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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Camp Baker



    CAMP BAKER.--On Tuesday last Captain Harris' company of cavalry, numbering eighty men, rank and file, left for their new quarters.
    The point selected is on Coleman Creek, within a short distance of Phoenix and is said to be a beautiful spot surrounded with shade trees, and well supplied with wood and water.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 7, 1861, page 3


    MILITARY APPOINTMENTS.--Chas. S. Drew, formerly of this place, and J. S. Rinearson, of Oregon City, have been appointed Majors of the cavalry regiment now being raised in this state.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 21, 1861, page 3


    Capt. Truax's company of cavalry left town on Thursday last for Camp Baker. He is still engaged in recruiting, and proposes to increase his command to the largest number allowed, viz: ninety-two men.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 21, 1861, page 3


Notice.
LOST BY THE BAKER GUARDS, 1st Oregon Cavalry Regiment, on 22nd December, eight miles from Jacksonville, on Applegate road, ONE DARK SORREL HORSE, with bald face and three white feet, 15 hands high, Saddle and Bridle on him when lost. Persons finding said horse will please leave notice at the SENTINEL OFFICE.
T. S. HARRIS, Capt.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 4, 1862, page 2


    SALUTE.--The troops stationed at "Camp Baker" fired a salute on the 8th inst., in commemoration of the battle of New Orleans. They used the cannon recently received from the state by the county authorities.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 11, 1862, page 3


    NEAR THE MAXIMUM.--The two companies now at Camp Baker number about 85 men each. Enlistments will be continued until the maximum is reached--92 men. Hurry up if you wish to join either of these companies.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 11, 1862, page 3


    CAMP BAKER.--The soldiers at Camp Baker are getting along fine and enjoying good health.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 18, 1862, page 3


    CAMP BAKER.--The publisher of the Sentinel took a flying trip on Monday last to Camp Baker. He thus describes what he saw and heard:
    The Camp is now occupied by two companies, "The Baker Guards" and "The Jackson Rangers." The place is situated about eight miles in an easterly direction from Jacksonville, and one and one-half miles west of Phoenix, on a small mountain stream called Coleman's Creek. The site is a beautiful and admirable one. There is plenty of dry, level surface for drilling and maneuvering, as well as for the buildings required for four full companies. Twenty-five log houses have already been built, and more can be put up at short notice. From the amount of work done, we judge the men have had plenty of extra duty to perform, but as the most of them have been accustomed to work, and will get extra pay for extra service, they prefer to do it. Now that sufficient ground has been prepared, three hours in each day will be devoted to infantry drill. When all become proficient in that, they then will be put through on horseback. The men are contented and orderly, and seem to take everything merrily. Between building houses, grubbing, exercising horses, drilling, attending bugle calls (especially the one calling them to their regular "human be-ans"), pitching quoits, running foot races, jumping, and other gymnastic exercises, they certainly enjoy themselves as well, if not much better, than the rest of mankind. The officers are gentlemanly, hospitable and generous to visitors, and much liked by the men. The intercourse between the officers and privates is gentlemanly and soldier-like. The utmost good feeling prevailed. Success to the Baker Guards and the Jackson Rangers.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 22, 1862, page 3


20th
Pleasant and warm. This morning we received the joyous news of the victory of our troops at Manassas, and in honor of the victory we fired thirteen guns. Before we fired the requisite number, two of the men were badly hurt by the premature discharge of the cannon. Lindley and Loller were the men. Lindley will not get well; his arm is badly shattered, and his face and body is badly burned, an awful sight. It has spread a deep gloom through the camp.
Camp Baker diary of David Hobart Taylor, March 20, 1862, Southern Oregon Historical Society.


    ACCIDENT AT CAMP BAKER.--In practicing with the cannon at Camp Baker on the 20th instant, a very serious accident occurred. A cartridge exploded in the act of loading the gun, injuring two men belonging to Company A; John Linnly seriously if not mortally, and ------ Lawler slightly.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 22, 1862, page 3


    RECOVERING.--The two persons who were injured at Camp Baker, on the 20th inst., by the premature explosion of a cartridge, are fast recovering. Their injuries are not as great as at first supposed. One of them will soon be able to discharge his duties again. The sight of the other is not permanently affected, and amputation of the arm will not be necessary. We are obliged to Captain Harris for the above information.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 29, 1862, page 3


Headquarters District of Oregon
    Fort Vancouver W.T.
        30th June 1862
Sir
    I have the honor to inform you that Major J. S. Rinearson 1st Oregon Cavalry with Co. C of that regiment have been this day ordered to proceed to and take post at Camp Baker near Jacksonville, Oregon in compliance with your request for a military force in that sector.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Justus Steinberger
            Col. 1st W.T. Infy.
                Comdg. Dist.
W. H. Rector Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Salem
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 143.


Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem July 22nd 1862
Sir,
    I have to acknowledge yours of the 18th enclosing duplicate of yours of July 2nd requesting troops, also a duplicate of July 2nd enclosing receipts for $500. A check for the above amount was transmitted to you on the 18th inst., same as yours. It was the very best that could be done. In regard to troops I would say that a full company of cavalry in command of Major C. S. Drew are on their way to Camp Baker in Southern Oregon. The reports in circulation concerning the hostile acts of the Klamaths are considerably exaggerated. Agent Logan of Warm Springs states that no murders have been committed, and those passing his agency report no difficulty with those Indians. [Patton is geographically confused. Warm Springs was on the northern route of the Oregon Trail; the Klamaths were "annoying" travelers traveling on the southern route, hundreds of miles away.] Supt. Rector prior to his departure did not specially authorize me to issue any instructions in regard to an expedition to the "Lake country." I have no doubt but that Major Drew will at an early day as soon as his command are recruited proceed to that country. Should he do so you will avail yourself of their protection and accompany them. You ask if articles of subsistence can be issued to the Rogue Rivers now temporarily sojourning near your place. In reply I have to say that the subject was fully discussed by both Supt. Rector and "John" prior to his receiving permission to go. It was expressly understood that they were to receive nothing while off the reservation and would return at any time when ordered so to do. With these facts before me I do not feel willing to authorize you to make any issues without the Supt.'s express orders. Arrangements will no doubt be made immediately upon his return concerning these Indians, and should they remain some provision ought to be made for them. You will advise this office whether they have worked any, [and] whether they have made any preparation for winter or not.
I am sir
    Very respectfully &c.
        T. McF. Patton
            Clerk to Supt.
Amos E. Rogers
    Sub-Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 9; Letter Books H:10, pages 164-165.


    RED TAPE ORDERS.--We have, at Camp Baker, a fine company of men, commanded by accomplished officers, ready and anxious to do any service required by the government for the protection of the overland emigration to Southern Oregon, and to break up the heavy Indian tax arrangement in the broad and fertile Klamath Lake Valley. But we are informed that the whole company have only three muskets, and they are not very superior weapons. The men have never received a dime in money, and the Quartermaster's purse has the deepest winter in it. Rumor says that they have some supplies at Crescent City, but whether the officers have any official notice of the fact or not does not matter, as money is necessary to start the motive power to get it here. It is thus that the emigration to Southern Oregon is protected, thus her rights asserted! Let us be understood: we attach no blame to the officers in this matter; we know they are anxious to go into active service.
    Ere long, we expect to hear news from the plains that emigrant trains have been robbed and plundered, by Indians known to be hostile. But what of that! Red tape must triumph, although the mangled victims of Indian ferocity are left to bleach by the wayside.
    Every year have the people of Southern Oregon been compelled, at heavy expense, to raise volunteer companies for the protection of overland emigration seeking her borders. Every year have the emigrants for Southern Oregon been compelled to go some four or five hundred miles out of the direct road, or run the gantlet of hostile Indians. Volunteers for any other place can be armed and equipped and dispatched to their fields of operation, but if, by any gracious condescension, we are permitted to have one company, three or four old muskets and a military camp is ample protection for us. Let the ball roll on--red tape is our candidate.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 23, 1862, page 3


    THE company of volunteers at Camp Baker has received its full quota of arms and clothing, and is to go in a few days to Klamath Lake, where a part of the company is already stationed.--Statesman.
    The above ought to be true, but it is not. Not a man of them has ever set foot in Klamath Lake Valley, and, furthermore, we do not believe that Major Drew would consider it safe to send part of a company over there. It is doubtful whether the full company would be sufficient.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 27, 1862, page 3


