The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

William Green Hamilton T'Vault
For more about T'Vault's disastrous 1851 mission, click here.

    The house then proceeded [to] the election of a door keeper, and after four ballotings in which Messrs. Tevault and Ward were the most conspicuous candidates, Mr. Ward was elected.
"House of Representatives, December 4, 1826," Western Register & Terre-Haute Advertiser, Terre Haute, Indiana, January 11, 1827, page 1

Marriage record: Wm. G. H. Teevault to Rhoda Burnes, July 11, 1829, Warrick County, Indiana
Indiana State Library

Collector's Sale for Taxes.
Notice is hereby given, to all whom it may concern, that I will, on the second Monday of November next, at the courthouse door, in Boonville, Warrick County, Indiana, proceed to sell all lands and town lots in said county on which the tax for the years 1828 and 1829 shall then remain due--and that said sale will be continued from day to day, between the hours of nine o'clock a.m. and four p.m. until the whole are offered for sale.
W. G. H. TEEVAULT, Col. W.C.
Sept. 1829.
Western Sun & General Advertiser, Vincennes, Indiana, October 3, 1829, page 5

    On motion of Mr. Johnston of Knox,
    The House proceeded to the election of an assistant clerk, and on counting the ballots, it appeared that
William Sheets received 31 votes,
Austin W. Morris 19
William G. Tevault 7
Scattering 3
Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Indiana, session of December 7, 1829, page 6

Law Notice.
W. G. H. TEEVAULT, Attorney at Law, resides at Scotia, Pope County, A.T., and will attend the Circuit Courts of Washington, Crawford, Johnson, Pope, Van Buren and Conway counties, and will attend to the collection and settlement of debts in any part of the Territory. Any business confided to his trust shall be attended to with promptitude.
    Aug. 17, 1834.
Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, October 28, 1834, page 4

    At an election for Colonel Commandant of the Arkansas Militia of Pope County, held on the 18th June (ult.), William G. H. Teevault was duly elected. The vote stood: Teevault, 105; H. Webb, 25.

Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, July 14, 1835, page 2

Arkansas Territory,
Pope County,
Piney Township.

We have this day reviewed a stray mare shown to us by Bird Warmack, and do find the same to be a bay mare, five years old, her legs black above the knees, a small white spot on the back, branded with the letter R on the near shoulder, about fourteen hands high. Appraised to thirty dollars by us, this 5th day of June, A.D. 1835.
    Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 5th day of June, A.D. 1835.
    Filed and recorded 10th June, A.D. 1835.
W. G. H. TEEVAULT, clk.
Arkansas Advocate, Little Rock, September 11, 1835, page 4

    Mr. Wm. T. Yeomans was reelected Secretary, without opposition.
    After which the council proceeded to the election of assistant Secretary, for which office Mr. W. G. H. Teevault and John J. Kearney were nominated, and the vote was taken as follows:
    Kearney . . . 15
    Teevault . . . 12
    Upon which Mr. Kearney was declared duly elected.
"Legislative Council," Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, October 6, 1835, page 2

    The following is a list of the Justices of the Peace for the Territory of Arkansas, elected by the General Assembly, on Tuesday last:
    Pope County.--. . . Wm. G. H. Teevault . . .

Arkansas Gazette,
Little Rock, November 3, 1835, page 3

Mr. Teevault's Circular.
    FELLOW CITIZENS--Our Legislature, at the last session, wisely passed a law authorizing the freemen of Arkansas Territory to hold an election, on the second Monday of December next, in the respective precincts throughout the several counties, for members to a convention to form a constitution and system of government for the people of Arkansas preparatory to their admission into the proud confederation of the states of our happy and prosperous republic.
    Having the privilege guaranteed to me, in common with my fellow citizens, I take this mode of declaring myself a candidate for delegate to the convention. In presenting myself to an honorable, high-minded public, constituted of such magnanimous spirits as I have the honor to live among, I have no claims to hold forth but that of citizenship. I emigrated to this Territory in the winter of 1834, located myself in Pope County, and adopted her as my home. Her interest, and the interest of the Territory, henceforward will be mine. Since the time of my location in Pope, it has been my good fortune to become personally acquainted with most of you, and you all know my qualifications. I do not claim qualifications superior to any man that may think proper to offer you his services in the capacity of delegate to the convention.
    It perhaps would not be amiss to give you a small synopsis of my political sentiments. First, I am decidedly in favor of the present administration of the general government, and of electing a successor to the Presidential chair who will carry out the measures of President Jackson. I am in favor of going into the Union as a slave-holding state. From the peculiar location, climate, soil and productions of our country, being bounded on the north by Missouri, on the east by Tennessee and Mississippi, and south by Louisiana, all of which are slave-holding states, were we admitted into the Union as a free state, in a short time we would be overrun by runaway slaves--they always making for a free state, where they expect to be patronized by those fanatics who hold them as their equals. It would also compel the hardy and enterprising pioneers who have braved all the dangers of a new country, to sacrifice their estates, or to flee the home of their adoption, in order to retain that which is justly their property. Let us be admitted as a slave-holding state, then the tide of wealthy planters, who are now in anxious suspense, awaiting the admission of Arkansas, would flow in upon us. The value of our lands would be enhanced, and our public coffers filled with the five percent fund due us from the sales of public lands.
    I am in favor of the elective franchise being extended to all alike, and to the election of all officers of a state government, both civil and military. I do not believe that in a republic, composed of such Democratic principles as ours, that there should be any distinction in the exercise of the privileges at the polls--that the poor man should be entitled to give as many votes as the rich, and that no other requisite is necessary to the qualification of a voters than that of citizenship. I am also in favor of the executive being ineligible for one term after having served two successive terms. I am also in favor of a change in the judiciary from the present system. In my opinion, the supreme court should be formed of different judges from that of the circuit courts.
    The foregoing are a few of the principles upon which I shall be governed, if honored with your confidence. The limits of a circular will not permit me to extend to several subjects which are of great importance to the people in the election of delegates to the convention. Believing, as I always have, that the political sentiments of public men are public property, I shall, at all times, when called on, give a candid and unvarnished statement of my principles on any subject that my fellow citizens may require. Submitting the foregoing to a candid and generous public, I will cheerfully await your decision at the polls.
Your fellow citizen,
    W. G. H. TEEVAULT.
Scotia, Nov. 5, 1835.
Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, November 17, 1835, page 3

will practice in the superior and inferior courts, at Little Rock, and in those countries of his district of Prosecuting Attorney. His office is at Scotia, in Pope County--but will attend regularly in the circuit.
Oct. 24, 1836.
Arkansas Weekly Gazette, Little Rock, November 15, 1836, page 1

