposes. There are no self-evident judgments outside of mathematics, except those which relate to facts immediately perceived by the senses. Even the proposition that "a stone, under given circumstances, will fall," is, according to Dr. H., "a conclusion": and if so, not self-evident, unless there be such a thing as a "self-evident conclusion"! Dr. Hammett alleges that I "cannot sustain the position" that the proposition, which alleges that mechanism must have an intelligent author, "is a self-evident proposition." I did not call it "self-evident," but "ultimate." But why call upon a man to prove that a certain proposition is self-evident? Whoever was able to prove that which is self-evident? Dr. Hammett has strange ideas indeed!
    We maintain, then, that the maxims that "like causes under like circumstances will produce like effects," and "mechanism has an intelligent author," are elementary judgments, derived immediately from an induction of facts. By which phrase (induction of facts) is meant the act of bringing in, one by one, of examples to warrant our laying down the premises (not "conclusion") of our argument. Even Atheists boast that Deists "cannot prove by argument that the mechanical arrangement of the human frame is the effect of design," and this is quite true. We cannot prove by argument our major and ultimate premise, that "all mechanism is of design," because it is an ultimate premise, derived from (if not innate) immediate comparison of facts. There are no other more elementary premises back of it, and standing between it and simple facts. Now, if this maxim is not an ultimate judgment, derived immediately from facts, then it is a "conclusion," true or false, derived from premises, true or false, which lie between it and facts; and if so, where are those premises, and what are they? I fail to discover any.
    All writers upon natural theology take the premises for granted, and content themselves with merely establishing the "minor" premise, that "Nature does exhibit examples of mechanism." Paley's reason, why that watch had not "lain there forever," was that it was a mechanized substance; taking it entirely for granted (as he had to) that mechanism, if established, was sufficient. Indeed, I have shown, by the example of the "coppers" and letters, that the mind is so constituted as to grant that certain peculiar arrangements of matter are due only to intelligence, and that this peculiar arrangement is the highest and only evidence of the fact.
    Now we have before explained that the term "mechanism" is not of as extensive signification as the term "adaptation," and, therefore, that one can maintain that "all mechanism is of intelligence," and deny that "all adaptations are of intelligence"; just as one can admit that "all animals are not web-footed," and still maintain that "all ducks are web-footed"; and it would be futile to reply that "a duck is merely an animal." Yet Dr. H. attempts what is equally absurd: he replies that mechanism is "merely adaptation," and that we are "VIRTUALLY" predicating intelligence of adaptation! Dr. Hammett's argument, then, launched against adaptation, hits no one, unless he is weak enough to maintain that "ALL adaptation is due to design"--a proposition we have expressly denied.
[Concluded next week.]
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), Oct, 15, 1857.
Boston Investigator, January 6, 1858, page 1

For the Boston Investigator.
(Reply to Dr. Hammett's Articles of Aug. 12 and 19.)
    Dr. Hammett makes frequent reference to the maxim that "like effects must have like causes," yet entirely rejects its application when he is bound, as a disputant, to admit its full force, for he expressly says, "Nature SEEMS to act as though she were intelligent"--that is, in other words, "These effects are SIMILAR to the effects of intelligence." Why not then admit that their cause is intelligent, as the maxim requires? He has admitted all that the most strenuous Deist ever attempted to prove, namely, that there "SEEMS" to be an intelligent cause in Nature.
    But Dr. H. insists that the true interpretation of this maxim requires that the Deity be an organized being, possessing eyes, mouth, nose, hands, and stomach, for, says he, if the Deity had not these, "how could he invent their organs?" Let us see. When Dr. H. hears a familiar tune, and no visible performer (as LaRoy Sunderland alleges), does this maxim require that the cause be flesh and blood? If not, then in what sense does the maxim require similarity of cause? Simply, I apprehend, that the cause be real and sufficiently intelligent.
    Dr. Hammett, in assuming that consciousness in man is the effect of organization, and that therefore, from analogy, the same must be true of the Deity, is treading upon doubtful ground. If consciousness be the direct sequence of organization, why are we not conscious in sound sleep? Organization is not destroyed by sleep. Yet, according to Dr. H., the cause (organization) remains, but the effect (consciousness) ceases! If mind be a substance, then its elements are eternal, and Deity, being eternal by hypothesis, never "BECAME" conscious of his own existence.
    Dr. Hammett is like one who, being driven from the open ground, plunges into a thicket so dense that neither pursuer nor pursued can tell where he is drifting--he plunges into the profound mysteries of mind and its phenomena, where the wise and foolish are alike bewildered. I have all along admitted that adaptation is eternal in the universe, that iron, from its greater density, is adapted to cut wood, when properly wrought into shape--that space is "adapted" to contain matter, not that mind is "adapted" to produce organization. But these admissions do not entitle Dr. Hammett to assume that the inherent properties of unconscious matter are such as at least to "become conscious of its own existence."
    Dr. Hammett has been forced to lay down his proposition with a material qualification; he now says, "Nature is constant within certain moderate limits"--this is all we ask. But Dr. Hammett has settled it that man came originally from an egg, and he quotes the maxim ("every living being came from an egg"). The plain version of this is that matter had an eternal inherent tendency to combine spontaneously into two eggs about the same time, one in close proximity to the other; the one containing the rudiments of a man, and the other the rudiments (precious rudiments) of a woman. Then unthinking old adaptation took care that these eggs were not allowed to become "addled." No doubt adaptation labeled them, "Right side up with care"--and finally they were "hatched" (bless that day!).
    Now, Mr. Editor, if this tendency was "inherent" in matter, it is still inherent. Why not look with hope and confidence for more eggs, then, in due season? An account was given not long since in the Investigator, of the finding of the fossil remains of two enormous egg shells upon the island of Madagascar, not referable to any known species. May not these shells have once contained the rudiments of the human race? If Dr. Hammett is right--they may.
    But Dr. H. insists that, since the proximate cause of man and animals (pro-creation) is the action of non-intelligent matter, so also, "by analogy," their prime cause must be non-intelligent. This is about as philosophical as to urge that, since the proximate cause of motion in a boat is non-intelligent elastic steam, therefore boat, machinery, and all, are the result of non-intelligent forces! But the position (that if the proximate cause be non-intelligent, so also must the prime cause), proves too much, for the immediate cause of a watch is an intelligent being, so also must its prime cause be intelligent, by the Doctor's own rule.
    According to Dr. Hammett, the prime cause of a watch or will is the "non-intelligent, non-ordial, eternal adaptation inherent in matter." This formed man, and man made the watch! Thus when the proximate cause (man) is intelligent, the prime cause is "non-intelligent adaptation." But when the proximate cause (procreation) is non-intelligent, the prime cause is non-intelligent also! Thus he virtually denies all analogy between proximate and primeval causes, and can claim nothing from his supposed analogy.
    Rogue River Valley (Oregon), Oct. 15, 1857.
Boston Investigator, January 13, 1858, page 1

    ANOTHER FLOOD.--The week has furnished to us another flood. It lasted through Wednesday and Thursday. Jackson Creek boomed up into a very fair-sized river, spanning one hundred feet breadth just below its mouth, in town, and rose to a greater height than at either of the previous floods. Three families were obliged to leave their homes, a part of a lot on Oregon Street was washed away, and some injury done to gardens. In the county, the loss was severe. Bear Creek rose higher than ever. At Gasburg a portion of the race to the flour mill and the tannery was destroyed, about thirty acres of Colver's farm was washed away, and Oatman's orchard was swept of every tree. Farms in that neighborhood and above have sustained much loss. Throughout the county, but particularly on Butte and Antelope creeks, cattle have greatly suffered. Several hundred have already perished. Judge Tolman, who came from home by stage on Sunday, says the roads are too bad to talk about.

Semi-Weekly Gazette, Jacksonville, January 21, 1862, page 3

    COLD WEATHER.--We are informed by private letter from our old friend, Samuel Colver, who left Phoenix for the northern mines about two months ago, but who has been water-bound and ice-bound in the Willamette Valley since his arrival there, that the thermometer on the 17th day of January stood 22 degrees below zero, ten degrees lower than ever known before.
    That beats Southern Oregon about 24 degrees. We were inclined to grumble at the cold weather here, but we take it all back. Gentlemen, you have us again.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 8, 1862, page 2

    One of the pronounced supporters of the Union, however, was Samuel Colver, who lived at Phoenix and who, with his wife, Hulda Colver, had built the big house in the other end of Phoenix in 1855, which still stands and which is now known as the "Old Stage House." I got this picture from Mr. C. C. Beekman, who was a witness to what took place. This Samuel Colver was in Jacksonville one morning in John Miller's hardware store and, as was his custom, he gave vent to his strong Union sympathy and to a considerable degree condemned the attitude of those Southern sympathizers for not supporting the Union in this struggle. While he was giving vent to his feelings, Horace Ish, a man weighing 180 lbs. or more, struck Mr. Colver over the back of the head with a pick handle and rendered him unconscious. Shortly thereafter he recovered consciousness, gathered himself together and he took this man Ish by the nape of the neck and the seat of the breeches and threw him out into the street and then jumped onto him and gave him a severe beating. This incident expresses the strong feeling that then existed in this county.
Address by Gus Newbury, Aug. 7, 1949 at Jacksonville's Gold Rush Jubilee, Southern Oregon Historical Society Research Library, Gus Newbury vertical file. According to the court dockets--May 11, 1855, above--the altercation took place six years before the Civil War began. The Ishes were the only ones arrested. My assumption is that Colver got the worst of the battle.

    ARRIVED.--Samuel Colver, known to everybody in this valley, has returned home from the northern gold fields. He visited our sanctum today. His description of the ruffianism prevalent in the northern mines is anything but complimentary to the state of society there. He was beaten with a pistol and left for dead by "English," who was subsequently hung by order of Judge Lynch. Colver is satisfied with the north.
    The day on which he returned, his fine horse "Prince Albert" died. On the next day one of his finest Morgan horses "kicked the bucket." All of this by way of welcome.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 20, 1862, page 2

The Imported French Draft Horse,
LION HEART, will stand for mares the ensuing season at Samuel Colver's Gasburg, the season to commence on the first day of April and ending on the first day of July, 1863.
    Terms.--Ten dollars for single leap; $20 for season; $30 to ensure.
    Description.--Lion Heart is a beautiful dark brown, 15½ hands high, and weighs 1200 pounds. He combines in a remarkable degree those great essentials of a good horse, size, power, speed and bottom, with a docility of temper peculiar to this noble race of horses.
    Pedigree.--Lion Heart was sired by imported Lion Heart; his dam by Bashaw, owned and bred by R. Bruso, of Montreal.
    Lion Heart took the first premium at the principal fair of Lower Canada, in 1857, as light draft. We confidently recommend him as the best roadster in the state; his superiority as a stock horse has been thoroughly established in this state, one of his colts taking the first premium at the Oregon State Fair last year, as award to Daniel Goff, of Polk County; but we have other proofs of his superiority as s stock horse in this county, in the superiority of his colts, bred by J. Pinkham, F. H. Gray, J. Wrisley, J. C. Tolman, J. Hill, A. Rockfellow, H. Amerman, W. Beeson, and in fact all who have bred.
    Stock raisers are invited to call and see for themselves.
    Pasture will be furnished on reasonable terms to mares from a distance.
Phoenix, March 18, 1863.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 15, 1863, page 4

    Sometime in January 1865, Uncle Sam Colver came to me and said that Loui was crazy to enlist, and if I would promise to act as "big brother" to him he would consent to his joining the company. Of course I felt very highly flattered by his request, as it showed me that he held me in good esteem, and I trust my promise was faithfully kept.
Orson A. Stearns,
Transactions of the Forty-Seventh Annual Reunion of the Oregon Pioneers Association, Portland, June 19, 1919, page 227.

    Ordered by the Board of Commissioners of Jackson County, Oregon, that Samuel Colver, Jr. be and he is hereby appointed Supervisor of Road District No. 3, in said County, for the ensuing year.
Jackson County Commissioners' Journals, February 8, 1866

    On Saturday, the 10th day of February, 1865, pursuant to notice, a large congregation of the citizens of this county met at the court house, in Jacksonville, for the purpose of organizing a Woolen Manufacturing Company in Jackson County.
    The meeting organized by electing E. D. Foudray, president, and B. F. Dowell,
    Messrs. Thomas Smith, E. D. Foudray, B. F. Dowell. Dr. L. S. Thompson, Michael Hanley and Samuel Colver made speeches in behalf of building a factory, and they satisfied all present that a factory was practicable, and could be made very profitable; and that there were many places in the county affording the best of water power and fine healthy locations. Messrs. Smith, Colver and Foudray differed widely as to the place. Mr. Smith made an eloquent speech in behalf of Ashland, and Messrs. Foudray and Colver contended that there was no place equal to Phoenix.
    On motion of Mr. Hanley, the meeting determined to appoint one person in each precinct of the county to solicit subscription, and thereupon the president appointed the following named persons: R. B. Hargadine, Ashland; Isaac Constant, Manzanita; M. Hanley, Jacksonville; Sam'l. Colver, Phoenix; Thos. Chavener, Dardanelles; N. C. Dean, Willow Springs; Tod. Cameron, Uniontown; C. Schieffelin, Perkinsville; John Sisemore, Table Rock; J. M. Nichols, Butte Creek; M. H. Drake, Forest Creek; Mr. Laylock, Evans Creek; Nicholas Wright, Steamboat City; Capt. Saltmarsh, Sterlingville.
    On motion, the committee was requested to meet in Jacksonville, on Saturday, February 24th, 1866. The meeting then adjourned until the first Saturday in April, 1866, at which time the report of the committee will be submitted.
E. D. FOUDRAY, President.
B. F. DOWELL, Secretary.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 17, 1866, page 2

    The Abolition organs tell us that their party brethren in Jackson County had a very harmonious county convention, and that everything looks promising for their cause there. To show upon what foundation they say this we think it is unnecessary to present more than the following happy condition of things among the Abolition, Radicals and Conservatives of Jackson County:
    WHEREAS, A few selfish and designing men of both parties have, by joint conference, nominated themselves for state and county offices without the consent of the people, thereby ignoring the sovereign voice of the people in the choice of their servants--a right sacred to the cause of liberty and the government, and
    WHEREAS, Said nominees are secretly and corruptly corporating their ticket in the several precincts of the county, thereby securing the nomination of men obnoxious to the people, they thus defraud by disgracing the official places they aspire to desecrate; and, whereas, self-constituted nominees and political tricksters have been guilty of consorting with traitors, and the open and avowed enemies of our country, during the late rebellion, aiding and abetting them to procure government contracts by the fraudulent use of their names as principals in said contracts, thereby giving aid and comfort to its enemies by lending their names on commission to do business on rebel account; and whereas, some self-constituted nominees are utterly unfit for, and unworthy of, the trust and confidence of honest men of any party, and are secretly plotting the destruction of the Union Party, and are diligently at work under the wily political sorehead, C. S. Drew, who is the political brainpan of this conspiracy against the treasury of the United States, while L. S. Thompson is merely his business tool to do his dirty work, subject to the control of his more sagacious master; and, whereas, the said C. S. Drew is seeking to merge the Union Party in the treason-branded Democratic Party through the support of Nesmith, whose well-known preference for peace and Pendleton mark him as the true representative of this corrupt combination of treasury speculators, known as the Drew faction, who are now the self-constituted nominees for state and county offices. Therefore,
    Resolved, 1st. That by such an assumption of power to dictate to the citizens of this county who their servants shall be months before the convention for the selection of such servants, they have shown a degree of impudence unwarranted and an amount of insolence intolerable to free men.
    Resolved, 2nd. That to resist usurpation of a treason-branded junto, such as the Drew faction, is a right sacred to free men, and that we do declare ourselves independent of the dictations of this combination of treasury speculators, and pledge ourselves, as the people, to resist their encroachments upon our rights and t» use all endeavors, consistent with justice, to oppose their treasonable designs.
    Resolved, 3rd. That we will not support these men in convention or at the ballot box, and that it is the duty of all loyal men to be on their guard and not unwittingly pledge themselves to their support.
    Resolved, 4th. That realizing as we do that there is a corrupt tendency arising from an accumulation of funds more than sufficient to meet the expenses of government, we are decidedly in favor of a reduction of our taxes, so as to meet the current expenses of the county only, as they accrue.
A. Gillette, S. Colver, I. D. Applegate,
B. F. Myer, J. G. Van Dyke, A. G. Rockfellow,
E. E. Gore, O. C. Applegate, J. C. Tolman,
W. Beeson, Jacob Wagner, I. Wagner.

    We are informed by credible and responsible citizens of this county that one S. Colver and others are, and have been, circulating through this county reports which are totally without foundation, and derogatory to our character as Union men, and it is due to us that we have a copy of these charges made against us, and due to the Union men of Jackson County that they should know, after a fair hearing, whether these charges are true or not, and we challenge investigation.
L. S. Thompson, J. M. Sutton,
John S. Love, N. Langell,
C. C. Beekman, C. F. Wilson,
R. S. Dunlap, R. Benedict,
Benj. F. Reeser.
State Rights Democrat, Albany, Oregon, March 24, 1866, page 3

    BEAR CREEK.--This stream was up very high during they late rains, and done much damage in places. The road this side of Eagle Mills, though passable, is very materially injured. The greatest havoc committed was at Phoenix. Opposite S. Colver's residence, the current set in to the west bank, washing it away to the old race, and seriously endangering E. D Foudray's mill. Lower down, the vats of M. Lindley's tannery were washed out. The water then bore to the other side, and cut a channel through S. Colver's field, leaving Lindley's sawmill and dam high and dry. The damages below do not seem to be as great, though the fences in the bottom are injured.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 26, 1867, page 2

    The Press, of Jacksonville, says: "The late storm played sad havoc with the farms along Bear Creek, some of them being almost totally ruined. Sam. Colver is about the heaviest sufferer. He says he has scarcely land enough left to hold a mortgage."
"Northern Coast Items," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, February 25, 1867, page 1

Klamath Agency, Oregon
    February 20th 1869.
    On the 31st day of January last Orson A. Stearns was relieved from duty as Farmer on Klamath Reservation, and on the 1st inst. L. Colver was appointed in his stead.
Very respectfully sir
    Your obt. servant
        L. Applegate
            U.S. Indian Sub-Agent
Hon. J. W. Perit Huntington
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        in Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 25; Letters Received, 1868-1870, No. 204.

    Mr. Colver, who is known throughout the state, and knows it by intelligent observation, selected this valley for a home after having traveled all the states of the Union, except two. He raises upon his splendid farm a great variety of fruits of delicious flavor, and regards the valley as able to compete with any agricultural region on the coast.
"Excursion to Southern Oregon," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 1, 1871, page 1

    There was quite an excitement in [Oakland] last evening (Oct. 4th) from the fact that Hon. Sam. Colver, of Jackson County (a very able speaker), delivered a lecture on the "Swamp Land Bill." He took the position that "all the sections of the bill are disregarded by the applicants for swamp land," and he proved by reference to the different sections of the act that it was a swindle and a corrupt fraud upon the people; that the poor class were robbed of their homes "by a class of land sharks who had robbed many a homestead settler, that had spent years of hard toil and made their land valuable, of their just rights." Mr. Colver has a reputation in Southern Oregon of being an able speaker, a friend of justice and a war horse against all monopoly, and being a man of capital and mental ability gives him a greater influence against the land swindle of the last Oregon Legislature.
    Mr. Colver is traveling north and will visit Salem, Portland and all the principal towns of Oregon.
"Douglas County Correspondence," Morning Oregonian, Portland, October 10, 1871, page 1

    A petition headed Repeal, Repeal! of which the following is a copy, is being circulated by Hon. Samuel Colver, who intends making a canvass of the state:
    To the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled:We, the undersigned citizens of the State of Oregon, would respectfully represent that, under color of declarative pretense, in pursuance of the Act of Congress approved March 12th, 1860, the Legislature of the State of Oregon, at its last session, passed an Act providing for the selection and sale of the Swamp and Overflowed Lands belonging to the State of Oregon; and that under the provisions of the said Act of the Legislature, land speculators, members of the Legislature and their confreres made out, prior to the passage of said Act, filings to cover nearly all the lands claimed to be of the character denominated Swamp and Overflowed Lands; thereby creating a monopoly to the great injury of landless and laboring citizens; and further by acts of the Commissioner appointed to make the selections of Swamp and Overflowed Lands, Pre-emptors and Homestead settlers are being deprived of their just rights, in direct violation of the spirit of said Act of Congress, and in opposition to the genius of Republican institutions.
    The greater part of the lands thus claimed are made valuable only on account of the Overflow, thereby producing the finest of hay lands, without which large districts of country would be rendered wholly unfit for settlement.
    Therefore, believing that the grant of Congress has lapsed. and the subject matter fallen under the direct power and control of Congress, we respectfully ask for such legislation as will secure to actual settlers, in limited quantities, under the provisions of the Homestead and Pre-emption Rights, all lands that are of sufficient value to justify such settlements.
Oregon State Journal, Eugene, October 14, 1871, page 2

The Swamp Land Question.
    Mr. Samuel Colver, of Klamath, comes before our citizens, representing the people of that district of our state and bearing an earnest appeal from many whose rights and property are threatened, for protection against the acts of speculators and land grabbers, who would not only take away the lands they claim by occupation, but would appropriate valuable improvements that have been constructed upon them and beggar honest families, who have selected homes upon our public lands in full faith in the government both of this state and the United States.
    The swamp lands of our state needed to be ascertained, selected and secured for the state, according to the act donating them to us. It was the proper work of the last Legislature to have this attended to, but it had occurred to certain speculators that a good thing could be made out of it if a law could be passed not only accomplishing this much, but authorizing parties to lay claim to them at a fixed price per acre, such claimants to have easy terms of purchase and priority over all others.
    It was the duty of that same Legislature to provide for the protection of actual settlers by positive provisions, but this was not a part of the speculation, so the settlers were left to take care of themselves, which they  might still have done had the act been allowed to run the ninety days, as usual before coming into force, but neither was this any part of the speculation, so an emergency clause was introduced causing the act to take immediate effect, and as soon as the Governor's signature was secured, messages were sent to accomplices by telegraph and agents dispatched in haste, and settlers whose lands could by possible stretch of imagination be construed as liable to overflow were astonished to find their farms claimed by land grabbers on pretense of legislation for which the public had no sufficient notice.
    We hear continually of men who are thus threatened with ruin and can name three cases in Coos County as samples of the wrongs done, where settlers have lived eight, ten and eleven years on their lands, and spent from two to four thousand dollars for improvements, to find them at this late day claimed by speculators under pretense of legislation by the state of which the settlers never beard.
    Mr. Colver has a memorial to the Governor and the Legislature asking for repeal of the law, and that immediate steps shall be taken to prevent the results of this disastrous policy. It is a matter of immediate moment, as private rights are threatened, so we hope to see whatever steps are possible taken to remedy the evil sought to be done. If the Executive has erred in approving such legislation, it is to be hoped that he will spare no effort to counteract the evil results that must arise under ft, and we do not believe that any individual in the state is as much interested in doing so as he should be--that is if he lives in expectation of any political hereafter.
Oregon Weekly Statesman, Salem, October 18, 1871, page 1

    LECTURERS.--We have only been blessed (?) with two lecturers during the week. The first one was Sam. Colver, who larrups the Legislature over the back because they passed the Swamp Land Act and gave some other man a chance to buy a patch of land in the neighborhood of his patch; and the other was Prof. Cheney, who slashes around among the stars and attempts to demonstrate that the Bible is an astronomical problem (its proper title being "The Sun Book") and that Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Job and Mrs. Job, and all the little Jobses, Balaam and his ass, etc., were all planets of a greater or less magnitude. He also maintains that Homer's Iliad is merely a work of fiction and that the Trojan War and the characters who figured in that singularly prolonged struggle for the possession of the "ravished Helen" never existed save in the poetic imagination of the blind minstrel of classic fame. The Professor challenges debate upon any and all propositions which he advances, but as he will scarcely succeed in destroying the influence of the Bible by his moonstruck attacks and as we are not particularly interested in knowing whether Achilles was a Greek warrior or a heathen deity, the writer hereof respectfully declines the controversy. 
State Rights Democrat, Albany, Oregon, October 20, 1871, page 4

    CROWDED OUT.--An editorial notice of S. Colver's peregrinations in Northern Oregon is crowded out of this issue. Will appear in our next.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 21, 1871, page 2

    LECTURE ON SWAMP LANDS.--On Monday evening at the courthouse in this city, Hon. Samuel Colver, of Jackson County, delivered a most interesting lecture on the Swamp Land Bill of Oregon, painting with master hand the outrageous fraud perpetrated upon the people of Oregon in the passage of that bill. A petition, setting forth the grievances of actual settlers on the public lands, and praying Congress to so legislate that the rightful occupants of small tracts of land shall not be dispossessed by those seeking to acquire large tracts of the public domain for merely speculative purposes, was circulated, and largely signed by those present. Copies of the petition have been left at this office, where they can be obtained by anyone wishing to circulate them for signatures.
Albany Register, October 21, 1871, page 5

    Sam Colver has found a new grievance. Having demolished whiskey, destroyed slavery, annihilated his opponents in the Radical Party, and made of himself a nuisance generally, he has gone off on a crusade in Northern Oregon against the Swamp Land Law. He did not commence his crusade nearer home than Eugene City, because we know him and his antecedents so well here that Samuel concluded it would be an uphill business. As many persons in the northern portion of the state do not know this new apostle of the Anti-Swamp Land Dispensation, we propose to enlighten them a little.
    Colver denounces what he calls the "Swamp Land Ring," and yet belongs to a land ring so despicably mean that all other rings sink into utter insignificance in comparison to it. We charge upon him, without fear of successful contradiction, that he and three or four of his confreres on Link River squatted on state lands, and held the same for years without paying one cent to the state for them or a mill to the county in taxes. We charge further that this "Colver Ring" fenced in thousands of acres of swamp land to which they had no shadow of claim, and used the same for their benefit and excluded bona fide settlers by their pretended claims. We charge further, that this "Colver Ring" fenced in and claimed every available spring and watering place in their vicinity on the west side of Little Klamath Lake, and thus gained control of thousands more acres of range for their own cattle, to the exclusion of bona fide settlers. We charge further, that when setting up their claims to these lands, springs and watering places, the "Colver Ring" well knew that they had no legal and valid claim to those lands, and could not have under the limitation laws of this state, and by their claims they knowingly perpetrated a double swindle on the state--first, by defrauding it out of the prices of these lands, which would willingly have been paid by bona fide settlers, and, secondly, by defrauding the state out of the revenue due from the taxation of these lands. That they knowingly perpetrated a fraud on persons desiring to purchase some of these lands by informing them that they were the owners, and by fencing them in as such, and that they knowingly defrauded the county out of the taxes due from these lands if held by bona fide purchasers. We charge upon Samuel Colver, the great apostle of the Anti-Swamp Land Dispensation, the chief howler of the Squatters’ Synagogue--that he, himself, individually, was engaged all last spring in a frantic search after swamp lands; that he visited Langell Valley and desired Mr. Arthur Langell to point out some swamp lands for him. He wanted 2,000 acres at first, and then begged for 200 acres; and then only wanted a little hay ranch--like the office seeker that went to Gen. Jackson for a Cabinet appointment, and, on refusal, begged successively and unsuccessfully for every minor office, finally going off contented with an old pair of boots and a pair of seatless trousers. Sam wanted a little of that swamp land "chicken pie," too. We charge upon the "Colver Ring" that they have done more to retard the settlement of the Klamath Lake country than all other things combined, by fencing and claiming the available springs and watering places, and thus gaining control of the stock range to the exclusion of honest settlers who were willing to buy the land and pay for it. Finally, we charge upon the "Colver Ring" that they never opened their pious mugs about the enormities of the Swamp Land Law until Hon. J. N. T. Miller, the Swamp Land Commissioner, commenced the survey of these lands and discovered the swindle the "Colver Ring" were perpetrating on the state and the people. We affirm that it was only when their little game was discovered that Colver armed himself for his crusade, and now we submit is he not a precious disciple to talk about "rings?" Is he not a delightful duck to shriek about land swindlers? Let some person in his audiences north ask Sam how much land he had control of by his fences on Link River to which he never had and could not have any right? The game is not worth the candle, certainly, but we cannot resist the temptation of again paying our respects to this ineffable humbug at an early day.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 28, 1871, page 2  This article was reprinted by Albany's States Rights Democrat on November 10, page 1.