ADMONITORY.
GENERAL ORDERS--No. 166.
    WAR DEPARTMENT,
        ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE,
            Washington, Oct. 23, 1862.
    It appearing that large quantities of government property have been unlawfully disposed of by non-commissioned officers and soldiers, in violation of law and of the army rules and regulations, it is therefore ordered: That all United States officers commanding posts shall seize all military clothing, blankets, shoes, arms, equipments, and other such supplies which have been issued by the government to soldiers, and lost or disposed of by them. And it shall be incumbent on any person, not a soldier, who may have any such property in his possession, to prove that he has lawfully acquired possession thereof.… Commanding officers of companies are reminded that it is their duty not only to cause soldiers who are guilty of violating law forbidding the sale, destruction, or negligent loss of clothing, arms, and public property, to be charged on the muster rolls with all the articles improperly lost or disposed of, but also to enforce such other punishment as the nature of their offense may demand.
    By order of the Secretary of War:
        L. THOMAS,
            Adjutant General.
    The foregoing order is published for the benefit of whom it may concern. Its requirements are peremptory and will be strictly enforced by the military at this post, and it is thus made public so that those persons who have clothing, or other public property, obtained in the unlawful manner specified, may voluntarily return the same and avoid prosecution.
    The law referred to is An Act of Congress, approved January 11th, 1812, Sec. 17--and that portion which is applicable here reads as follows:
    "That every person not subject to the rules and articles of war…who shall purchase from any soldier his arms, uniform clothing, or any part thereof…shall upon legal conviction be fined at the discretion of any court having cognizance of the same, in any sum not exceeding three hundred dollars, and be imprisoned any term not exceeding one year."
C. S. DREW,
    Maj. 1st Cav. O.V.,
        Com'g. Post.
Camp Baker, Oregon, December 8th, 1862.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 10, 1862, page 2


NOTICE--All proper accounts for subsistence supplies, contracted by Lieut. Jesse Robinson, 1st Cav. O.V., A.C.S., during the period from November 1, 1861 to March 31, 1862 will be paid, if made in proper form, on presentation to the Commissary of Subsistence at Fort Vancouver, W.T.
    By request of Captain Jno. Kellogg, Commissary of Subsistence, San Francisco, Cal.
D. C. UNDERWOOD,
    Lieut. and A.A.C.S.
        Camp Baker, Oregon.
Dec. 8, 1862.
Oregon Sentinel,
Jacksonville, December 10, 1862, page 2


    ARREST OF A SECESHER.--A man by the name of Dunlap was arrested by Sergeant Moreton, of Co. C, at Phoenix, in this county, on Christmas, for hurrahing for Jeff. Davis, drinking to the arch-traitor's health, and denouncing the government. He was taken to Camp Baker and asked to take the oath of allegiance. Refusing to comply with the request, he was, we are informed, put into the guardhouse. Served him right. Quite an excitement was the consequence of this little episode.

Oregon Sentinel,
Jacksonville, December 27, 1862, page 3


    HE TOOK IT.--The secesh lately arrested at Phoenix, in this county, after lying in the guard house a day or two, concluded to take the oath of allegiance. After the wholesome physic had fairly settled on his stomach, he was released.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 3, 1863, page 3


    . . . A rampant secesher of Jackson County, named Dunlap, got on a bender at Phoenix on Christmas and let himself out in extravagant praise of Jeff. Davis & Co., and then denounced the United States government in such terms that the commanding officer at Camp Baker thought it best to cool him off in the guard house. He was kept in confinement a couple of days, and then marched out in the presence of the soldiers drawn up in line and obliged to take the oath of allegiance, which a correspondence says he took "with fear and trembling." Upon being released he left, on 2:40 time, and has not been heard of since.--Served him right.
"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 5, 1863, page 2


    RECRUITING IN OREGON.--Recruiting goes on slow, or rather not at all, in these parts. At the office in this place, says the Salem (Oregon) Statesman, none have been obtained, and are not likely to be. We hear the same report from the offices south of here. At Jacksonville, it is said a company might be raised if the government would pay coin, but not otherwise. It is too late in the season for volunteering. The "footloose" population have their eyes set minesward. It is not at all likely a resort to a draft will be had in Oregon.
Weekly Butte Record, Oroville, California, February 21, 1863, page 2


    TO HOLDERS OF VOUCHERS.--We are informed by Mr. Alex.Miller that all quartermaster accounts contracted by Lieut. Robinson before the 1st of May, 1862, will be paid at Camp Baker; and all contracted after that time will be paid at Vancouver.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 25, 1863, page 2


    PERSONAL.--Lieut. White, of Camp Baker, paid us a visit on Thursday last. He reports the health of the troops at that point good, and that they are anxious for active service. No finer company of men than that composing Capt. Kelly's command can be found in any country.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 14, 1863, page 2


    STRATEGY BY VOLUNTEERS.--It has been generally noticed by our citizens that the soldiers of Co. C, at Camp Baker, are remarkably quiet, well-behaved men. The best of feeling exists between them and our citizens. This is the more remarkable from the fact that, for sixteen months' service, they have not, as yet, received any pay. True, they are comfortably quartered at Camp Baker, and the inner and outer man well provided for; but the lack of money necessarily deprives them of many little articles they desire. Their greatest punishment, however, is in being unable at all times to have within "supporting distance" a "longitudinal chunk of the pure Virginia weed"--the staple luxury of the American soldier, sailor and citizen. It is said that a sailor will sell his last shirt for a chew of tobacco, and it not surprising that a soldier should barter his boots for a whole pound of the coveted article.
    Not long since, a soldier of Co. C struck a trade with a German in Phoenix, exchanging his boots for a pound of tobacco. This German is proprietor of a gingerbread bakery and also trades in tobacco, whiskey, lager, etc. The soldier returned to camp, indifferent to the consequences of appearing on drill the next morning without his boots as he rolled a sweet morsel of the luscious luxury under his tongue. His companions were apprised of his luck by a generous division of the tobacco. As the tobacco went round, a mischievous genius proposed a plan for regaining possession of the boots and having a good time generally. The plan was agreed to and carried out in following manner: After tattoo, at night, a corporal's guard of the men went to Phoenix, and posted themselves near the bakery. One of the party then went into the house, represented to the German that he was going to desert, and wanted to sell his overcoat. After some bartering, the German agreed to give him a can of whiskey and a five-dollar greenback for the coat. The trade being made, and the woman of the house kindly furnishing him with eatables to sustain him on his lonely way, he started for the door, his appearance in front of which, in his shirtsleeves, was the signal for the self-constituted guard to arrest him, which they quickly did, and rushing into the house, demanded the coat. The thoroughly alarmed lager-beerian hastened to hand over not only the coat but the boots also. He protested that he had not bought the articles; that the soldier had just left them there; and to conciliate the guard, he liberally treated all to whiskey, lager, gingerbread, etc. Of course, as the German had not bought anything, it would not do for the soldier to criminate him by returning the whiskey and greenback. After refreshing themselves at the expense of the liberal baker, the party returned to camp, gloriously drunk, and singing a patriotic song. The guard was called out, and the whole party lodged in the guardhouse until morning, when Capt. Kelly, after hearing the facts, released them, evidently satisfied that such a trick could not be played twice in the same community.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 14, 1863, page 2


    MILITARY.--Major Drew has received instructions from General Wright that the new company being raised here will be mounted, and attached to the command for Klamath Lake. Each private who furnishes his own horse and horse equipments will receive twelve dollars per month for their use and risk--making his total monthly pay $25. To this also will be added $100 bounty at the end of enlistment. This bounty will be paid, however, at any time when the soldier is mustered out of the service after the expiration of six months.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 1, 1863, page 2


    INDIANS.--The citizens in the vicinity of Phoenix having petitioned Mr. Rogers, Indian agent, to remove a squad of Indians who had become a nuisance there, that gentleman, on Monday last, went out and ordered them to leave by Wednesday. This order will be obeyed, as the Siwashes are in fear of the soldiers at camp.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 8, 1863, page 2


CIRCULAR.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF PACIFIC,
    PROVOST MARTIAL'S OFFICE,
        San Francisco, April 2, 1863.
    SOLDIERS--regulars or volunteers--who have deserted or absented themselves from the companies or regiments without leave:
    The opportunity is now afforded you to wipe out the stain attached to yourselves, and from your families and friends the shame and reproach consequent upon your desertion or unauthorized absence from your regiments.
    The President of the United States by his proclamation, dated March 10th, 1863, offers to restore you to the service without punishment, except forfeiture of pay during your absence, provided you report yourselves on or before the 15th inst. It is known that many of you in times past were induced to desert the service with the vain hope of making your fortunes speedily in the mines, and have often since desired to return to duty in the army.
    It is believed that since treason and rebellion have involved our once happy country in all the horrors of civil war, and drenched the land in blood, evil-disposed persons--traitors in the guise of friends--have enticed you to desert the noble FLAG your fathers and you once revered. Rally again around that Flag--assist your country in maintaining the supremacy of its Constitution and laws--nay, even its national existence, and show by your zealous devotion that the enemies of your country are your bitterest foes.
    Report yourselves in person at once to the commanding officer of the nearest military post, or to any recruiting officer; or by addressing a letter to the undersigned. You will be instructed to whom you may report.
HIRAM LEONARD,
    Lieut. Colonel U.S.A.
        Provost-Marshal
CAMP BAKER, April 8, 1863
Published by order of
    WM. KELLY,
        Capt. 1st C.O.V., Commanding.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 8, 1863, page 2


    RECRUITING.--Lieut. Hand went to Camp Baker today, with three recruits. He expected to be joined by two more on the way.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 11, 1863, page 2


    MILITARY.--A large number of deserters from the regular and volunteer force of the U.S. army have availed themselves of the privilege offered by the proclamation of the President, returning them to the service without punishment, on condition that they would report themselves to a proper military officer before the 15th of April, 1863. Six or eight have reported to Capt. Kelly, at Camp Baker. Read the "circular" in another column.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 11, 1863, page 2