    It will be recollected by some of our readers that a few weeks since information was received here that a party of Creek Indians, under their chief, Tuck-i-batch-i-had-jo, had made a stand a few miles west of Potts'--and after remaining there a longer time than was necessary for them to recruit, were ordered away on their march by Mr. Potts, which they peremptorily refused--saying they were west of the Mississippi, and it was not in the power of anyone to compel them to go on. They said the threats of the whites might alarm little boys--but they were men! Intelligence being conveyed to Col. Teevault, commandant of the Pope County militia, of the audacious language held by this chief, he, by authority of two proclamations issued by the governor of this state on the 22nd October and 6th December, made a requisition, dated Dec. 26, on the companies of his regiment, for an armed force, and in two or three days upwards of 100 mounted men appeared under arms for a forcible expulsion. But they were not needed--the Indians, getting wind of the movement, decamped in the night about the 1st of January, and made a precipitate flight.
    This circumstance (unimportant of itself) has been noticed by us, merely for the example it affords--and as affording another proof of the promptness of our militia, when called to duty.
Arkansas Gazette.
The Democrat, Huntsville, Alabama, February 7, 1837, page 3

    Being about to leave the state for some months, all persons whom it may concern are hereby notified that Mr. W. G. H. Teevault is my authorized agent during my absence, and is fully empowered by me to settle and arrange any and all business whatever which I may have in the state, as fully in every respect as I myself could settle and arrange the same.
Johnson Co., Ark., March 16th, 1837.
Arkansas Times and Advocate, Little Rock, March 24, 1837, page 1

    In the county of Pope, one representative is to be elected to fill the vacancy occasioned by the election of W. G. H. Teevault, Prosecuting Attorney for the fifth judicial circuit.
Governor R. A. Watkins, "A Proclamation," 
Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, July 24, 1837, page 3

    In the county of Pope, one Representative to be elected, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the election of W. G. H. Teevault, Prosecuting Attorney for the fifth judicial circuit.

Governor R. A. Watkins, "A Proclamation," 
Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, August 1, 1837, page 4

    There has been the mischief to play over in Pope County. Lawyer Coffee Vault--the man what swung in the beef bones on Old Asa last winter, and the same man that is Prosecuting Attorney, elected by the _____ Legislature, has got himself into a tight scrape. Here is about the way the thing was: his animal passion--I believe that is what the scholars call it--got the up-hand of his prudence, and he tried to indulge on a thirteen-year-old gal, whether or no. She made oath of the fact, and he is now in as tight a place as a varmint in a steel trap. Lawyer McCampbell says he is mighty sorry of this indignity to the profession, but thank God he left the ranks before the accident happened.
"Pete Whetstone," Devil's Fork, Arkansas, letter of October 14, 1837, quoted in Cavorting on Devil's Fork: The Pete Whetstone Letters of C. F. M. Noland, Leonard Williams, ed., 1979, pages 90-91

    A rencounter recently took place in Pope County, between a Mr. Birkhead and Mr. W. G. H. Tevault, Prosecuting Attorney for this judicial circuit, which resulted in the death of the former. We learn that some person interfering in the squabble struck Mr. Tevault on the head with a rock two or three times, which injured Mr. T. considerable, but the wounds are not thought dangerous.
Arkansas Times and Advocate, Little Rock, October 30, 1837, page 2

    Homicide.--A rencounter took place in Pope County, on the 22nd inst., between Col. Wm. G. H. Teevault and Mr. Noah Burkhead, which unfortunately resulted in the death of the latter. The former was immediately taken into custody, and, after an examination of the case before a magistrate, committed to jail, to await his trial at the next Circuit Court.
Arkansas State Gazette, Little Rock, October 31, 1837, page 2

    J. J. Clendenin, Esq., was elected by the Legislature, on Saturday last, Prosecuting Attorney for this judicial district, in the place of W. G. H. Teevault.

Weekly Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, November 14, 1837, page 2

    Col. Wm. G. H. Tervault [sic] lately killed Mr. Noah Burkhead in a rencontre, in Pope County, Arkansas. Col. T. was arrested and sent to jail.
Evening Journal, Albany, New York, November 25, 1837, page 2

Wednesday, Dec. 13.
    Mr. Logan, from the select committee to which was referred the petition of W. G. H. Teevault, praying a change of venue in a criminal case, on leave granted, reported a bill, to be entitled "An act for the relief of William G. H. Teevault," which was read a first time; when, on motion of Mr. Logan, the rules were dispensed with for each reading, the bill read a second and third times, passed, and sent to the Senate for their concurrence.
"House of Representatives," Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, December 19, 1837, page 2

    "Glorious uncertainty of the law."--WM. G. H. TEEVAULT, late attorney for the state, in this district, who stands charged with murder, in Pope Co., and is also indicted there for an attempt to commit rape, or sodomy, some days since escaped from the Lewisburg jail. The attorney who defended him, and who also is "commorant" up the country, for some similar indecencies, as it is said, was a few days since shot through the suburbs of his "unmentionables." Wound said not to be mortal, although a transformation to the neuter gender may be seriously apprehended. "Fiat justitia ruat caelum."
Times and Advocate,
Little Rock, Arkansas, February 12, 1838, page 2

    Some time since, I loaned W. G. H. Teevault, the prosecuting attorney, &c, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th vols. of Chitty's Criminal Law. In the haste of removal from the county he forgot to return them. Any person who may have them in possession is requested to return them to me, or to Alburt Pike, Esq., and all persons are warned not to purchase the same.
Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, March 12, 1838, page 1


    Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, That, if William G. H. Teevault, who is committed in the county of Pope, on the charge of murder, shall make it appear to the circuit court of said county, or judge thereof, in vacation, that the minds of the people of the county of Pope are so much prejudiced against him, that he cannot have a fair and impartial trial such court or judge may order the trial of said Teevault to be removed to the circuit court of some other county in the same circuit.
    2. Such court or judge shall, in the order for the removal of said trial, order the sheriff to remove the body of said Teevault to the jail of the county into which the trial is removed, and deliver him to the keeper of such jail, together with the warrant or process by virtue of which he is imprisoned and held.
    3. The sheriff shall obey such order without unnecessary delay, and shall endorse on the commitment or process by which said Teevault may be held in his custody, and shall deliver such warrant with the prisoner, to the keeper of the jail of the proper county, who shall give such sheriff a receipt therefor, and take charge and keep the said prisoner, in the same manner as if he had been committed in such jail.
    4. Whenever such order shall be made, the clerk of the circuit of Pope County shall make out a full transcript of the record and proceeding in the cause, and shall transmit the same, duly certified under the seal of the court, to the clerk of the court to which the removal is ordered.
    5. On the receipt of such transcript, such cause may be removed; he shall file the same as a record of his court, and the same proceedings shall be had in the cause of such court, and the same manner in all respects as if the same had originated there. This act shall be in force from and after its passage.
    Approved: Dec. 15th, 1837.
Arkansas Times and Advocate, Little Rock, March 26, 1838, pages 1-2

    Escape.--Wm. G. H. Teevault, late attorney for the State of Arkansas for the Little Rock district, who stands charged with murder in Pope County, and is also indicted there for committing a rape, has made his escape from the Lewisburg jail.
Baltimore Sun, Maryland, March 29, 1838, page 4

    The proprietors of this handsome town site will offer at public sale, on the 17th day of September next, it being the first day of the Pope Circuit Court, the LOTS of this newly laid-off town. The town of Dardanelle lies on the north bank of the Arkansas River, in the populous and flourishing county of Pope, and at the crossing of the military road to Fort Smith, and is the county seat of Pope. From its location, and the many advantages it has over any other town on the river in the same county, it must eventually become a place of some importance.
    The proprietors invite those wishing to purchase town property, and particularly mechanics, to examine the location of Dardanelle, as the inducements held out by the proprietors are liberal, and cannot but induce them to purchase.
    The terms of sale will be made known on the day of sale.
July 5, 1838.
Arkansas Times and Advocate, Little Rock, July 9, 1838, page 3