To the Hon. W. H. Odell, Surveyor General of Oregon:
    The undersigned, your petitioners, citizens of Jackson County and residents of Link River and the Klamath Lakes country, would respectfully represent that they are farmers and stock raisers, induced to settle in this part of the state on account of the advantages it affords for the latter employment. That rain falls so seldom and in such small quantities, that land, unless irrigated naturally or artificially, cannot be relied on for crops of grain, grass or vegetables. For this reason, the lands lying low along the margin of the lakes or streams are the only lands of value in the county, and if we are deprived of the use and ownership of them many of our farms are worthless, and we will all suffer great loss and injury.
    The Deputy who surveyed this country on the part of the government run his section lines to, and established his fractional corners, and run his meander lines along the margin of the low and valuable lands, and not along the bank of the river or lake, along which those lands extend. So that, besides the river or lake lying between these meander lines there are large tracts of valuable land, called "lake" or "marsh," which is neither--in either the legal or common-sense definition of those terms. But there is now here a party surveying the lands between the line of meanders established by the Deputy Surveyor and the lakes and rivers--claiming them as "swamp and overflowed lands," belonging to the state in virtue of an act of Congress granting the swamp and overflowed lands to the state in which they lie, and extended to Oregon and Minnesota on the 20th of March, 1860.
    By an iniquitous act of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Oregon, approved October 26, 1870, it is provided that the swamp lands belonging this state "shall be sold to the first applicant, thereby cutting off all competition in the purchase of the lands of that description, which is to the pecuniary injury of this state, and does great injustice and injury to those settlers upon and contiguous to the land so claimed as swamp or overflowed."
    The first applications for swamp and overflowed lands on the waters of the Klamath Lakes and rivers bear even date with the approval of the act of the State Legislature, providing for their sale. The principal application is in the name of one A. J. Burnett, a member of the House of Representatives that passed this iniquitous law, and the remainder of them in the names of speculators, believed to be in collusion with said Burnett. We believe the passage of the law for the sale of those lands was procured by corrupt means--we know it is an injury to the state, and will greatly damage the settlers and settlement of this part of the country. The lands it will place in the hands of speculators and monopolies is of great extent and great value. Much of this land is neither "swamp nor overflowed," as is proven by the growth upon it--much of it is natural meadow, never being too wet for that purpose; and none of it too wet to be valuable for pasture lands, and will be purchased for that purpose so soon as it is brought into market.
    We therefore pray that you cause the public surveys to be extended over that portion of the lands now rendered as "swamp or lake," and the fractional corners and the meander lines placed upon the actual bank of the river or lake as the case may be, and the land so surveyed brought speedily into market.
    And whereas, by the proviso to the 1st section of the act of Congress of the 12th of March, 1860, granting swamp and overflowed lands to Minnesota and Oregon, "swamp and overflowed lands" may be taken up under the pre-emption and homestead laws prior to their cession to the state, we further pray that you cause the surveys asked for to be made speedily and in advance of the cession of the swamps on the Klamath waters to the state; and that you use your influence with the federal government to prevent the ceding of any swamps on the Klamath waters to the state until the surveys herein asked for are returned by you to the General Land Office.
Link River, Oct. 2, 1871. I. R. MUNN.
 Democratic Times, Jacksonville, November 4, 1871, page 1

The Swamp Lands.
    A half-crazy bore, says the Plaindealer, named Sam Colver, who seems to be pleased with the sound of his own voice, which aside from its nasal twang is by no means mellifluous, has of late been engaged in peregrinating the state, lecturing on temperance, free love and the Swamp Land Act. His chief purpose seemed to be to circulate a petition to the next Legislature to amend the act, and to expatiate upon the wrongs committed on the actual settlers in the neighborhood of Link River and the Klamath Lakes, by the claimants taking possession of their homes. Sam is so well known in this portion of the state, that no reply would have to be made to his nonsense had not the Oregonian endorsed him and published his memorial. Now there is no editor in the state who does not know that by the terms of the act of March 20, 1860, extending the Swamp Land Act to Oregon and Minnesota, all claims taken under the acts of the United States, prior to the state act of Oct. 26, 1870, were specially excepted from its operation. If they did not know it from the act itself they might have been informed by the instructions issued to the Commissioners by the Board of School and University Lands, of which Gov. Grover is president, and which were published in all the papers of the state. To show who were the settlers in whose behalf Sam took such a lively interest, we copy from the Jacksonville Times:
    We charge upon him, without fear of successful contradiction, that he and three or four of his confreres on Link River squatted on state lands, and held the same for years, without paying one cent to the state for them or a mill to the county in taxes. We charge further that this "Colver Ring" fenced in thousands of acres of swamp land to which they had no shadow of claim, and used the same for their benefit and excluded bona fide settlers by their pretended claims. We charge further that this "Colver Ring" fenced in and claimed every available spring and watering place in their vicinity on the west side of Little Klamath Lake and thus gained control of thousands more acres or range for their own cattle, to the exclusion of bona fide settlers. We charge further that when setting up their claims to these lands, springs and watering places, the "Colver Ring" well knew that they had no legal and valid claim to those lands, and could not have under the limitation laws of this state, and by their claims they knowingly perpetrated a double swindle on the state--first, by defrauding it out of the price of these lands, which would willingly have been paid by bona fide settlers, and secondly by defrauding the state out of the revenue due from the taxation of these lands. That they knowingly perpetrated a fraud on persons desiring to purchase some of these lands by informing them that they were the owners, and by fencing them in as such, and that they knowingly defrauded the county out of the taxes due from these lands if held by bona fide purchasers.
    We charge upon the "Colver Ring" that they never opened their pious mugs about the enormities of the Swamp Land Law until Hon. J. N. T. Miller, the Swamp Land Commissioner, commenced the survey of these lands and discovered the swindle the "Colver Ring" were perpetrating on the state and the people.
    The above sufficiently explains the secret of Mr. Colver's objection to a law which will save to the state so many hundreds of thousands of dollars; and we can conclusively show that the larger part of the opposition to it arises from the same source.
Oregon City Enterprise, November 10, 1871, page 2

    Last week we published the petition [above] of nineteen "citizens of Jackson County," addressed to the Surveyor General of the state, which petition strikes us as intended more to give publicity to the names of those attached than for any practical benefit that can result. The effusion is evidently a hifalutin and nonsensical emanation from the brain of the irrepressible Sam Colver--"full of sound and fury, signifying nothing," and was gotten up in the interests of the "Ring," of which he is the "Bamboo Chief."
    In the first place, it claims that the petitioners are "farmers and stock-raisers" on Link River, but among the names we fail to see the names of Jacob Thompson, Dennis Crawley, O. T. Brown, E. F. Walker, Geo. Nurse and others, all well-known landholders in that vicinity who might be mentioned, whose names would have given character to such a petition. On the other hand, we find the name of Jesse D. Carr. Well, if Jesse D. Carr is a "citizen of Jackson Co.," a "farmer or stock-raiser'' here, it is as much a matter of news to citizens of this county as it will certainly be to his associates in San Francisco when they hear of it. After a recitation of grievances, these "farmers and stock-raisers'' and "citizens of Jackson County" proceed to ask the Surveyor General to extend the public surveys over a portion of land already returned on the public surveys as "lake," according to the petition. Whether the Surveyor General has the power to order a re-survey of public lands, after the first survey has been received and approved by the General Land Office, is a matter upon which we have the gravest kind of doubts. But let that be as it may; these modest "farmers" and "stock-raisers" deliberately ask the Surveyor General to initiate a conflict of jurisdiction between the state and general government about these lands--re-survey the same, and then throw them open to entry under the United States laws, whereby the state will lose the benefit of their sale as swamp and overflowed lands. We opine that if Surveyor General Odell is a man of common sense, as we believe him to be, he will not pay the slightest heed to these "farmers" and "stock-raisers."'
    Then, to cap the climax, the Surveyor General is asked to use his influence with the general government to prevent the cession of any of these lands to the state until the surveys asked for are made and returned to the General Land Office. No doubt Mr. Odell will do just what these men ask. They desire the cession to the state retarded in order that they may grab thousands of acres of valuable swamp lands which properly belong to the state, but which they fear they cannot grab under the state laws. There is the secret of the whole matter.
    If the Swamp Land Commissioner had not discovered the little game, whereby the "Colver Ring" was occupying and using thousands of acres of the public domain, to the exclusion of bona fide settlers, without paying a dime to the general government or a cent to the state in taxes, we would never have heard of the "farmers" and "stock-raisers'" petition. It makes all the difference in the world to the "Colver Ring'' whose ox is gored. No doubt they think they can make a political hobby of it, and indeed we fancy we see, in the columns of a cotemporary, the ears--lengthy ones, too--of the same anti-swamp land animal, upon which the proprietor finally hopes to ride into the capitol at Washington as Oregon's next representative. The profound dissertations on swamp lands, which appear weekly in the columns of a cotemporary, bring vividly to our remembrance those famous essays on "Water Rights and Irrigation," which were of so thrilling and interesting and profoundly learned a character that the very babies cried upon each appearance of the paper to have them read in their hearing. And the very last of this series of learned disquisitions is the more valuable as containing the views of an eminent Jackson County juris consult, who enlightens the world and astonishes mankind by illuminating the dark places of the swamp land law with copious extracts from his brief in the case of Fowler vs. Clugage, which, we believe, involved a construction of the Donation Law of Congress, instead of the swamp land law of the state. Had the modest and eminent jurist we allude to, placed the woodcut, which represents his handsome and intellectual visage, and which we are happy to notice appears in another column of the same paper, at the head of the extract, after the manner in which he illustrates his briefs in the Supreme Court, we would not more readily have discovered the learned author than we did on reading an authority, which so exactly filled the case in point. It is emphatically "wisdom in chunks," and legal lore on the half-shell. The case, the authority and its application are eminently characteristic, and exhaust the subject. There is no more to be said now, henceforth and forever. Let Colver burn his petition and return and hide his diminished head in the swamps of Link River, and let the "farmers" and "stock-raisers," and "citizens of Jackson County" preserve their souls in patience. The brief in the case of Fowler vs. Clugage, although not illustrated by the wooden head of the author, has settled the question. The thing is done. Swamp landers, "pass in your checks."
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, November 11, 1871, page 2

    THAT LECTURE.--Sam Colver, the swamp land apostle, held forth to several dozen of his "mutual admiration society" at the courthouse on Tuesday evening last. His lecture amounted to nothing as an argument, and only contained a mass of absurd incongruities strung together without method or order. Well, Sam can go on making a fool of himself as long as he likes, for, in his own words, "if he don't do it, somebody else will."
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, November 18, 1871, page 3

    SAM COLVER, the pioneer swamp land missionary, lectured several times at different points in this county, on Swamp Land, Woman's Rights and other subjects. He sold swamp land at seven cents per acre, and his hearers paid fifty cents each for the sell.--Coos County Rustic.

Democratic Times,
Jacksonville, December 2, 1871, page 2

        Superintendent Indian Affairs:
General CANBY,
        Commanding Department Columbia:
    We, the undersigned, citizens of Lost and Link River, Klamath and Tule Lake country, after suffering years of annoyance from the presence of the Modoc Indians, who, through the delay of the Indian and Military Departments, have not been removed to the reservation, as required by the treaty stipulations of 1864, entered into by the authorized agents of the government and the chiefs of the Modoc Indians, by which all their lands were ceded to the United States except those embraced in the reservation, as stipulated in said treaty. But notwithstanding all the conditions of said treaty have been faithfully performed on the part of the government, it is a well-known fact that a fractious band of the Modocs, of about three hundred, who were parties to that treaty, have, through the influence of citizens of an adjoining state, who have been engaged in an illicit traffic with them, have been instigated to set the authority of the government at defiance, and to utterly refuse compliance with their treaty stipulations by going on the reservation; and since there is no longer any conflict between the Indian and .Military Departments, such as prevent Sub-agent Applegate from bringing those Indians on the reservation, we, therefore, make this earnest appeal to you for relief--knowing that you have the cavalry force we petitioned to be sent to Fort Klamath two years ago for this specific purpose at your command. We ask you to use it for the purpose it was procured for, that the departments, both civil and military, have not been kept ignorant of the fact that we have been repeatedly on the verge of a desolating Indian war with this band of outlaws, who, by your delay to enforce the treaty, have been led to despise, rather than respect, the authority of the government.
    Their long-continued success in defying its authorities has emboldened them in their defiant and hostile bearing, until further forbearance on our part would cease to be a virtue; that, in many instances, our families have become alarmed at their threats to kill and burn, until we were compelled to remove them for safety across the Cascade Mountains, thereby suffering great loss of time and property; that the agents at Klamath and commissary at Yainax, during this long delay growing out of this unfortunate conflict of departments, have done all they could to prevent a war and bring about an amicable adjustment of our troubles we have no reason to doubt; but we ask now, since no such conflict exists, shall a petty Indian chief, with twenty desperadoes, and a squalid band of three hundred miserable savages, any longer set at defiance the strong arm of the government, driving our citizens from their homes, threatening their lives, and destroying our property?
    Their removal to the reservation in the winter season may be easily accomplished by anyone acquainted with them and their country, and will not require more force than could be furnished from Fort Klamath to do it. We recommended Commissary I. D. Applegate, of Yainax, to the consideration of the department as a suitable man to take charge of any force or expedition looking to their removal. His long connection with the Indian Department, and thorough knowledge of them and their country, and all the facts connected with this whole Modoc question, and as a stock-raiser equally interested with us in their removal, point him out to us as the right man in the right place in charge of this much-needed expedition for the removal of this band of Modocs to their reservation, for which your petitioners will ever pray.
Petition circa January 25, 1872, Congressional Record, session of February 12, 1874, U.S. Government Printing Office, pages 1422-1423

Eden Republican Primary.
    Pursuant to notice, a meeting of the Republicans of Eden Precinct met at Colver's Hall on Saturday, May 4th, 1872, to elect delegates to attend the County Convention to be held at Jacksonville on the 14th of May. Abraham Bish was elected Chairman, W. Beeson, Secretary. The meeting proceeded to nominate delegates, and upon the first ballot Abraham Bish, George Stevenson, B. C. Goddard and E. K. Anderson were elected.
    S. Colver offered the following Resolution:
    WHEREAS, opposition to the swamp land act is the declared policy of the Republican Party,
    Resolved, therefore, that we will not support any man as a candidate for the next Oregon Legislature unless he will pledge himself to vote for its repeal, if elected. Adopted.
    S. D. Vandyke offered the following Resolution:
WHEREAS a proposition is on foot to put the county to great expense to build a new court house, which at present is unnecessary, therefore Resolved, that we oppose any effort for that purpose. Adopted.
    After numerous speeches and appropriate remarks, the delegates were instructed to use their influence in favor of O. A. Stearns, Enoch Walker and. R. Benedict, for Representatives.
    E. Gore made a motion that the Sentinel be requested to publish the minutes of the meeting. On motion of Mr. Fitzgerrold, the Republicans of Eden Precinct were requested to meet at Phoenix at one o'clock on Saturday, the 18th of May, to ratify the nominations of the County Convention.
    On motion the meeting adjourned sine die.
W. BEESON, Sec'y.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 11, 1872, page 1

    During the delivery of Joe. Wilson's harangue on the 29th ult., Psalm Colver, the anti-Swamp Land Apostle, impatiently awaited to hear an onslaught on the Swamp Land Bill, and at length, fearing that the question had inadvertently escaped Wilson's attention, he ventured to jog his memory, by calling out "Swamp land! What about the Swamp Land Bill?" Imagine his disgust! "Phancy his pheelinks!" when Wilson replied, in that flippant way of his, that everybody had heard enough on that question. The gentle Joseph did not want to talk on Swamp Land. That is a question "not for Joseph." Cause why? The Hon. Bernard Goldsmith, one of the leading Radical luminaries in Portland, besides other magnates of the same party in that locality, too numerous to mention, together with Beekman, Langell and other leaders here, who are all Swamp Landers--and heavy ones at that--made the question too delicate a one for Joseph to handle.
    The Radicals have made a tremendous howl over this Swamp Land question, but the sincerity of it cannot bear the test applied by Psalm Colver at the discussion. Their orators dare not attack on it on the stump, because too many of their leading men are Swamp Landers themselves. Think you, Joe. Wilson would dare assail a question in which Barney Goldsmith has so deep an interest? It was this influence that knocked Dowell out of time. His blatant and windy articles on swamp land quietly but effectually crucified him. No man, who persistently, honestly and openly opposed the Swamp Land law, could get the Radical nomination for Congress, and Joe. Wilson knew that if he dared to fight that question here, he might as well haul down his colors, shoulder his scrapbook, tell his last smutty joke and go home. His chances would not be as good as that of the celebrated cat in Hades, which was deprived of claws.
    The Radical candidate for Congress showed plainly by his reply to Colver on the 29th ult., that he dared not discuss this question. His disinclination was manifest to every person in the house, and cannot be disputed. Then we ask, if the Radical opposition is sincere, if it is not the merest sophistry, the most transparent humbug, the lowest demagogism, why did not the chosen champion of the Radical party discuss the Swamp Land Bill before an audience composed of the citizens of a county which has a greater area of swamp land in its limits than any other, and who are, of course, more vitally interested than almost any other people in the state in the discussion of the Swamp Land problem? Let our Radical anti-Swamp Land friends ponder. Let them ask themselves if their party leaders are not humbugging them about this Swamp Land question. They will soon see that they are both humbugged and deceived.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 11, 1872, page 2

    The attempted lecture at the court house last Saturday evening by Mr. Colver was not much of a success, the address (what there was of it) being rather a confused jumble, pointless and uninteresting, and the performance being sadly interfered with by the explosion of firecrackers, ignited by some mischievous boys. The smoke from the burning firecrackers soon filled the court room and became almost suffocating, and the noise of the exploding pyrotechnics nearly deafening. Finally, the Gasburg orator, finding the applause much louder than was desirable, and besides being fairly "smoked out," made a break for fresh air, making rapid strides to get away from such an unappreciative audience. The boys, however, not to be taken aback, were close at his heels, and with cow bells, tin cans, etc., serenaded him as he went "marching on," and finally holed him in the express office. Here, of course, the young musicians were not permitted to enter; but from the sidewalk in front of the office, however, the "concord of sweet sounds'' was renewed, and kept up with energy for an hour longer.
    Mr. Colver announces his intention of lecturing at various other points in the state upon the Modoc war, the virtues of the red man, the vices of the white man; finding fault with the Indian Department, the military, the citizens, and, in fact, with everybody and everything, except Capt. Jack and his amiable followers; boasting what great things he (Colver) has done and can do, and that if the management of this little "unpleasantness'' was only placed in his hands, how much better it would be fixed up by him than if left to the regularly constituted authorities of our government; etc., etc. Whether the "send-off" the Modoc Lecturer received on Saturday night can be regarded as favorable or otherwise depends upon the "standpoint" from which it is viewed.
    One thing is very certain: That had it not been for the course of certain white men advising and encouraging the Modocs to stay off their reservation and to disobey the orders of the general government, the unhappy massacre of so many inoffensive settlers and the consequent war would not have occurred. And we are fully satisfied that the "benefit" which Mr. Colver received here last Saturday night was owing entirely to the general impression and belief in this community that he was one of the officious white men we have alluded to.

Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 4, 1873, page 3

    The following letter is sent to us by Mr. Colver for publication with the request that we correct, which we respectfully decline to do. As he sets himself up as a public lecturer, to enlighten the public mind, it is to be presumed that he is a man of sufficient literary attainments to write correctly an ordinary communication to a newspaper. Therefore we do not deem it advisable to change, alter or amend his production in any respect whatever, but give it to our readers verbatim et liberatim. Of course we are not responsible for any of the facts stated or views expressed, and as to the truth of the letter, unsupported as it is by any reliable confirmation, we leave our readers to judge.
Phoenix De 30th 1872
Editor of the Times
    Sir I wish to make a brief Statement of Facts to-be published in Connection with the Authority of Generals Green and Canby under whose orders we were Acting while attempting to remove the Hot Creek Band of Modock Indians to the Reservation
first the Hot Creek Modocs numbering a bout 45 including Children Squaws able Bodied Men and (Old Grandfather grey Beard) live about 30 Miles from Linkville at the South West End of Tuley Lake and about 50 miles from Major Jacksons head quarters on Lost River which was the Only Military force in the Field, for the protection of the Settlers Capt Fairchild, who is a large Land and Stock owner and on whose Lands this Band of Modocks were Born,) thinking discretion the better part of Valor, and knowing that this Band of Modock had refused to join Captain Jack for fear he would get them into a fight with the soldiers and they said they did not want to tight and ware willing to go to the reservation under this State of Facts we Sent for to General Canby and Green for authority to affect the Removal of this Band of Indians to the Reservation. who Ware quite as anxious to go, as we ware to have them. go. because their presance here endangered the Lives of the Whites Settlers as the Indians were liable to raids from rash Inconsiderate men whos acts for the protection of their friends though ever so well Intended would have Consigned the Families here to the same fate as the Settlers on Lost River & Tula Lake, as the Military forces in the field at Lost River fifty miles away were not Sufficiently Strong at that time to furnish a force to reeover the Bodies. of the citizens who had been murdered in their Immediate vicinity. let a lone giving us any assistance in Case of an attact any attact on the Hotcreeks by a Small force at that time (;Situated as they wer only 15 miles from Captain Jack's whole force) would have resulted in another massacre of th Settlers
: to correct the fals reports of a few men Who believe in the divene eficacy of Bold and persistent Lying, I will State that John A Fairchilds is a White man has a white Wife and White Children and from all appearance Much better Stock than the Lying Scrubs who Slander and tradice him, who are described in Holy Writ as Slanderers, "Speaking evil of Person and things they know not off and are worse than Brute Beasts'' if the death penalty was inflicted on a fiew Malicious Liars in this country whos falshood have resulted in Massace of the Settlers on Lost river and Tula Lake the whole Country would be much benefited
    The failure to notify the Settlers to sany [sic] the beast of it was a cowardly, criminal, Bloody, Blunder on the part of those who knew of their danger and failed to inform them        Sam Colver.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 4, 1873, page 3

    Mr. Sam. Colver, of Gasburg, arrived here last Saturday afternoon direct from the seat of war, bringing latest advices from Capt. Jack's camp. Mr. Colver, soon after his arrival, announced his intention of delivering lectures at different points in this state on the subject of the Modoc war, commencing on that evening at this place. Elsewhere will be found a notice of the first of his proposed lectures.