    COMPANY "G."--Recruiting for this company has thus far progressed remarkably slow, there being but twelve privates enrolled up to present writing. The obstacles that have retarded the filling of the company may be thus briefly stated: First, The proclamation of the Governor called for volunteer troops to operate against the Snake Indians. The people of Southern Oregon reasoned that they had done their whole duty in sending three hundred volunteers for the protection of the northern frontier against hostile tribes of Indians. Second, The fact that the company stationed at Camp Baker has not yet received a single dollar for their service of eighteen months has been a strong argument used by semi-secessionists to dissuade persons from enlisting. And there are other and minor objections which have had their influence. The backward, wet spring has kept the miners employed much later in the season than usual; the fabulous accounts of the richness of the northern gold fields is attracting many persons thitherward; and Captain Kelly's company, at Camp Baker, has enlisted fifteen or twenty men since they have been stationed there. But we have reason to hope that Lieut. Hand will yet be able to fill his company up to at least the minimum number in time for service at the Klamath post. The impediments in the way of recruiting we trust will soon be removed. The troops will be stationed where Southern Oregon most needs them--at Klamath Lake. By the middle of the coming month, we are assured, Company C will receive its full pay; miners will be idle for want of water, and conflicting and probable discouraging reports will reach us from the northern mines. The knowledge of these facts will greatly aid the recruiting agents in Douglas, Umpqua and Josephine, which counties will be thoroughly canvassed. If, on the return of Colonel Drew, Company C should be ordered to repair to Klamath Lake, many of our prominent citizens have expressed to us that it would be good policy to place Lieut. Hand in charge of Camp Baker until his company is complete. That the company can be filled by the first of July we are well satisfied.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 25, 1863, page 2


    MONTHLY MUSTER AT CAMP BAKER.--Thursday last was the regular monthly muster day at Camp Baker. The day opening with fine weather, and the roads being in good condition, numbers of citizens availed themselves of the inviting opportunity to visit the camp and witness the exercises. We were of the party who secured Clugage & Drum's fast horses for the occasion. Arriving at camp at about ten o'clock, after a delightful drive, we found the company on the parade grounds, being put through the infantry drill by Captain Kelly. A goodly number of ladies, gentlemen and infantry, from Phoenix and vicinity, were in groups cozily located under shade trees, viewing with interest intent [on] the maneuvering of the troops. Our party were soon comfortably seated in front of the Captain's quarters, with a good view of all the grounds.
    The various movements of the company drill were very quickly, neatly and precisely executed, and the pleasure of the spectators was evinced by smiling countenances and exclamations of admiration. The more exciting and fatiguing skirmish drill, though necessarily less precise, was executed with such activity and in so systematic a manner as to clearly show that each officer and private well understood the duty required of him. At about twelve o'clock, the morning exercises having concluded, the company was dismissed, uproarious with joy at the glad news that the long-looked-for paymaster, Major Sprague, was then in camp.
    After partaking of an excellent dinner, and otherwise enjoying the hospitality of the officers of Co. C, the visitors repaired to an open plain some two miles from the camp to witness the cavalry drill. Here the troops were formed in line of battle. The skirmishers thrown out soon encountered an imaginary foe, when the bugle sounded "rally to the rear," and then they came, rushing to the rear of the main body and there forming in line. Then, at the sound of the bugle, went the grand charge of the main body, cutting to the right and the left as they go. To those who had never saw a battle, the front of that line seemed a very unhealthy place for enemies to the flag. The charge resulted in the complete rout of the enemy. The number of killed, wounded and missing on our side, one, he being caught under the branch of a tree and knocked senseless to the ground; but it is said that he has been so often "killed entirely" that he now considers it a part of the drill.
    Captain Kelly is a thorough soldier. The perfect discipline displayed in the exercise reflects great credit on both officers and men. The fine, commanding appearance of Lieuts. White and Underwood was very generally remarked, especially by the lady visitors. Taken altogether, we believe Co. C would pass muster under the eye of any general officer, as efficient for service on any field.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 2, 1863, page 2


    THE PAYMASTER.--Major Sprague, Paymaster U.S.A., and Mr. Haskins, assistant, arrived in this place on Wednesday last. On yesterday they commenced paying off the troops at Camp Baker, and in the space of six hours disbursed over $23,000, in legal tender notes. Today they expected to get through paying the entire command. This payment includes all the pay due up to the 28th of February. On Monday the command will be paid on the muster roll dating from the 28th of February to the 30th of April. The whole amount to be disbursed by the Paymaster, including that already paid, will amount to nearly $40,000.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 2, 1863, page 2


    Our town was visited during the week by quite a number of soldiers from Camp Baker, who, we are happy to say, behaved themselves admirably well, considering the amount of bad whiskey they drank. We have not learned of any arrests having been made by the Marshal, and with the exception of one or two, they were all able to navigate. Yesterday we did not observe any in our streets, and our town fell back again into the even tenor of its way.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 9, 1863, page 2


    DESERTED.--Four men deserted on Monday night from Camp Baker, with their horses; one of them was corporal of the guard and two of them were on post at the stables. One of the horses threw his rider and returned to camp. Their names are Corporal Garland, privates Casey, Daniels and Kerby. We warn the people of this valley against harboring or assisting deserters in any manner whatever, as the penalty is very severe. It would be well for our Butte Creek secessionists to take notice. We would also state to our merchants that it is a criminal offense to sell citizens' clothing to soldiers; we believe that some of our sympathizing seceshers in the clothing business may profit by this slight hint. All the exterior clothing that soldiers are allowed to wear is furnished them by the quartermaster.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 13, 1863, page 2


    MISPLACED CONFIDENCE.--On last Friday afternoon, Lieutenant Hand placed a horse in charge of a soldier by the name of Reich, a German Jew, belonging to Company C, to take up to Camp Baker from this place, but instead of doing so he concluded to go to Yreka. The fellow had intended to desert, and all he wanted to consummate his intention was a chance to steal a horse, when the Lieutenant came to his assistance and unwittingly furnished him one, saving him any further trouble on that score. We believe there is a severe penalty for anyone assisting a soldier of the United States to desert, but whether it will apply in this case or not we are unable to say. The deserter was so closely pursued by men sent from Camp Baker on Saturday morning, and so close were they upon him on the afternoon of that day that he was obliged to leave the horse and take to the brush. The horse was recovered and brought back to Camp Baker, but the deserter managed to make his escape. They also recovered another horse, thought to be the one stolen from Mr. Ish on last Friday night, which was supposed to have been ridden by a friend of the deserter. This horse was left at Cole's, on the other side of the mountain. No doubt but Mr. Constant may find his horse over in that vicinity, for we believe these to have been the two men who passed through Phoenix on last Friday night, mentioned in another article.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 13, 1863, page 2


    About four o'clock Thursday morning Edward Hill, alias Havis, made his escape from the guard at Camp Baker. During the night he managed to saw off his shackles, and under pretense of the necessity of being taken to the rear was let out, and while passing from the guard house to the rear he made a break. Four shots were fired at him by the guard, but unfortunately they all missed their mark. He had been arrested for murdering a soldier at the Dalles some eighteen months ago.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 20, 1863, page 2


    RECAPTURED.--Edward Hill, alias Harris, who escaped from the guard at Camp Baker, has been recaptured, and is now in irons at the camp.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 23, 1863, page 2


    GONE NORTH.--In obedience to an order from headquarters, Lieut. Hand started from this place on Wednesday last, with his squad of recruits to report at Vancouver. The Lieutenant will probably be assigned to duty as 2nd Lieut. in Captain Noble's company.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 6, 1863, page 2


    LATER.--Since writing the above, we learn from Lieut. Underwood that an order had been received at Camp Baker this morning for Lieut. Hand to report himself at that camp. A special messenger has been sent with the order, and it is probable that in a day or two the Lieut. will return. The first order came from Governor Gibbs; the latter from Gen. Wright.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 6, 1863, page 2


    Col. Drew has informed us that he will start from this place on Monday next, to select a site for the proposed military post at Klamath Lake. The Colonel will take with him a detachment of troops from Camp Baker, and a number of our citizens will avail themselves of the opportunity for a pleasure excursion to the lakes.
    Col. Drew will select the ground for the post as soon as possible so that the contracts for the erection of the buildings may be let, and the work pushed forward to an early completion.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 20, 1863, page 2


    IN DEMAND.--Fishing tackle, rifle ammunition, and quadruped conveyancers, on Monday last, for the party who left our place on that day for a pleasure trip and tour of observation to the Klamath Lakes. We hope they will have a delightful time, and that the promised report of a description of the country, the location of Fort Klamath, etc., will not fail to reach us.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 24, 1863, page 2