    There is a loco foco lawyer over in Indiana who in the late elections in that state made himself very busy and particularly noisy. A friend from Arkansas, the scene of his former operations, has given us a most amusing sketch of him. Read it:
    The Arkansas Legislature, of which he was a member in 1836,  elected William H. Tevault Prosecuting Attorney for the judicial district in which the seat of government is located. This Tevault was a man of infamous character and destitute of talents or legal attainments, and was elected purely on party grounds. Not more than a week had elapsed after his elevation before he was detected by a prominent Democratic member of the Legislature, who kept a faro table in an attempt to "wring in beef bones for the pure ivory."
    Time rolled on and this spotless gentleman, at his urgent solicitation, became guardian for a poor, friendless, and innocent girl. But this friend, although a married man, attempted to perpetrate a rape on her, for which he was indicted, arraigned and tried. There was a mistrial, and before a second trial, he committed a most outrageous and cold-blooded murder upon a valuable citizen. He was thrown into jail, from which he escaped, not however until he addressed a letter to the Governor urging him not to offer a reward for him, as it would be an unnecessary tax upon the state. No reward was offered, and he is now practicing law in Vermillion County, Indiana.
Indiana Journal, Indianapolis, September 28, 1839, page 3

Partition of Real Estate.
Probate Court, Kosciusko County, February Term 1843.
John Cradlebough
William Cradlebough Petition for
Robert Evans Partition
Harriet Evans of
Joseph Cradlebough Real Estate.
Andrew Cradlebough
Samuel Cradlebough
Leoline Cradlebough
    Heirs of Andrew Cradlebough, late of Pickaway County, state of Ohio, deceased, will take notice that application will be made on the first day of the next term of the Probate Court of Kosciusko County, to be holden at the courthouse in the town of Warsaw, on the second Monday in February, A.D. 1843, for the appointment of commissioners to make partition among the several heirs of said deceased, of the following described lands situated in Kosciusko County, to wit: The west half of section 1, township thirty, range six east, containing 318 79/100 acres, also section number 36, township thirty-one, range six east, containing 640 acres; making in all 958 97/100 acres.
    Also for the appointment of guardians ad litem for Joseph, Andrew J., Samuel and Leoline Cradlebough, minor heirs of said Andrew Cradlebough, deceased, when and where all persons interested may appear and defend if they think proper.
Leesburg, January 2, 1843.
Goshen Democrat,
Goshen, Indiana, January 12, 1843, page 3

    The Tippecanoe Academy was incorporated February 9, 1843. The trustees named in the act of incorporation are George W. Stacey, Pleasant Grubb, William G. Tevault, James Hall and Albert Bass. . . . The first meeting of the trustees was to be held in the town of Monoquet, Kosciusko County.
    It could not be ascertained whether this academy ever materialized or not.
John Hardin Thomas, "The Academies of Indiana,"
Indiana Magazine of History, December 1914, page 338

    W. G. T'Vault, Esq., of Kosciusko, and S. T. Clymer, Esq., will speak at Middlebury on the 28th of September.
"Stump Speeches," Goshen Democrat, Goshen, Indiana, September 19, 1844, page 2

    BOUND FOR OREGON.--W. G. T'Vault, Esq., and family, started for Oregon, very late at night, on Saturday last. If he had paid the printer about $25 before he started, it would have been some relief, as the Major says.--Goshen Democrat.
Democratic Pharos,
Logansport, Iowa, January 29, 1845, page 1

    W. G. T'VAULT writes the following letter to the editor of the Goshen Democrat. We insert it for the information of those of our readers who may like to know his whereabouts. The letter is characteristic of the man--profane and lawless. We pity those who follow where he leads. Such a band may need a "western outlet;" but we should hate to either pay taxes or have our bones broken to purchase it:
On Vast Prairie, May 17th, 1845.
    Dear Dr:--While on our march we met with a company of mountaineers returning to Independence from Fort Laramie, which gives me an opportunity of writing you for the first time since we have been on our journey. We have traveled about 200 miles from St. Joseph, the place on the Missouri where we started from. The weather has been fine; roads on the prairie good, and my company is rapidly passing on to their journey's end. Nothing of importance has taken place has taken place, one death in our camp, but the emigrants are generally healthy, and anxious to go ahead. The company consists of 76 wagons, and about 800 souls. There is four large companies behind me, but I do not know their numbers. The company that I command has the lead, and by the Eternal G-d it shall go ahead. We have about 150 head of oxen, and 800 head of loose cattle; plenty of provision and within eight days of where the prairie is said to be black with buffalo. I would be glad to write more, but it is raining and my company is a mile ahead. You shall hear from me at Ft. Laramie.
Kosciusko Republican, Monoquet, Indiana, July 2, 1845, page 3  Reprinted from the Goshen Democrat of June 26, page 2

    OREGON EMIGRATION.--We are now able to inform our readers of all the Oregon emigrants who have left the Missouri River at this point for that far-off bourne beyond the Rocky Mountains. There were four companies which started between the 1st and 24th May. One commanded by Capt. Tevault, one by Captain Tetherow, one by Capt. Parker, and we are not informed who commanded the other. In all these were 228 wagons, 954 persons, 545 firearms, 9425 cattle, and 168 horses and mules. The individuals of these companies were generally prepared for the journey, and were well filled with high hopes and unyielding resolutions. Maj. W. P. Richardson, Indian agent at the great Nemaha sub-agency which the emigrants passed, in writing to us about them, says, "They are sufficiently strong to travel through the Indian country. It gives me pleasure to be able to state that the emigrants this spring are well prepared in every way for the expedition. They seem to be quite cheerful and agreeable. The character of the emigration is very much improved from last year." We learn from a letter published in the Expositor of Independence, and written at Kaw village, one hundred miles from Independence, that the companies from that place was about being fully organized, and consisted of 421 males, 138 females, 448 children, 3361 cattle, 223 wagons, and 182 horses. Thus it appears from a statement of facts known to be true that the emigration to Oregon is not only large, but respectable, and greatly increasing. We certainly think this matter deserves the consideration of Congress, and were there no other reasons for so doing, a law should be passed for the protection of these indefatigable men. All persons and parties agree in saying the Oregon Territory is ours, and the former policy of the government persuades the people that an act will sometime be passed for the benefit of these pioneers; these men are encouraged to move with their families and chattels to Oregon. In going thither they are subjected not only to labors, but to dangers; it is to be supposed that the Indians in the vast prairies look with apprehension upon this seeming encroachment upon their old hunting ground, and will seek to avenge their supposed wrongs upon the subjects which perpetrate them. The Indians in Oregon will entertain the same feelings, and be impelled by the same motives. So that the journey to Oregon and the life in Oregon are not without hazard, being entirely unprotected as they now are. Is this just? We think not, for the inducement is held out which is known will influence men, and yet that protection which is necessary is neglected. There should be a line of posts along the road, and in the Territory likewise. This emigration is pleasing to us in one view particularly, and that is holding for the U. States that Territory which is immensely valuable to us on many accounts. Were England entirely sure she could conquer us by land and by sea, and that victory would proudly perch upon her standard, whilst the American Eagle was laid low, it were vain for her to hope that she can ever hold that country. It is being settled by our own citizens who have tasted the sweets of liberty, and know what it is to be freemen; and they will even turn from all other objects to their first love, their native country, and seek protection under the ample folds of the American flag. For the truth of which witness the eagerness, the enthusiasm with which the Texans now incorporate their government with the U. States, and feels unwilling to entertain for one moment any proposition from proud and powerful England when annexation is within their grasp.--Gaz.