"Personal," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 4, 1873, page 3

    Sam Colver, who believes that the whites are all wrong in trying to punish the Modoc devils, tried to lecture on the subject at Jacksonville a few days ago, but the "plaudits" of the audience prevented a quiet conclusion to his speech.
"Oregon," Oregonian, Portland, January 8, 1873, page 2

    The irrepressible Sam. Colver favored us with a call Monday. Although not belligerent, the smile so childlike and bland, that is wont to encircle his phiz, was missing.
"Personal," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 11, 1873, page 3

ASHLAND, Ogn., Jan. 8, 1873.
    EDITOR TIMES: I am informed that Sam. Colver in his attempt at a lecture in Jacksonville on the evening of Saturday, Dec. 28th, had considerable to say about me and my character. Now, while I never claimed that my character was the finest that could be found in the United States, yet, such as it is, I would not exchange it for that of the nefarious old Sam Colver's. * * * And now, since he has seen proper to bring my character before the public, I propose to have something to say about his, and I make the following charges against him, viz.:
    1st. That he is an infamous liar and slanderer.
    2nd. That he is an officious intermeddler in other people's business, always interfering and dipping his bill into matters that do not concern him, and stirring up trouble and making himself a nuisance generally.
    3rd. That previous to the present war, he (Colver) advised and encouraged the Modoc Indians to stay off their reservation, and not obey the order of the government, and it was this advice and encouragement on the part of Sam Colver and others that has produced the war.
    4th. That since the war he has aided and abetted the hostile Indians in every possible way, carrying or sending news to Capt. Jack's camp, officiously interfering with the operations of the military and Indian Department, and is now going around finding fault with the course of the same and the settlers.
    I was one of a party that went after the Hot Creek band of Modocs to bring them to the Klamath Reservation. We arrived at Whittle's ferry late in the evening, finding Colver with those Indians at that place. We camped at Small's, near there, that night, intending to take the Indians back with us in the morning; but about midnight, while we were all asleep, the Indians all stampeded, and Sam Colver with them. Next morning no trace was to be seen of either them or him. * * *
    Colver in his published letter talks about having authority, in writing, from certain military officers to operate among the Hot Creek Indians. He never claimed that he had received that authority until the night I met him at Whittle's ferry, but stated that he had received it that evening at the hands of Indian Agent Dyar. And now what did he do under that authority? In less than two hours after he received it, he stampeded with the Hot Creek Indians, as above stated. Every able-bodied buck joined the hostiles, and even old Sam, after he disappeared, was missing for so long a time that it was supposed that he also had united his fortunes with those of Capt. Jack. I have no means of knowing what the nature of the "authority" he brags about is, but that was the way he acted under it.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 11, 1873, page 3

    ON THE WAR PATH.--Sam. Colver, the Modoc lecturer, is lecturing in the towns of the Willamette Valley, with poor success. He intended to lecture at Roseburg, but discovering that the citizens of that place proposed giving him a benefit similar to that he received in Jacksonville, he decamped for more congenial latitudes.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 18, 1873, page 3

    Mr. Sam. Colver has handed us for publication a crazy-looking paper, written in pencil-mark, mutilated, begrimed and exceedingly difficult to decipher, which, owing to the press of other matter, has been omitted in the two preceding issues. This paper purports to be a letter written by Major John Green, of the 1st Cavalry, and a telegram to McConnell & McManus, of Yreka, from Major-General E. R. S. Canby, for the "authority" under which he stampeded with the Hot Creek Indians for Capt. Jack's camp, all being written and signed in the same handwriting. We doubt the the genuineness of the signatures to this paper, well knowing that no military officer would sign any paper in such a shape. It may, however, have been intended by the writer to be a copy of the original (and this is probably the case); but if so, the bad orthography, superabundance of capitals and want of punctuation shows the copyist to be as illiterate as Colver himself. We have corrected the bad spelling, etc., and guessing at such words as we are unable to decipher, we present the document to our readers in the best shape possible:
    December 4th, 1872.
    MESSRS. J. A. FAIRCHILD, P. A. DORRIS AND SAM. COLVER: Gentlemen:--Your note of yesterday directed to Major Jackson has just been referred to me by him for action. In reply I would state that if you bring the 40 Indians referred to to Major Jackson's camp at the mouth of Lost River, they will be protected to the Yainax Agency.
    In regard to Capt. Jack and his band, I would say that if those men who committed the murders after the fight are surrendered, they will all be received and protected. What occurred during the fight I consider warfare, and they will not be held responsible. But not so do I regard the action of those who murdered peaceable citizens after the fight was over. They must be brought to justice. I am, however, glad to find there are citizens in that country willing to assist and rightly advise such Indians as are willing to surrender and obey the orders of the government.
    The request regarding the Indians you wish to keep is acceded to so far as I am
concerned.  I understand Mr. Dyer, Indian Agent, has left for Linkville, and perhaps your section of country, and, of course, whatever he does will be acquiesced in by the military; but I hope he will also insist that the murderers shall be surrendered. I wish you would inform Capt. Jack that he need not expect no mercy if he does not surrender now, as there are troops on their way to his country, and more coming.
I am, gentlemen, very respectfully,
        Major 1st Cavalry, Commanding.
    To McCONNELL & McMANUS:  Telegraph received. Government will be responsible for the expense attending the transportation and protection of the Indians referred to.
    Major General, Commanding.
    We fail to perceive in the above document any "authority" from General Canby to Colver to do anything. Furthermore, several of the volunteers who found Colver with the Hot Creek Indians at Whittle's ferry state that the first thing he did after he received the "credentials" was to stampede at midnight with those Indians, every able-bodied buck among them joining the hostiles, They also state that even Mr. Colver, after he disappeared, was missing so long that fears were entertained that he had also united his fortunes with those of Capt. Jack. If these statements are true, we fail to perceive any "authority" in the "credentials" for such action.
    Query--Major Green is represented in the above as replying to a request on the part of Colver to "keep" certain Indians; what Indians were those, and what did Mr. Colver desire to do with them? Probably "thereby hangeth a tale."
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 18, 1873, page 3

    MODOC LECTURE.--Sam. Colver, Esq., lectured at the courthouse in this city on Tuesday night; also, at Good Templars' Hall, on same evening. Sam made one of his characteristic speeches, we learn, no doubt making the hair fly.
Albany Register, January 24, 1873, page 2

    The Bulletin says Sam Colver's proposed lecture in that city on "The Rise, Progress and Incidents of the Modoc War, in Poetry and Prose," etc., did not come off, there being but two persons present beside the Bulletin's reporter.
"Latest News," Albany Register, January 24, 1873, page 2

    Sam Colver smiled upon us Wednesday morning. He left for the south on the noon train.
"Personal," Albany Register, January 24, 1873, page 7

The Doings of Sam, Ye Lecturer.
    Sam. Colver, the Modoc Lecturer, is lecturing in the towns of the Willamette Valley, with poor success.—Jacksonville Times.
    No, not lecturing much to speak of. When he was announced to lecture at
Salem, our reporter went to the court house, at the hour designated, and found Sam in the midst of an animated colloquial discussion with a couple of men who knew but little more than he did, on some medical or metaphysical question. Sam wouldn't lecture to two men and one local reporter, so the lights were soon put out and Sam went to bed. He then went to Portland where he advertised extensively for a lecture and managed to get some of his execrable "poetry" into the papers. But he didn't lecture at Portland. Nobody went to hear him but the "three stone heads" who do the reporting for the Portland dailies. Sam's next strategic movement was to return to Salem, where he found an irresponsible person in the Statesman office with whom he settled for two months' subscription arrearage (he owed six), and then he took the next train for the south, leaving an unsettled bill for advertising amounting to $2 50. He may be lecturing on the Modoc war but he didn't pay us his advertising bill. If he don't do it we shall feel justified in mentioning him as a bilk.--Salem Statesman.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 25, 1873, page 3

    Sam. Colver is meeting with immense success in the Willamette. He had a house of three at Salem, and two at Portland!
    Sam. Colver has been dubbed with another new and elegant title: "The most unmitigated ass in America since George Francis Train went to jail" is the way they put it now.
"Itemlets," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 25, 1873, page 4

    WHO IS IT?--A northern poet begins his lay with, "Now tune your lyres, ye conquering heroes!" having reference to the Modoc "Lo's." Who can the poet mean? Sam Colver is the only instrument of that name we have heard of being out of tune; and he was far out of danger, also.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 1, 1873, page 2

    DIDN'T SUCCEED.--After his fiasco in this place Sam Colver started on a lecturing pilgrimage northward, with the avowed intention of "firing ye Webfoot heart" with the fervor of his eloquence. But judging from the comments and compliments passed upon him by the papers along his line of pilgrimage, he found that heart about as hard to ignite as the native fir of that soggy land. His efforts invoked such epithets as "bilk," "shyster," "unmitigated ass," and even down to "Hon.," as one of the papers dubbed him in the following notice of his arrival in that city;
    "PERSONAL.--Hon. Sam'l. Colver is in this city, and will probably lecture on the Modoc War, at the courthouse on Saturday evening."
    Probably was apparently well put in, as we have not heard of him since.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 1, 1873, page 3

    The Plaindealer calls Sam. Colver the "gentle Modoc."
"Pacific Coasters," State Rights Democrat, Albany, Oregon, February 14, 1873, page 3

    That gentle Modoc, Sam. Colver, had posters distributed about Roseburg the other day announcing that he would deliver a lecture on Saturday night, and a temperance lecture on Sunday evening, if desired. The Roseburgers didn't desire worth a cent, and consequently the lectures were a fizzle.
"Itemlets," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 15, 1873, page 3

    Here we have it: The Salem Statesman says that if the General in command against the Modocs wants a "dead sure thing" on the Indians, we suggest that he send Sam. Colver out to the lava beds and let him inveigle them into listening to his lectures, or one of his poems. If they would fight after that, then they are no gentlemen.
"Indian War Notes," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 15, 1873, page 2

    Sam Colver, the Modoc, wants to know, "If it costs the government $80,000 to teach one Indian to say G-d d--n, how much will it cost to teach a whole tribe the Lord's prayer?" Well, if they're generally as ignorant as Sam Colver, the government better give up the conundrum in hopeless disgust.
"Home and Abroad," State Rights Democrat, Albany, Oregon, March 14, 1873, page 4

    PHOENIX GRANGE.--D. S. R. Buick, D.D.W.M., on Thursday, Jan. 29th organized a Grange, with 28 charter members, at Phoenix, to be known as Phoenix Grange. The following officers were elected and installed for the ensuing year: John S. Herrin, W.M.; Samuel Furry, O.; Samuel Colver, L.; J. G. Van Dyke, C.; S. C. Taylor, t.; W. F. Herrin, Sec.; John Coleman, G.K.; Mrs. M. E. Gore, C.; Mrs. S. C. Taylor, P.; Miss A. E. Shideler, F.; Miss Mary A. Herrin, L.A.S.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 7, 1874, page 3

    LODGE REORGANIZED.--G.W.C.T.* W. R. Dunbar on the evening of 23rd inst. reorganized Eden Lodge No. 197, at Phoenix, Jackson County. The following are the officers for the present term. Harry Oatman, W.C.T.; Bell Rose, R.H.S.; Mollie Barker, L.H.S.; Mary Colver, W.V.T.; Loui Colver, W.S.; Mary E. Brittan, W.A.S.; J. M. Hoxie, W.F.S.; Sarah Baker, T.; E. E. Gore, W.C.; Henry Taylor, W.M.; Green Barker, W.D.M.; Dan Brittan, W.I.G.; S. Colver, W.O.G.; L. A. Rose, P.W.C.T. Seven new members were added to the roll in this lodge. J. M. Hoxie was appointed L.D. and Samuel Colver a District Deputy for Jackson and Josephine counties.
Willamette Farmer, Salem, December 4, 1874, page 11  *Grand Worthy Chief Templar of the temperance lodge International Organization of Good Templars (IOGT).

    OATMAN-DOLLARHIDE--At the residence of M. A. Williams, in this county, Dec. 31, 1874, by Rev. M. A. Williams, Harvey Oatman and Miss Priscilla Dollarhide.
DOLLARHIDE--At the residence of M. A. Williams, in this county, Dec. 31, 1874, by Rev. M. A. Williams, Louis Colver and Miss Jemima Dollarhide.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 8, 1875, page 3

    HORSES STOLEN.--Samuel Colver informs us that he learns that he, among others, a short time ago has lost some head of horses in Lake County by being stolen. Col. J. N. T. Miller, of this place, is also reported as one of the losers. An organized band of horse thieves seems to infest that section, as animals, on various other occasions, have been missed and never recovered. Those depredations have become so frequent that the people, who suspected little wrong at first, are becoming aroused, and the thieves will suffer detection ere long.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 2, 1875, page 3

    Samuel Colver, of this county, and Nelson Stephenson, of Lake, are members of the Executive Committee of the state Temperance Alliance.
"Local Brevities," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 26, 1875, page 3

    STOCKHOLDERS MEETING.--The first regular meeting of the stockholders of the Patrons of Husbandry Mill Company was held, by mutual consent, for the election of a board of directors and the transaction of other business, at Jacksonville Grange Hall on Monday, May 17, 1875, at 1 o'clock p.m. D. S. K. Buick was elected chairman, and W. J. Plymale and J. M. Hoxie secretaries. The following named persons were elected directors for the ensuing year: Jacob Ish, F. M. Plymale, J. S. Herrin, Sam. Colver and J. E. Ross. Meeting adjourned subject o call of directors.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 21, 1875, page 3

    GRAND BALL.--A rare opportunity is offered to those who wish to enjoy the holidays. Mr. Dan. Lavenburg will give a grand ball at the Colver Hall, in Phoenix, on Christmas night. A general invitation is extended to all.
Ashland Tidings, December 2, 1876, page 3

    TAKEN BELOW.--Solon [sic] Colver, of Phoenix, was last week examined before Judge Day by Dr. Covert and adjudged insane. He was taken to East Portland on Sunday last by E. D. Foudray, Esq.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 3, 1877, page 3

    GREENBACK MEETING.--We are requested to announce that the citizens of this section will meet at Ashland, on Saturday the 21st inst., to consider the present state of the national finance and to discuss the greenback question particularly. We understand that Samuel Colver is under promise to address the meeting.
Ashland Tidings, July 13, 1877, page 3

    Uncle Samuel Colver made us a pleasant call on Tuesday last. He was en route to Lake in much of a hurry, having heard that several of his horses had been stolen form Mr. Glean's ranch near Merganser. Mr. Colver[,who] was among the first settlers of Rogue River Valley, has taken no little part in the development of Southern Oregon, and we had hoped to hear from him at the Pioneer Reunion.
Ashland Tidings, September 14, 1877, page 3

    Samuel Colver, of Phoenix, is enclosing his place with a new fence and making other improvements.
"Brief Mention," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 22, 1878, page 3

    SUCH sturdy Greenbackers as Giles Wells, Sam Colver and others, who are such from principle, are unalterably against any coalition with the Republicans, and will firmly oppose such action throughout the campaign. We learn that Mr. Colver proposes to be at the mass meeting tomorrow.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 3, 1878, page 3

    This village is growing continually. "Uncle Sam" Colver has platted out about 20 acres more in lots lately, and is constantly selling them, notwithstanding he has raised the price.
    The next prize spelling bee is to take place at Colver's Hall on the evening of the 8th prox. Ten cents will be collected at the door, which money will go to purchase five prizes to be presented to the best spellers by a committee chosen by the contestants before spelling commences. All are invited to attend and compete. Miss Lizzie Crickett and Miss Bell were the best spellers at the previous bee.
"Phoenix Items," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 3, 1879, page 3

    TEMPERANCE LECTURE.--Samuel Colver, of Phoenix, will deliver a lecture on temperance at the Baptist church in Manzanita precinct next Saturday.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 7, 1879, page 3

    Samuel Colver, of Phoenix, is lecturing in the cause of temperance, with considerable success. He claims 300 accessions in the past few weeks.
"Brief Reference," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 28, 1879, page 3

    The question for discussion on next Saturday evening, the 29th inst., at Colver's Hall is: "Resolved that the use of modern machinery is detrimental to the interests of the laboring classes." Affirmative--Sherman, Birkhead, Clayton, Crider and Dunlap. Negative--Hocket, Colver, Brawley, Tweed and Williamson. A general invitation is extended.
"Phoenix Items," Ashland Tidings, March 28, 1879, page 3

    S. Colver has given the United Brethren Church Association of Phoenix a site for a church and parsonage, which will be built as soon as the necessary funds can be raised.
"Brief Reference," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 11, 1879, page 3

    Uncle Sam Colver, with his usual energy in all things, is grubbing out his land in Bear Creek bottom. He believes in the maxim that "he who causes two spears of grass to grow where only one grew before is a benefactor of his race."
"Phoenix Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 21, 1879, page 3

    The people at Phoenix have taken Mrs. Duniway's side of the trouble in Southern Oregon, as have also the better portion of those in Jacksonville. Mr. Samuel Colver, in a letter from Phoenix to the Ashland Tidings, gave a good account of her lectures in this place, and after fitly condemning the fact that "Mrs. Duniway was mobbed in Jacksonville by a crowd of bearded and beardless hoodlums," furnished that journal with the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted by a rising vote at the conclusion of Mrs. Duniway's lecture on "The Temperance Problem":
    WHEREAS, Liberty of speech and of the press is guaranteed to all by the Constitution, parties being rightly held amenable to the courts for any abuse of the same; and all citizens should guard these rights with jealous care; and,
    WHEREAS, The action of the rabble of Jacksonville toward Mrs. Duniway, on the evening of Saturday, July 12th, deserves the severest condemnation of the good people in all civilized communities; therefore, be it
    Resolved, That we, as citizens of Jackson County, are unwilling to bear the justly deserved odium of the hoodlums of Jacksonville, incited to acts of violence against a woman by a set of soulless ingrates, who by their cowardly acts disgrace the mothers who bore them.
    Resolved, That such acts are a burning shame upon any community, and deserve the universal execration of all lovers of virtue and liberty.
    It is encouraging indeed to find good and true friends in the midst of such
opposition as was met in Southern Oregon.
"And ever right comes uppermost,
And ever is justice done."
New Northwest, Portland, July 24, 1879, page 3

Phoenix, July 18, 1879.               
Dear readers of the New Northwest:
    The last jottings we remember of chronicling for your perusal come back to us at this writing accompanied by a vision of eggs and effigies. Taking up the thread of the narrative where we that evening dropped it, we begin again the pleasant task of descriptive correspondence, an occupation rendered all the more enjoyable because of the exciting facts we have in store for your perusal.
    Sunday morning, the 13th inst., dawned brightly, and discovered a quiet atmosphere and equally quiet street in Jacksonville, the latter disfigured by the remains of the picture of George Washington in woman's garb, which had been burned in front of Mrs. Vining's hotel the night before as a feeble effigy of our humble self.
    At nine o'clock one of friend Plymale's buggies came for us, and a span of spirited horses, held well in hand by Master Willie Plymale, carried us over the beautiful country to Manzanita, eight miles distant from the scene of the riot, and here we met a splendid audience in the pleasant church among the spreading oaks, and for over two hours the good people listened with the deepest interest to the gospel of human liberty.
    In this neighborhood there are some of the handsomest and thriftiest farms we have ever seen, even in this preeminently beautiful country. The families of General Ross, Mr. Wrisley, Mr. Constant and Mrs. Merriman are among the wealthiest landowners whose acquaintance we have made, their elegant farms being well stocked, containing many acres of well-tilled soil, and large and exceedingly thrifty orchards.
    After a bountiful dinner and an hour's rest at good Mrs. Merriman's, Mr. James Curry and family, accompanied by Hon. Sam. Colver, drove by in a carriage and took us over to "Sticky"--another euphonious title--to the beautifully located farm of the former gentleman, where we tarried for the night, Uncle Sam departing for Phoenix on horseback to arouse the people there, as we had done at Manzanita, by giving an account of the mob in Jacksonville, and reading the letter in the New Northwest that had fired the heart of the editor of the Sentinel until he had gone stark crazy. In our simplicity of soul we had imagined that he would take our innocent satire on his lack of "brains" as a capital joke, but the sequel proved that we had hit him harder than he could bear. Before we had made him crazy by a joke, we had not dreamed that he was witless enough to be brained by a lady's pencil, but the deed is done, and we're awful sorry! (This is said to let our irate brother down easy. We don't mean a word of it, only as a joke.) The pretext that we have "slandered Judge Prim's family" is just as false as everything else he has tried to say about our uttered sentiments since our work in Jackson County began. We only exonerated and vindicated an injured woman, though it doubtless caused her untold agony for the moment, but her agony is intensified a thousandfold by the thugs of Jacksonville, who, in seeking to justify her husband in a deed which it is the sheerest nonsense to say had been forgotten, continually irritated the wound that otherwise would heal without further pain. We did but an act of justice, and were it to do over again, we would do no less. But it does go awful hard with man's rights when the time comes for its long abuse of usurped absolute power to receive its death blow. Indeed, it is kicking around awfully in its agonies, but its die is cast.
    On Monday evening, after we had spent a quiet day in the happy home of Mrs. Curry, at Sticky, we all went in their carriage over to Phoenix, where, after a rousing meeting (of which account is given in the Ashland Tidings, and notice elsewhere in the columns of the People's Paper), we spent the night in the home of the Colvers, whose hearts are as big as their house, and that's saying a good deal for both house and hearts.
    On Tuesday, accompanied by "Uncle Sam," the indomitable and irrepressible champion of liberty, whom all knaves are afraid of, we went on to Ashland, our way leading through a fertile valley of yet more radiant loveliness than any we had seen hitherto. The landscapes, that are in many places wild to intense ruggedness, now soften into billowy undulations, and, as we approach very near the beautiful city of peace, the verdant vale narrows into a cove-like "cuddy," and on the hills and at their feet the little city nestles, like a brooding dove in her content and loveliness. Flower gardens and fruit trees, handsome homes and sloping lawns abound, and clear, trickling water courses through pebbled ditches, with a merry, rippling melody, suggestive of continued human happiness.
    The man's rights element of Jacksonville had sent out prominent emissaries to forestall our mission, and so the Methodist Church, which had been promised for the lectures, was not only closed against us, but a religious (?) meeting was begun in it, for the purpose of protecting the pastor's idea of God from the logic of the women. The zealous trustees, who volunteered to stand between Jehovah and danger, next tried to prevail upon Mr. W. Myer (whose honored father, now in the Willamette Valley on business, had written him to place the Academy at our service, if we should need it) to disobey both father and mother by refusing us opportunity for a hearing. But the brave young gentleman proved incorruptible, and the Academy bell rang on time, keeping almost everybody away from the church, and bringing out a very large audience, which increased every evening, notwithstanding the feeble efforts to oppose our mission by the misguided brethren, of whom we could truly say, in the language of humanity's great Exemplar, "Father, forgive them; they know not what they do."
    The Ashland House, where we found comfortable accommodations and excellent food, is kept by Mr. and Mrs. Houck, who made our sojourn at their hotel decidedly pleasant. The well-known mercantile firm of McCall & Baum have a commodious and handsome brick store, where they do an immense business, their trade ranging from darning needles to Haines' harvesters, and from chewing gum to tons after tons of staple dry goods and groceries. We had not time to visit the woolen mills, though the neat, painted buildings looked invitingly at us from their location under the hill, but we called at the office of the "Ashland grist mills," which were established here in '54, and which have grown from a small beginning to a mammoth enterprise. There are a number of small dry goods and grocery stores, a drug store, a hardware emporium, a milliner's store, a splendid saddlery and harness shop (kept by Mr. Klum), a jeweler's corner, a boot and shoe shop, etc., but not a single groggery or house of ill repute. The contrast between the reception we have met from the prominent gentlemen of Ashland, as compared to that accorded to us by the ringleading, whiskey-pandering element in Jacksonville, that thinks it owns the city, is just what we might expect from the different moral elements of the two places. Jacksonville is ruled by lies and rum, Ashland by truth and soberness. The Ashland Tidings is a very creditable weekly paper, of which Mr. Leeds is the present editor. There is a large liberal element both here and at Phoenix, and the morals of these towns speak significantly well in favor of free religion. If we wanted to settle in an inland town, we know of none where there are greater promises for the future than in Ashland. The decent citizens of Jacksonville are anxious to get away from their modern Sodom and settle here, where they can send their children to school without fear of their being decoyed into wickedness by a riot-producing mob.
    Our last lecture was finished in Ashland, and, amid the enthusiastic goodbyes of scores of excellent Christian ladies, we took our departure this (Friday) morning for Phoenix, where we have spent the day at dear Mrs. Colver's in needed rest, and are now ready to take our departure for the city of the Philistines, where we are appointed to speak tonight, and thereby beard the Jacksonville mob in its den. You shall hear more anon.
The New Northwest, Portland, July 24, 1879, page 2

    Sam'l. Colver and wife have gone to Lake County, where Mr. C. will look after his band of horses, which are on the range near Lost River.
"Local Brevities," Ashland Tidings, August 1, 1879, page 3

    Our mechanic, J. H. Berry, has just completed a large barn for Henry Stancliff, and is building another for Uncle Sam Colver.
"Letter from Phoenix," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, December 5, 1879, page 3

    C. B. Watson, E. K. Anderson and Sam Colver aired the bloody shirt at Phoenix last Saturday afternoon, advancing the usual Republican arguments of the campaign. They were followed by J. C. Birkhead, on behalf of the Democracy, who made some good points at the expense of his opponents.
"Brief Reference," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 5, 1880, page 3

    Saml. Colver to Phoenix School Board, lot in Phoenix. Consideration, $1.
"Real Estate Transactions," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 6, 1880, page 3

    PHOENIX GARFIELD CLUB.--The citizens of Eden precinct met at Lavenburg's hall in Phoenix Saturday, October 9th, and organized a Garfield & Arthur Club with seventy members. The officers are: Samuel Colver, president; E. K. Anderson and D. W. Gilbert, vice presidents; W. Beeson and Fitz Cooper, secretaries; A. P. Talent, treasurer. As executive committee the president appointed E. K. Anderson and Abram Bish. Col. Geo. B. Curry, Republican candidate for presidential elector, was present, and upon invitation addressed the club in an able and interesting manner for half an hour. He was followed by Samuel Colver, E. K. Anderson, and others. On motion, the club adjourned to meet on Thursday evening, Oct. 14th, at 7 o'clock.
S. COLVER, Pres.
Ashland Tidings, October 15, 1880, page 3

    In his political speech before the Garfield and Arthur Club of Ashland last Tuesday evening Samuel Colver reviewed the history of the slavery struggle in the United States, and dwelt particularly upon the effect which that institution has had upon the habits of thought and the character of the people among whom it existed and who fought in its defense. He stated that he had been in the South during the period of anti-slavery agitation and had experienced the intolerance which is the most noticeable feature of southern politics. The same spirit, he said, exists today as before the war, and if the leaders of the southern confederacy cannot control the Union entirely they cry that they are persecuted by the Republican Party. Formerly they were entitled to representation in Congress for one-fifth [sic] of the number of human chattels they possessed; now they count the whole number in making up the representation, while the freedmen have practically no more voice in the government than they had when they were slaves. The state rights doctrines which the controlling portion of the Democratic Party holds today allow of the practical nullification of even the amendments of the Constitution of the United States. In the states of Mississippi and Louisiana the state laws permit Negroes to be sold out [i.e., rented] to pay fines imposed for minor offenses at such rates as would compel one to work for two or three years to pay a fine of ten dollars. The Democratic Party claims to be the poor man's party, but its record is one of opposition to nearly every measure of legislation calculated to elevate the condition of the laboring classes. He had heard that a Democratic speaker in Ashland had said that the bill giving Oregon the benefits of the land donation act was passed under a Democratic administration. History didn't agree with the speaker. It was passed under Fillmore, and the one or two Democrats who advocated the measure stood out in bold and honorable contrast to their party.
Ashland Tidings, October 22, 1880, page 2

    A Republican meeting will be held at Eagle Point on Saturday, Oct. 30th, at 2 o'clock p.m., to be addressed by Samuel Colver and others.
"Local Brevities," Ashland Tidings, October 22, 1880, page 3

    GARFIELD CLUB MEETING.--There was a good turnout at the meeting of the Garfield and Arthur Club last Tuesday evening in McCall & Baum's hall. There was music by the glee club, and the speech was by Samuel Colver, of Phoenix, who held the attention of the audience for over two hours. Mr. Colver is a fearless, uncompromising speaker, and does not hesitate in the least to give expression to his views, whatever they may be, and his manner is calculated to stir up both the friends and enemies of his cause--nothing "soothing" about him.
Ashland Tidings,
October 22, 1880, page 3

    Samuel Colver, who returned from Lake County a few days since, informs us that epizootic recently killed quite a number of horses in that section. He lost fifteen or twenty himself.
"Brief Reference," Democratic Times, August 19, 1881, page 3

    S. Colver and son of Phoenix have sold about $5,000 worth of horses to parties from California and have gone to Lake County to deliver them.
"Jackson County," Corvallis Gazette, October 6, 1882, page 3

    Mr. Saml. Colver offers the railroad company ten acres of ground and a water right near Phoenix for depot purposes.
"State News," Willamette Farmer, Salem, October 20, 1882, page 4

    RIGHT OF WAY.--The following parties have sold a right of way to the railroad company for the considerations mentioned since our last report: L. Colver, $1; M. Briggs, $25; J. W. Bybee, $1.
"Real Estate Transactions," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 15, 1883, page 4

    That same year [1851] Samuel Colver and family settled on the Chichester place; Lemuel Bills where the Leasure claim now is, Hiram Colver near to his brother and the Breeding family not far from College Hill.
Albert G. Walling, Illustrated History of Lane County, Oregon, 1884, page 391

    LOUIE COLVER: was accidentally shot in Feb. 1884, at Phoenix, his home; was a farmer; was born in Union County, Ohio, March 28, 1847; came to state in 1850, to county in 1852; married Dec, 31, 1875 to Miss Minnie Dollarhide. Children Lita and Loyd.