The Trip to Klamath Lake.
    Colonel Drew, with an escort of thirty soldiers, members of Co. C, Oregon Cavalry, and Lieutenants White and Underwood, accompanied by a number of the residents of the valley, left on the 22nd day of June, for the purpose of visiting the Klamath Lake country, preparatory to the location of a post.
    Our first camp was at Tolman's place, above the soda springs; second at Long Prairie; third at the mouth of the creek entering Klamath River below the falls, and the fourth on the upper Klamath Lake.
    This lake is said to be about thirty miles long and eight or ten wide, and is fed, at the upper end, entirely by springs and streams, which have their source in the snow peaks. It is surrounded almost entirely by tule marsh, with little or no tillable land on the lower side. We were much disappointed in the appearance of country, having been led to suppose that we should find a rich valley, with good water and timber. The only land available for ranch purposes is said to be situated at the upper end of the lake. Being desirous of returning through Dead Indian Prairie, the Colonel decided leaving the examination of this portion of the country, and the final location of the post, for another trip.
    On the morning of the 27th we took the return trail as far as the bend in the river, striking to the right at this point, and following the ridge in a northwesterly direction, recamped at the head of a lake, which is the source of the stream entering the Klamath below the falls. The cold springs supplying the lake proved so great an attraction as to detain us over Tuesday. On the evening of the 29th we camped on Dead Indian Prairie, on the 30th on Grubs Prairie, reaching home the next day.
    The numerous little accidents and funny circumstances of frequent occurrence, the recital of pioneer experience and wonderful stories, only to be appreciated around a campfire, spiced with the novelty of mountain life, made our trip a pleasant one.
E.C.S.
    Col. Drew and escort left on Tuesday the 7th, to explore the head of the lake and vicinity.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 8, 1863, page 2


(Communicated.)
Trip to Klamath Lake.
    Col. Drew, with an escort of thirty-three men, under command of Lieut. White, and a number of citizens of Jackson County, left Camp Baker on the 7th instant, for the purpose of exploring the country east and north of Mount McLoughlin, and for the purpose of finding a suitable situation for establishing a military post. Our first camp was on Butte Creek, fifteen miles from Camp Baker. Here Judge Prim came very near being bitten by a huge rattlesnake. This camp we named Rattle Snake.
    July 8th we camped on Rancheria Prairie, near the place where the Ledfords' party were murdered by the Indians in the spring of '59. The distance we came today was about twenty miles.
    July 9th we crossed the mountain on the trail taken by the Pathfinders in the spring of 1862, under command of Col. Ross, and soon come upon places where they had done considerable work, in the way of building bridges and sinking mining holes. Four miles from the summit, on the west side, we came to a beautiful lake, on the north side of which we camped. This is called Summit Lake, and is about four miles long. It reminded me somewhat of the description given of the "Lake of Como.'' The distance traveled today was about fifteen miles.
    July 10th we traveled down the west side of the lake and continued descending towards Klamath Lake Valley. From our camp at Summit Lake, to the foot of the mountain, it is about ten miles. We continued along the west side of the lake, traveling in a northerly direction, for about eight miles, and camped. The distance traveled today was about eighteen miles. In descending the mountain we occasionally caught a glimpse of the lake and valley below; the scenery was beautiful.
    July 11th traveled about twelve miles north and then changed our course to the east, across the head of the lake. Here we crossed a bridge over Martin's Creek, built by Col. Ross' party; eight miles further we came to Wood's River, where we camped.
    July 12th we had a fine mess of fish for breakfast; built a raft this morning and by eleven o'clock we were all on the east side of the river, safe and sound; four miles further and we came to the east side of the valley, where we camped on a beautiful stream of pure, cold water. Col. Drew crossed the stream and traveled down some four or five miles further, where they found La Lake's camp, but the old man was not at home. It appears from what we could learn from the Indians who were left in charge of the camp that they were holding a council of all the tribes in the valley east of where we were, making preparations for declaring war against the Pit River Indians. The Colonel continued his investigations down the east side of the valley until he struck the alkali soil, when he returned to camp.
    July 13th we have fish in "copious effusions." Mount Shasta could be seen very plainly from this point. It lay directly south of us. We traveled along the valley in a northerly direction, crossed several branches running into Wood River, the banks of which were high and dry, and camped in a fine grove of trees near the center of the valley. Here we left a number of men who had taken the mumps.
    July 14th crossed the head of the valley and struck an Indian trail running west over the mountain, and thinking that it might be a shorter cut through the mountains towards Rogue River Valley and that it might possibly connect with the wagon road, we ascended the mountain and camped about eight or ten miles from the valley. So far the trail has been very good.
    July 15th after following the trail a number of miles it gave out entirely and we traveled for some time on our own hook until we brought up all standing by a deep canon. We retraced our steps a few miles and camped.
    July 16th we continued our retreat in "good order." Our citizen friends, being anxious to return home, concluded today to take a shortcut and left us at the place we camped on the 14th. We have since learned that they had a hard time of it, and at last were compelled to beat a retreat and take the old road.
    July 17th we rested on our oars and caught fish.
    July 18th we turned our faces towards home and camped at the foot of the mountain.
    July 19th we crossed the mountain and camped on Lick Prairie.
    July 20th we reached Camp Baker.
    Klamath Lake Valley is one of the finest grass countries I have ever seen. The water is pure and cold; the fish are splendid. Game does not appear to be plenty at this season of the year. The soil is light and dry, and appears to be formed of pumice stone, of which the entire upper part of the valley is covered. The Indians are good looking, treacherous, bloodthirsty and thieving. They are a noble specimen of "Lo, the poor Indian!" Persons wishing to visit the valley should be very cautious and keep a close lookout for their "har."
W.M.H. [William H. Hand]
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 22, 1863, page 2


    ORDERED NORTH.--Col. Drew has received instructions from General Wright to send Lieutenant Hand, with his command, to Vancouver. It is probably intended that the Lieutenant's detachment shall be attached to Capt. Noble's company.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 22, 1863, page 2


    MILITARY DEPARTMENT.--Lieut. Wm. M. Hand called upon us Monday to bid us goodbye. He is en route for Ft. Vancouver. The Lieutenant is a whole-souled, laughing, good fellow, and has the pluck to do and dare.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 29, 1863, page 2


    New Company Full.--We understand from Gov. Gibbs that the company recently recruited by Capt. John F. Noble, being now full, will be mustered into the service of the United States tomorrow, at Vancouver, as Co. "G" of the First Regiment of Oregon Cavalry. The officers commissioned by Gov. Gibbs are, besides Capt. Noble, H. C. Small as 1st Lieutenant, and Wm. M. Hand, 2nd Lieutenant. The company will for the present be stationed at Vancouver.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 8, 1863, page 2


    COMPANY C.O.V.--Lieut. Hand with his squad of recruits arrived at Fort Vancouver, W.T., on the 7th inst., and all were mustered into service in Co. G on the 10th. John P. Noble had been commissioned Captain of this company by Gov. Gibbs, but he failed to pass the examining board, and the organization of the company was therefore effected as follows: Henry C. Small of Lane County, Captain; Wm. M. Hand, First Lieutenant; Patrick McGuire, Second Lieutenant, and seventy-two enlisted men. Our best wishes are with Co. G.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 19, 1863, page 2


    CORRECTION.--The town edition of the Sentinel, of Saturday last, contained one of those annoying mistakes which will sometimes occur. It was stated that sixteen soldiers had deserted from Co. C, Oregon Cavalry, since they had went out to the prospective Klamath post. This error arose from misapprehension of a statement that sixteen men had deserted from Co. A, Capt. Harris, in the northern country. Several months since, four or five men deserted from Co. C, but the officers considered them no loss, as they were such worthless character that the company is profitably rid of them. Many of the privates in Co. C are men of property and influence, and, as a body, no men are more trustworthy.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 19, 1863, page 2


    The Eugene Review of the 22nd inst. says, "Five soldiers deserted from Camp Baker, Jackson County, last week." This is a mistaken statement. We have authority to say that not one soldier has deserted from that camp in the two months past.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 26, 1863, page 2


    Beans are freely offered in our town at $6 per 100 pounds, while at the same time the beans consumed by Company C are shipped from San Francisco at a cost of not less than $14 per hundred pounds. Pork is sent from the Atlantic States to supply the company, while a better article could be procured here for about one-half the cost. Thus thousands of dollars are squandered by a ridiculous "red tape" policy, over which the company officers has no control.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 7, 1863, page 2


Married.
    At Vancouver, W.T., October 5th, LIEUT. WEST, of 1st Regiment W.T. Infantry, to Miss AMELIA KELLY, daughter of Capt. Wm. Kelly of Co. "C" 1st O.C.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 10, 1863, page 2


Camp Baker Oregon
    Oct. 30th 1862
Sir
    On the 3rd of September last I was ordered by Major Drew to proceed with a detachment of forty men of my company to "Little Butte Creek," Jackson County, with instructions to establish my camp there, to send out scouting parties to Rancheria Prairie and around that neighborhood, and to take up and bring into this camp all Indians found in the neighborhood.
    On the 26th inst. Major Drew ordered that La Lake and other Indians be allowed to hunt in and to the eastward of Rancheria Prairie until the 7th proximo. The Major having gone to Yreka for a few days, leaving me in command here, I sent for La Lake to inform him of what my orders were, and to direct him to govern himself accordingly, also to make arrangements with him to hunt up some horses belonging to my company that are lost or stolen. I find that he is very much displeased at being deprived [of] the privilege of coming into the settlements as he has been accustomed to do, says that he has been slandered by fools, and wants to know why his people are suspected and kept out, while the "Modocs," whom the whites know to be thieves, are allowed to come into Jacksonville on the public road. He wants to know whether himself and people are to be kept out of the settlements this winter or not, and says if he is that he will have to go to the Dalles or some other place, and that he would like to know before the bad weather sets in.
    He has said, though I was not aware of it at the time, nor until he left here, "that if the Bostons insisted on his being roguish, or dangerous, and treated him so, that they might find out next summer whether he could be or not," or words to that effect.
    From what I can hear there seems to be now trouble apprehended by the settlers from these Indians, unless they may be provoked to it by shutting them out from the settlements, and curtailing former privilege which they have been accustomed to in coming in to trade &c., or by treating them different to other tribes which they consider more deserving to be looked on with suspicion.
    La Lake was very angry when he left, and I will not be surprised to hear of trouble if he is kept out this winter.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Wm. Kelly Capt. 1st Cav.
                Oregon Volunteers
To
    Mr. Rogers
        Jacksonville
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, enclosure to No. 261.