Western Sun and General Advertiser, Vincennes, Indiana, July 5, 1845, page 1

    …my people came across the plains in 1845. Col. W. G. T'Vault was captain of the wagon train.
    Dr. Elijah White…met the wagon train of which my father was a member and told them of a more direct route. The T'Vault wagon train, with the others, swung south to take this cutoff. Stephen Meek, a brother of Joe Meek, said he could guide the immigrants to the Willamette Valley by this cutoff.…
    Stephen Meek guided them by the old trail for some time, but when they got into the foothills of the Malheur Mountains all signs of the old trail had disappeared. The alkaline water was the cause of many of the immigrants becoming sick with mountain fever.…
    The cattle became restless and tried to take the back track. The wagon train would have to halt while the immigrants hunted for the lost cattle. While Dave Herron was out looking for his lost cattle, he noticed in the bed of a small stream, a piece of metal that looked like copper or brass. He picked it up, put it in his pocket and took it with him to camp. Another member of the party also brought a lump of dull yellow metal to camp. They were unable to determine whether it was gold, copper, or brass. This was in 1845 before the discovery of gold in California. One of the gold nuggets was given to a member of the party, who hammered it flat with a hammer on his wagon tire. He threw it into his tool chest and paid no more attention to it. The immigrants were more interested in finding the lost trail to the Willamette Valley and securing water for their thirsty children than in discovering gold, so no attention was paid to the stream on which the nuggets had been found. The stream ran in a southwesterly direction, but whether it was a branch of the Malheur River or not the immigrants did not know.
    A few years later, when gold was discovered in California, the finding of these nuggets was recalled. When my brothers went to the Oro Fino mines in Idaho, my father said he believed he could guide them to where the gold had been found, in what was called the Blue Bucket mines. One of the immigrants, when asked about finding the gold there, said he could have picked up his blue bucket full of nuggets if he had known it was gold. Several parties were later organized to find the Blue Bucket mines, but they were unable to locate the place.
Andrew Jackson McNemee, "The Bucket Bucket Mine," in Alfred Powers, History of Oregon Literature, Portland 1935, pages 96-97

Plain Township
Names Description Section Town Range Acres Value
Tevault, William G. southwest quarter 5 33 6 158.88 270
"A List of Lands & Lots Returned Delinquent for Non-Payment of Taxes," Kosciusko Republican, Monoquet, Indiana, December 3, 1845, page 3

    December 23, 1845, [the Oregon provisional government] passed "an act to create and establish a Post Office Department, under which William G. T'Vault became Postmaster-General. February 5, 1846, he advertised in the Spectator for the carrying of mails on the following routes: (1) From Oregon City to Fort Vancouver, once in two weeks by water. (2) From Oregon City to Hills in Twality County; thence to A. J. Hembree's, in Yamhill County; thence to N. Ford's, Polk County; thence to Oregon Institute, Champoeg County; thence to Catholic Mission and Champoeg to Oregon City, once in two weeks on horseback."
Clarence B. Bagley, "Transmission of Intelligence in Early Days in Oregon," Oregon Historical Quarterly, December 1912, page 352

    APPOINTMENTS BY THE GOVERNOR, February 4.--Wm. G. T'Vault prosecuting attorney for the Territory, vice M. A. Ford resigned.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, February 5, 1846, page 2

Mail Contracts to Let.
    Sealed proposals will be received at the office of the postmaster general, in Oregon City, until the 20th inst., for carrying the mail on the following routes:
    Route No. 1.--From Oregon City to Fort Vancouver, once in two weeks, by water.
    Route No. 2.--From Oregon City to Hill's, in Tualatin County; thence to A. J. Hembree's, in Yamhill County; thence to Andrew Smith's, Yamhill County; thence to N. Ford's, Polk County; thence to Oregon Institute, Champoeg County; thence to Catholic Mission and Champoeg to Oregon City, once in two weeks, on home back.
    The contractor will enter into bond and security, to be approved of by the postmaster general.
W. G. T'Vault, P.M. Gen.
    Oregon City, Feb. 5, 1846.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, February 19, 1846, page 3

    The editorial connection of the undersigned with the Oregon Spectator will close with the present number.
    To obtain a printing press in Oregon has been an object much desired; that object has been accomplished, and the publication of a semi-monthly paper commenced at Oregon City on the 5th of February last.
    The proprietors of the press are the shareholders of the Oregon Printing Association. The constitution of the association was published in the first number of the Spectator, also the names of the officers of said association, consisting of a president, vice president, treasurer, secretary and three directors. The 7th article of said constitution, in substance, says: "It shall be the duty of the officers and board of directors to manage and superintend, or procure a suitable person to do so, the entire printing and publishing concern of the association; to employ all persons required in the printing or editorial departments of the press," &c. After the organization of said board of directors, it was deemed expedient to employ an editor. For the purpose of ascertaining who, and upon what terms, a committee of three was appointed, consisting of Robert Newell, J. E. Long and J. W. Nesmith. Mr. Newell, being the first on the committee, was considered chairman, but on account of his absence, J. E. Long acted as the chairman of the committee and was the entire committee doing all, or very near all, the time that the board of officers were figuring in selecting their editor. It will be recollected that, at that time, the acting chairman of the committee to obtain an editor was secretary to the house of representatives, and when he did report to the board of directors upon the
subject, his report was that Mr. Lee, the then-speaker of the house of representatives, would undertake the duties of editor for the sum of six hundred dollars per annum. The sum asked by Mr. Lee was, by the board, who by some of the shareholders, thought to be high, yet no person was employed as editor. Considerable excitement prevailed during the managing and maneuvering of the parties concerned, the acting chairman of the committee presented to the board of directors proposals from Mr. Lee for leasing the press, type &c. This, however, could not be collected, consequently they were withdrawn. The undersigned was finally employed as editor, at a salary of three hundred dollars per annum--salary to commence the 1st of January, 1846.
    In making his bow to the public as the conductor of a public journal, he declared and gave his reasons for so doing--that reason and good sense argued against the Spectator becoming a political paper--advocating the expediency of a neutral paper in this new, and at present unprotected, colony. Notwithstanding he belonged to the Jeffersonian school, believing the principles taught by that great apostle of liberty to be the true principles of a republican government--that it is the great object of such governments to devise ways and means by which the greatest amount of
good can be done to the greatest number of its citizens. The political sentiments here avowed were at war with some of the present aristocracy of the land, notwithstanding the avowal that the columns of the Spectator should be kept within the construction of the constitution of the printing association, that to discuss politics in Oregon would be no advantage to any--that there is two distinct parties in Oregon, no one will for a moment doubt--differing, however, not upon those great fundamental principles which is to govern a powerful nation, as is the case with our fellow citizens in the United States, but upon subjects less worthy of the name. We have amongst us a class of mongrels, neither American nor anti-American--a kind of foreign hypocritical go-betweens, as we would say in the States, fence men, whose public declarations are "all for the good of the public, and not a cent for self." However, the great object has not yet been accomplished. The press has got into operation, and it will not meet the interest of those who wish bolstering up in the estimation of the emigration just arrived, and the one expected this year, the present is the time for action. The political sentiments of the conductor are at variance with ours. Now is the time to effect whatever we wish to make available at some subsequent time. His syntax is bad; his orthography not good; he is a stranger to our country, and we will avail ourselves of our advantage at present, and place ourselves beyond the reach of danger for fear that if we procrastinate the time of his removal, it may be that his thorough acquaintance in the territory will endanger our prospects. A legal course will shield us, and we will say to the world, without giving him a chance to resign, that we have triumphed--that we have the ascendancy--that we will teach him a lesson--that he should not avow his political sentiments publicly, but to console him and his political friends, if he has any, we will say, you, sir, are not qualified; you do not suit that class that has to be served in and about the city; your syntax is bad; you do not work in our traces; your object is to assert and maintain the cause of democracy at the hazard of a few demagogues and political aspirants; you will please to accept the resolve that at the expiration of one month from the 5th of March, 1846, your services will be discontinued as editor of the "Oregon Spectator."
    If in the course of my short editorial career I have written aught which has wounded or done injustice to the feelings of friends or foes, I trust it may be attributed to the head, not the heart of the offender. If I know my own heart, it never has, and I hope never will, harbor malice towards a fellow being.
    In bidding a farewell to the readers of the Spectator, I feel it my duty to express, thus publicly, my gratitude for the uniform kindness extended to me by my fellow citizens of all parts of Oregon .Wherever my lot may be cast at any subsequent time, it shall be my proudest boast that "I am an American citizen."
    Oregon City, April 2, 1846.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 2, 1846, page 2