A. G. Walling, History of Southern Oregon, 1884, page 502

    SAMUEL COLVER: lives at Phoenix; is a farmer and stock grower; was born in Union County, Ohio, Sep. 10, 1815; came to state in 1850, to county in 1851; married Nov. 1845 to Huldah Callender, born in Madison County, Ohio, 1823. Children Luellyn and Isabell.

A. G. Walling, History of Southern Oregon, 1884, page 502

    The land at Phoenix on which the depot grounds and town lots have been surveyed belonged to Messrs. Samuel and Louis Colver, who have given the railroad company every alternate block, as did the proprietors of the tract at Medford. Thirty-six blocks have been laid out at Phoenix, we believe.
"Brevities," Ashland Tidings, January 4, 1884, page 3

    L. Colver is offering a number of desirable lots in the railroad addition to Phoenix for sale at reasonable figures. That place has a promising future and there will no doubt soon be a ready demand for these lots.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 7, 1884, page 3

Loui Colver Killed.
    This community was shocked last Sunday by the announcement that P. W. Olwell had killed Loui Colver at Phoenix the night before, mistaking the latter for a burglar. The following statement by Dr. George Kahler of Phoenix is how it occurred, and we publish it as furnished: In consideration of the fact that many and incorrect rumors are in circulation relative to the death of Loui Colver of our village, I thought a true statement of the facts in the case would be acceptable to the public. About midnight of the 8th inst., I was awakened by screams of a neighbor woman, and on hastily going to the door she said someone was trying to get in her house. I ran to her assistance and found on opening her front door someone on the porch, and ordered him to leave. He did not move off and I shut the door and inquired of the lady if she had a pistol in the house. She said no, and just at that moment two window panes were broken with a crash and the lady commenced to scream again. I sprang to the window, and as no one tried to enter I again opened the door and looked out, when the man had disappeared. In a few moments Loui Colver and his man came down the walk with a lantern, having been aroused by the screams, and said he had seen a man run across the road. They went across to Mr. Olwell's plank fence and looked over and around but could not see anyone, came back across the road and we talked a moment or two when we heard screams from Mr. Olwell's house. As I was still in my bare feet I ran up to my house to get my boots on and L. Colver and his man ran toward Mr. Olwell's, and at this moment we heard shots being fired at Mr. Olwell's. I hurried over and when I reached Olwell's gate I found Loui lying there, and he says to me Mr. Olwell has shot me. I then called to Olwell in a loud voice, speaking his name, you have shot Loui Colver. He answered I can't help it, someone has shot me. I then went up to the window, seeing him standing inside with the gun in his hand, and asked him if he were really shot. He answered no, but I was shot at. Then Mr. Lowe and I carried Loui home and when we entered the hall we found a man lying on the floor of the hall apparently asleep, and on examination found him to be drunk. We took him in, put him in care of the constable, who kept him till next day, but we could not find anything to base a charge on, so turned him loose. Loui was shot through the thigh with two balls, one entering just in the track of the femoral artery and immediately below Poupart's ligament and the other about three inches below. The following is Mr. Olwell's statement of what occurred in his house as near as he could tell: Mrs. Olwell was awakened by hearing one of the outside doors opened, and listening intently heard someone tinkering at the lock of the inside door, when she whispered to Mr. Olwell that someone was trying to get in the room. He heard the same sound and as noiselessly as possible got his shotgun and moved to the door and listened, heard a picking at the lock, and with his gun cocked and in his right hand, suddenly opened the door when a pistol was fired which caused him to recoil, at the same time discharging his gun and closing the door. He felt stunned and cried out to his wife that he was shot, and for her to fetch him the rifle, which she did. He then turned and saw a glimmer of light at the front of the house, and hearing voices there, thought there were accomplices trying to get in at that part of the house, and saw through the window what he took to be burglars and fired on them with what awful effect we know. Loui died about 2 o'clock the following afternoon, very suddenly and unexpectedly. The sad affair has cast a gloom over the whole community, not only on account of the affliction of the bereaved family but also for Mr. Olwell and family, who are nearly distracted about it.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 15, 1884, page 3  The resulting Supreme Court case, with details of Colver's death, is transcribed here.

    Samuel Colver of Phoenix delivered a lecture here last night in favor of women's suffrage. Rev. McLain was expected to be here to reply to him but for some reason he failed to make his appearance.
"Linkville Items," Democratic Times, April 18, 1884, page 3

    Saml. B. Colver has taken the stump for the National Prohibition ticket, making his first speech Wednesday evening at Medford. Last night he spoke at Grants Pass, whence he was going northward.
"Brevities," Ashland Tidings, October 10, 1884, page 3

    Samuel Colver of Phoenix is stumping Oregon in the interest of the Prohibition Party as one of the electors on that ticket.
"Local Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 25, 1884, page 3

    BEEN HEARD FROM.--Mr. Colver, Prohibition Elector for St. John, deputy Democrat, and seemingly a very honest gentleman, earnest in his convictions, addressed the people at the courthouse last night. It will be remembered that Mr. Colver failed to meet a former engagement in this city for the very good reason that he was seriously kicked by a bull, which came near winding up his career in sadness. His speech was devoted to abusing the old parties and burlesquing any and all things which suited his fancy to attack. He got so loud and vulgar on the street corner that the marshal found it necessary to arrest him. He put up for his appearance [i.e., posted bail] and will settle with the authorities this morning for his misconduct. It would occur to us that if the friends of temperance are wise they will bridle this fellow and quit sending out cranks to represent their cause.--Eugene City Register.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 25, 1884, page 3

The Prohibition Ticket.
    The candidates for presidential electors on the Prohibition or St. John and Daniel ticket are J. G. Maddock, G. W. Dimick and Samuel Colver.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 31, 1884, page 3

    JELLY FACTORY.--Samuel Colver is the general agent for the Phoenix Jelly Factory and has already established quite a trade for this new industry. We have sampled it and can recommend it as being equal to the best made by the most experienced housewife.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 6, 1884, page 3

A Grand Jubilee.
    The Democratic celebration at Jacksonville on Friday of last week was the grandest gathering ever held in Southern Oregon. Your reporter joined the excursionists that left this place on Thursday's train, and a jolly crowd was aboard. At Myrtle Creek a delegation got aboard and at way stations all along the line additions were made. The ride was an all-night one and kept up as a continual round of pleasure. A notable incident was the Multnomah delegation, consisting of one good Republican, Oscar Kilbourn, who bore the brunt of Democratic jokes with great good humor. At Medford hacks were furnished to take the delegations to Jacksonville. This is a bracing ride of some six miles. At Jacksonville at the dawn of day the clans began to gather from all sections. The town was beautifully decorated. Evergreen trees, wreaths and mottoes on every hand, while the large banner used at the Portland celebration was conspicuously displayed; smaller ones were too numerous to mention. At night the illumination was grand, all the business places vying with each other to excel, while Jacksonville's beautiful residences bore a gorgeous appearance. The torchlight procession with 350 torches and numerous transparencies formed in line and made a circuitous route of the city, returning to the grandstand where enthusiastic speeches were made by Col. Bowditch, Wm. Colvig, S. F. Floed, Sam Colver, Col. Ross and others, Judge Prim being president of the day. Saturday and Sunday the excursionists were royally entertained, and Sunday evening amidst a volley of hearty cheers we turned our faces homeward, having enjoyed ourselves hugely, and trusting that on some future occasion the good people of Jackson County may join us here in Roseburg in painting the town red on equally as glorious a victory.
Douglas Independent, Roseburg, December 6, 1884, page 4

Meeting of Prohibition Club.
    The first public meeting of the Ashland Prohibition Club since its organization was held at Myer's hall Wednesday evening, and a good audience was present. Rev. M. G. Royal was announced as the chief speaker of the evening, and made a straight prohibition speech, asserting his belief that prohibition is the paramount question before the people, and that its only solution is through independent political action. Mr. Royal was followed by Samuel Colver, of Phoenix, who made one of his characteristic speeches, pungent and vigorous, distributing his heavy hits impartially upon all parties and all classes, except the prohibitionists. J. E. Houston, president of the club, also made a brief and pointed speech. The choir furnished choice music.
Ashland Tidings, February 26, 1886, page 3

    The Prohibition State Central Committee includes the following gentlemen: Jackson, J. E. Houston, Ashland; Josephine, Will C. King, Grants Pass; Klamath, Sam Colver, Plevna; Lake, J. Q. Willits, Paisley.
"Local Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 27, 1886, page 3

    AFFIRMED.--In the case of Colver and Dollarhide vs. P. W. Olwell action for damages on account of the killing of Lewis Colver some time since by Mr. Olwell the decision of lower court has been affirmed by the Supreme Court thus ending the matter in the courts and no damages will have to be paid.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 26, 1886, page 3

    Saml. Colver drove a small band of horses in from his ranch near Plevna to Phoenix last Saturday.
"Brevities," Ashland Tidings, July 2, 1886, page 3

ROSE-COLVER--In Medford precinct, July 18th, by Rev. M. A. Williams, L. A. Rose and Miss Jemima Colver.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 31, 1886, page 2

    Saml. Colver drove in a small band of cattle from Klamath County this week, to winter them in this valley.
"Brevities," Ashland Tidings, October 8, 1886, page 3

    S. Colver of Phoenix has returned from Klamath County.
"Personal Mention," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 2, 1887, page 4

    Meetings of an interesting nature are being held regularly at the U.M.L. hall at Talent. S. Colver recently delivered an address on the effect of the national banking system on the laboring classes there last week.
"Local Notes," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 16, 1887, page 3

    Samuel Colver, the prohibitionist, delivered a lecture at Linkville one evening last week to a fair audience. His effort did not prove popular, even among temperance people, as he is altogether too radical in his views and never makes any converts. The American people may be coaxed, but they can never be driven.
"Klamath County Items," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 14, 1887, page 2

    S. Colver, who recently purchased O. T. Brown's place near Plevna, contemplates the erection of a flouring mill in the near future.

"Klamath County Items," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, November 18, 1887, page 2

    Sam Colver of Phoenix is making a number of investments for eastern parties and has already purchased several pieces of property.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, November 25, 1887, page 3

Probably Insane.
    Samuel Colver, a wealthy and well-known farmer of Jackson County, who has been stopping at the Holton House for several days past, is considered insane. He has been going around trying to place immense loans, imagining that he has millions to loan. He pawned a valuable watch yesterday for $5, and conducted himself generally in such a manner that Chief of Police Parrish detailed a man to look after him and see that he was not taken advantage of by anyone. Mr. Colver is over 70 years old, but is a stout, hale man of his years. He stumped the state for St. John and took a prominent part in the late Prohibition movement. He also subscribed a large amount of the stock of the paper the prohibitionists talked of starting here. It was proposed yesterday to have him examined before the county court as to his sanity, but this was not done. Probably his friends will look after him when they hear of his condition.--Oregonian, November 30th.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, December 2, 1887, page 3

Committed to the Asylum.
    The friends of Samuel Colver, of this county, will learn with regret that it has been necessary to commit him to the state asylum for treatment and care. For a month or more past he has acted in such a manner as to convince people here who came in contact with him that his mind was unbalanced. His special mania appears to be the purchase of real estate, and he attempted to buy a large number of farms near Phoenix before it was generally seen that he was subject to hallucinations. His wife and other relatives started on a trip east two or three weeks ago, and he was to follow them, but only went as far as Portland, where his dementia became so unmistakable that he was taken to T. W. Davenport's place near Silverton, Marion County, in the hope that quiet and rest would relieve his troubles. He continued to grow worse, however, and was taken to Salem for examination, and committed to the asylum. He was given to understand that his examination was a conference of real estate owners who would sell their property, and he sustained the principal part of the conversation during the examination. Among other things, it appeared that he had bought all of East Portland and Mount Tabor, owned all the water rights of Oregon, had $2,800,000,000 to invest in real estate.
    It is hoped that the treatment at the asylum will entirely restore his reason.

Ashland Tidings, December 9, 1887, page 3

Samuel Colver, of Jackson County, Placed in the Asylum--His Vagaries.

    Saturday afternoon, Deputy Croisan was summoned to Silverton to take in custody Samuel Colver, the Jackson County farmer who for a week or more attracted a good deal of attention in and about Portland by his vagaries on prohibition and real estate. Colver was brought up from Portland to Silverton several days since by Homer Davenport, son of T. W. Davenport, a distant relative. Mr. Davenport thought that a few days' rest and quiet would restore his mental equilibrium, but the experiment failed, and it was finally deemed necessary to commit him to the asylum. Colver was brought to Salem, and examined by Drs. Cusick and Wm. Smith, and before Judge Shaw and District Attorney Belt.
    Colver had been inveigled to this city by the statements on the part of his attendants that he would meet several real estate agents who had property to sell. He therefore imagined that his examination was a conference of real estate owners, and desired that he be shown all the purchasable land in the county. He aired his hallucinations before his auditors, and sustained the principal part of the conversation during the examination. Among other things, it appeared that he had bought all of East Portland and Mount Tabor; owned all the water rights of Oregon; had $2,800,000,000 to invest in real estate; was the best mathematician in the world, excepting young Davenport, who, he said, could see better than he; could outrun a locomotive for ten miles, and was the physical equal of any man in Oregon; had carried Eastern Oregon for prohibition, all but one precinct, and had settled the prohibition question forever, and prohibited all saloons and drunken railroad conductors from Oregon during the same period. The old gentleman was very proud of his physical strength, and declared his skin was so tough it couldn't be pinched. "Why," he said, "when a horse kicks me he don't hurt me; but it often killed the horse," he added, laughing.
    Colver is a highly respected resident of Phoenix, Jackson County. During the last campaign he stumped Eastern Oregon for prohibition. At the late prohibition convention in Portland, he subscribed $12,000 toward starting a prohibition paper. The $20,000 stock of the proposed sheet has dwindled just that amount. On his way from Silverton he was shown the asylum, and told it was a summer resort. He was taken out last night to purchase it, and he will remain in his new possession until his mind recovers its balance. Mr. Colver is wealthy, and has a wife, but no children. His wife is in Ohio on a visit.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 9, 1887, page 6

    BADLY LEFT.--While Ed. Croisan, deputy sheriff, had charge of Colver, the fellow who labors under the hallucination that he is worth a few hundred millions of dollars, holding him for examination as to his sanity, yesterday, he was approached by a life insurance man, a polished gentleman run with a sixty-six-horsepower conventional apparatus. But Ed. saw the life insurance man coming, so he slid out, and left him to tackle the hard-shell prohi who imagined he was a billionaire. He got away just in time to hear the crank give his order for a few hundred thousand dollars worth of life insurance. The insurance man thought he had struck a gold mine, and Ed. left him with the crank for about five minutes. When he returned, the insurance man asked him if the fellow was all right. When he was told that Colver was about to be committed to the insane asylum it floored him. He folded up his talking apparatus and slid out. This is one of the few instances of history where an experienced life insurance man has been known to blush.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 9, 1887, page 6

    Samuel Colver, the Jackson County farmer who became insane in Portland on the prohibition question, has been taken to the home of T. W. Davenport, an old friend, in Marion County, where he will be taken care of. It is thought that rest and quiet will restore his reason, which became unbalanced during the excitement of the campaign.--Salem Statesman.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, December 9, 1887, page 3

    "Uncle Sam" Colver, of Phoenix, was registered at the Holton House in Portland last Monday, having been considered well enough in every way to leave Salem last week.
"Personal," Ashland Tidings, January 20, 1888, page 3

    Samuel Colver, who was sent to the asylum last fall, has recovered his sanity. He is an old settler and much respected. His home is in Jackson County.
"Local and General," Oregon Register, Lafayette, Oregon, January 20, 1888, page 5

    Samuel Colver, the venerable prohibitionist who was committed to the insane asylum last month, was released from that institution a few days since, having gotten over his extravagant notions about his fabulous wealth, etc. He will visit in Portland and Silverton a short time, and then return to his home in Jackson County.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 20, 1888, page 3

    Samuel Colver, who has been in the Willamette Valley for some time past, has returned to Phoenix.
"Personal Mention," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 27, 1888, page 3

    Uncle Sam Colver was visiting friends in Ashland last Friday. He is expecting his wife back from her eastern visit soon.
"Personal," Ashland Tidings, February 3, 1888, page 3

    Guardianship of Samuel Colver. L. A. Rose, guardian, exonerated.
"Probate Court," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 10, 1888, page 3

    Sam. Colver, who has returned from the Willamette Valley, lectured at the U.M.L. Hall on Wagner Creek last Sunday. His subject was the government of the insane asylum.
"Personal Mention," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 10, 1888, page 3

    S. Colver of Phoenix made our town a call last Saturday. He is in the best of health.
"Personal Mention," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 17, 1888, page 3

    Uncle Sam Colver is in our midst once more, looking well.
"Klamath County Items," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 2, 1888, page 2

    Mrs. Samuel Colver, of Phoenix, started for home last Sunday after a visit of several months in the eastern states. She was not so ill as supposed from the reports received here a few weeks ago. Ira Johnson, of Linkville, her nephew, comes with her.
"Personal," Ashland Tidings, April 6, 1888, page 3

    Mrs. Sam'l. Colver, of Eden precinct, returned to this valley from her extended visit in the middle and western states Saturday, much improved in health.
"Personal," Ashland Tidings, April 20, 1888, page 3

    Mrs. S. Colver of Phoenix has returned from her visit to the East, accompanied by Ira Johnson, her nephew.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 27, 1888, page 3

    Uncle Sam Colver came in from his Klamath County ranch, to spend the holidays at Phoenix.
"Personal," Ashland Tidings, January 11, 1889, page 3

    Uncle Sam Colver, who was at one time a patient in the state lunatic asylum, has sent to the legislature a memorial to be read to that august body by Colonel Bowditch, of Jackson.
    "Well, Uncle Sam, I hear that you have dropped a memorial into the great flood of bills which the legislature is wading through, with their trouser legs rolled up and their spectacles awry."
    "Yes; I wish to state to that body a few grievances borne by the inmates of the state lunatic asylum; also, to send up a prayer for deliverance from the system of putting the physical care of these unfortunates down to the lowest bidder. I was there, and know how it is myself."
    "Do you present these grievances as results of that method of providing for the insane?"
    "Yes, sir. The lowest bidder provides too narrowly, and the thin, cheap clothing, coarse, cheap food, absence of sugar, butter and other necessary things only aggravate the intellectual derangement which it is the object of the asylum to remedy."
    "Does the memorial contain grievances from any other sources?"
    "Yes; the prevalent disposition to favor party friends with light and easy jobs brings forth that indolent, brutal creature which I call the asylum understrapper. His central thought is to feather his own nest with as little labor or diligence as possible. I complain about the creature to the legislature."
    "Don't he get around in time?"
    "He don't get around to separate the poor lunatic who is getting wild from the mild ones. Keeps his seat, reads and yawns until someone is hurt, then he knocks down, drags out and takes another long rest. Don't get around to give us clean baths. Dr. Calvin Cutter, an eminent authority, says: 'Bathing should not be permitted to intrude upon hours devoted to some important function, as digestion.' He also says, 'Morning is preferable' for bathing. The asylum understrapper makes the insane plunge into the tubs ten minutes after dinner. A little faucet lets water in and another lets water out, but the tubs are never cleaned, and the surface, after about forty have bathed, is so foul with impurities from the exterior of bodies that the smell of the scum is sickening."
    "Want to procure a law?"
    "Against the lowest-bid system, yes. It is very dishonest. It is so distinctly marked by the fraud of cheating the state's helpless wards that the faces of the inmates bear the dejection and abasement of cheap, coarse food and beggarly raiment."
"Keno Items," Oregonian, Portland, February 2, 1889, page 3

    Mr. Bowditch presented a communication from Mr. Samuel Colver, relating to the management and conduct of the Oregon State insane asylum, which, on motion of Mr. Northrup, was ordered printed and referred to the committee to examine into the affairs of said institution.
Journal of the House, Morning Session, February 1, 1889, page 207

    On motion Mr. [Samuel] Colver addressed the meeting upon the subject of "lines of transportation" to the nearest & best markets as also upon the question of the best methods for the "preservation" of fruit and "Processes of Drying," advocating the "Evaporating" instead of the "Sun-dried Process."
Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon Record Book, 1885-1889, meeting of February 24, 1889

    S. Colver's high-grade bulls and fine Woodburn stallion will stand at the old O. T. Brown farm during the season.
"Klamath County Items," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 2, 1889, page 2

    Uncle Sam Colver and other owners of fine stock in Klamath County contemplate organizing a blooded stock association.
"Keno Whispers," Ashland Tidings, May 3, 1889, page 2

    In every new country there are two kinds of stockmen. One, wishing to avoid future perplexities, shells out a few dollars each year toward the improvement of his scrubs. The other, fond of good living, shells out mostly for Chicago hams, Boston beans and canned groceries. While the county is filling up with fine stock, the one man is keeping abreast of the times, while the other is so far behind that his primitive cows, steers and colts are breaking their shins over 40 acres of rusty oyster cans. Now Mr. Fairchilds, Sam Colver and other men are running blooded stock through this country, and as it costs $5 for fine milk-breeding, and from $10 to $50 for fine horse-breeding, there are men who wish they had begun long ago. But a wish is like a rusty oyster can, or an editor's wallet. There's nothing in it. Rustle! It is never too late to mend, and you may soothe your sadness in some degree by teaching your boys the lesson that better is a dinner of herbs with the satisfaction of having generally invested wisely, than a stalled ox and the recollection of having put your substance where a steer would put it.
"Keno Whispers," Ashland Tidings, May 17, 1889, page 5

    Sam Colver is at Phoenix again, having returned from Klamath County.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 4, 1889, page 3

COLVER--At the family residence in Phoenix, Sept. 6th, of general debility, Mrs. Maria Colver, aged 70 years and 5 months.
    Mrs. Colver settled in this valley with her husband, Hiram Colver, in the fall of 1853, and at his death, in 1857, she was left alone with the management of a large farm and the care of several children. Nobly she discharged the trust committed to her keeping, and so carefully managed her estate and husbanded her resources that at her death she was possessed of a competence equaled by but few of our pioneers. Of thirteen children born of her marriage with Mr. Colver but three survive--two daughters, Mrs. E. J. Farlow of Ashland and Mrs. E. D. Foudray of Phoenix, and one son now in the Willamette Valley. The deceased was attended to her last resting place beside the remains of her husband in the family burying ground on Colver Butte, near Phoenix, last Sunday, by a large number of sorrowing relatives and friends. Blessed be the reunion of the band of pioneers of Southern Oregon now gathering in the Great Beyond, to which so swiftly all are passing.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 12, 1889, page 3

    The farms of Casebeer, Helms, Alford, Pennebaker, Harvey, the Colver places, L. A. Rose, Van Dyke, and others, on down to Medford, and of Phipps, Walker, Wrisley, Merriman and others below Medford, have been damaged to the extent of from $100 to $500 or $1000 each, by the washing away of some of their choicest patches of bottom land.
"Bear Creek's Damages," Ashland Tidings, February 7, 1890, page 3

    We regret to learn that Uncle Sam Colver, while riding one horse and trying to drive another, was seriously injured this week, one of the animals having kicked him with both feet just below the knee, cutting him to the bone. The injury is a bad one, the shoes with which it was inflicted having been previously well sharpened.
"Klamath County," Ashland Tidings, August 1, 1890, page 2

    In the matter of estate and guardianship of Solon Colver, an insane person; order for sale of real property.
"Probate Court," Ashland Tidings, August 15, 1890, page 3

    "Uncle" Sam Colver is going on crutches, favoring a crushed ankle caused by a horse falling upon him.
"Sagebrush Sprigs," Valley Record, Ashland, January 29, 1891, page 3

    Uncle Samuel Colver is laid up with a sprained ankle, caused by a horse having fallen on him a short time ago.
"Klamath County Items," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 6, 1891, page 2

    LINKVILLLE, Or., March 22.--The party sent to search for the remains of Samuel Colver, supposed to have perished, have returned. His horse was found in a pothole. The saddle had been taken off and the horse's head tied to a bush. His overcoat was found near the horse, containing letters addressed to Colver. The body was not found, however. It is supposed that after tying the the horse's head up out of water Colver started for help, but owing to a broken leg became exhausted and perished. Colver was born in Ohio, and was 77 years of age. He was in the Texan and Mexican War, and came to Oregon with the early settlers, locating in Southern Oregon, where he has since resided. He was the first importer of blooded horses in the state. In 1887 he stumped the state in the interests of prohibition. 
Evening Capital Journal, Eugene, March 23, 1891, page 2

The Perishing of Uncle Sam Colver.
    A Linkville dispatch of the 21st says: The party sent to search for Samuel Colver, supposed to have perished, have not all returned. The horse was found in a pothole. The saddle had been taken off and the horse's head tied to a bush. An overcoat was found near the horse with letters addressed to Colver. There is no doubt of his fate, although no body was found. It is supposed that after tying the horse's head up out of the water Colver started for help, but, being crippled by a leg which had been broken some time before, became exhausted and perished.
    The Record's advices up to noon today was that the search party was still out and that his scarf had been fished out of a body of water twenty feet deep at a point eight miles north of Linkville toward Pelican Bay. The party were expecting to be able to find his body within a few days now, either in Klamath Lake or one of the bays of that stream. Mr. Colver had left his ranch on horseback before the snow storm and the neighbors thought he had arrived safely at Phoenix, in this county. He was using crutches at the time, having not recovered from the effects of a broken leg. He was undoubtedly trying to get out of the place near where his horse was stuck and fell through the snow into the pond where his scarf was found.
    Samuel Colver was born in Ohio, and at the time of his death was about 77 years old He moved to Texas in early days, was in the war between the Texans and Mexicans, and came to Oregon among the early settlers. He settled on a claim where the town of Phoenix now stands, and was the first importer of blooded horses to Oregon, bringing them from French Canadian stock. He was one of the first Republicans and prominent in the early history of that party. Later he joined the prohibition movement and stumped the state for prohibition in 1887. He was a man of high mental power, though of late years his faculties were somewhat impaired.
    General John F. Miller says he came through Rogue River Valley in June, 1852, and found Mr. Colver on the claim where Phoenix now is. He was then a well-to-do, kindhearted, hospitable, public-spirited man. At the first Republican meeting I remember, held at Jacksonville, he was one of the leaders, and he was always a leader in what he undertook.
Valley Record, Ashland, March 26, 1891, page 3