Jacksonville Ogn. Nov. 17th 1862
Sir
    Yesterday, I sent you accounts for 2nd qr., and with them I enclosed copy of a stipulation entered into on the 10th inst. with a part of the Klamath tribe of Indians, also copy of a letter recd. from Capt. Kelly concerning these Indians.
    The order of Sept. 3rd, spoken of by Capt. Kelly, was made at my solicitation. Upon that date Michael Hanley Esqr., a worthy citizen of this county, came to me with complaints that a few days previous a man who was herding stock for him (Hanley) on Little Butte Creek had been insulted and his life threatened by Indians. Precisely what Indians they were he was unable to state, but presumed them to be of Klamath Lake tribes. He also stated he had been informed that a Mr. Miller residing on Butte Creek had been frightened while hunting in "Rancheria Prairie" by demonstrations from Indians and that he hastily packed up and left for home, followed some eight miles by the Indians on his return. I immediately went with Mr. Hanley to Major Drew, who on hearing the statement of Mr. H. said if it was thought best he would send a portion of his command to that region of country to remain at least until the rains set in. He accordingly went to Camp Baker and gave the order the same evening. I determined to go out with Capt. Kelly in order to fully acquaint myself with the facts in the case and sent to the country for a horse for the trip. In the meantime, however, I learned from a reliable source that no Indians were then in that region, nor had there been for some days previous. I therefore deferred going until the 10th. The troops went over on the 6th and established camp on Little Butte Creek. When I arrived at their camp on the evening of the 10th Capt. Kelly had but just returned from Big Butte & Rancheria Prairie, where he had been with a detachment of men to satisfy himself whether or not there were any Indians on this side of the mountain. He now went to the summit of the mountains between this valley and the lakes, but found no Indians, nor any traces of their having very recently been there. The summer road to Klamath Lakes is through this region. Some of the Indians had been in town and returned about two weeks previous. There had probably been none there since. Capt. Kelly's orders were to arrest and bring into camp all Indians that came within reach. I asked him if any measures had been taken to let the Indians know of this order. None that he was aware of. I conversed with settlers in the vicinity with reference to the conduct of the Indians as they passed to & from the lakes. The general feeling seemed to be that they were annoying. "Sometimes they left fences down as they passed through fields &c."; yet I could discover no feeling of alarm, nor any fear of the Indians beyond these put by annoyances. Miller I did not see. He was not at home, but I learned from some of his neighbors that he had frequently had little difficulties with the Indians about going through his fields &c., yet there was very little importance attached to it by them (the neighbors).
    I expressed a desire to Capt. Kelly to go to the lakes and see the Indians for the purpose of getting some explanations in regard to these rumors, as also to acquaint them with the determination to arrest any of them that came in, until these hostile demonstrations had been satisfactorily explained. Capt. Kelly was "very willing to take the trip" and "would march at a single day's notice if the Major would give the order and furnish two pack mules for the transportation of supplies." The Major had heretofore divulged that he was "not authorized to expend the money for transportation consequent upon such a trip."
    I came home on the 12th and immediately called on Major Drew, repeated to him the substance of my conversation with Capt. Kelly and desired him to issue the order. The Major would not "trust forty men to go there." He "really believed the Indians were bent on mischief and were only making an opportunity to make demonstrations in earnest. If he sent "any it must be the whole company," but he "really saw no necessity for going there at present, and should refuse the escort." Under these circumstances I could do nothing but await future developments. No Indians, except now and then a straggler that did not seem to hail from any place, came in for more than a month. On or about the 20th Oct., "La Lake," "George" & "Long John" came to Rancheria Prairie with about forty of their tribe. A messenger at once came to Major Drew to know if they were all to be arrested. He gave an order, as he told me, that they had leave to hunt there for ten days. Some Indians came directly to town to see me, and desired to know why they were placed under these restrictions. I explained to them the word that Mr. Hanley brought, and asked him to explain. "If Mr. Hanley's herder had been troubled by Indians" they "know nothing of it." "He stopped some twelve or fifteen miles off the direct road to the lakes." The case of Miller was the result of a mistake of his own. They "were on their way to town," "had encamped on Rancheria Prairie," "saw his smoke and were going towards his camp in a friendly manner," "but he seemed to be alarmed and was making great haste to get away." They spoke to him at a distance; seeing his evident uneasiness. "This only increased his speed." I have been twice to see Miller, but neither time found him at home. I left word that he should call and see me, but have never yet seem him. I can therefore only judge by circumstance whether or not there is any plausibility in this statement of the Indians.
    About this time a roving band of Modocs, about 20 men & 40 to 50 women and children, passed through town and encamped at two or three different points in the mines. These came in on the Yreka road, and were not questioned by the military. They did not come to see me, nor did I happen to see them pass through. These came to winter in this vicinity for purposes of trade, their women being the principal stock.
    The copy of treaty or stipulation, sent you, shows the conclusion finally arrived at with the Klamath Lakes. The foregoing, together with copy of Capt. Kelly's letter, will I trust explain the necessity of making the arrangement. Major Drew will continue his camp on Butte Creek and would rather (he says now) have the Indians at Rancheria Prairie than farther off, unless entirely out of the country. This arrangement will enable him to keep an eye on them. At the final conclusion with the Klamath Lakes I sent for the Modoc chief and gave him choice to go with his people to Rancheria Prairie with the others or go entirely out of the country. He preferred the latter, saying that he was afraid of the Klamath Lakes. I then gave them all until Wednesday the 12th inst. to get away. The Klamath Lakes obeyed without trouble, and I had supposed this to have been the case until today with the Modocs, as they made great show Tuesday & Wednesday 11th & 12 inst. of getting off. Information however came to me, lately, that some of the men with twelve to fifteen women and some children of the Modocs had found their way, somehow, on to Applegate Creek, evidently seeking to evade my order. Major Drew will send a file of soldiers to direct their movements as soon as I ascertain and inform him precisely where they are.
    The Indians desired to have inserted in the stipulation the permission to have their "firearms" repaired to enable them to hunt game. Never having had any instructions upon this point I, of course, declined to make that a part of the arrangement. I will now ask whether or not I can or should permit the repairing of "firearms" for these Indians, in any event, under their present relations to the government? If so under what circumstances should the permission be granted. They have never yet applied for permission to purchase ammunition, yet this may occur at any time. I therefore desire to know my duty upon this point also.
    I failed to place in the stipulation the condition, but I made the Indians fully understand that my action in this matter needed the sanction and approval of the Superintendent to make it conclusive. I hope it will meet your approval.
I have the honor to remain
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Amos E. Rogers
                Sub-Ind. Agent
Hon. Wm. H. Rector
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 20; Letters Received, 1862, No. 265.


    . . . A rampant secesher of Jackson County, named Dunlap, got on a bender at Phoenix on Christmas and let himself out in extravagant praise of Jeff. Davis & Co., and then denounced the United States government in such terms that the commanding officer at Camp Baker thought it best to cool him off in the guard house. He was kept in confinement a couple of days, and then marched out in the presence of the soldiers drawn up in line and obliged to take the oath of allegiance, which a correspondence says he took "with fear and trembling." Upon being released he left, on 2:40 time, and has not been heard of since.--Served him right.
    . . . The wire for the Oregon telegraph was shipped from New York, July 25th, but has not yet arrived. The southern part of the line cannot now be put up before the snows leave the Crescent City mountains, in the spring.
"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 5, 1863, page 2


LETTER FROM FORT WALLA WALLA.
(CORRESPONDENCE OF THE UNION.)