    Well, the fiat has gone forth. The board of directors of the printing association have said that H. A. G. Lee, Esq., one of the ex-members of the last legislature, must be their editor. Of Mr. Lee we have nothing to say. He has placed himself in no enviable station. We sincerely hope that the interest of the Spectator and the association has been much advanced by his promotion.
    It is due to the public that we should make an acknowledgment for accepting the station as editor, also of other responsible situations, with which we are no longer burdened. The great diversity of opinion in Oregon renders it impossible for one man to please many. The junto of aristocracy in and about Oregon City think they have the right to manage matters as best suit their views, and the citizens in the country will tamely submit to whatever mandate the favored few may think proper to issue.
    My lords and masters, you may be mistaken; Oregon territory is settling with the hardy freemen--as independent as the air they breathe--knows no master--acknowledges no superior, and believes there is no government equal to that of the U. States.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 2, 1846, page 2

    We conclude our notices with the following extract from the editorial description of the first attempt at stump speaking in the territory.
    On Monday, the 18th of May [1846], as we expected, quite a number of the sovereigns of Clackamas County met at Oregon City, although the morning was showery and threatening, such was their curiosity to witness, in this "sundown" land, scenes with which they had once been familiar in the far East, viz, stump speaking. Our anxiety was much heightened by delay. Noon came--the court adjourned--the bells rang--dinner was over, and no speeches yet! At 2 o'clock the court met, pursuant to adjournment; at 4 o'clock the court was again adjourned--and the sheriff in true official style cried out from the porch of the hotel--"O, yes! O, yes!! O, yes!!! the candidates will address the people so soon as they will collect."
    The crowd immediately assembled about the porch, particularly keen to witness the exhibition new in Oregon. The candidates seemed not to have settled the preliminaries or order of the day, or something else, for they were not forthcoming, although repeatedly called for, even by name, as "General Husted, Mr. Parker," etc., etc. Thus we were held in cruel suspense until it was no longer endurable; and many of the voters proclaimed aloud that they would vote for no man who had declared himself a candidate and would not publicly express himself a candidate and would not publicly express his sentiments beforehand, and on motion, it was resolved by the company to select a new set of candidates. Finally, however, the sheriff proclaimed that, as the candidates were backward about speaking, Esq. T'Vault, who was not a candidate, would address them, if they would come into the house. We were soon snugly located in the hotel.
    Esq. T'Vault said he was not a candidate--did not intend to be--yet he would call their attention to some political points, upon which they ought to know the views of those who were offering to serve them in the next legislature. If he should, in the course of his remarks, commit homicide by murdering the English language, he hoped they would consider it justifiable homicide--he did not like the English anyway. He thought the organic law permitted too general a system of holding land claims. We should conform, as nearly as possible, to the law that had passed, or would pass, Congress. Our judicial system was badly arranged, especially the criminal code, which should be amended, the salaries of the officers should be reduced--the people would then pay their taxes, and we should have a revenue.
    "Husted! Husted!" was heard from every part of the room. Gen. Husted said "It appeared as if the candidates were called upon for to give their views and sentiments upon various subjects which might come before the legislature--there were many subjects, both political and agricultural, that ought to be attended to." He hardly knew what position to take, but would go for such measures as would tend to advance the prosperity of Oregon. (Applause.) He thought the "liquor law" was not exactly a good one, and might perhaps be amended. He would say no more at present, till he heard from his fellow candidates. (Loud applause.)
The Fond du Lac Whig, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, March 11, 1847, page 4

T'Vault delivered the Fourth of July oration at Salem in 1846.

    Among the evidences of the prosperity of the settlement is the fact that a newspaper is regularly issued at Oregon City, edited by Mr. T'Volt, formerly of this state, and furnished to subscribers at $5 per annum. The editor appears to be a business man; he not only attends to the editorial department of his paper--the Oregon Spectator--but serves in the capacity of Postmaster General, and Prosecuting Attorney, and tends to other matters connected with the welfare of the community.
"From Oregon," Indiana State Sentinel, July 30, 1846, page 2

    The St. Lonis Reville has received the first number of the Oregon Spectator, published in the Oregon Territory. Its motto is "Westward the Star of Empire takes its Way." The paper bears date Feb. 5, 1846, and contains a copy of the constitution passed by the Legislature of the Territory, and also an act to prevent the introduction and sale of ardent spirits in Oregon. The editor is a Wm. G. T'Vault, who is also Prosecuting Attorney and Postmaster General of the Territory. He says the paper will be neutral in politics, but at the same time says he is a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school.
Auburn Journal and Advertiser, Auburn, New York, July 29, 1846, page 4