    The rumor [that] circulated about the valley last week, to the effect that the sterling old pioneer, Samuel Colver, had lost his life in Klamath County while on his way to visit his old home in this county, seems actually the fact. A number of Indians following the trail through Wocus Lake found the dead body of his horse, still with the bridle and saddle on it, in the vicinity of a treacherous pool, but not the body of Mr. Colver.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 27, 1891, page 3

    NOT YET FOUND.--The body of the unfortunate pioneer, Samuel Colver, who lost his life in Southern Oregon, had not been found at last accounts, although there can be no doubt that he was exhausted and perished not very far from where his horse was found dead in the treacherous pothole near the lake. Colver's leg was broken, and he was only able to walk with the assistance of crutches, and there is small hope of his being able to escape from such a situation, although for a time his friends entertained the idea that the indomitable energy that characterized his earlier years might have carried him safely through. "Uncle Sam" Colver has suffered a similar fate to Col. Nesmith and Capt. Ankeny. The three were prominent men in pioneer days, and men with ability, yet in their old days became feeble in mind.
Evening Capital Journal, Eugene, April 8, 1891, page 4

    A WILLAMETTE journal calls attention to the fact that four of the leading pioneers of Oregon, who have now passed to the great beyond, were at some time or other so upset by business misfortunes or other causes as to lose their reason: Ex-Senator Nesmith, Jesse Applegate, Samuel Colver and Capt. A. P. Ankeny.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 10, 1891, page 2

A Wild Man in Butte Creek.
    A wild man has been seen several times of late in the vicinity of John Obenchain's, near Big Butte, Jackson County. He is naked and takes to the woods every time he sights a human being. The nearest he was seen to the haunts of a human being was at a country school house, where it was supposed he was prowling around for some waste lunches left by the school children.
    One theory is that the party is the missing Uncle Sam Colver, the last trace of whom was found seven miles north of Linkville, some months ago.
Valley Record, Ashland, May 21, 1891, page 3

    Wm. Luckey, of Eugene, the venerable father of W. N. Luckey of this city, is visiting in Ashland. He came across the plains with the Colvers in 1850, and is yet hale and hearty at the age of 84 years.
"Personal and Social," Valley Record, Ashland, May 28, 1891, page 3

Finding of Colver's Body.
    The body of Samuel Colver, who disappeared in February last, was discovered on the shore of Klamath Lake last Friday by parties in a boat. Their sail was deranged and they went ashore to fix it, and found the body in the tules on the shore. The upper half of the body was out of the water. It was identified as Colver's body, and was about fifteen miles distant from the place where his horse was found at the time of his disappearance. He had presumably gone out on the ice in the lake, broke through and been drowned. The body was badly decomposed, but was recognized by a broken leg. A party has gone after the remains.
    The remains were buried at the head of the lake, the body being too badly decomposed to bring to Phoenix for burial.
Valley Record, Ashland, June 25, 1891, page 3

The Mystery Solved.
    The remains of Uncle Sam Colver were accidentally found by Chas. Rolfe last Saturday evening. They were lying on the west shore of big Klamath Lake, near what is known as Coon Point, in the Pelican Bay country. 'Squire F. E. Robinson of Linkville, acting as coroner, on Sunday morning took a jury and the witnesses aboard the steamer Rustler, and together with Judge Webster and District Attorney Colvig went to the place where the body was, 25 miles up the lake. The remains were placed in a coffin and taken to Stidham Creek, where the old pioneer was given a decent burial. Mr. Colver undoubtedly came to his death by drowning. After the horse had fallen in the boghole, near Howard Bay, he took the saddle off and started on foot to the place of his destination, the Spencer ranch. Being crippled at the time, he left the rough mountain road and went on the ice on the lake. After having traveled seven or eight miles in this way he would reach a portion of the lake in which there are many hot springs, hence thin ice and holes. It being dark, he probably fell into some one of them. When the ice broke up, the winds carried the body to where it was found. Papers on his person positively identified Colver. Besides, his left foot was crippled and done up in rags, while his skull bore the pistol marks received at the hands of ruffians in Idaho some years ago.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, June 26, 1891, page 3

    The Colver-Furry wedding was quite a grand affair, about 60 or 70 guests being present. A fine supper was one of the features of the occasion, which was enjoyed by those present, and some valuable gifts were presented to the couple. The wedding march was played by Miss Lena Dunlap in fine style; in fact everything was lovely and the boys failed to charivari.
John B. Griffin, "Flashes from Phoenix," Medford Mail, May 26, 1893, page 1

Wedding Bells.
    Gus Newbury and Miss Nellie Rose were united in matrimony at the residence of Mrs. S. Colver in Phoenix last Wednesday evening. The old historic parlor, which has been the scene of so many like events in the past, and around whose walls cluster so many remembrances of pioneer days, was handsomely decorated for the occasion. The marriage ceremony, simple and yet impressive, was performed by Rev. Robt. Ennis of Jacksonville. The toilette of the bride was handsome and greatly admired. When congratulations were over the guests sat down to a table laden with the choicest delicacies of the season. Mrs. Colver had left nothing undone to make the occasion a decided success, and succeeded admirably. The young couple were the recipients of a number of beautiful presents, tokens of the well wishes of the favored few who were present. Mr. and Mrs. Newbury are well and favorably known throughout southern Oregon, and the event was a pleasant surprise to their many friends, whose sentiments we speak when we say that all join in the wish and confidence that the new home may be a happy one, attended by prosperity and through whose portals no shadow of sorrow may ever come.
Democratic Times,
Jacksonville, September 1, 1893, page 3

    Mrs. Colver of Phoenix has been visiting her aunt, Mrs. M. Mathews, at Gold Hill.
"Pressed Bricks," Valley Record, Ashland, May 2, 1895, page 1

    D. H. Hawkins will address the Populists of Phoenix next Wednesday night in Colver's Hall at 7:30 o'clock.
"Local Squibs," Ashland Advertiser, March 11, 1896, page 2

    In matter of the guardianship of Solon Colver, an insane person; first account filed and approved and guardian authorized to convert into cash personal properly and invest the proceeds in county warrants.
"In Probate Court," Medford Mail, June 11, 1897, page 7

    L. A. Rose, C. C. Taylor and Arthur Furry returned last week from Klamath County, where they went after the remains of Samuel Colver, who was lost near the lake in February, '91, and where his dead body was found in the tules the following June. The remains were buried near where they were found but were last week reinterred in the Phoenix cemetery. Mr. Colver was the father of Mrs. Rose and grandfather to Mrs. Taylor and Mrs. Furry.

"A Grist of Local Haps and Mishaps," Medford Mail, November 5, 1897, page 7

    There was a fine monument erected over the grave of Samuel Colver, one of the oldest pioneers of the valley, last week. Mrs. Russell, of Ashland, did the work.
"Phoenix Items," Medford Mail, July 8, 1898, page 6

COLVER.--At Salem, Or., Nov. 6, 1900, Solon Colver, aged 51, of interstitial nephritis.
    Deceased was a native of Ohio. The remains were shipped to Phoenix, Jackson County, for burial.
Daily Journal, Salem, November 6, 1900, page 4

Death of Solon Colver.
    Solon Colver was born in Ohio, March 5, 1849, and died at Salem, Ore., Nov. 6, 1900. He crossed the plains with his parents in the year 1850. They came to The Dalles, and down the Columbia River, stopping at Silverton and Eugene until the year of '52, coming afterwards to this valley.
    The deceased joined the Presbyterian Church at Phoenix about the year of '70, his name still appearing on the roll of membership. All the family are deceased excepting Mrs. Foudray and Mrs. Farlow, the family originally comprised of two brothers and three sisters.
    The interment took place on Nov. 8th, in the Colver burying ground, near Phoenix, after service at the residence of Elbert D. Foudray, which was conducted by Rev. Wm. Clyde. The singing was led by the Presbyterian choir. The townspeople indicated their respect for deceased by their attendance and floral offerings.
Medford Mail, November 16, 1900, page 2

    SAMUEL COLVER. Ever since the spring of 1851 the Colver family has been known as an industrious and deserving one, and has maintained the reputation for excellent farming for which the Jackson County family is justly famous. That honored pioneer, Samuel Colver, settled first on the present site of Phoenix, where he took up a donation claim and where he spent his entire life. The house which still shelters an industrious household was erected in the days when Indians prowled around by night, and menaced the life and property of the earnest men and women who were striving to make a living upon the neglected and uncultivated land. Many neighbors used to assemble in the improvised fort at night, returning to their farms during the day. Thus the family cherish the old building for the good it has done, and doubtless would feel lost in any other habitation.
    Mr. Colver was born in the state of Ohio in 1815, and at Middleburg married Hulda Calendar, born in January, 1823. the family crossed the plains in a large train of emigrants in 1850, meeting with little opposition on the part of the Indians, having a fairly pleasant trip. Six months they slept by night under the stars and traveled by day, their faithful oxen responding to the instructions of their drivers, and bringing them in safely to the Oregon of their dreams. One incident of the trip is recalled by Mrs. Colver. While on the Platte they were camping one evening and during the night Mr. Colver heard some disturbance among the livestock. Upon investigation he discovered an Indian, whom he grabbed by the throat. The companion of the red man fired, but failed to reach his mark, and the captured Indian managed to squirm out of Mr. Colver's hands, leaving his gun, which was in the possession of the family for many years.
    Mr. Colver first took up a claim where Eugene is now located, but in 1851 he came to Jackson County, as heretofore stated, and lived on his farm until his lamented death in 1890 [sic]. He was a quiet [sic] man, devoted to his family and farm, and never desired or would accept office tendered him by his Republican friends. He inaugurated many fine improvements on his farm, kept it in perfect order, and devoted his land to grain, general produce and stock. He is recalled as honorable in all his dealings, fearless in his support of right and justice, and always kind and considerate of those dependent upon his care.
    Mr. and Mrs. Colver took great pride in their three children, desired for them an excellent education, and gave them all the liberty and diversion possible in their busy life. Alice, the youngest, died at the age of two years and four months; Lewellyn, who married Jemima Dollarhide, died March 9, 1884, leaving four children, Caroletta, Percy L., Frank B., and Lewelleyn; and Isabella is the deceased wife of L. A. Rose, her demise occurring in 1885.
    Mrs. Colver is still living on a portion of the old donation claim, which is being managed by the grandchildren.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon, Chapman Publishing Co., Chicago, 1904, page 324

Mrs. Samuel Colver.
    ASHLAND, Or., Aug. 18.--Mrs. Huldah Colver, relict of the late Samuel Colver, and one of the best-known pioneer women of Southern Oregon, died at the old Colver home in Phoenix, Jackson County, early Sunday morning. Mr. Colver was aged 84 years and 7 months and came to this state in 1850 from Ohio. With her husband and two children she crossed the plains by ox team to The Dalles, from the latter place traveling down the Columbia River in a boat. They first took a claim on the present site of Eugene in 1850 but in the spring of 1851 transferred themselves to Jackson County and settled upon the old Colver donation land claim at Phoenix, which was ever afterward their home.
Oregonian, Portland, August 20, 1907, page 6

Pioneer Goes to Rest.
    Mrs. Hulda Colver died at the old Colver home at Phoenix, Sunday morning at 3:20 o'clock, at the age of 84 years, 7 months and 18 days. Her death marks the passing of one of the best known and most beloved of the early pioneer women of Jackson County and the Rogue River Valley.
    Mrs. Colver was a native of Ohio, and was born near Middleburg, in that state, January 1, 1825. She was married there to Samuel Colver, who was a native of the Buckeye State. Early in 1850, with their two children, Louie and Isabelle, they started across the great plains in ox teams, arriving at The Dalles during the summer of 1850. At the latter place they embarked in boats for the trip down the Columbia to near Portland, where they were met by the well-known pioneer, Ralph Geer. He had brought some mules to transport the emigrants and their belongings, and aboard the hurricane deck of one of these animals Mrs. Colver gained her first real impression of her new home in Oregon, en route to the Geer home which had previously been established in the Waldo Hills of Marion County. Mr. Colver, prospecting the new region, selected a claim on the Willamette, where Eugene is now located, and they settled upon it. In the early spring of 1851 they came to Jackson County, locating on the old donation claim upon which the town site of "Gasburg" or Phoenix, as it is now called, was laid out, and this place was ever afterward their home. Mrs. Colver was a woman of great energy and most notable worth, and many of the early pioneers shared the hospitality for which her home was well known, and appreciated the welcome which was always received at her table.
Medford Mail, August 29, 1907, page 5

    Rogue River Valley was first settled in 1851. Or rather that year witnessed the first pioneer settlement. The first dwelling house was erected on Bear Creek about midway between what is now Central Point and Medford, by A. A. Skinner, who was the earliest Indian Agent appointed to take charge of the Rogue River Indians. . . . Several other houses, scattered throughout the valley, were built that same year, among which was that of Samuel Colver on the site of Phoenix just across the road and a little bit south of the present house, known for many years as the blockhouse. Hiram Colver, a brother of Samuel's, took up an adjoining section to the south of Samuel's, both of these claims including the land lying along Bear Creek. Whether Hiram built his log cabin the year 1851 or not I cannot say. . . .
    I believe the families of the two Colver brothers remained in the Willamette Valley until 1853, as up to that year there was a very sparse settlement, and the facilities for procuring provisions was so limited and prices so prohibitive that it would have been almost impossible to maintain a family. . . .
    About the year 1859 or '60, Uncle Sam Colver went back to Texas to dispose of some land he acquired there during his adventuresome younger days, after selling which he went up into Canada and invested in some French Canadian and other breeds of horses, coming across the plains with them in 1860. He had some thirty or more of fine mares, and some five or six stallions of various breeds, among them the Norman heavy draft horse, the "Coeur de Leon" or Lionheart, a Blackhawk trotter, an iron grey and one or two others, but losing his most valuable animal, one that cost him, so he said, $2500 on the chair. He also brought with him several fine mules, one pair of very large ones he called Jack and Barney pulled his camp outfit across the plains driven by a man he hired in the East for one year for $300. John Wagner was the man's name, and he was one of the most faithful and industrious hired men I ever saw and was the mainstay of Colver's for many years or as long as Uncle Sam would pay him enough to keep him.
    It was soon after his return from Canada that Uncle Sam saw a chance to make some money by taking a lot of horses and mules up to the northern mines and running a saddle and pack train from the mines to the nearest source of supply. Leaving Wagner in charge of his farm, he took quite a bunch of animals up to the mines where he operated a saddle train for the greater part of a year conveying miners to and from the mines, and sometimes carrying gold out. As there was a very dangerous gang of outlaws infesting that region at that time who, when not running the many gambling dens that infested every mining camp, were waylaying miners who were going out of the country to invest their gold, or they would swoop down on isolated claims and hold up the miners, rob their cabins or sluiceboxes, steal horses, and commit all kinds of deviltry.
    Uncle Sam was knocked down and robbed at one time, the robbers leaving him for dead, but he was only stunned and managed to crawl to safety. He returned home shortly after, but if he brought any money with him I never heard of it.
A Brief Sketch of the Life and Character of Samuel Colver
    It is usual as well as eminently fitting and proper that the passing of a citizen of local prominence should receive a public notice commensurate with that person's prominence and notoriety in the community in which he or she had spent a larger part of their lives. In the passing of Samuel Colver, nearly twenty years ago, there was a very noticeable lack of the usual biographical notice of his life which was certainly due to so noted, if eccentric, a character. A man of such unquestioned ability and marked public service to the pioneers of Rogue River Valley deserved better of his compatriots than the brief announcement of his tragic death, which was the extent of his public eulogy.
    After this long silence, hoping for a proper memorial notice and public acknowledgment of the life and services of a citizen who contributed no small sum to the safety and welfare of the early pioneers of Rogue River Valley to be printed, the writer will in a crude and modest way briefly sketch the life and public services of the deceased, and thereby pay a merited though belated tribute to one whose public and private life was devoted in large measure to the betterment of pioneer conditions and the comfort and happiness of his fellows, as also to recall many incidents so typical of this talented and many-sided character.
    Samuel Colver was a native of Ohio, and attended the common schools of that state until his early teens he, in company with a younger brother, Hiram, was sent to a well-known college of that state to complete his education. Here he found the strict orthodox requirements so distasteful to him that he was often in verbal conflict with his teachers, and his rhyming witticisms and caustic criticisms soon brought him into open conflict with the faculty until finally . . . he was publicly reprimanded and given his choice of publicly apologizing or leaving the college. He chose the latter course, which terminated his scholastic career. What he followed for the next few years the writer is unable to state, but about that time the state of Texas attempted to throw off the yoke of Mexico, and young Colver went to that new field where there was abundant room for adventurous spirits, and no restrictions by narrow orthodox teachers. Young Colver joined the Texan army under the banner of Sam Houston, and served as Texas Ranger until after the sanguinary battle of San Jacinto, which established Texan independence.
    After the independence of the Lone Star State was established, Colver served under that flag on the frontier as scout and trader with the Indians, sometimes in conflict with hostile tribes, and in peril of his life. A detailed account of his adventures during that period I never learned except his account of one adventure, where he was forced to cross a wide extent of country occupied by a hostile tribe of Indians, and his only method of travel was on foot and by night. The cactus and other thorny shrubs soon tore his clothing to shreds and he had to clothe himself entirely with the untanned skins of wild animals and eat of their unsalted flesh for days at a time until he reached a settled portion of the country. How many years he followed this wild adventurous life I never learned. His next adventure was in his native state, which he canvassed pretty thoroughly as a public lecturer on the then newly discovered science of Mesmerism. He had as a subject a remarkable character by the name of Buchanan, whose feats of mind reading and other stunts while under the power of the mesmerist were truly wonderful, and at that time unaccountable. Shortly after completing his lecturing tour, Colver met and married Huldah Callender, and for a few brief years it is presumed he spent upon his father's farm in Ohio, but soon after the discovery of gold and the opening up of the Oregon Country to settlement under the liberal donation land law the Colver brothers, Sam and Hiram, together with their families and many relations undertook the long and perilous journey across the plains by way of the Old Oregon Trail to the Willamette Valley, at that time the only well-known part of Oregon Territory.
    Their first location was believed to have been somewhere east of Salem, near the Waldo Hills, as the Davenports and others of their kindred remained in that section for years afterwards, but soon after the discovery of gold on Jackson Creek and the consequent settlement of, or desirability of, the Rogue River Valley for farming purposes, both the Colvers proceeded to that valley, not to follow mining, as neither of the brothers seemed to have any desire to seek their fortunes in the gold fields, but rather to avail themselves of the liberal offerings of land claims.
    They both took up a section of land along Bear Creek, in the richest and most picturesque section of the valley, and some eight or ten miles from the site of the gold discovery, where a rough camp of tents and log cabins was being erected as the nucleus of a considerable town, and for years the county seat of Jackson Co.
    The land claim of Samuel Colver was of less value agriculturally than that of the younger brother Hiram, as it was more broken and timbered. But at the same time it was more picturesque, having a really notable butte on the southwest corner standing some two hundred feet above the surrounding lands and about equidistant from the spurs of the Siskiyou Mountains that formed the east and west borders of the valley. . . .
    The Colver brothers, I think, did not bring their families up from the Willamette Valley until the fall of 1855, when the log cabins they first built on their claims were lived in until other houses were built.
    Nether of the brothers ever did much farm work, what agricultural development was performed was by renters. Hiram Colver was [a] student though a lawyer by education and being rather frail did not attempt to improve his farm to any great extent. He died in 1857.
    Samuel Colver was an athlete, and was always an outdoor man. He was very hospitable, and his house was open to strangers. His wife, "Aunt Huldah" as she was familiarly called, was one of the most generous and kind-hearted women that ever lived, a fine cook and housekeeper, a very domestic and home-loving woman, while Samuel Colver, or "Uncle Sam" as he was usually called, cared little for home life and seemed to prefer the out-of-doors. His love for horses, dogs and all animals was a distinguishing peculiarity of his--and it was a constant trial for Aunt Huldah to keep his pet pigs, dogs and even chickens out of the house. Colver was [a] good debater and always ready to express his opinion on any subject, was an early abolitionist, an advocate of woman's rights and a prohibitionist of the most advanced type, and ready to defend his beliefs at all times and against all comers. Though active in politics, he never was an office seeker nor, to my knowledge, was he ever nominated or offered the nomination for a public office.
    While he was a pronounced infidel, or agnostic, Aunt Huldah was decidedly religious, and her house was a favorite haven for preachers and seemingly without protest from Uncle Sam.
    In 1859 or '60, he went back to Texas, sold his land that had been given him as bonus for his services in the war with Mexico, went to Canada and bought a number of very fine French horses, stallions and mares. One horse, a very fine one costing him twenty-five hundred dollars in Canada, he lost on the plains coming back to Oregon, also another stallion that cost him about one thousand dollars. He arrived home in the fall of 1860 with some fifty head of horses and quite a few mules that he brought from Missouri.
    Two of the stallions he brought with him were notable animals, having records as light and heavy draft animals from the Montreal horse fair, registered as having received first premiums in their respective classes for that year. The light draft animal was of the "Coeur de Leon" or Lionheart breed, and had a record of traveling on a test a mile in three minutes with cart and 1200 lbs. weight; his weight was 1300 lbs. The heavy draft animal was about three or four hundred pounds heavier and was of Norman blood; [he] was a draft animal and not calculated for speed. These animals kept by Colver several years for breeding purposes and their impress on the horses of the valley was very pronounced, and no horses were ever brought to the valley that so improved the character of the stock then here or left such a permanent impress of their character as did those two animals.
    Colver brought another stallion, a smaller animal of the Blackhawk breed, a fast trotter which he sold for about $1400 soon after arriving here.
    It is to be regretted that Colver did not keep up his stock by importations of blooded animals to keep up the fine strain he had such a good start of, but his zeal soon flagged and constant inbreeding and neglect soon ran his herd down to a low standard of quality and gradually his herd dwindled away. He brought with him across the plains a man he hired in the East to drive his wagon, and whom he engaged to work for him for a year at 300 for the year and board. His name was John Waggoner, and he was one of the most faithful and competent hired men I ever saw. Soon after Colver's arrival home with his horses he took quite a number of his horses and mules and joined an exodus of miners and adventurers who rushed to the newly discovered gold mines in northeastern Oregon, leaving John Waggoner in full charge of his farm and stock. His hired man proved to be a much better farmer and manager than Colver ever was. Meanwhile Colver used his animals to run a saddle and pack train to and from the mines carrying freight, passengers and gold out of the mines to the nearest point of supply.
    It was while he was thus engaged that a band of gamblers and horse thieves terrorized that country and Colver was knocked over the head with a revolver, robbed and left for dead. He however survived his injuries, and an organization of vigilantes undertook to rid the country of the outlaws, shooting and hanging many of them; some of these proved to be members of the law offices of the country. After the vigilantes had made their roundup, there was quite an exodus of tough characters from that northern country, and travelers were safe to come and go and to continue their search for gold. Colver soon returned home a poorer but wiser man, and for a time remained quietly at home.
    The Civil War had broken out and a company of cavalry was garrisoned in a newly constructed barracks about one mile west of the Colver house. There was quite a demand for all products of the soil, as both men and horses had to be fed. I think Colver had little beyond his own needs to dispose of, though many acres of his land had never been cultivated, being used mostly for pasture. After Wagner's year was out he worked for Colver by the month for a while at quite an advance in wages, and finally started a boot and shoe repair shop.
    The fall of 1864, under Lincoln's last call for volunteers, another company was recruited in the counties of Jackson, Coos and Curry, who took up their rendezvous in the old barracks vacated by the former cavalry. Colver's son, Lewellyn, was a member of this company, and many of the neighboring boys joined. This was an infantry company, and remained in the garrison until the latter part of April 1864, when they were ordered to Ft. Klamath from which they scouted eastward in the Indian country nearly to the Idaho line.
    After the muster out of the company, which was not until July 1867, Colver remained on his place, but a year later he went out to Klamath County and bought out his son's interest in a ranch that the writer and his son had taken up when mustered out and took charge of a band of horses which had been ranged out there ever since his son had located there the year before. From then on until his death Colver spent as much of his time in the Klamath country as in the Rogue River Valley, though his horses were rented out on shares nearly all the time and he had no business that would require his constant presence there.
    At the breaking out of the Modoc War in Dec. 1872, Colver was visiting among some of his friends near the California border and took an active part in trying to collect up the scattering Modoc families who had for years been living around the large cattle ranches just over the Cal. border and persuaded them it was better and safer for them to go onto the Klamath reservation where their Chief Schonchin and the peacefully disposed members of his tribe remained rather than join Captain Jack's warriors in the Lava Beds. He had succeeded in collecting nearly all the Modocs who had lived on Hat Creek and on Willow Creek, the Fairchild and Dorris ranches and had got them over twenty miles on the road towards Linkville, when they heard that a party of armed men from the latter place were on the way to meet them with the avowed intention of killing them. This, of course, frightened the Indians, and that night they all dispersed, making their way to Captain Jack's stronghold in the Lava Beds.
    This disgraceful and cowardly attempt resulted in adding quite a number of warriors to the force of Captain Jack [and] defeated all future attempts to make peace with any of the Modocs, as they would have no confidence in any promises of the white men. It was very creditable to Colver and should have been publicly commended but was scarcely noticed. Many if not all those who composed the bloodthirsty crowd who comprised these raiders had an opportunity to show their valor the night after the fight with Col. Jackson on Lost River, when a call for volunteers to go up Lost River, through Langell Valley, Clear Lake and Tule Lake was called for, and only 7 men out of about 25 who had expressed a desire to go could be found ready to venture forth in the night to make the trip through the country adjacent to the Modoc country, and these same cowards remained behind while the seven men who were not cowardly went down through the dangerous country, rescued the survivors of the Tule Lake massacre, took them to the soldiers' camp and returned to Linkville after warning all the settlers within a radius of 100 miles of the Modoc outbreak. Doubtless it was some of these brave (?) men who later, after the dispersal of the Modocs from the Lava Beds and the surrender of the women and some of the old men, a party of them in charge of one or two packers were started for Fort [Klamath?] that fell upon and murdered these captives.
    As the writer was out of the country soon after the first fight with the Modocs, and [did] not return until the war was ended, he is unable to give any further details of Colver's activities--if any--during the Modoc War.
    For several years Colver spent his time partly in the Klamath country and partly in Rogue River Valley with no definite or regular business or occupation in either place. He had sold part of the place he bought of his son to O. T. Brown, who had charge of his remnant of horses and with whom he made his home part of the time. As both his children had married, and both remained in the valley, his [wife] soon took charge of the home place and looked after the business there while the father vacillated between the two counties. At one time Colver got an idea there was a fortune in peddling fruit and vegetables in Klamath, whereupon he fitted out one or two wagons and with a driver or two ran a regular trading schedule between Rogue River and Klamath, bringing out fruit, green and dried, bacon, beans and other produce, and was agent for a jelly factory near Talent where a man had started to make apple jelly out of the surplus apples, doing quite a business. Uncle Sam dressed himself in buckskins and would go on ahead of his wagons to drum up trade, and the absence of money did not deter him, as he was ready to trade for anything. Before the summer was past he was trading for or buying ranches and stock all over the valley, or rather bargaining for them. In the commencement of his realty speculation he bought O. T. Brown's ranch, for which he borrowed twelve thousand dollars in money, mortgaging the Brown place and the remainder of his place. Mr. and Mrs. Brown, with several hundred dollars of their ranch money, took a trip back East and on their return bought another farm about two and a half miles above the one they sold. In the meantime Colver's land speculations had become so numerous and reckless that his son and son-in-law had to put a stop to it, as he was bargaining for so much property he could not pay a single obligation, and it became evident that he was off his balance. He was adjudged insane and sent to Salem, where he got into conflict with some of the attendants, had to be overcome and put into a straitjacket for awhile before he would submit to the rules. I do not know how long he remained in the asylum, but he was out within a year and came out to Klamath a quieter man in many respects. Colver told me that the trouble he had in the asylum was caused by the keepers ordering him to bathe in a tub where nearly a dozen other patients had already bathed without a change of water, and he refused to bathe and they tried to compel him when he knocked one or two of them down when they doubled teams on him, overpowering him and putting him in a padded cell with a straitjacket.
    I think he was let out before long with his son [No.] and son-in-law appointed as guardians. Of this I am not positive, but that is the usual way in such cases where the case is not serious or permanent, simply a hallucination or temporary aberration. I am not sure whether it was before or after [after] his daughter's death that this happened.
    His son, Loui, was shot several years after that [No, before. Mr. Stearns is wrong about this. Uncle Louie Colver died in 1884. My mother, Isabel Colver Rose, died in 1885. Two years later, in 1887, Grandpa Colver, crazed with grief, the loss of his children, and worrying over financial matters, brought on an unbalanced condition which caused him to be confined in an asylum for one month. Signed, Nellie Rose Jones.] and his death had a very noticeable depression on him, as he seemed more quiet and less sociable, more self-centered and brooding. I believe he rented or took up a piece of land on the west side of the river where he kept a few head of stock and where [he] stayed mostly alone. He was always getting himself hurt in some way that he was partially crippled and of necessity kept at home. His crazy real estate venture left him with a debt that was enough to steady him down and which was destined to leave him landless.
    There was one peculiarity with him, he was always studying some rhymes which he would delight in singing or reciting before a crowd. Some of his compositions were very fine, both in sentiment and in rhythm, but none of them so far as I know have ever been preserved. He used to correspond with some of the leaders of the equal suffrage society, and I have heard him recite some of his caustic verses in which he was not very choice of language, and he would deliver lectures or talks along the same lines. There was one song I have heard him sing that he composed for the occasion of a large public gathering in California, I think in which the demand for transcontinental R.R. was urged. The music was supplied by a young lady in the audience, and it was certainly worthy of the occasion and awakened great enthusiasm. It is a shame that it has not been preserved. I can recall only a portion of the refrain, which was given as answer to a question propounded in the several stanzas of the song as to what the spirits of the dead demanded of the living as recompense for the hardships and sufferings of the pioneers. I wish I could recall more of it:
            "Tis the voice of the emigrant dead
            Comes floating o'er the main
            And asks for a road across
            For a railroad o'er the plain." *
    There was quite a number of stanzas depicting the horrors of cholera both among the land emigrants and those coming by water, both around the Horn and by way of the Isthmus, the Indian massacres and other dangers met and overcome, and at the end of each stanza a variation of the above query. My sister remembers just a little more of it than I do and can recall and recite the melody.
    Most of Colver's verses were aimed at some common fault or frailty in custom or in human nature and exposing to ridicule. He had one, a favorite of his, to which he was adding verses from year to year and applying to all manner of tradesmen, politicians, merchants, stockmen & nearly everybody; it always terminated in something like this, a common excuse for doing something known to be wrong but justified: "For if I don't do it some other rogue man or person will." He delighted to get into a crowd and sing this song for the diversion it would create. For the last year or two he was batching in a cabin about two miles up the river from Keno, and as he was crippled in one leg from having his horse fall on it, he kept pretty close to his cabin, and spent most of his time studying up new versions of some of his old rhymes. The last time I saw him alive was some part of February the year he met his death. He came to my house in the forenoon and stopped to get my razor to shave himself. Said he was going uptown. He stopped at O. T. Brown's, about three miles above, and went from there to town and put up at Mrs. Roberts, Aunt Hattie's, I think. He was seen by but one person after that, and his disappearance was not remarked upon for some time, as he was in the habit of going and coming without announcing his intentions or giving his destination. Near two weeks had elapsed when an Indian who had been trapping on the swampy border of the lake above McCornack's came into town and reported finding a horse dead in a deep pond or spring hole in the swamp above McCornack's; the horse was tied by a bridle to some willows on the edge of the hole, a saddle blanket and overcoat were on the bank nearby. At once people remembered seeing Colver several weeks before, and McCornack remembered his eating dinner at his house over two weeks before when he had inquired of him about an old Indian trail that led from the upper end of Wocus Marsh across the south end of Eagle Ridge to what was variously known as Ball's, Gowan's and Spence's Bay, and where Spence (Wm.) was at that time living. At the same time McCornack remembered Colver having said something about intending to go up to Spence's and his telling him he had better go around by the road through Long Lake, as it might be difficult to follow the old trail with several inches of snow covering it, but Colver replying that he had been over the trail before and "He and old John (his horse) would make it through all right." At once Mc and others went to where the horse was and recognized it was Colver's and saw at once what had happened.
    The swamp at that place was covered with grass and bunches of willows with potholes or small pools of water with swamp edges and practically bottomless, as the edges were of springy turf projecting over the water and no chance to get a footing to climb out. The water had been slightly frozen, and a snowfall of a few inches covered up its treacherous surface, and Colver had ridden right into one. He had gotten out and had tried to help his horse out, but as to do that would have required an upward lift of the horse and [was] impossible for one man, he had tied the horse's head by the bridle to the willows and left him with the saddle and blanket and his coat, which of course was wet, and started off, presumably to get assistance to rescue his horse. A search was made of the surrounding marsh; the pond was dragged to no purpose. As Colver was crippled, carrying a crutch to get around with, and McCornack's house five miles away was the nearest habitation, the presumption was that Colver would attempt to return there, so the search was carried at great length in that direction without results. Many were the surmises as to what became of him. It was evident that he must have been wet all over when the horse broke through, and that he exhausted himself trying to rescue his horse when, night coming on and he crippled would be unable to reach McCornack's for several hours, if at all, he had probably fallen exhausted somewhere in that neighborhood and was covered up in the snow, as it snowed nearly all that night. Some were of the opinion that Colver went to the mountain, that here came down to within two hundred yards, with the hope of building a fire to dry himself and keep from freezing, but the snowfall had obliterated all signs if there had been any, and after several days the search was reluctantly given up as one of the unexplainable mysteries.
    In June [1891], soon after the circuit court for Klamath County was convened, word was brought down from the upper lake by a man who had been trapping in that neighborhood [Charles Rolfe] that he had found the remains of a man on the shore of the lake at a place known as Coon Point just across Spence's or Ball's Bay. He had been traveling near the shore in a canoe when he saw some vultures fly up from some willows near the edge of the lake, and his curiosity being aroused turned his boat into the willows that lined the shore when he discovered the remains of a man whose partly submerged body and lower limbs were lying in the water and his shoulders on the shore among some driftwood. He could see no head, but immediately came down to the city to report to the authorities.
    The immediate conclusion was reached that the remains were those of Colver, as he was the only person unaccounted for at that time, and steps were immediately taken to secure the remains and solve the mystery of four months' standing, if the identity of the corpse could be established. A small steamboat was secured and about a dozen persons went on board with a box and other necessary implements and proceeded to the place described as the resting place of the corpse. Among those forming the party was the prosecuting attorney W. A. Colvig, a doctor, a justice of the peace, Ira Johnson, L. F. Willets the writer, and several other persons not now recalled. We found the body as described, and nearly intact except for the head and a few of the bones from one hand that was extended above the shore. The breast having been exposed above the water had been partly consumed by the vultures, but the lower limbs and the clothing was intact and readily identified and the skull found at a little distance away in the brush and divested of its flesh and hair. I easily recognized
[it] by its peculiar form, as also by scars that he had received during his lifetime. After a full identification and the necessary affidavits being made, the remains were carefully enclosed in the box and we steamed around the north of Coon Point and up Steadman Creek, dug a grave under a fir tree near the spring forming the head of the creek and gave him burial, putting a wooden marker with the name of the deceased on the board and returned to the city.
    The discovery of the body explained the mystery of Colver's disappearance and his movements after leaving his horse. At the time of his breaking through the pond's slight covering of snow and ice, there was not to exceed six inches of snow on the ground, and probably less than that on the ice. There was perhaps a mile of swamp intervening between the pool where the horse fell into the edge of the lake and from there around Eagle Ridge by water to Spence's about 18 miles which was several miles nearer than another way that could be traveled by anyone partially crippled, as was Colver, and as the lake was frozen it offered a possible chance for him [to] cover that distance even in his crippled condition. He evidently did not consider the eventuality of a storm that would blot out all landmarks, even the high shores of Eagle Ridge, much less did he realize the danger of running into blow holes or thin places over warm springs under the ice that were known to exist along Eagle Ridge, and it was evident that he met his death in one of these places, and that his body remained under the ice until its breaking up in April. During March and April there was a prevalence of south winds that drove the ice north and piled it in great masses on every south promontory. The place where the body was found was just in the line of the drift and was about 12 miles north of the known location of warm springs east of Eagle Ridge.
    We know that a very hard snowstorm fell the night after he left McCornack's, commencing soon after sunset and continuing all night. It was afterwards learned that Colver had expected to either meet a man at Mr. Spence's or get definite word in regard to [a] purchaser for his ranch, which would permit his cancellation of the Amerman mortgage. This was the impelling motive for his trip, and had he not been so secretive about his business there would have been anxiety felt for his safety and an early attempt made to ascertain his whereabouts. That no enquiries were made by his immediate relatives or any search for him instituted prior to the discovery of his horse were also commented upon.
    After the finding of his body, I am told that Aunt Huldah related a strange experience of hers that convinced her of his death. It was some time during the night he must have met his fate that she was awakened at her home in Phoenix by the footsteps of someone on the porch and a peculiar knock on the door that she recognized as one agreed upon between herself and husband to be given whenever he arrived home at unseemly hours. Recognizing the knock she arose, went to the door, exclaiming as she did so, "Is that you, Papa?" Opening the door no one was in sight, and she retired to her couch with a vague feeling or conviction that something unusual had happened to Uncle Sam. Whether she related this circumstance to anyone prior to the discovery of the body I never learned. But if she did it only goes to show that it was one of those strange cases that are met with and classed as telepathic, but which many claim to be true spiritual messages.
    Though not an outspoken believer in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, Colver's studies and practice of hypnotism and his witnessing the strange and unaccountable manifestations of hypnotics or those in what was known as the clairvoyant state undoubtedly indicated an open mind towards all phenomena relating to the unknown forces of nature, and whatever his belief may have been let us hope that he has forever solved the question and that its solution has been happily satisfying.