FORT WALLA WALLA (W.T.), April 9th.
Volunteers' Life.
    Under the impression that yon would like to hear from the Oregon Cavalry, of which your would-be correspondent is a member, I send you a slight description of a volunteer's life. About eleven months ago I left San Francisco en route for the new gold fields of Oregon and Washington Territory, via Jacksonville (Oregon), and in said town found that Uncle Sam was calling upon his boys to rally and defend him against the demon of secession. I joined Squadron D, First Regiment Oregon Cavalry, and I must say that I never saw a finer set of men, or better material for soldiers, if handled by the right kind of officers, than Squadron D, and in fact the entire regiment. On the 5th of May, 1862, the squadrons that were raised in Jackson County (Oregon) and mustered into the service of the United States left Camp Baker en route for this place, which we arrived at in due course of time, without anything worthy of note occurring on the road. We pitched our tents and waited for orders, which soon came, and there were sent three squadrons, viz: A., B., and D., on the Snake River immigrant road, for the protection of immigrants, miners, etc. After scouring the plains for hostile Indians for about three months, we received an order by the government express from Colonel Steinberger, Colonel of the Washington Territory Infantry Regiment, and commanding officer at Fort Walla Walla, to come back to this place, at which we arrived about the 28th of October, 1862, and were inspected by Brigadier General Alvord shortly after our arrival, who said that we were a fine corps, praised our horses, but objected to our guns, as they were unfit for mounted troops, being heavy yagers. He hoped that we would soon be paid, but pay day did not arrive until the 16th ultimo.
Pay Day.
    On that day, about ten o'clock a.m., Squadron D was paraded for pay amidst great excitement, the cause of which, in order to be understood, I must explain. Prior to the enlistments of the Oregon Volunteer Cavalry, Colonels Cornelius and Maury, and Quartermaster (now United States Senator from Oregon) B. F. Harding, received from the proper authorities at Washington (D.C.), letters authorizing said parties to raise one cavalry regiment in Oregon, which they did by inserting advertisements in Oregon newspapers, and causing large handbills to be posted in conspicuous places which held out, with other inducements to the recruits, thirty-one dollars per month as pay for man and horse hire, each man furnishing a horse and horse equipments, and when the recruits questioned the recruiting officers about the cause of the extra pay being allowed the Oregon Cavalry, they were told that a special Act of Congress for the benefit of said regiment had become a law; and the consequences were that we firmly believed that we would be paid thirty-one dollars per month until a short time before we were paid. As soon as the boys were positive of a reduction in their pay to the amount of six dollars per month they, with but few exceptions, came to the conclusion not to sign any pay roll, or accept less than thirty-one dollars per month, thereby hoping to get honorable discharges; for I must say that nearly all are disgusted with soldiering at Walla Walla. But if the regiment was ordered to the States for duty in the field nearly all would go without a murmur, and take such pay and allowances as the government saw fit to give. I must now go back to our first and last pay day on the 16th ultimo. On that morning it was rumored among the boys that if we did not sign the pay rolls and take twenty-five dollars per month for our lawful pay, that force would be used. About ten a.m. on that day we fell in the ranks, and were marched over to Paymaster Francis' pay office by Captain S. Truax, commander of Squadron D. The commands halt, front and parade rest were given, then our names were called, commencing with the first sergeant, and as each noncommissioned officer and soldier answered to his name, he was commanded by Captain Truax to sign his name to the pay roll, but with few exceptions they refused. Then said officer allowed his angry passions to rise, made the men fall into the ranks again, and told them that they had contracted debts for horses and horse equipments, etc., which was true, and that they wished to swindle their creditors, which was not true; and when he got through talking he called us in again, and with one exception the boys refused to sign for less than thirty-one dollars per month. As each sergeant and corporal refused, his chevrons and stripes were torn from his uniform, and he was sent to the guard house, and as each private refused to sign he was also sent to the guard house, until about one-half of the squadron was in confinement. It then came to the knowledge of Colonel Steinberger, and he ordered the guard to march the prisoners who had refused to take their pay in front of the squadron's quarters. He then commanded the others who had not been offered pay, and consequently not a chance to become prisoners, to fall in, the whole being Squadron D. When this was done, he gave us a lecture, in which he told us that if we still refused our pay we would be guilty of mutiny, and that he would treat it as such, or words to that effect; and after reading us a letter from the general officer commanding to Squadron F (who had also refused their pay at the rate of twenty-five dollars per month) and several of the Articles of War, he told Captain Truax to march us to the pay table, and the boys then signed the pay roll, under protest, and received their money after Captain Truax deducted the amount of every man's indebtedness. Many of the boys thought and still think it hard that they were not allowed to pay their debts in legal tenders. Four-fifths of the money was in gold, the balance in legal tenders, and Captain Truax paid the men's creditors in like proportion; but the most extortionate prices had been charged. Had it been otherwise the boys would have submitted cheerfully.
D.
Sacramento Daily Union, May 4, 1863, page 1


    CHARGES PREFERRED.--Sub-Indian Agent A. E. Rogers, in Oregon, has preferred charges against Colonel Drew, in command at Camp Baker and Fort Klamath. An officer was sent to Jacksonville to inquire into the truth of the charges, and to make a critical examination into the military transactions in that section, and also to report upon the propriety of building the new fort in the locality selected by Colonel Drew. The objection to the new fort at Klamath Lake appears to be that it is too remote from the immigrant road and civilization; while the advantage claimed for the location is that the Indians, once "corralled" there, will never be able to find their way to the white settlements!
Sacramento Daily Union, November 9, 1863, page 2


    Mr. Jacob Ish has rushed into print, in T'Vault's Confederate organ [the Oregon Intelligencer], to deny a statement incidentally published by us several weeks since, that Maj. Glenn had held a mortgage on the Ish farm. This statement was made in an article in which we charged that the Ish Bros., notorious secessionists, were favored by the contractor with the exclusive privilege of furnishing hay and oats for Co. "C," O.V.--"Abe Lincoln's minions"; and that that privilege was costing the government about one-third more than it would if the usual competition was allowed. We had no intention of injuring the credit of Ish Bros. by saying that Maj. Glenn held a mortgage on their farm. It would have answered as well our purpose, as stated above, to have said that Mr. Glenn had an order (as we have been informed he had) on Ish Bros. It is mere quibble; the charge we have made still stands, undeniable.
    We reassert what Mr. Jacob Ish has not denied, that Horace Ish, understood to have been interested in producing hay and oats for Co. "C," is generally believed by the loyal people in this community who best know him, to have gone to assist his friends in "fighting for their rights." And there is reasonable grounds for the belief. He is known as a generous, open-hearted man of high-strung temper. His early associations in the South, and his lifelong prejudices against the North, lead him to deeply sympathize with the South, in their grievous sufferings, and to desire to assist them in their mad designs. From our own knowledge of Horace Ish, we believe he would rather die in the front ranks of the Confederate army than live in opulence in the Northern States. In that he is to be admired over the sneaking Copperheads who, while fattening upon the bounty of our government, are covertly going all they can to embarrass it in its struggle for national unity, and pusillanimously whining of abolition tyranny.
    Mr. Ish, in his communication, uses the language and style peculiar to the "chivalry." Denunciation and invective comprises three-fourths of it. While we are perfectly careless of his personal opinion of us, we always hope to deserve and receive the fiercest anathemas from him and his Confederate kind.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 14, 1863, page 2


    BROKE JAIL.--Two soldiers, who were deserters, confined in the county jail, succeeded in sawing off the fastenings on the cell door, and by executing a bold and skillful flank movement, made their escape to the mountains about 4 o'clock p.m. on Wednesday last. When last scene, the bold cavalrymen were making a desperate charge over the hill, in the rear of Mr. Hoffman's residence.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 16, 1864, page 8


    Hobart Taylor, with Captain Curry's command, writing to his brother in this valley, Augustus Taylor, under date Camp Barry, August 14, 1864, says:
    "While out on our last raid, we found a wagon, with cooking utensils in it, two day books--one of them showing an account with several men in Carson Valley--several photographs and ambrotypes, letters, and various other things. The wagon was recognized as belonging to four young men who undertook to follow us. Appearances at the wagon indicate that the Indians had attacked them in the night, as the place where their fire was built had had water thrown upon it. We camped close to the place, and sent out men to look for the ladies, but found nothing to show that they had been massacred. A few bullet holes were found in the wagon bed and ox yoke. They were either murdered away from their camp, or else they have made their way to Canyon City, which was the nearest point from their camp. I hope they have made their escape, for it is horrible to think that they have been cut off from their friends, in the prime of life and the vigor of manhood, far out from the busy scenes of Christian civilization, with no one to carry the sad news to their friends.
    "The Quartermaster took charge of all the letters, books and photographs so that, if possible, their relatives may be found."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 17, 1864, page 3


    There is a piece of school land back of Phoenix, on which Camp Baker stands, once a grand forest, which is now almost worthless. Uncle Sam has made sad havoc of the wood and timber.
Moses A. Williams, "Common Schools," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 1, 1865, page 3


    We call attention to the military ball, advertised in another column, to be given at Phoenix. We bespeak a full attendance, as the boys will soon be tramping over the sandy plain.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 6, 1865, page 2


F A R E W E L L
MILITARY BALL.