    The first newspaper commenced in Oregon has found its way into the States, and the St. Louis Reveille has received a copy. It is dated February 5, 1846. Its motto is "Westward the Star of Empire Takes its Way." It contains a copy of the constitution passed by the legislature of the territory; also, an act to prevent the introduction and sale of ardent spirits in Oregon. The editor, Wm. G. T'Vault, says, in his opening leader, that the paper will be neutral in politics, and devoted to the general interest of the territory; but he, at the same time, informs them that he is a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school. Besides being editor of the Spectator, he is prosecuting attorney and postmaster general of the territory. There is also a list of arrivals and departures of vessels from the Columbia River. Nine had arrived from March 17th to October 18th, and the same number departed. The Reveille, knowing the propensities of his countrymen, says we should not be surprised if the settlers in our far-off territory were looking around for some lone star of an island in the Pacific to annex to their state; or rather, to throw the light of empire over it.
Indiana State Sentinel, July 30, 1846, page 2

From the St. Louis Reveille.
    We have been favored by some friend with a copy of the first issue of the Oregon Spectator--the first newspaper established in the Oregon territory! Here it is, all the way from our settlement opposite China! The motto of the sheet is--"Westward the Star of Empire takes its way," and we should not be surprised if the settlers in our far-off territory were looking around to some lone star of an island in the Pacific to annex to their state, or, rather, to throw the light of empire over it. The number before us is dated February 5th, 1846, and contains a copy of the constitution passed by the legislature of the territory; also, an act to prevent the introduction and sale of ardent spirits in Oregon. The editor, Wm. G. T'Vault, says in his opening leader that the paper will be neutral in politics, and devoted to the general interests of the territory, but he at the same time informs them that he is a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school. Besides being editor of the Spectator, he is Prosecuting Attorney and Postmaster General of the territory. T'Vault, judging from the stations he holds, must be a man of vault-ing ambition.
    (W. G. T'VAULT, the editor of the Oregon Spectator, about two years ago resided at Leesburg, Kosciusko County, in this state, which place he saw proper to leave between two days. It seems he has been a more fortunate office-hunter on the other side of the Rocky Mountain than on this side.)
Indiana State Journal, Indianapolis, August 5, 1846, page 1

    NEWSPAPER IN OREGON.--Mr. H. Smith of Findlay, Hancock County, in this state, passed through our town about two weeks ago on his way home from Oregon. He had with him several numbers of the "Oregon Spectator," a newspaper printed at Oregon City. A paper from the coast of the Pacific Ocean, beyond the Rocky Mountains! Even true, reader! for we saw and read three numbers of it. It is edited by Mr. T'Vault, and published twice a month, by a company.--Piqua Register.
    This same T'Vault was, we learn, not long since a small petifogging lawyer in Kosciusko County. He is said to have decamped from that location rather hastily, taking with him some four or five hundred dollars belonging to a widow lady, the proceeds of a claim that she had placed in his hands for collection. He holds several offices under the existing state of things in Oregon, among which is that of postmaster. He will probably be in Congress as a delegate from Oregon before long, as it is not likely an honest man will stand any chance.
Fort Wayne Times & People's Press, Fort Wayne, Indiana, August 22, 1846, page 1

    Have you seen a notice of the new paper in Oregon, called the Spectator? Neutral in politics, but the editor a "Democrat of the Jeffersonian school." Who is he, do you ask? Why, William G. T'Vault, and, notwithstanding that aristocratic dash after the T, I believe he is the same old coon we used to have in Arkansas, William G. H. Teevault, a member of the Legislature from Pope; elected by a legislature of the "Jeffersonian school." Pros. attorney; rung in beef bones for the pure ivory on "Old Asa"'; was indicted for an attempt to commit a rape, pending the trial, perpetrated an outrageous murder; fled from the state; ensconced himself in Indiana, and in 1840, was a champion on the stump of the "Democracy of the Jeffersonian school." I informed our Executive of his whereabouts, but if he demanded him I never heard of it.
Anonymous letter from Batesville, Arkansas Gazette, Little Rock, August 31, 1846, page 2  "Old Asa" may have been Asa Thompson, a notorious gambler. Substituting beef bones for ivory sounds like a reference to cheating in a dice game.

    TO THE PUBLIC.--The last Legislature of Oregon passed a law creating a Post Office Department. Accordingly, in the month of February last, post offices and postmasters were appointed in the several counties south of the Columbia. Since that time, the mail has been regularly carried to said offices semi-monthly. The revenue arising from the postage falls far short of paying the expense of transporting the mail. It is deemed advisable to stop the transportation of the mail for the present, the last legislature having only appropriated fifty dollars for the purpose of establishing a Post Office Department in Oregon, and fixing the rate of postage so high as almost to amount to a prohibition of carrying letters by mail. Notwithstanding [that] the strictest economy has been used, the last quarter the mail has been carried, having been paid entirely by contribution: yet the whole revenue arising from the postage of three quarters will not pay the transportation for one quarter, and to attempt taxing the people for the transportation of the mail is a responsibility the Postmaster General declines at the present time.
    If there should important news arrive from the States, the mail will be dispatched immediately to the several offices.
    Postmaster General.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, October 1, 1846, page 3

    EXPLORING COMPANY.--We are requested to state that the company to explore the Klamath and Rogue river valleys will rendezvous at the Jefferson Institute, on the Rickreall, and positively start on the 10th day of June next, provided twenty men can be raised for the expedition. We are informed that Gen. Gilliam, Col. Ford, Maj. Thorpe and W. G. T'Vault, Esq., are using their exertions to raise the company and will accompany it should it start.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 27, 1847, page 2

    DEAR SIR--It would probably be interesting to you to know some of the occurrences that passed after I left you at Messrs. Foster & Barlow's camp on the east side of the Cascade Mountains. On the 28th ult., after Messrs. Foster, Barlow and myself had proceeded to within twelve miles of the Dalles, we met the advance company of wagons, consisting of 16, under the guidance of Capt. Nat. Bowman.
    We were informed that Mr. Waller had pursued the company some six or eight miles desiring assistance to return and protect his family and Mr. Parker, who was wounded in the affray that took place at the Dalles on Monday the 23rd ult.
    We then halted for the night. After the wagons had all formed in corral we learned that Mr. Shively, who has been for some time in Washington City, was in company with a large company of papers and letters for the settlers in Oregon. We learned from Mr. Shively that nothing further was done for Oregon than the establishment of two post offices, one at Oregon City, the other at Astoria, and the appropriation for the transportation of the mail via the Isthmus of Panama.
    On the 29th, early in the morning, Mr. F. and myself joined a company of men   at the Dalles and found that the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon had arrived and about five wagons of the emigrants; we therefore thought Mr. Waller and family as well as all others at that place in perfect safety. Accordingly about sunset on the 29th we left the Dalles for this place, where on the 1st inst. I arrived. About fifty miles from Oregon City at the foot of Laurel Hill, one of the principal peaks of the Cascades, we found three of the men that were in the affray at the Dalles on the 23rd ult. They were much fatigued and very hungry, having subsisted for the last six or seven days on dry flour, as they were too fearful to make a fire to bake bread. We soon came up with a company of packers and they obtained provisions and joined them for the purpose of coming into the Valley.
In haste, your friend,
    W. G. T'VAULT.
Oregon City, 2nd Sept. 1847.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, September 2, 1847, page 2

Attorneys and Counselors at Law and Solicitors in Chancery.