    I promised myself that I would add a few instances of Colver's "eccentricities" to let a little light into the peculiarities for which he was noted. A trait or peculiarity of his was his attitude towards tobacco. He claimed to abhor its use, and to decry it in every way, and never to my knowledge ever bought it in any form, and yet he was a confirmed and persistent user of the weed. One of his first questions when meeting a stranger was "Do you use the weed?" And if the reply was "I do," would be a request for a chew, and he would usually take enough off a plug for several chews. Should anyone ask him if he used the weed he would disclaim it except on rare occasions when a toothache or something else offered an excuse. He claimed he never carried it because he was liable to use too much of it and make himself sick. Yet he was always ready to take toll of others, never to repay.
    In trade, he was always ready [to] ask a good price and collect it too, and yet he would be extremely liberal and generous at times. During the years when his son and I were in partnership with his horses, we had the privilege of the use of any of his young horses if we would break them. I had picked out one young horse that I thought would make a good saddle horse, had broken it well. I had tried to buy it of him, but he asked me $125 for it which I thought was $25 too much, and refused to buy. Shortly after I had ridden the horse over to Phoenix, and while at his house some parties came there and were looking over his horses asking him his prices on different ones, when Colver pointed to the horse I was riding and says, "There is one of my horses that this man has just broken." The man looked the horse over, and says, "What will you take for him?" Colver turned to me and says, "That horse is worth $75, isn't he, Orson?" I said, "Yes, I guess he is." And he would have taken $75 for him when he had asked $125 for him a short time before. That was the way with him. He had no set prices but it varied according to how he felt at the time.
    I have heard him tell of bringing a bunch of beef steers (100, I believe) to Rogue River Valley in the fall of 1852, just after the discovery of gold, when he was offered 50 cts. on foot for them but wanted 75 cts. He could not sell at that price; the winter came on with two feet of snow and little feed. He sold what was left in the spring for 25 cts., losing near $10,000. That is a fair sample of his business ventures.
    When he went back East and bought his horses, he drove back with him on his wagon a large span of mules which he kept for use on the farm. They were good, steady animals, and though of the female gender, he called them Jack and Barney. After John Wagner left him he used to drive these mules to the running gears of his wagon whenever he went down into the Bear Creek bottom to work, and bring back a load of wood, driftwood usually. He never was in a hurry, and the mules were always ready to grab a bunch of grass by the wayside, and Uncle Sam would leave his lines slack so they could graze unhampered. On one such occasion while I was cutting wood for him he went away with the team and came in at dinner time and sat down to the table when Loui says, "Pap, did you feed Jack and Barney?" Colver looked up as though just awakened, and says, "Why no! Did I take them with me?" The mules were found one on either side of a fallen tree which they had drawn the wagon astride of in their search for grass. Colver had left them to cut a bunch of brush that he thought ought to be grubbed up, and then had wandered on to another and so had continued grubbing brush and forgotten about his mules.
    I had a contract to cut a lot of wood for him in the creek bottom the fall of 1864 and boarded with the family. Colver used to follow me down to my work and pick up brush and pile [it] against some old dead trees to burn them out. Nearly always he had his grubbing hoe with him to cut out an occasional grub, but most of the time he was gathering and piling brush against old trees that he was attempting to burn down. If the fires were burning good he might lie down on the ground nearby until the fire needed replenishing, when he would pile on more brush. When it came quitting time I sometimes had to wake him up to go to supper, and after supper he would often go back to complete burning a tree down. On one occasion he started to finish his particular tree and Aunt Huldah cautioned him particularly not to lie down because the tree might fall on him, but he assured her he would not be gone long as the tree was nearly ready to fall and it would only require a little more time to finish. That he would be back at early bed time. Next morning Aunt Huldah was telling us at breakfast, "What time do you think it was when Pap came in? It was after one o'clock this morning, and he would not have come in then if the tree had not fallen down and wakened him up." Luckily the tree did not fall on him; it fell right beside him, but the limbs had all been burned off, so the only effect was to waken him very suddenly, and he stole silently home and to bed.
    Another instance where he was awakened rather suddenly happened when he and I were coming into the valley from the ranch and camped for the night at Jenny Creek. We had no pack horse, so we took a few extra blankets under our saddles and a little lunch enough for supper and breakfast. After we had eaten our supper and had talked awhile Colver took one of our saddle blankets, which happened to be a burlap sack, spread it down near the fire and curled up on it very much after the fashion of a dog or cat, which was a custom of his, and relapsed into silence either meditation or slumber in spite of my urging him to lie down on the bed that I had made up nearby. He said he would come to bed pretty soon, for me to turn in and not wait on him. This I finally did. How long I slept I do not know, but I was awakened by a terrible commotion, a mingled torrent of oaths and exclamations, among which I could distinguish "Damned old fool! Burn yourself to death, will you!" together with a vigorous slapping and pounding. I immediately exclaiming "What in the world is the matter?" when he exclaimed, "Matter! Hell! Matter enough my clothes caught fire and I came near burning my damned fool self to death. Both my coattails have burned off and it burned my waistband nearly through." His words and manner were so emphatic and at the same time so apologetic that I could not help being convulsed with laughter which kept me from sleep for an hour or more. Colver finally crawled into bed, but at short intervals all night I could hear him bemoan his luck and curse himself for a damned old fool not to have any more sense than [to] do such a fool trick.
    Uncle Sam had appropriated and worn both the uniform coat and the overcoat that Loui brought home from the Army, and the tails of both on one side were burned to the waistband. He had Aunt Huldah cut off that portion of the burned garments, leaving both of them tailless, and these he wore for years, whether as a reminder of his proneness to cremate himself or as a matter of economy I never determined, but it certainly looked comical.
    Another instance of his absentmindedness happened several years later. He rode out in the pasture one day to repair the line fence between his and Amerman's land, which was near the S.E. corner in the creek bottom. He was gone all day, came in at night and went to bed. In the evening he went out to feed old Maj. John (his stallion and riding horse, the one he rode into the hole in the marsh years later). He, in great excitement, saying "Old John has been stolen, and he was ridden away as both saddle and bridle are gone." He routed out several parties to scour the surrounding country, telegraphed both up and down the valley to have the roads patrolled and (I believe) had the sheriff's office looking for the thief. Late in the afternoon, some parties who had been over on the Siskiyou trying to get on track of the horse were nearing home, when just below where the ditch crossed the road south of Colver's line fence they heard the neighing of a horse across the creek in Colver's pasture, and the voice seemed familiar. Upon going over there they found old John, tied to a tree in the brush where Colver had left him the day before when repairing the fence. The horse was pretty hungry and thirsty from his long fast, but Colver felt much relieved though rather crestfallen at having raised such a false alarm.
    These are a few of the many incidents that might be related to show the unreliability of him as [a] dependable man. He was prone to deep meditation at times when his appearance was more like that of a sleepwalker, and his mind seemed to be far off. He would put in more time and meditation over some catchy but foolish rhyme that ought to occupy it in some profound philosophical problem. With all the advantages and opportunities he had as an early settler, with a body of land that in itself was a fortune, he never seemed to accomplish anything of permanence for himself or his family. That he did not fail financially sooner than he did was undoubtedly due to the industry and good management of Aunt Huldah.
    And yet, Uncle Sam was a good man, in his way benevolent and kindhearted, tolerant in everything except in extra care and trouble his slack ways caused hardship to his wife, who never more than mildly remonstrated with him for the trouble he caused her by his too exuberant hospitality and careless habits. His father and mother came from the East and took up their home with him soon after the completion of the old blockhouse, occupying two rooms in the S.E. corner of the first floor until they died. I believe both Uncle Sam & Aunt Huldah went down to San Francisco from Portland, by water, and met them during the time the vigilantes were rounding up the thugs and robbers in that city. It is said the old people arrived in the city in advance of [the] arrival of their son and his wife and came near falling into the hands of the outlaws who, believing they had money, had contrived to have them put into different rooms, when a friend of Uncle Sam's interfered and put them in another apartment where he kept guard over them until the arrival of their relatives.
    I submit these reminiscences, hoping that in the absence of a more complete and comprehensive account it may serve in a measure to supply some facts and incidents worthy of preservation and to show that not all are forgetful nor blind to the good qualities, as well as the faults, of those who helped to make the early history of this country.
    That the many mistakes and errors of the article may be forgotten, in the attempt to chronicle the good of an old friend of the writer, is the hope of
O. A. Stearns.
Orson Avery Stearns, Reminiscences, 1921-22, q.v.

A Brief History of the Callendars
    Our grandmother, Huldah Callendar Colver, was the daughter of Samuel Callendar and Mary Isam Callendar. One sister of F. Samuel Callendar, Kathrine Callendar, married David Colver, brother of our great-grandfather Samuel Colver Sr., and another sister of Samuel Callendar, Olive Callendar, married Charles Colver, brother of Samuel Colver Sr.
    If you ever go to Boston, be sure and climb to the top of the Bunker Hill Monument, which was erected to the memory of the soldiers of the American Revolutionary War.
    There you will see 4 little cannon, known as the Captain Callendar's battery, who with those four little cannon, about five feet long, saved George Washington's army in his retreat from Long Island in 1776. This Captain Callendar was an uncle to the father of Huldah Callendar Colver, our grandmother.
    Samuel Callendar, our great-grandfather, was a piper during the Revolutionary War, being then very young. He also used this fife in the War of 1812. This same fife was brought to Oregon in 1845 by David Colver, a son of David Colver Sr. and Kathrine Callendar, and was used by him in the Indian wars in Oregon.
    The Callendars are noted for their athletic agility. As a family, they are very musical, being able to pick out music on any kind of an instrument. It was a Callendar who did much to bring about the election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800 and defeated John Adams, in cartooning and ridicule in song, overcoming in the election the George Washington administration.
    The Callendars are Scotch, and all a very long-lived people.
1923. Bertha Rader
Penciled on the end pages of a copy of Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon, 1904, pages 1033-1034

    Samuel Colver, senior, was one of the Ohio pioneers before 1800, assisted General Lewis Cass in the survey of the public lands, an uncompromising foe of slavery and a man of rare force and influence in that state, where he resided for
more than fifty years. He and his wife (octogenarians) emigrated to Oregon in the spring of 1857 to reach their two sons, Samuel and Hiram, both talented and educated and equally earnest with their sire in propagating anti-slavery doctrines and proclaiming the horologue of freedom.
T. W. Davenport, "The Slavery Question in Oregon," Oregon Historical Quarterly, December 1908, page 323

    An anecdote of that time may not be out of place here. The Indians, under the command of their two chiefs, Sam and John, were posted in a very strong position on Table Rock at the lower end of Bear Creek Valley, and their scouting parties were out committing depredations and making travel unsafe, when John Beeson visited Hiram Colver at his home half a mile from Phoenix. Mr. Colver was well known to all the Indians thereabout and enjoyed their confidence to a high degree. So Mr. Beeson had come to him to get his assistance in suspending hostilities. He wanted Mr. Colver to go with him to the Indian camp and persuade them to cease their warlike operations and thus prepare the way for an amicable conference by both parties for the adjustment of mutual wrongs. He laid the war to bad white men, which was admitted, and also that the settlers to a man were indisposed to a conflict; indeed, had done nothing to provoke it--also admitted. Then said Mr. Beeson, "Come with me and we will tell the Indians the truth about this matter; lay the blame where it belongs, and have this war stopped before it goes any further." Mr. Colver, who, though as much of a humanitarian as his visitor, was more discreet and answered as follows: "Well, Friend Beeson (in a drawling nasal tone peculiar to him), you may go to Old John and exercise your powers of persuasion upon him, and if you come back with your scalp fast on your head, I will go with you tomorrow." Mr. Beeson didn't go. The Indians knew as well as those gentlemen that the white miscreants who were continually upon them were but a small fraction of the population, but they also knew that the white population did not exert themselves to discover and punish the guilty persons who seemed to enjoy complete immunity among their brethren. They knew that the Hudson's Bay Company held both races equally responsible for wrongdoing, but they could not understand why we did not do likewise. They were short as jurists and, concluding that the whole race was their enemy, made indiscriminate war.
T. W. Davenport, "The Slavery Question in Oregon," Oregon Historical Quarterly, December 1908, pages 324-325

    FRANK LLOYD COLVER. Residing in a historic old house, built by his grandfather of smooth hewed logs, intended as a home, hotel and a place of safety for the pioneer settlers in case of Indian attacks, Frank Lloyd Colver has passed therein the years since his birth, having known no other place of residence. On the settlement of the estate he acquired seventy-five acres of the family homestead near Phoenix, Jackson County, and perhaps the most interesting structure ever erected in Oregon. His birth occurred December 14, 1882, a son of Llewelyn and Jemimah (Dollarhide) Colver. His grandfather crossed the plains with ox teams to Oregon in 1850, at first settling in the Willamette Valley, where he remained until 1852, and then removing to Jackson County, where he took up donation land claim No. 42 at Phoenix, five miles south of Medford. On this claim, soon after he had settled upon it, he built one of the most interesting houses erected in the pioneer period of the state. Primarily it was constructed for hotel purposes and also as a temporary fort or rendezvous for the various families in the settlement in case of Indian uprisings. Considering the early day in which it was built it is an enormous structure, being fifty by fifty feet in size, built of smoothly hewed logs fourteen inches in thickness, there being no sawmills in the county at the time of its erection. The logs were planed smooth on their outer surface and dovetailed together at the corners, constituting a piece of work as skilfully executed, considering the materials used, as could be accomplished today. The exterior of the building is practically as it was when it was finished in 1855, while the interior is finished and furnished as well as many of the finest homes in the county. While the house was built for hotel purposes the grandmother, Hulda (Callander) Colver, did not take kindly to the idea to preside over a hostelry and so the hotel project was abandoned. It is the oldest house standing in Jackson County 
[The Mountain House is older.] and unquestionably one of the most interesting relics from pioneer times. Early in its history it furnished protection from Indians to the neighbors for miles around on several occasions, and has served as the residence of Mr. Colver since the day of his birth. The grandfather was a pioneer in the breeding of thoroughbreds, having imported Morgan and Reinhart breeds from Canada, and conducted during his years of activity an extensive horse-raising business, ranging his animals on the Klamath County plains. He perished while attempting to cross Klamath Lake, riding on the back of a stallion, and his body was not recovered until two or three years later, when it was found by the Indians. The father, Llewelyn Colver, spent his life on the homestead of his father and met his death by being shot while attempting to prevent the robbery of the Olwell gristmill in 1884. His widow is still living and occupies a part of the old home.
    Frank L. Colver, the subject of this review, was reared at home and acquired his education in the common schools of the community. He has always lived on the old homestead where he was born and upon the settlement of the estate in 1910 he acquired the old home mansion and seventy-five acres of land in connection therewith. He is conducting a system of general farming on his property and is regarded as a young man of splendid business ability and success.
    Mr. Colver was married December 23, 1910, to Miss Mary Low, a native of Scotland, who emigrated to the United States in 1909, and to them one child, Harold, has been born. Politically Mr. Colver is independent in politics, his vote always being cast for those candidates whom he considers best fitted for the office to which they aspire. He is among the highly respected, prominent young farmers of the community, having a large number of close personal friends who esteem him highly.
Joseph Gaston, ed., Centennial History of Oregon, vol. II, 1912, pages 366-367

is a grandson of that historic pioneer character, Samuel Colver, extended mention of whom is made elsewhere in this work under the biographical sketch introduced by the name of his brother, Frank L. Colver. He resides on a portion of the original homestead, the only home he has ever known, owning seventy-five acres upon which he has built one of the prettiest bungalows on the Pacific Highway. He was born near Phoenix, Jackson County, November, 27, 1883, a son of Llewelyn and Jemima (Dollarhide) Colver. He was reared on the old homestead and educated in the district schools of his community. Upon reaching manhood he continued living and working on the old place and since 1905 he and his brother Frank have had full charge of that property. In 1910 the estate was settled and Mr. Colver obtained seventy-five acres thereof, upon which he has built a handsome bungalow, one of the most delightful homes in the community. He pursues a general faming and stockraising business and is regarded as one of the progressive young farmers of the county.
    Mr. Colver was married June 18, 1908, to Miss Minnie Robison, a daughter of one of the early settlers of the Wagner Creek district in Jackson County. In his political faith Mr. Colver adheres to the practices and principles of the Republican Party. He belongs to Phoenix Camp, No. 438, W.O.W., being one of the active, aggressive members of that organization. He has an extensive acquaintance throughout the county, where he is recognized by all who know him as being one of the influential, progressive and estimable citizens of his county. He is a worthy descendant of his illustrious progenitor, Samuel Colver, the sturdy pioneer, possessing much of his spirit, enterprise and unusual business ability.
Joseph Gaston, ed., Centennial History of Oregon, vol. III, 1912, page 300