The citizens of Phoenix and vicinity propose giving a Farewell Party to the soldiers of Camp Baker at Colver's Hall, in Phoenix, on Friday evening, May 19th, 1865.
    All those having friends in the service at Camp Baker, and all wishing and willing to participate in a social and impartial manner on that occasion, are respectfully invited to attend.
    Good music will be in attendance, the table set with the best that can be procured, and the best of order maintained.
April 28th, 1865.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 6, 1865, page 2


FLAG PRESENTATION.
CORRESPONDENCE.
JACKSONVILLE, May 9th, 1865.
    Capt. F. B. Sprague and Officers of Co. I, 1st Oregon Infantry.--Gentlemen: I propose presenting to your company a United States Banner, provided you will accept the present. Will you please notify me of the time and place it will be convenient to receive the same. Mr. N. Langell will do me the honor to deliver the presentation speech, if agreeable to you.
I am, sir, yours most respectfully,
    JEANNE DE ROBOAM.
F. B. Sprague, Capt.,
    and Officers, Co. I, 1st Ogn. Inf't.
----
CAMP BAKER, May 11th.
    Madame:--It will be very agreeable to the officers and men of Co. I, 1st Oregon Infantry, to accept the banner which you so kindly propose to give them, and it will be very agreeable to have N. Langell present the same. I would respectfully suggest Tuesday, May 23rd, 1865, as the time, and Jacksonville, Oregon, as the place where the presentation shall be made.
    I am, respectfully, your obedient servant.
F. B. SPRAGUE, Capt.
    Co. I, 1st Oregon Infantry
Mad. J. De Roboam,
    Jacksonville, Oregon.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 13, 1865, page 3


    On Saturday last, the camp and garrison equipage for Co. I, 1st Oregon Infantry, Captain Sprague's command, arrived at Camp Baker. The boys are all in uniform now, and they look well. The flag presentation will take place next Tuesday, the 23rd.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 20, 1865, page 3


    On account of orders from headquarters, ordering Capt. Sprague to Ft. Klamath, the flag presentation took place at Colver's hall in Phoenix last night.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 20, 1865, page 3


    We were wrongly informed concerning the flag presentation having taken place at Phoenix on Friday the 19th. It took place here on Wednesday last. Captain Sprague marched his company through town and put them through a variety of maneuvers before a large and admiring crowd of ladies and gentlemen, which showed a degree of training that reflects credit upon the officers commanding the company. The speeches by Mr. Langell and Captain Sprague were short but timely, and were listened to with marked attention by those present. The flag was a nice one, worthy of so fine a company, and the boys gave it and its donor--Madame De Roboam--three cheers.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 27, 1865, page 2


DISPOSITION OF VOLUNTEERS.
    Under date of Fort Vancouver, W.T., May 13th, 1865, B. F. Dowell writes as follows:
    General McDowell has ordered a military post to be established in Paradise Valley, on the road from Fort Churchill and Reese River to the Owyhee country; also another camp in the upper part of Surprise Valley or southern part of Goose Lake Valley, in the vicinity of the roads from Chico via Susanville and Surprise Valley, and from Red Bluffs via Fort Creek to the Owyhee. This camp is designed as a temporary depot for two companies of the 2nd California cavalry, which are now moving on those roads for the protection of the overland travel from California and Oregon to the Owyhee mines.
    Col. R. F. Maury has ordered the companies of Captains Small and Williams to Camp Watson, on the road from the Dalles to Canyon City, in Grant County. He has also ordered Captain Kelly's company from Fort Klamath, to establish a camp for the summer and fall near Silver Lake, which lake is seventy-five or eighty miles east of Fort Klamath, near the road leading up Rogue River to Canyon City. Captains Small, Williams and Kelly are directed to keep their companies constantly scouring the country along the roads from Fort Klamath to Owyhee, and from Fort Klamath to Canyon City, and from Canyon City to the Dalles, on the Columbia River.
    Gen. Wright having ordered two companies from California to Goose Lake, to protect the travel in the direction of the Owyhee, left Capt. Kelly's company free to be ordered into the unexplored country between the headwaters of the Willamette and Canyon City and Fort Klamath.
    The volunteers now at Canyon City and Camp Baker will be immediately consolidated and mustered into the United States service. Col. Maury will then either order them up Rogue River, in the valleys and mountains east of Diamond Peak, or up the middle fork of the Willamette, in the direction of Canyon City; but Col. Maury has no control of these volunteers until they are mustered into the service of the United States.
    Captain Kelly, with a portion of his command, is expected to be in the vicinity of Diamond Peak in the latter part of June. Captain Small will be on the headwaters of the Deschutes River, the latter part of this month or the first of next.
    All of Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains will be traversed this season. As many as six or seven different parties will be employed in it during the entire summer and a part of next fall. Col. Maury's intention and desire is to furnish every possible protection and inducement to them desiring to develop and settle that portion of the state. A well-established communication through that portion of our state, to the mines in Idaho, is of vital importance to Northern California, Southern and Central Oregon. The public and travelers, generally, may rest assured that Col. Maury will do all in his power to give the traveling and mining portion of the community ample protection.
    Private McCarty, formerly of the Washington Territory Infantry, but who recently enlisted in the Oregon Cavalry, on the reception of the news of the assassination of the President said he was glad of it; that the d----d old s-n of a b---h ought to have died long ago. He was tried here yesterday by a court martial, found guilty and dismissed from the service of the United States and placed in solitary confinement for ten years.
    Such are the just deserts of these copperhead sympathizers with assassins.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 27, 1865, page 2

    Captain Sprague and company took up the line of march for Fort Klamath on Wednesday last. A portion of his company will be stationed at the Fort, and the remainder proceed out on the plains to the vicinity of Silver Lake.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 27, 1865, page 2


    The Farewell Military Ball, at Phoenix on the 19th, was a success. They had a good ball, a good supper and a good company to enjoy it, and last, though not least, Berry and Brown were there with their best music, and all know it is good.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 27, 1865, page 2


    CELEBRATION.--All should bear in mind that the dinner at the celebration near Camp Baker is to be a picnic, and they should come prepared to take care of themselves and one or two others if necessary.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 24, 1865, page 3


    RETIRES FROM SERVICE.--Lt. D. C. Underwood reached town from Ft. Klamath on Tuesday last. Lt. Underwood entered the army February 1st, 1862, as 2nd Lieutenant in 1st Reg. Oregon Cav. Vol., and in October last he sent in his resignation, but was not relieved from duty until the 3rd inst., consequently he has been in the service three years and ten months. During that time he was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy. He entered the quartermaster and commissariat's office in June, 1862, and has discharged the duties of these important positions, both at Camp Baker and Ft. Klamath, from that time until he was honorably discharged on the 3rd of December, 1865.
    Lt. Underwood has made, during his term of service, an honest, vigilant, active and useful officer. He has kept the posts constantly supplied with a bountiful supply of quartermaster and commissary stores, under the most trying circumstances. He has purchased supplies in some instances on his own account, when he was unable to buy on the credit of the government. When he was without money or greenbacks; when the national credit was at its lowest ebb; while copperheads were constantly predicting the dissolution of the Union and the downfall of the government and even while good Union men doubted its success, he was confident of the ultimate triumph of the Union cause and he pledged his own property to buy supplies for the soldiers.
    Now, when the government is out of danger, he retires from the army, and in a few days he will join his wife and family in Douglas County. May the government never again need his services in the field, and long may he live to see his country prosper, and may he enjoy a quiet, peaceful and rural life among the delightful hills and dales of North Umpqua.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 16, 1865, page 2


    CREDITABLE.--Private C. E. Tillett, of Co. I, carried the beautiful silk flag, presented by Madam De Roboam to the company in 1865, all the way from Fort Klamath, on horseback, to take part in the celebration. It surmounted the car, and reminded many of our citizens of the interesting occasion of its presentation. Three cheers for Charley!
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 6, 1867, page 2


    The event of the hanging of this Indian, Tyee George, on the nineteenth of November, 1863, is well remembered in Jackson County, and with its attendant circumstances has there become one of the principal romances of the time. Some Klamaths sought and obtained from their agent, Rogers, nicknamed "Sugar Foot," permission to reside on the west side of the Cascades. They came in small numbers, their chief men being George and Jack, and made themselves at home, roaming at will over the land and somewhat disturbing the settlers. They were said to have threatened individuals' lives, shot cattle, thrown down fences, and committed divers other misdemeanors. In consequence of these charges, George, who was indiscreet enough to come to town, was arrested in Jacksonville, and immediately delivered over to Charles Drew, commanding the volunteers at Camp Baker. Here his doom was speedily met: for by an unexampled stretch of arbitrary authority, the man in command ordered the Indian's execution at once, and he was hanged in the presence of the soldiery, without the least delay. Jack escaped death, and with the most of his people hastened to safer fields, leaving George's mother, Old Mary, to enact her part in this little but sorrowful drama, by burying her son where he now lies, by the side of her own humble wickiup, and kindling upon his grave the sacred fire that in the beautiful Indian superstition is supposed to guide the wandering soul to the islands of the blessed. Poor old Mary is still known in Jacksonville where her woes and maternal devotion have raised up sympathizing friends; and poetry has lent its aid to make memorable an episode resembling that of Rizpah and her sons, described in the scriptures.
A. G. Walling, History of Southern Oregon, 1884, page 347