W. G. T'Vault & S. R. Thurston
have formed a partnership in the practice of law, and will attend to business entrusted to their care in any of the courts established by law in Oregon Territory.
    Office, Oregon City, where one of the partners can always be consulted.
Oregon City, October 13, 1847.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, October 14, 1847, page 3

Temperance Meeting.
    The Washingtonian Temperance Society met according to adjournment, in the Methodist Church, on Saturday evening, Dec. 18th. The meeting was opened by the vice president taking the chair.
    The committee on printing pledges reported by handing in 55 printed copies. Report was accepted, and the secretary was requested to forward copies to the following named gentlemen, in each of the several counties throughout the Territory. Clackamas, J. R. Robb, C. W. Shane, P. Foster; Champoeg, Dr. Wilson, Rev. Mr. Bolduc, G. W. Vernon, Rev. J. W. Wilbur; Polk, Rev. L. Belieu, A. N. C. Shaw, Mitchel Gilliam, Esq.; Yamhill, Dr. McBride, A. A. Skinner, Esq.; Tualatin, Rev. H. Clark, P. H. Burnett, Esq.; Clatsop, Rev. Mr. Fisher, Mr. Lampson; Lewis, ------ Langlois, Dr. Tolmie; Vancouver, Hon. J. Douglas, Esq.
    The committee on memorial reported, which report was accepted. After some remarks by Messrs. H. Johnson, Roberts, Leslie, Wilson, Newell, McLaughlin, Hartless and T'Vault, it was immediately voted that, in the opinion of this meeting, this should be a Territorial question.
    After some remarks by Messrs. T'Vault, Thurston and Elliot, the following motion was unanimously carried in the affirmative.
    Resolved, that it is the sense of this meeting that the Organic Law of this Territory should be so amended as to prohibit the introduction, sale and manufacture of all kinds of intoxicating drinks.
    On motion that a committee be appointed to draw up a memorial in accordance with the above resolution, Messrs. Thurston, T'Vault and Dr. Willson were appointed that committee, who retired to report instanter.
    On motion, S. R. Thurston, Esq. be requested to furnish the substance of his remarks of this evening, for publication in the Oregon Spectator.
    On motion a collection be raised to defray the expenses of the society.
    The committee on memorial, being ready, made a report, which report was accepted and adopted.
    On motion that the chair appoint a committee of three ladies to draw up a memorial similar to the above, for presentation to the Hon. Legislature, now in session in this city, Miss Harriet Coffin, Mrs. Vandusen, and Miss Mary Leslie were appointed that commission.
    On motion adjourned to meet in this place on Saturday evening next, Dec. 25th, at six o'clock precisely. Come one, come all, and strike while the iron is hot!!
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, January 6, 1848, page 4

Solicitors in Chancery,
Will practice in the Supreme and Circuit Courts of Oregon Territory. Office in Oregon City.
    Oregon City, April 1.
Oregon Free Press, April 8, 1848, page 1

    OREGON.--Our short article upon the prospects of Oregon, published a few days since, has brought us information that a complete newspaper and general printing establishment is to go out to that territory in the first vessel from the Atlantic Coast. It is to publish a Democratic paper, to be called the American Patriot. Gen. Cornelius Gilliam, of Oregon, is the proprietor, and G. Thurston and Wm. G. T'Vault, both old settlers, we believe, are to be the editors.
    This establishment is to be devoted to advocating the American interest in the territory, the contest already being between that and the interest of Britain, or her Hudson's Bay Company. This is as it should be.--N.Y. True Sun
Green Bay Advocate,
Green Bay, Wisconsin, November 2, 1848, page 2  Printed earlier in the Saturday Morning Visitor, Warsaw, Missouri, October 21, 1848, page 2

    Notice is hereby given that letters of administration on the estate of George Tevault dec'd. have been granted to the undersigned. All persons having claims against said estate are requested to present them for settlement. Said estate is supposed to be solvent. Notice is also hereby given that the undersigned will sell at public auction at the courthouse door in Evansville, on the 2nd day of December A.D. 1848, all the personal property belonging to said estate consisting of one land warrant for 160 acres.
    Terms of Sale.--One-half in cash, the balance in three moths from day of date, to be secured by note with approved security.
Evansville Daily Journal, Indiana, November 20, 1848, page 3

Columbia River opposite Mr. Burns'
December 8, 1849
My dear wife
    Here I am again going
ahead leaving my kind and loving wife and family anxiously preparing ahead to roll on the billows of the great Pacific asking for favorable winds to widen the distance between me and all that is dear to me but enough I have to go and the sooner I am back the better. I want you to take more than special care of the girls; there is more danger of their men now than of any other kind which grieves me to be away at this time--for God's sake do prevent them from going out of night to parties no matter who courts after them and although Capt. Jones is [from] a highly respectable family yet there is great danger to be found from our daughters' staying all night there or going to parties with them--do prevent them from doing either.
    I do not want to dictate in small matters, but for god's sake look well
to the foregoing, as also to our dear little George, do not let him go about or cross the river without you. I have written to Capt. Couch to send you all shoes, also George a pair of boots.
    Walter Pomeroy says that if you want any money he will let you have it. I only say so to you to let you know what he says.
    Do not sell any of our property till I get back, which shall be soon.
    Tell my old friend the gov [i.e., Joseph Lane] to write me by every ship that leaves for California and to advise me what is best to do, whether to buy a vessel or come home with goods, and if so what kind of goods. It seems to me that furniture is a good article to bring to Oregon.
    My dear wife, take care and do as you think best, and I will be satisfied. Let me here suggest that you employ a cook and for god's sake save
yourself in your old age--my kind love to the children may God bless them and the richest of all blessings on you is the desire of your affectionate husband.
W. G. T'Vault            
Jo Lane Papers.

On board the brig Josephine
December 9th, 1849
My dear son
    I am now going down the Columbia and will not have an opportunity of writing to you after we leave Astoria.
    I hope you, your mother and sisters are all well and may kind providence guard and bless you with good health until I return.
    My dear George I want you to be a good boy do not run about in the streets go to school, obey your mother and Gov. Lane be careful do not go about the river take good care of yourself do not quarrel nor dispute with other boys.
    Write to Capt. Couch for your boots and your mother's and sisters' shoes.
    My dear son I do hope and pray you will do well until I return I will come home as soon as I can nothing will stop me but death or disappointment from being back by first of February next.
    God bless you all I want you to be careful of yourselves do [so] for my sake.
    Give my best respects to Gov Lane tell him I will write from San Francisco as soon as I arrive--your affectionate father
W. G. T'Vault                       
Tell Gov. Lane that I will write him every opportunity and do hope that Judge Bryant will not be detained by the [illegible]; she is aground. All is well with me; hoping that it may continue so with all at home and elsewhere.
December 9th
W. G. T'Vault
Jo Lane Papers.