    L. J. Greenwalt of North Yakima, Wash., came in Wednesday to meet his wife and little boy who were visiting her sister, Mr. J. B. Jackson, and after staying one day started for San Diego, Cal., to attend the exposition there and later expect to visit the fair at San Francisco. They expect to be gone until fall. Mr. Greenwalt at one time lived in Phoenix and cultivated the Colver farm.
A. C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets," Medford Mail Tribune, February 1, 1915, page 4

Old Roadhouse at Phoenix Recalls Indian War.
General Canby Spends Night at Inn Before Death.
    PHOENIX, Or., March 16.--(Special.)--Reminder of many of the smaller towns in Virginia and Maryland, the little pioneer town of Phoenix has a number of buildings erected many years ago in the old colonial style. These buildings are of two stories and wide porches supported by large columns. The most conspicuous is the Blue Flower Lodge, now a popular road house on the Pacific Highway.
    The Blue Flower Lodge structure was built in 1855 by Samuel Colver, founder of Phoenix (Gas Burg), and operated as a hotel for a number of years in pioneer days. The dimension of the building is 50 by 50 feet.
    The structure of the Blue Flower Lodge is of a nature not often duplicated in the West, is the assertion of Floyd Colver, grandson of the original builder and a native-born son of Phoenix. Trees for the building were cut near the town. Hewers with broadaxes shaped the trees into huge planks 6 inches thick and 16 inches wide. Hauled to the site of the structure, carpenters with jack planes smoothed the timbers to a glass-like smoothness. The timber were dovetailed to a perfect fitness at the corners, while oak pins hold the timbers together.
    Old-timers say that the building was used as a blockhouse, or refuge, during the Indian wars of the '50s.
[There was only one Indian "uprising" after the building was completed; actual violence approached no nearer than twenty miles away.] As to portholes being cut in the walls, and the walls being filled with leaden bullets fired by the hostile redskins, young Colver fails to recall any such shooting parties. General Canby in 1873 spent his last night in Jackson County at the hotel when he left here to make peace with the Modoc Indians and was killed, having ridden a horse borrowed from the Colvers.
Sunday Oregonian, Portland, March 17, 1929, page 16

(By Nellie Rose Jones)

    The Colver house at Phoenix, Jackson County, Oregon, now known as "The Blue Flower Lodge," is the oldest house standing in Jackson County today. [The Mountain House is older.] It was completed in 1855, and is, perhaps, one of the most interesting structures erected in Oregon during the pioneer period of the state. It was built by Samuel Colver and his wife, Huldah Callender Colver, on their donation land claim number 42. It was constructed, primarily, for hotel purposes and also as a refuge for the various families in the settlement during the Indian uprisings. [There was only one Indian "uprising" after the building was completed; actual violence approached no nearer than twenty miles away.] As Mr. Colver did not take kindly to the idea of presiding over a hostelry, the hotel project was abandoned and the building was never used for that purpose during the more than seventy years when the Colvers and their descendants occupied it. It furnished protection from the Indians to the neighbors for miles around on several occasions.
    Considering the early day in which it was built, it was an enormous structure, being 60 by 60 feet, built of smoothly hewn logs, 14 inches in thickness. The logs were planed smooth on their outer surface and dovetailed together at the corners. The port holes in the second story are not now visible, as the outside has been weatherboarded over. The house is plastered throughout, and originally contained four fireplaces. The kitchen fireplace has been removed.
    This historic old home was the old community center. The large second floor, now divided into thirteen good-sized rooms, was, at one and the same time, school room, dance hall, church, lodge and play-house. Oldtimers still refer to this old home as the "block house." Originally, an upper balcony extended across the entire front of the house, connected by an outside stairway with the lower porch. This upper balcony was removed in 1918 in order to give the house a more modern appearance. This home remained in the Colver family from the time of its construction in 1855 until 1923, when it was sold to Miss Edith Prettyman, who converted it into an inn known as "The Blue Flower Lodge."
    The "History of Jackson, Josephine, Douglas, Curry and Coos Counties," published by A. G. Walling in 1884, says, in writing about Phoenix, Oregon (pp. 374-375):
    "Samuel Colver in the fall of 1851--he being one of the very first pioneers--took up a donation claim where the town now stands and has ever since continued to occupy it. In 1864 Phoenix had reached its climacteric, and all was prosperity. The town was the home of lawyers, doctors, artisans and merchants. Business was very brisk and the mines were producing well. But this era of prosperity had an end sometime along the last of the sixties; and in 1874 a stray traveler wrote of the place; 'decay, desolation, death are inscribed on her walls; dusty in summer and muddy in winter, it is the abode of hard times.' But the dyspeptical fellow cheered up somewhat, and going into details, added: 'The people are industrious, temperate and always ready for a religious revival. It contains two grist mills, a store, tavern, school and a Good Templars organization.' The chief point of interest about Phoenix are the grave, now empty, of Captain Stuart, U.S.A., the 'Forty-nine' mines, Camp Baker and the S. S. Colver residence. The curious visitor would do well to inspect the latter remarkable building, relic as it is of times of Indians' assaults had to be provided against. In 1854 the town of Phoenix was laid out on the land of Samuel Colver. In 1855 S. M. Wait built the large flouring mill on land donated by Mr. Colver. In the summer of 1852, Hiram Colver came, bringing the families of both Samuel and Hiram, who had been left with the Geers and Davenports, relatives, who lived in the Waldo Hills near Salem. Samuel and Hiram Colver each took up a donation land claim of 640 acres. Also in 1852 came Samuel VanDyke, Matthew Little, E. E. Gore and O. D. Hoxie. In 1853 came James Sterling, John and H. M. Coleman, George T. Vining, Gridley, C. S. Sergeant, James P. Burns, W. Lynch, Milton Lindley, William Mathes, Harry and Harvey Oatman and Henry Church. Harvey Oatman built the first hotel in Phoenix, and Henry Church and Harrison B. Oatman were the first merchants. Colver and Davenport, and Wait and McManus were also engaged in mercantile affairs in early years. Judge Orange Jacobs, of subsequent celebrity (Jacobs became Judge of the Supreme Court of the state of Washington), was a teacher of youth for the early settlers of Phoenix and also practiced his profession of law in that locality."
    Judge Orange Jacobs married Lucinda Davenport, who was a first cousin of Samuel Colver. Lucinda Davenport was an aunt of Homer Davenport, the famous cartoonist.
    Hon. O. A. Stearns, deceased, of Ashland, Oregon, was closely associated with Samuel Colver over a period of forty years and has left some interesting notes concerning the life of this well-known pioneer and builder of the Colver house. Mr. Stearns relates that "Samuel Colver was a native of Ohio (b. 1815), and attended the common schools of that state until, in his early teens, he, in company with a younger brother, Hiram, was sent to a well-known college to complete his education. Here he found the strict orthodox requirements so distasteful to him that he was often in verbal conflict with his teachers, and his rhyming witticisms and caustic criticisms soon brought him into open conflict with the faculty until, finally, he was publicly reprimanded and given his choice of publicly apologizing or leaving the college. He chose the latter course, which terminated his scholastic career. About that time the state of Texas attempted to throw off the yoke of Mexico, and young Colver went to that new field where there was abundant room for adventurous spirits, and no restrictions by narrow orthodox teachers. Young Colver joined the Texan army under the banner of Sam Houston, and served as Texas Ranger until after the sanguinary battle of San Jacinto, which established Texan independence. After the independence of the Lone Star State was established, Colver served under the flag on the frontier, as scout and trader with the Indians, sometimes in conflict with hostile tribes and in peril of his life. On one occasion he was forced to cross a wide extent of country occupied by a hostile tribe of Indians, and his only method of travel was on foot and by night. The cactus and other thorny shrubs soon tore his clothes to shreds and he had to clothe himself with the untanned skins of wild animals and eat their unsalted flesh for days at a time until he reached a settled portion of the country."
    His next adventure was in his native state, which he canvassed pretty thoroughly as public lecturer on the then newly discovered science of mesmerism. Shortly after completing his lecture tour, Colver met and married Huldah Callender, and for a few years lived with his parents, Samuel Colver, Sr., in the old homestead near Irwin, Union County, Ohio. Soon after the discovery of gold and the opening up of the Oregon country to settlement under the liberal donation land law, the Colver brothers, Samuel and Hiram, together with their families, undertook the long and perilous journey across the plains by way of the Old Oregon Trail, to the Willamette Valley, at that time the only well-known part of the Oregon Territory. This was in 1850.
    In 1853 Samuel Colver was Indian agent and was one of the signers of the peace treaty made by Gen. Joseph Lane and others, September 10, 1853, at Table Rock, Oregon. [Colver was not an Indian agent, nor a signer of the Treaty of Table Rock. This often-repeated myth is due to a confusion with Samuel H. Culver.]
    Samuel Colver was an athlete, and was always an outdoor man. He was very hospitable and his house was open to strangers. His wife, "Aunt Huldah," as she was familiarly called, was one of the most generous and kind-hearted women that ever lived, a fine cook and housekeeper; a very domestic and home-loving woman, while "Uncle Sam" Colver cared little for home life and seemed to prefer the out of doors. His love for horses, dogs and all animals was a distinguishing peculiarity of his. Sam Colver was a good debater and was always ready to express his opinions on any subject; was an early abolitionist and advocate of women's rights, and a prohibitionist of the most pronounced type and ready to defend his beliefs at all times and against all comers. Though active in politics, he was never an office-seeker. While he was a pronounced agnostic, Aunt Huldah was decidedly religious, and her house was a favorite haven for ministers, and seemingly without protest from Uncle Sam. Another peculiarity of Uncle Sam's was his habit of composing rhymes, which he would delight in singing to his own music or reciting before a crowd. Some of his compositions were very fine both in sentiment and in rhyme. Most of Colver's verses were aimed at some common fault or frailty in human nature and exposing the same to ridicule.
    About 1860, Uncle Sam Colver went to Texas, sold his land that had been given him as bonus for his services in the war with Mexico, went to Canada and bought a number of very fine blooded horses. From that time on he engaged quite extensively in importing and breeding blooded horses and cattle.
    In 1867, Uncle Sam bought out the interests of his son in what was known for many years as the Stearns ranch in Klamath County. This ranch is on the Klamath Falls-Keno highway. He kept this property as long as he lived. In 1884, his only son was accidentally shot by a neighbor, P. W. Olwell, at Phoenix. Mr. Olwell operated and owned the flour mill at Phoenix (now the Fred Furry property). One night he heard someone prowling around his home and thought he was being robbed, as he often had considerable sums of money in his safe. He raised a cry for help and Louie Colver and Dr. George Kahler, who were close neighbors, were the first to reach the Olwell home. Louie Colver carried a lantern and, seeing Mr. Olwell standing at the window, waved his lantern and shouted to Olwell not to shoot, as this was Colver. Mr. Olwell was so excited that he did not hear, at least he did not heed the call, and fired, killing Louie Colver, one of his best friends. This was in March 1884. In April 1885, Isabelle Colver Rose (wife of Lewis Albert Rose), Uncle Sam's only daughter, weakened by grief over the loss of her only brother, succumbed to the ravages of diphtheria. This double tragedy left Uncle Sam and Aunt Huldah Colver childless.
    From this date Uncle Sam spent very little time in Rogue River Valley. The loss of his children preyed on his mind, and he seemed to want to be away from scenes that would remind him of them. He had taken a very active part in the Modoc Indian War in Klamath County and had been one of the first property owners in the Klamath country and had many warm friends among the pioneers of this region. In February, 1891, while attempting to pay a business visit to one William Spencer, who lived on the west shore of Upper Klamath Lake, Uncle Sam was drowned or frozen to death. His body was not recovered until several months later. His remains are now interred in the Phoenix cemetery beside those of his wife. This cemetery is a part of his donation land claim.
Family History
    The Colver family has a most interesting historical background. Samuel Colver was sixth in descent from Edward Colver, the Puritan, founder of the family in America. Edward Colver came to this country in 1635 with Governor Winthrop, and was a member of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He served in the colonial wars. He was given a grant of 600 acres of land for service in these wars. He was among the founders of Boston, Dedham and Roxbury, Massachusetts and New London and Mystic, Connecticut.
    Samuel Colver was the grandson of Nathaniel Colver and Ruth Kilbourn Colver of Litchfield, Conn. Nathaniel Colver was a member of the Provincial Congress from Albany County, New York and ensign in the Revolutionary War (1775-1783).
    Huldah Callender Colver was the daughter of Samuel Callender, who served as fifer in the Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812. Captain John Callender, captain of artillery at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was great-uncle of Huldah Callender Colver. Her great-grandfather was Eliezer Callender, who served in the Revolution as captain of the Virginia state navy. Both Capt. John Callender and Capt. Eliezer Callender, his father, were members of the Society of the Cincinnati of Virginia.
    Lewis Albert Rose, who married Isabelle Colver and who also lived in the old Colver home for four years after his marriage, was the great-grandson of Andrew Rose, who also served in the Revolutionary War. Lewis Albert Rose was the second cousin of President William McKinley, through the Rose line.
Colver Grandchildren
    Grandchildren of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Colver who are still living are: Mrs. Charles Hemstreet, Portland, Oregon (Effie Rose, who was the first child born in the old Colver home at Phoenix); Mrs. Arthur Furry (Lita Colver), Mrs. Wilbur Jones (Nellie Rose Newbury), Klamath Falls, Oregon; Mrs. Albert Soliss (Bertha Rose Rader), Arthur Rose, Lloyd Colver and Louis Colver, all of Phoenix, Oregon.
    Great-grandchildren of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Colver are: Mrs. Lawrence Mehaffey (Maude Newbury), Antioch, California; Donald R. Newbury, Medford, Oregon; Carl Newbury, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Armond Taylor, Cle Elum, Washington; Colver Furry, Phoenix, Oregon; Aubrey Furry, Birmingham, Alabama; Mrs. Juanita Furry (Mrs. Neil Franklin), Medford, Oregon; Jean Rose, Doris Rose, Huldah Rose and Lewis Albert Rose, Phoenix, Oregon; Agnes Colver, Harold Colver and Elbert Colver, Phoenix; Wilbur Jones, Jr., Klamath Falls, Oregon.
    (Nellie Rose Jones, who wrote this story, was a charter member of the Oregon state chapter Daughters of Founders and Patriots of America. Ed.)

Medford Mail Tribune, May 5, 1929, page B5

    Mr. [Welborn] Beeson says his father [also named Welborn Beeson], at 16, attended school with other children in the old Colver home, now the Blue Flower Lodge, then on the California-Oregon trail, a very rough, dusty cowpath, now the Pacific Highway, a paved and much-traveled thoroughfare. The Colver home was also the place for social, religious, community and other gatherings, and often sheltered the pioneers during Indian outbreaks. [There was only one Indian "uprising" after the building was completed; actual violence approached no nearer than twenty miles away.]
"76 Years Ago John Beeson Filed Claim," Medford Mail Tribune, August 20, 1929, page 2

    A party of about twenty men under the leadership of Geo. Tyler came over from Yreka and took us from Mr. Dunn's place to the fort at Wagner Creek. They made a wall of logs about ten feet high in a large square around Mr. Wagner's house, with a gate at each end and portholes at the corners. We had a row of beds next to the wall all around and a passageway between them and the house. Besides the crowd from Mr. Dunn's place who were there, I can remember Mr. and Mrs. Sam Colver and two children, Mr. and Mrs. Hiram Colver, the Reames, McCalls, Rockfellows, Helmans and Emerys. Also Mr. and Mrs. Samson and the Wrisleys stayed in the house with the Wagners. There was also an emigrant camp just outside of this enclosure.
Mary Dunn, "Indians Unfriendly," Ashland Daily Tidings, September 21, 1929, page 2  The Colvers sheltered at Fort Wagner during the war of 1853--before their famous house was built.

The Republican Party--
    How was it organized In Oregon? Judge L. H. McMahan has in his possession the record, written by T. W. Davenport, father of Homer Davenport, the great cartoonist, about whom it is not necessary to inform any old-time Oregonian as to his ability and honesty. This manuscript, the Bits man believes, has never been published. It is worth publishing in full, which will require two or three issues, beginning as follows:
    "Dr. Benjamin Davenport, a pioneer of 1851, was born near Spencertown, in Columbia County, New York, on the 24th day of June, 1799. His mother's maiden name was Philomelia Colver (written Culver by some of the relatives), a sister of Samuel Colver, Sr., who settled on the Darby Plains in Union County, Ohio, in 1800, and lived In Rogue River Valley (Oregon) for the last 10 years of his life. His father was Jonathan Davenport, his grandfather Benjamin, his great-grandfather Jonathan, and his great-great grandfather Thomas, who was one of the Davenports who came from England prior to the year 1640, and settled in Boston.
    "The first descendant of Thomas Davenport in this line was born in Dorchester March 6, 1859 [sic], and died in Little Compton, R.I., January 11, 1729. The next, Benjamin, was born October 6, 1698, in Little Compton, and married Sarah Burr, moved westward, lived in Andover and Lebanon, Conn., where all his children were born, nine in number, and finally settled in Spencertown, N.Y., where he died about 1785. The eighth child, Jonathan, was born January 9, 1749, married Philomelia Colver, raised a numerous family and died on his farm near Spencertown in the year 1804.
    "Benjamin, the subject of this sketch, and the youngest of 13 children, was only 5 years old when his father died, and two years later his mother married a Mr. Mumford and moved with her children to the residence of her husband, on the Grand Isle, in Lake Champlain, Vermont. Mr. Mumford, being a tanner and currier, worked the Davenport boys into that business and that of carpentering, to their great advantage.
    "At the age of 18, Benjamin went west to his uncle Samuel Culver [sic], in Union County, Ohio, but he did not remain there long. In the year 1818 he and two cousins, young men of about his age and also mechanics, struck out for Kentucky, where proficient mechanics were in better demand than in Ohio, and got work near Marysville in that state at $40 per month. At the end of the year his two cousins returned to the Darby Plains, but he remained in Kentucky nearly five years, working at his trade and studying medicine, to the latter of which he was induced by his employer, whom he nursed through a long spell of fever. Not liking the division of society there by the line of slavery, he went south to New Orleans, and there took passage on a sailing vessel for New York City, which he reached after several weeks of tempestuous weather. Over five years of absence, unrelieved by a single letter, was taken as an evidence of his death, and accordingly his share of the paternal estate had passed into other hands, but his identity being unquestioned, he succeeded in regaining the principal portion, which he used to pay his way through the medical college at Pittsfield, Mass.
    In the year 1825, he married Sarah R. Gott, and after being fully equipped for the practice of medicine he moved with his family, consisting of wife and two children; Timothy W. born in 1826 and John born in 1830, to Luzerne County, Pa. The portion of Luzerne County where he located was a poor, stony farming country, and while he had plenty of business his income was in reverse ratio to the stones which everywhere encumbered the earth. If his heart had been as hard as the land, he could have extorted a good living from its hard-pressed human inhabitants, but nature had constituted him otherwise, so, after a residence of five years, he turned his face westward, astride of one horse and leading another, the only form of traveling expenses he could obtain from his debtors in the year 1835. He passed into the southern part of western New York, where his wife's sister lived, but the earth did not promise much more in Allegany County than in the place he had left, and he continued his search until he reached that farmers' paradise, the Darby Plains in Union County, Ohio. By a skillful and fortunate surgical operation upon the wife of the cousin who had accompanied him to Kentucky in 1817, he at once got into a large and remunerative practice, and in the fall of the year 1836 a messenger with team and two-horse wagon was sent to Luzerne, some 700 miles, for his family. The journey was unattended by any accident or disagreeable circumstance, in fact was delightful to the family, which had been increased by the birth of Joseph and Mary, and the accession of a young unmarried woman who desired to improve her position by going west. I may here mention that her anticipations were fully realized, for she married her conductor, who was an energetic, good man, and successful farmer. Several good children were born to them, and in 1846 they emigrated to Lee County, Illinois, where their descendants remain.
    "Likely the pioneer spirit and love of adventure is not easily or long repressed, and continually breaks out afresh, so, in 1850, after a 14 years' residence in Ohio, Dr. Davenport and family, without any good reason, as viewed by others, left Woodstock, Champaign County, Ohio, for the Pacific Coast. Early in April of the year 1850, a company with Ephraim Cranston and family, and the family of T. J. Faulkner, he started overland in two-horse wagons to cross the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, expecting to go across the plains that year. But numerous detentions, incident to the spring months, made him late in arriving upon the Missouri frontier, from which all broken oxen had been taken by the emigrants preceding them, and they had to make up teams as best they could from the refuse
remainder, consisting of young unbroken steers and cows, at high prices. Thus poorly equipped, and in company with more laggards, they crossed the Missouri River, at old Fort Kearny, now Nebraska City, on the 10th of June, a full month later than they should have done.
    "The emigration to Oregon and California, very heavy that year, was over a month on the road, which was well lined with Mormons going to Salt Lake, and among whom the cholera was very destructive. One train of 50 wagons lost seven from this disease in one day. From the number of new-made graves at every camping ground it was painfully evident that the emigrants to the West Coast had suffered decimation from it. More direct evidence of the fearful destruction of that year was given by the remnants of families returning, brokenhearted, to their old homes. To add to these discouragements, a malignant form of distemper had broken out among the horses, reducing them very much in flesh and strength, and the cattle were worsted in breaking. After a calm survey of the situation it was evident that, even if the cholera could be escaped, Salt Lake would be the end of this year's journey, a prospect wholly distasteful to the company. So, when they were within a few days' drive of New Fort Kearny, Dr. Davenport and family, and that of Mr. Cranston, began to retrace their steps to Missouri. They stopped in Andrew County, [Missouri,] escaped the cholera, and by the next season were fully prepared with competent teams and valuable experience to commence the long journey afresh.
    "Some of the belated company of 1850 were not to be driven back by cholera or any other discouraging incident, and they continued on with the firm determination of going as far as they could.
    "A Prof. Collins from a Kentucky college, and a very ardent Presbyterian, tried hard to dissuade my father from returning to Missouri. Among other things he said with feeling emphasis, 'Dr. Davenport, if God has predestined you to die of cholera, you will die just as certainly in Missouri as on the plains.' To which the doctor answered, 'Yes, I believe that is true. But as I do not know, and have no means of finding out what God has intended, until after it has happened, I must use the reason and judgment with which He endowed me, and keep out of the water if I do not wish to be drowned, and a safe distance from the fire, if I prefer not to be burned.' This wise answer had no perceptible effect upon Mr. Collins, who reiterated his theological maxim with the air of one who hugs a fetish to his bosom. They shook hands in parting, and the doctor, with tears coursing down his face, said, 'I hope and pray that God has predestined a safe journey for you and your family.'
    "Mr. Collins' family consisted of himself, wife and little daughter some 12 years of age, and a brother-in-law, all of whom except the daughter died of cholera before reaching Bear River. Some kind person took the child to Salt Lake City, where, according to reports, she remained.
    "In the spring of 1851 the two families, reinforced by several from the New England states, one from the old Ohio home, and some from Nodaway and Andrew counties, Missouri, crossed the Missouri at old Fort Kearny on the 8th of May, organized the company by the election of Alex McAlexander, captain, and began their westward march under the most favorable conditions.
    "That year there was no cholera on the plains, and, in the McAlexander company, no fatal eases of sickness of any kind, no detentions, no stampedes, and no attacks by Indians. As usual, there was not entire harmony in the train, and at Independence Rock the company divided into two, about equal portions, Dr. Davenport's family, Faulkner's, Coolidge's and Leonard's continuing under Captain McAlexander, until they reached Butter Creek in Umatilla County, then without white settlements, where the Davenports and Faulkners halted a few days for the recovery of some lame cattle. All of the McAlexander division, however, got into the Willamette Valley about the 8th of September, after four months' interesting journey.
    "It is stated in the historical accounts of the year's immigration to Oregon that 23 persons were killed by Indians, but there is no statement as to the cause of the outbreak. Up to the time the McAlexander wagon train reached Rock Creek, on Snake River, there had been no trouble in any company from the Indians. But at that camp, on the night before, a Dr. Patterson, in what was called the Patterson company, drove off by threats, accompanied by the discharge of his gun, a camp of Indians that was occupying the ground he wished to camp on. Likely Patterson had no intention of hurting anybody; at most it was a very poor piece of mock bravado, and that night, when nearly morning, one of his guards, a Mr. Black, was shot through the body by a large musket ball, and two others were slightly wounded. As far as anyone knew or heard, this was the beginning of the war upon the immigrants that year, and it extended along the line from Rock Creek back a hundred miles up Snake River. It was afterwards reported that the Harpole company had a running fight the whole distance.
    "Mr. Black, who was from Indiana, was placed upon a bed formed by weaving ropes through holes in the top of the wagon body, like the old-fashioned bedstead, and carried along in this manner two weeks or more, until he died at Willow Creek, where he was buried. Undoubtedly the Indians inhabiting the country through which the Indians passed had it in their power to destroy all of them, but up to the time of the Patterson incident they seemed harmless, coming to the camp and begging, trading and loitering in true Indian style.
    "When the McAlexander company reached Fort Laramie probably 2000 Sioux Indians were camped round about it, and although the emigrant cattle and horses were turned to grass, and allowed to roam all night without a guard, none were missing at starting time the next morning. Neither was there any begging, and the question might be pertinent whether the presence at the fort of 150 soldiers exerted a salutary restraint upon the predatory instincts of the red man. At Green River was a large camp of Indians, hundreds of miles from any military station, yet the unguarded teams of the company passed a night there without loss or molestation. Is it not probable that, among Indians as among whites, scarcity of the necessaries of life has much to do with lawlessness and rapacity? And also the manner in which visiting Indians are received by some white men may have very much influence in stirring up bad feelings and exciting them to pillage. I know it was the practice in a few companies to order Indians away from camp, in a gruff manner, as they would a mangy dog, and one such incident was followed by a loss to the erring immigrant of all his cooking utensils that same night.
    "Dr. Davenport located in Marion County, 12 miles east of Salem, upon a half section of Waldo Hills land, T. 7 S., R. 1 W., Wil. Mer., and became a farmer, subject to occasional calls to practice his profession. His five years' residence in Kentucky had produced in him an intense hatred of the slave system, and when the question of the introduction of slavery into the Oregon Territory was rife here in the years 1855 and 1856, knowing that a large percentage of the sparse population was from Missouri, he felt much anxiety as to the result. Though in the modern sense no politician, he spent much time and exerted all his influence in favor of freedom. Unlike Abraham Lincoln, he would not help catch runaway slaves; in fact, he obeyed the higher law and helped the fugitive on his way, while he lived in Ohio--at least that is the account given of him in the 'History of Union County' of that state. He was one of the principal advocates for the organization of the Republican Party, and prompted, for that purpose, the meeting of the 11th of October, 1856, recorded in the second volume [Volume XXX] of Bancroft's History of Oregon as having taken place at Silverton and attended by Paul Crandall, O. Jacobs (Orange Jacobs) T. W. Davenport, Rice Dunbar and E. N. Cooke. That item of history, however, is incorrect, as the meeting of the 11th of October, 1856, was not held at Silverton, and was composed of all those mentioned by Bancroft and one more, the prime mover of the meeting, Dr. Benjamin Davenport. This was the first Republican meeting held in Marion County, and, so far as any record shows, the first in the territory. There had been public protests against the introduction of slavery here; one in Linn County, but no party movement taking the name of Republican.
    "Upon getting the news of Fremont's defeat, a few of the earnest friends of freedom held an impromptu meeting at the doctor's house to recruit their blasted hopes by an interchange of views. Besides the doctor there were present the Rev. Thomas H. Small from east Tennessee, Jones Wilbur, a Quaker from central New York, Paul Crandall from Wisconsin, O. Jacobs from Michigan, Rice Dunbar, and T. W. Davenport.
    "As usual after a defeat, pessimism was in the ascendant, and the future of the territory seemed dark to those members who had braved the terrors and the trials of the overland journey to establish a free commonwealth upon the Pacific Coast. All of them had been Whigs, and they had feared that as the Democratic politicians here had tried to suppress any discussion of the slavery question, for fear of making trouble in their own ranks, the recent Republican defeat might increase the pro-slavery vote to a majority. And such a result was to be dreaded, for there was no resource left to the pioneers but to remain and endure what they could not cure. One gentleman, the youngest of the company, predicted the adoption of slavery in Oregon and declared the defeat of Fremont was the Waterloo of the Republican Party. The elder persons, if not more hopeful, were more resolute, and upon the strength of their convictions of the righteousness of their cause had faith that Oregon would be free, and the Republican Party would ultimately triumph.
    "The doctor had been for six months polling the immigrants from Missouri and the other slave states, and had ascertained that 75 percent of them would vote against slavery. Even some of them who had owned slaves east were opposed to introducing the system in Oregon. He felt no fears of the vote to be taken, and none
as to the future of the Republican Party, and predicted that the next news from the States would be of an increased determination to wage a relentless war against the spread of slavery. The doctor was intuitional or far-seeing; his predictions became facts, but he did not live to see either, for he died at his home on the 10th day of February, 1857."
R. J. Hendricks, "Bits for Breakfast," Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 11-13, 1929, page 4