    Some time after November 18, 1863, George went to Jacksonville and was immediately arrested by volunteers who happened to be in town. He was confined overnight and the next day taken to Camp Baker. Upon his arrival there a short consultation was held among the officers, when the order came from Colonel Drew to hang George at once. A pair of mules was hitched to a wagon, a goods box placed in the bed, the condemned man pinioned and lifted on the box, a rope put around his neck, and with two men holding him, the wagon was driven just outside the parade ground, the rope thrown over the limb of a tree, the wagon driven from under him, and all that was mortal of Tyee George was left suspended in the air. This summary execution gave rise to much severe and adverse criticism, while many endorsed and applauded the act. It must be understood that there was no specific charge against George. He was arrested upon no indictment or information, arraigned before no judge or magistrate, had neither attorney, judge nor jury, and was not court-martialed, but hanged solely upon his reputation as a vicious character and a menace to the public. There appears to have been nothing to warrant this infliction of the death penalty, no condition of affairs that would justify it, and no excuse for the savage and unseemly haste with which the extreme order was carried into execution. In taking an unbiased retrospect of the matter after the smoke has cleared away, and all passion and prejudice have been eliminated, there is no position from which the action can be viewed that will relieve the officers who ordered his execution from the imputation of the most arbitrary and shameful exercise of power. The straight, undisguised English of the fact is that he was unwarrantly lynched under cover of military authority, and the barbarous proceeding cannot be otherwise fitly characterized. This will more fully appear when it is understood the civil courts were in no way under restraint, that they were free to act and open to investigate criminal charges and punish violations of law.

W. J. Plymale, "Sketch of Tyee George and Skookum John," Medford Sun, April 26, 1911, page 3


    In the fall of 1864, President Lincoln issued his last call for volunteers--three hundred thousand men, and Oregon was called upon to furnish her quota, which was fixed at one regiment of infantry and enough cavalry to fill the depleted ranks of the First Cavalry, most of whom had been discharged by reason of expiration of their terms of enlistment.
    Jackson, Josephine, Coos and Curry counties were assigned the raising of one full company of infantry, and Franklin B. Sprague, the miller in Hess' mill, undertook the recruiting of them with the assistance of I. D. Applegate, who had been in command of the Mountain Rangers, a militia company to which Loui Colver and many others, as also myself, had belonged for nearly two years. Mr. Sprague asked me to join his company and assist him in the recruiting office in Jacksonville, but as I had a wood contract yet uncompleted for Uncle Sam Colver it was necessary to get his consent to leaving it unfinished, which was readily granted, and on the 17th day of November I entered the service, being the first to enroll in the company.
    On the 19th, three other men enlisted, men returning from the northern mines, having their blanket rolls on their backs. I was detailed to escort the recruits out to Camp Baker, about 8 miles distant over the old hill road by Hamlin's farm. A Lieutenant McGuire of the 1st Cavalry had been sent out to take charge of the old camp and drill the recruits. He had moved into one of the cabins a few days before, and had but a meager outfit for batching, very few supplies of any kind to commence with.
    I left Jacksonville about 3 o'clock P.M. with my recruits pretty well ginned up, to walk over a rough road eight miles to Camp Baker. What with the bad roads and erratic movements of my recruits, on account of an overload of spirits, it was well after dark when we reached McGuire's headquarters. As there was no bedding for me, and the four had to spread their blankets on the floor, I trudged on to Gassburg and put up at Colver's.
    That was my introduction to military service, and while I shall not attempt to give a history of that service but just an introductory to that part connected with the old village and those of its inhabitants who went out on the frontier to guard it against Indians, as also to account for some of them since.
    I have in my possession a roster containing the names of all who joined Sprague's company, and a very brief indication of their careers as far as known. There were 81 names on the enlistment rolls, of whom four only remain alive as far as [is] known. After spending a week or two in the recruiting service, Captn. I. D. Applegate was cheated out of the promised lieutenancy and Harrison B. Oatman was given the commission against the protests of the entire company, most of whom knew and disliked him, a feeling that was fully justified by his subsequent military career. No plausible reason has ever been given for shelving Applegate.
    Only two plausible excuses or reasons could be conjectured. One, that Oatman was a Mason, as were nearly every state official who had influence in the state. The other that Oatman was indebted to quite a few prominent citizens in Jackson County, and having no position that gave promise of his being able to liquidate in the near future, a military commission promised to place him in a position where he might favor his many creditors in securing future contracts to furnish government supplies, while Applegate was a man of strict honesty and unapproachable in the matter of bribery or favoritism, and his appointment would not benefit them.
    Oatman did nothing to help raise the company and never could drill it. My brother Newell and cousin Alonzo Williams, to whom I turned over my rental of my father's farm that I might enter the service, also enlisted during the winter leaving the farm without a tenant, and my father had to rent it during the entire time we were in the service.
    Sometime in January 1865, Uncle Sam Colver came to me and said that Loui was crazy to enlist, and if I would promise to act as "big brother" to him he would consent to his joining the company. Of course I felt very highly flattered by his request, as it showed me that he held me in good esteem, and I trust my promise was faithfully kept. As our company contained many neighborhood boys, some of them pretty wild, and the drilling did not occupy as much of their time as it ought, many of the neighborhood hen roosts and pig pens suffered from night visits of foragers.
    No one was ever arrested or punished, though the tables in several of the mess houses were loaded with food not issued by the commissary. One man in our company, Stephen T. Hallack by name, would never eat of the foraged provisions and used to remonstrate with the boys against the practice of foraging with great vigor and sincerity. He was a quiet man of about forty years of age, a native of New England, a sincere Christian and of strong convictions. He had a mining claim near Colemans, and had been in that neighborhood several years and was well liked. He met a sad death the winter of 1865 and '66 returning from the valley where he had been on furlough, and froze to death in sight of the fort the morning of April 1st. His was the only death in our company during the nearly three years of our service.
Orson A. Stearns, Transactions of the Forty-Seventh Annual Reunion of the Oregon Pioneers Association, Portland, June 19, 1919, page 227.


D.A.R. Places Marker Camp Baker, Phoenix
By Jane Snedicor

    Back in 1862 Southern Oregon was asked to furnish one company of infantry and one of cavalry for the Union army. Col. E. D. Baker, U.S. Senator from Oregon, had resigned and was in command of a Massachusetts regiment. It was rumored that these two Southern Oregon companies were to be sent to this eastern regiment and so the camp established just west of Phoenix was named Camp Baker. Each with a brother already in this camp, Judge William Colvig and his cousin, A. M. Woodford, our former postmaster, rode their horses from Jacksonville the morning of April 5, 1863, and enlisted at Camp Baker. These men were all doomed to disappointment, for the regular soldiers were sent east and the new company kept here for Indian service. Three months after he had enlisted, Judge Colvig was sent to Fort Klamath and it was not until last Tuesday morning, June 10, 1930, that he returned to the scene of these long-ago days, this time accompanied by one of his grandsons from Hollywood. Mrs. B. G. Harding, regent of Crater Lake chapter, D.A.R.; Jane Snedicor, chairman of the Committee for Marking Historical Spots, and Miss Amy Harding, he drove over the old parade grounds, now planted to alfalfa, and reviewed in interesting reminiscences the site of the once-famous camp on what is known as Coleman Creek.
    The site of the stables and some of the log cabins belonging to the camp touches the Calhoun road, and the present owner, Andrew Calhoun, was found to be very enthusiastic over the erecting of a permanent marker at this point on the Calhoun road.
    Crater Lake Chapter D.A.R. hopes to do this at an early date, but for the present have placed a temporary marker at this point.
    Judge Colvig recalled well the day when they enlisted and were set to digging out a pine stump upon which other new recruits had labored. Also that the state legislature paid each man $5 in gold for each month's service, and 40 cents per day for the use of his horse. Three years later, Judge Colvig left the army and with his 36 months' pay in his pocket went east, not to fight as he had hoped to do, but to study law and teach school, returning nine years later to make his home in the Rogue River Valley.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 15, 1930, page 5


Camp Baker
    When Abraham Lincoln made his immortal call for "three hundred thousand more," the ringing appeal reached faraway Oregon, and  echoed down the timbered slopes and into the wilderness of the Rogue River Valley.
    Oregon was required to organize two regiments--one of cavalry and one of infantry. Camp Baker was established in 1862 and garrisoned by the 1st Oregon Cavalry. The camp was named in honor of Col. Edward D. Baker, who was killed in the battle of Ball's Bluff in 1861.
    The site of Camp Baker lies one-half mile west of the town of Phoenix, or Gassburg, as it was then called, and one-half mile from the Pacific Highway. The officers' quarters, soldiers' barracks, hospital and other buildings were built solidly of hewn pine logs. Between the mess hall and stables ran Coleman Creek.
    Today only a few mouldering logs mark this historic spot where once the Stars and Stripes floated from the flagstaff and the boom of the sunset gun echoed from the surrounding hills; where once the thunder of horses' hoofs and the clank of sabers responded to the trumpet's call of "boots and saddles"; where once the trumpets sang "reveille" at early dawn and sounded "lights out" at night.
Alice Applegate Sargent, "Historic Spots of the Rogue Valley," Medford Mail Tribune, September 13, 1931, page 4


  
Last revised September 25, 2022