Pioneer Woman of Phoenix Given Pension by Special Act Congress
    President Hoover, on May 19, signed a bill granting to Mrs. Jemima Colver Rose of Phoenix, Ore., a pension in the sum of $30 a month.
    The bill, introduced in the Senate and sponsored through the law-making channels by Senator C. L. McNary, grants the pension because of the service during the period of the Civil War of Lewellyn Colver, member of Company I, 1st Oregon Infantry. Mrs. Rose was the widow of Lewellyn Colver before her marriage to the late Lewis Albert Rose.
    Necessary facts and data for the pension application were gathered and forwarded to Washington, D.C. by Mrs. Wilbur Jones of Klamath Falls, under the direction of Captain O. C. Applegate, also of that city.
    Mrs. Jones is the stepdaughter and niece by marriage of Mrs. Rose. Captain O. C. Applegate was a friend and associate of Lewellyn Colver in the Indian war service during the years around the 1870s.
    Others who assisted were Mrs. O. A. Stearns, Ashland, who secured an affidavit from Alonzo Williams of California, only living member of Company I, 1st Oregon Infantry, and attorney Don R. Newbury, Medford, who copied the required court records from the Jackson County files.
    Because of certain rules governing the pension bureau, the application could not be favorably considered by that department. A petition to Congress, asking for a special act, was prepared by Mrs. Jones and circulated by Mrs. Donna Furry Graffis.
    The following well-known citizens of Southern Oregon signed the petition: Lloyd Low, sheriff, Klamath Falls; C. C. Low, ex-sheriff, Klamath Falls; Alex Sparrow, county judge; Delilia  Stevens, county clerk; J. B. Coleman, county assessor; A. E. Reames, attorney; C. M. Thomas, ex-circuit judge, and W. H. Gore, banker, Medford; A. H. Fisher and Andrew Hearn, Phoenix, and Mrs. Donna Furry Graffis.
    Mrs. Rose, whose maiden name was Jemima Dollarhide, was married to Lewellyn Colver in December, 1874, and came to the old Colver home, now the Blue Flower Lodge, as a bride, and this was her home during the greater part of the next 50 years.
    In 1884 Lewellyn Colver was accidentally killed. In 1886 Mrs. Rose married the late Lewis Albert Rose, who was the widower of Isabelle Colver, sister of Lewellyn Colver. Lewellyn Colver and Isabelle Colver are the only children of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Colver, pioneers of Rogue River Valley, on whose donation land claim the town of Phoenix was laid out.
    Mrs. Rose, who is nearly 77 years of age, left Sunday for Fullerton, California, on an extended visit with her daughter, Mrs. Claud Cate. She was accompanied by another daughter, Mrs. Lita Colver Furry.

Medford Mail Tribune, May 31, 1930, page 6

    Phoenix, in Southern Oregon, was originally named Gasburg. Samuel Colver took up a donation land claim in the fall of 1851 on which the town of Phoenix was later built. In 1852 his brother, Hiram Colver, came, with his own family and that of his brother Samuel. Each of these brothers took up a full mile square of land. Other settlers who took up places in 1852 were Sam Van Dyke, Mathew Little, E. E. Gore and O. D. Hoxie. In 1853 a number of other settlers took up places nearby, among them being George T. Vining, C. S. Sergeant, James Sterling, John Pullman and his brother H. M. Pullman, J. P. Burns, W. Lynch, Milton Lindley, Henry Church and Harry and Harvey Oatman.
    The town of Phoenix was laid out in 1854. The following year Sam Colver donated land to S. M. Wait to start a flour mill. Later Mr. Wait sold the mill to E. B. Foudray, and Mr. Wait went up to Washington Territory and founded the town of Waitsburg. In 1859 William Hess bought the mill, selling it three years later to James T. Glenn. Two years later Glenn sold it to E. D. Foudray, who ran it until 1871 and sold it to G. W. Wimer. This old mill was taken over by the grangers in 1876. Later they sold it to P. W. Olwell. Harvey Oatman built the first hotel in Phoenix. Harrison B. Oatman and Henry Church ran the first store there. One of the first teachers at Phoenix was Orange Jacobs, who later became a distinguished jurist in Washington. He served as chief justice and also as delegate in Congress from Washington Territory.

Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," Oregon Journal, Portland, October 14, 1930, page 10

    Phoenix was originally known as Gasburg. Samuel Colver settled there in the fall of 1851 and took up a donation land claim on which Phoenix is located. His brother, Hiram, took up a square mile next to his in 1852. That same year E. E. Gore, O. D. Hoxie, Matthew Little and Samuel D. Van Dyke took claims nearby. In 1853 George T. Vining, James Sterling, H. M. Coleman and his brother John, C. S. Sergeant, Milton Lindley, James P. Burns, William Lynch, Henry Church and Harry, Lindlay and Mathes Oatman settled in or near Phoenix. In 1854 Colver, who was born in Ohio in 1815 and crossed the plains to Oregon in 1850, laid out the town. Colver was married in 1845 to Huldah Callender, who was born in Ohio in 1823. The following year he donated land on which S. M. Wait built a flouring mill, Wait later founded Waitsburg, Wash. Wait disposed of his mill to E. D. Foudray, who put in a mill race. Harvey Oatman built the first hotel at Phoenix, and Harrison B. Oatman and Henry Church started the first store, under the firm name of Church & Oatman. One of the first teachers at Phoenix was Orange Jacobs, who later became a judge of the supreme court of Washington Territory, Colver & Davenport started the second store at Phoenix, and Wait & McManus the third.
    The placer diggings near Phoenix, discovered in 1861, resulted in a boom, which reached its high point in growth and prosperity of Phoenix about the time Mr. Goddard started to school there, 1865.
Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," Oregon Journal, Portland, July 7, 1936, page 11

Pioneer Relics Saved by Local Couple from Fires, Indian Attack
Author of "Captain Jack, Modoc Renegade"
    Under cover of darkness, a fear-stricken family and their neighbors gathered with dreaded words ringing in their ears--"Indians on the warpath, flee for your lives!"
    Hastily they loaded a wagon with a few household goods and set out from Plush to seek the safety of Lakeview. As they rode slowly up Honey Creek and over the rim they looked back with horror on Warner Valley. Already it was spotted with angry flames marking the doomed homes of folks they knew.
    Wilbur A. Jones of this city vividly recalls this harrowing experience in 1878, for he was then a boy of 12. The home he was leaving behind, never to see again, was the one his father, William R. Jones, had built from lumber obtained when he bought old Fort Warner after it had been abandoned.
    The tragedy was not without  its humor, however, for among the few things hastily brought with them, there were four items singularly associated with the life at Fort Warner; namely, two Bibles--and two wine decanters! Fortunately, they are still among the many mementos of pioneer days which Mr. and Mrs. Jones have preserved.
    One of the leather-covered Bibles is of particular significance, for it is inscribed, "Presented to Bettie A. Jones by Chaplain M. J. Kenney, Camp Warner, Oregon, May 20, 1875." The wine decanters would be decorative additions to anyone's household, as they are Bohemian ware made of clear, blown glass into which a ruby-red grapevine design was processed in the making. They obviously were not always merely decorative, be it said, for the glass stoppers show undeniable signs of wear.
    Most of us have heard with awe of things that came west "around the Horn." But awe is mingled with incredulity at the story of the old trunk, covered with hand-tooled leather, that now quietly rests in the attic of  the Jones' residence at 803 High Street after a most eventful career.
    In company with a crate of dishes and two feather beds, it was sent by boat from Virginia in 1872 at the time William R. Jones and his family came west by land. That it ever reached its destination is indeed amazing, for the only address given was "B. A. Jones, Oregon."
    Since Oregon was then the name generally applied also to Washington, Idaho and part of Canada, it would seem that it might as well have been addressed to "Jane Doe, Wide Open Spaces."
    Mr. Jones, however, arranged to have the Sachs brothers, former merchants at Jacksonville then in San Francisco, go down to the dock warehouse and look up his goods. Eventually, after an arduous journey by wagon freight, they arrived safely in Jacksonville, where the family was awaiting them.
    During the Civil War, Mr. Jones' father was captain of the Seventh Virginia Cavalry in the Confederate army. The story goes that at the famous battle of Hall's Bluff a Northern soldier reeled from his saddle when struck by a bullet. His field glasses dropped to the ground nearby. Captain Jones saw them, leaned from his horse and scooped them up. They were an excellent pair to start with and are still in fine condition.
    The impression must not be gained that all of the interesting early-day relics are from the Jones aide of the family. Such is far from the case. Mrs. Jones, being the granddaughter of Samuel Colver, has been able, and has had the wisdom to preserve scores of articles reminiscent of pioneer days in Southern Oregon.
    Sam Colver and his wife, who was known far and wide in those days as Aunt Huldah, took up donation land grants of 640 acres at the site of Phoenix, in the Rogue River Valley. The Colver home was originally a blockhouse built of logs, later covered over with siding. It is said to he the oldest house still standing in Jackson County
[The Mountain House is older.], and it was there that Mrs. Jones spent many years as a girl.
    From oak trees growing on this land, a combination desk and bookcase was made by "Pappy" Weeks, who owned what was probably the first "furniture factory" in this part of the country. The desk has been used by several generations and is still as sturdy as the pioneers for whom it was built.
    With a reminiscent smile, Mrs. Jones pointed out some little fingerprints on the oak side panel. "It doesn't seem possible," she said, "but those were made by my daughter some 45 years ago."
    Among Mrs. Jones' more poignant memories is the time in 1886 when the home in which she had spent her early childhood burned to the ground. Only a few things were saved, but she is grateful that one of them was the marriage certificate of her father and mother, Mr. and Mrs. Louis Rose. This document is no simple statement of fact, being ornate in lettering, symbolic in the pictures engraved thereon and worthy of its walnut frame, now charred and blistered by the fire.
    Inset in the marriage certificate, as in an album, are the pictures of her father and mother. Mrs. Jones still cherishes the black taffeta dress which her mother wore in that year 1871 when the pictures were taken. The fitted bodice, with stays sewed into the lining and the billowing skirt, full four yards around the bottom, might well be an inspiration for the style-conscious of 1940--trends being what they are.
    Crowding to mind are a host of other intriguing possessions of Mr. and Mrs. Jones that hail from "way back." There are rare books, including McGuffey's Eclectic Primer ("an aid to little learners in their efforts to ascend the ladder of learning"), a daguerreotype made by Peter Britt, Oregon's first photographer, hand-woven linens made of home-grown flax, colonial silver spoons, an all-wood, hand-wrought potato masher, a black silk shawl with hand-knotted fringe, a gingham sunbonnet and even a panel from a brocaded satin dress from Oregon's one-time leading emporium, H. B. Litt of Portland.
    These are but a few--and each has its own absorbing story.
Klamath News, Klamath Falls, February 11, 1940, page 1

    Isabelle Colver was born in a covered wagon at St. Joseph, Missouri, February 7, 1850. Her parents had left their home in Union County, Ohio, in the fall of 1849, preparatory to joining the caravan across the plains, leaving St. Joseph in May, 1850. Samuel Colver was a native of Union County, Ohio, born September 10, 1815. After studying law at Plymouth College, Indiana, his varied life included soldiering with General Sam Houston in Texas, in 1836, where he was in the sanguinary Battle of San Jacinto. After the independence of the Lone Star State was established, Colver served under the flag on the Texas frontier as scout and trader with the Indians. In 1838, Colver was granted 640 acres of land for his services in the war. This land is the present site of Lampasas Springs, Texas. Returning to his Ohio home, Colver married Huldah Callander in 1844. On January 1, 1852, Colver was one of 28 men located in what is now Rogue River Valley, Jackson County, Oregon. He was the first importer of blooded horses to Oregon, bringing them from French Canadian stock. In 1869 this sturdy pioneer bought his son's homestead in Klamath County, now known as the Stearns ranch on the Keno-Ashland road, where he spent most of the latter years of his life. Samuel Colver took an active part in the Modoc War, acted as Indian agent in the Rogue River Valley [No, he didn't.], and was one of the signers of the treaty at Table Rock [No, he wasn't.], September, 1855. He was always known as a leader among men, public-spirited and fearless, as well as cultured, for he possessed talent as a musician, singer and composer, and was an interesting lecturer. His death in 1891 resulted from a trip made in the middle of winter to Upper Klamath Lake, where he was either drowned or frozen to death. His body was not recovered until several months after his disappearance.
    Mrs. Samuel Colver was born at Mechanicsburg, Ohio, in 1823. She was the daughter of Samuel and Mary Isham Callander. During her years of pioneering at Phoenix, Oregon, the Colver home was noted for its hospitality. Mrs. Colver died at Phoenix, August 18, 1907, and is buried beside her husband in the Phoenix cemetery, a part of their donation land claim. Mr. and Mrs. Colver were the parents of two children, Lewellyn Colver, who with Orson A. Stearns took up the first homesteads in Klamath County, in 1867; and who was a member of Company "I," stationed at Fort Klamath prior to 1867; and Isabelle Colver Rose, mother of the subject of this sketch. Mr. and Mrs. Rose had four children: Mrs. Charles Hemstreet, Portland, Oregon (Effie Rose); Mrs. Wilbur A. Jones, Klamath Falls (Nellie Rose); Mrs. A. N. Soliss, Compton, California (Bertha Rose); and Lewis Arthur Rose of Medford, Oregon.
"Nellie (Rose) Newbury Jones (Mrs. Wilbur Alvarado)," Linsy Sisemore, ed., History of Klamath County, Oregon, 1941, page 269

Historic Colver House, Built in 1855, Among Area's Oldest
    In the summer of 1855, Sam Colver built his big house across the wagon road from his first cabin. He made it 50 feet square, of hand-hewn timbers that were dovetailed at the corners and secured by wooden pins. There were loopholes for rifles in the second story.
    Nobody remembers when the weather boards were put on the outside--but it must have been early. The balcony that extended across the front, with an outside staircase, was taken down about 1918.
Three Front Doors
    There were three front doors. The one in the middle had small panes of glass  around the sides and it opened from the front porch into a long hall that ran back through the house to the kitchen. Off this central hall were large rooms, each with its own fireplace.
    All of the rooms inside were plastered, and, on Dec. 14, 1865, 15-year-old Isabel Colver wrote in a letter to her brother at Fort Klamath: "We are seriously considering and papering our sitting room, so I expect you will hardly know who lives here when you come home. Mother has bought some real pretty paper I think, but I fear the fence will not get fixed before you get home."
    The kitchen was big and roomy and in Huldah Colver's time there was a fireplace in it. One stove was in the kitchen and another on the back porch, and they cooked and ate out there in the summer time.
    Nellie Rose Jones, Sam Colver's granddaughter, says that the house was never used as a public inn because Huldah Colver said to her husband, "I'll be out in the kitchen doing all the work while you're out in front entertaining the guests."
    Although it became the headquarters for most of the social life of the community, and was referred to as "the block house," "the Colver mansion," and often as '"Colver Hall," it was not used for the purpose for which it was built until the 1920s when it was briefly known as The Blue Flower Lodge.
    About 30 feet west of the old house was a dug well, and a boardwalk was built from it to the back porch. Later, the well was covered with a shed and, close by, stood the milk house, with shelves on the south side where the milk pans could be sunned [to sterilize them]. There was also a smoke house, a chicken house and an ash hopper for making lye for soft soap.
Old Harness Closet
    In at least one old photograph, the woodshed can be seen just south of the house. It stood close to the wagon road so that a man could throw wood into the opening from a wagon. On the front porch, in the space under the outside staircase to the balcony, was the harness closet. It was very dark in there, very warm and the air smelled like leather.
    The barns were off by themselves, across the wagon road.
    The rooms in the southeast corner of the house were finished first, and Sam Colver's parents lived in them until they died in 1866.
    The Colvers always had relatives, friends or neighbor children living with them. The big room upstairs was used for everything that went on in the neighborhood--dances, school, spelling bees, debates, church and lectures.
    Nellie Rose Jones writes about her childhood in the Colver house: "In the evenings after the cows had been milked, the eggs gathered, the chickens fed, the wood and kindling arranged neatly on the front porch near the door, the supper over and the dishes washed, we gathered in the living room. A large back log with finer wood kept a cheery blaze in the fireplace. The black-and-white cocker spaniel dog and the old gray cat were stretched comfortably on the rug in front of the fire.
    "Grandma Colver sat by the large, round center table, on which always rested the big family Bible, and she would read her daily chapter in the Good Book, following the lines with her forefinger and stopping to chuckle, occasionally, over some passage that sounded funny, but remarking, 'It must be all right or it wouldn't be there.'
    "At the center of the fireplace mantle was a large clock, and at each end was a tall milk glass candlestick in the shape of a cross with a figure nailed to it. On each side of the clock was a china vase, flared at the top, with scroll designs on the side and a bouquet of colorful flowers painted on the front.
    "On the round table in the northeast corner was a copy of the poems of Mrs. Felicia Hemans, one of William Cowper's poems, a 'Book of Familiar Quotations,' a copy of 'David and Anna Matson' by Abigail Scott Duniway and other books. The Colvers were lovers of books and had brought some of them across the plains.
    "A large mirror hung near the front door. Under it was a washstand holding a blue-and-white toilet set, bowl, water pitcher, soap dish, and inside the washstand was the chamber [pot] to match the set. For this living room was also Grandma's bedroom. Her bed with its snowy white spread and stiffly laundered pillow shams, edged with white lace, was a very decorative feature of the room.
     "Against the south wall was the Mason and Hamlin organ. The bureau with a large mirror stood across the southwest corner of the room. On it was a linen towel with a red design across the ends just above the fringe and, in season, was a fresh bouquet of roses every morning.
    "Against the west wall was the lounge, upholstered in dark green rep; above it hung the enlarged pictures of my mother and her brother, the only children of Sam and Huldah Colver, who had lost these two children several years before and now had only the seven grandchildren to comfort them in their declining years.
    "On the center table was a fruit dish filled with choice apples from the family orchard. The weekly Ashland Tidings kept us abreast with the news; the Pacific Christian Advocate came regularly, Grandma subscribed for the Ladies' Home Journal for me, and these about took care of our reading material.
    "Then, the Christmas celebrations at Grandma Colver's. The picture that stands out foremost in my mind is that of the tree itself as it stood in the bedroom north of the dining room. This Christmas tree, as I recall it, was surely more perfect in shape than any of our trees today. The limbs seem to have been the same length from floor to ceiling--probably the tree had been topped--and then, of course, due allowance must be made for the fact that I am now seeing it through the glass of time.
    "For Christmas decorations, there was an abundance of mistletoe to be had fresh from the oak trees. Sacks made of mosquito netting and sewed with red yarn were filled with candy, nuts and oranges and hung from the limbs. Christmas cards, dolls and mysterious packages were tied to the tree. Lighted candles were on the tip of each limb from floor to ceiling and there were cookies tied with red ribbons, strings of popcorn and other strings made of our own lovely red madrone berries which grew in such abundance around Phoenix. Gold and silver tinsel also helped to make this wonderful tree a thing of beauty to the eager, waiting children.
Tree at Church
    "The little Presbyterian church at Phoenix was the scene of many Christmas festivities. I feel sure that in my early youth a public tree was an annual occurrence at this little church. We had inspiring programs. They seemed so then, and, I know now, after a lapse of many years, that we were enjoying a rare treat when we heard the splendid Christmas anthems, solos, etc, sung by the Gore family, the Coleman girls, the Van Dykes and others. No finer music has ever been heard in the Rogue River Valley, I'm sure, than was listened to, not only at Christmas but every Sunday in Phoenix.
    "As I write this, I can in memory hear my Uncle Will Gore singing Gounod's "Nazareth," accompanied by Aunt Carrie Gore (stepdaughter of Rev. M. A. Williams). The choir would sing "Joy to the World, the Lord Is Come." Aunt Ella Gore Wortman sang alto, Uncle Ed and Uncle Will Gore sang tenor and Uncle John sang bass. My father and mother also sang in the choir, as did Mrs. Sarah Van Dyke and others."
Medford Mail Tribune, June 20, 1954, page D3

    The material in this folder was placed in the Jacksonville Museum by M. Neill Helms. Sam Colver was the second Indian agent in the Rogue River Valley [No, he was never an Indian agent.]; he built the big Colver house in Phoenix in 1855 and was one of the early settlers in Klamath County.
    Sam Colver deserves to be remembered as one of "our fine old pioneers." He was a man of great character and individuality--but he didn't have many descendants to keep talking about him--like some of the old rascals have.
    One granddaughter, Nellie Rose Jones, did a lot of research on her family and kept every scrap of paper she could get her hands on. In 1953 she gave all her material to me and I sent it to the Special Collections at the University of Oregon for safekeeping.
    In case anybody wants to read more, at the University of Oregon Library are many letters and other family papers. Also the manuscript of Orson Stearns' "Reminiscences of Pioneer Days and Early Settlers of Phoenix and Vicinity," a portion of which is to be found in "Early Days in Phoenix, Oregon" (1954) and also in the big Klamath History put out in about 1941. Sam Colver's letters to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, Joel Palmer, can be read in microfilm in the [University of Oregon] Library.
    For more about Orson Stearns, who was closely allied with the Colvers for many years, see "Diary of a Trip Across the Plains in 1853" by Velina A. Williams (Supplemented by the “Recollections of O. A. Stearns," a nephew of Mrs. Williams). This is to be found in the Transactions of the Forty-Seventh Annual Reunion of the Oregon Pioneer Association. Portland, June 19, 1919. A copy of this pamphlet can probably be bought from, and certainly read at, the Oregon Historical Society in Portland.
    There is biographical sketch of Sam and Huldah Colver in the big Klamath History. In the Oregon Historical Quarterly for March 1956 is a picture of Hiram Colver's house. Mrs. Jones also told me a lot of family stories, "Because," she said, "somebody must know!" so I assume they were meant to be passed along.
    So, if anybody is interested in the Swamp Land Laws, Woman's Rights, lecturing, poetry, pack trains, farming or just plain early Rogue River Valley living--don't stop with this rather dull collection, which just happens to be duplicates from my files.--1957.
Southern Oregon Historical Society Research Library MS 263

Last revised February 18, 2024