    Articles of agreement made and entered into this 7th day of January 1850 between W. G. T'Vault  of the first part and H. G. Parks of the other, witnesseth the said parties agree to form a partnership for carrying on the slaughtering of beeves, hogs etc., also the establishing [of] a market of meat, vegetables etc. in the town of Oregon City, said partnership to commence from this date and continue unless dissolved by mutual consent for the term of three months, upon the terms following, that is to say--
    The said T'Vault is to furnish a house and lot, the house to be for a slaughter and market house, the market house to house [a] store, the lot to be
suitable for keeping cattle and hogs, also to furnish a capital of two hundred and fifty dollars and to superintend and purchase beeves and cause them to be delivered in the slaughter pen or lot, said T'Vault is to charge no mill for said house and lot nor for any service for delivering stock in the slaughter lot, the said T'Vault is to take a receipt for all monies that he may pay out for marketable supplies and cause the same to be entered on the books of the firm.
    In consideration of the same, said Parks agrees to furnish two hundred and fifty dollars capital stock and to cause the
necessary quantity of beeves suitable for the market to be slaughtered provided the same can be obtained, and to market the same, and superintend the sale of all marketable articles and in fact the said Parks is to superintend the slaughtering of all beeves and hogs and sale of the same as well as all other marketable articles and keep an exact account of the amount of sales and enter the same each day on a book to be kept for those purposes and at the end of each week there shall be a settlement made; each party accounting for this amount he may expend if the same has been expended for the use of the firm it is to apply to the same use of the firm. Said Parks is to charge nothing for his services.
    The above agreements are mutual between the parties.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto put our hands this day and date above written.
[signed]  W. G. T'Vault
                H. G. Parks
Witness: R. R. Thompson
Jo Lane Papers.

Oregon City, Oregon:
W G Tvault, 41, male, lawyer, $1000 real estate, born in Tennessee
Rodia Tvault, 40, female, born in Kentucky
Elizabeth Tvault, 18, female, born in Indiana
St M TVault, 14, born in Indiana
George T Tvault, 10, born in Indiana
U.S. Census, enumerated September 28, 1850

    As a general thing, the men have resorted to industrious pursuits, and engaged themselves in the manufacturing of shingles, cutting and preparing piles for shipment, and prospecting the country in the vicinity of all the small streams for gold. . . . This kind of employment will continue for a few days longer and then another expedition for opening a trail to the Shasta mines will be fitted out under the direction of Mr. [William G. T'Vault]. This gentleman was employed by the United States government as guide for the company of rifles under the command of Captain Stuart, who recently marched through the Indian country from Oregon to California. We have the utmost confidence in the ability of Mr. T. as being every way qualified to conduct a party in an enterprise of this character. It is the intention of the party to prospect all the streams over which they pass, and I have no doubt but what they will make some discoveries that will comprise no small degree of interest. In my next I anticipate imparting something of more importance.
    For the present, adieu.                  CLINTON.

"Our Port Orford Correspondence," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, August 26, 1851, page 2

Correspondence of the Alta California.
PORT ORFORD, O.T., Sept. 14, 1851.
    MESSRS. EDITORS: I have but a few moments to devote to the interest of this communication, and in fact I need but few to note whatever of interest has occurred subsequent to the date of my last. Up to the date of the communication referred to, the Indians had not been at our camp for several days, but I am happy to say that only few days elapsed when they again paid us a visit, and have continued friendly up to the present time, with no indications of difficulty of any character. Mr. W. G. T'Vault, with a company of nineteen men, left here for the mines. They prosecuted their journey for several miles, and finding that their supply of provisions were rapidly being exhausted, decided on separating, and nine of the company returned to our camp; the balance of the company proceeded on their journey, since which time we have heard nothing from them.
    Dr. Dart, Superintendent of Indian affairs for Oregon, has arrived here with his suite and the necessary articles preparatory to perfecting a treaty with the different tribes in this vicinity. Mr. D. is accompanied with some twenty U.S. soldiers, who, we understand, have come here for the purpose of opening a road to the one leading from Oregon City and Willamette Valley to the Shasta Valley, or gold diggings in that vicinity.
    In my next I will give you an account of the proceedings of the treaty, and all other things of interest that may occur.    Adieu.    CLINTON.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 18, 1851, page 2

Late and Important News from Port Orford.
Treaty with the Indians--W. G. T'Vault's party cut off--Seven men murdered by a band of Indians and one drowned--T'Vault and Brush only escaped.
    By the arrival of the Sea Gull, yesterday morning, we have late news from Port Orford. Doctor Dart, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and Messrs. Parrish and Spalding, Indian agents, returned on the Sea Gull from Port Orford, where they had been for the purpose of making a treaty with the several tribes of Indians on the coast. Doctor Dart informed us that he had succeeded in making a treaty with, and had purchased all the lands of, the Quatomahs and Tututnis. These tribes number about five hundred souls; and are represented as being a fine, robust and healthy set of men, and as having more regard to cleanliness than any other tribes in Oregon. They go entirely naked, and subsist upon fish, mussels, roots, acorns, &c. They know nothing of agriculture, never having had any intercourse with the whites. The lands purchased from these tribes extend about eighty miles along the coast, running fifty miles back, and contain about two and a half millions of acres. This land is said by all who have visited that part of Oregon to be the finest country within our borders, well adapted for agricultural and grazing purposes. Doctor Dart authorized us to say that it would not cost the government to exceed one cent and a half per acre, including presents, annuities, expenses of treaty, &c.
    For the particulars relating to the murder by the Indians of most of the exploring party who left Port Orford under command of W. G. T'Vault, we refer our readers to the report of that gentleman to Dr. Dart which we publish today. We are happy to say, however, that Mr. T'Vault called upon us yesterday, on his way home, and appeared in good health and determined to accomplish the object of his mission, viz: to find a route for a road from Port Orford to the interior of the mining district on Rogue and Scott's rivers. If determined and unyielding perseverance will accomplish it, he will no doubt succeed, as he is determined to leave again in a few days by the overland route. See advertisement in another column.
    Lieut. Wyman, of the U.S.A., who was sent down to the coast by General Hitchcock, with a detachment of United States troops, is busily engaged in erecting a fort at Port Orford. Everything remains quiet there, and the settlers are progressing finely with their improvements. They are confident that a road can be opened from that place to the mines at a trifling expense; in which case it will soon become an important commercial point, as it has a fine grain-growing country all around it, which with its safe harbor and geographical position must make it a point of no common importance.
Oregonian, Portland, October 4, 1851, page 2

Mr. T'Vault's Letter.

Dr. A. Dart, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon Territory:
Dear Sir:--I hasten to lay before you the result of one of the most fatal occurrences that has taken place within the limits of Oregon since its settlement. Your letter addressed me under date August 14th, was duly received.
    I proceeded to this place on board the steamer Sea Gull, leaving Portland August 15, and on the 24th Aug., with a company of 18 persons, took up my line of march for the purpose of exploring and ascertaining the practicability of locating a road or roads from Port Orford to the upper Rogue River country. For the first three days' travel our route was down the coast in a southern direction to or near the mouth of Rogue River. We informed the Indians, whom we found very numerous, that you would be at Port Orford in from fifteen to twenty-five days for the purpose of making them presents of blankets and clothing and also treating with them for their illahe (lands), at the same time making them small presents myself. When near the mouth of Rogue River, while riding some distance in advance of the company, there were some manifestations of hostility--two Indians drawing their bows and presenting their arrows at me. However, upon raising my gun to present, they immediately ran.

Gold Beach, Oregon, 1930s
The mouth of Rogue River in the 1930s.

    From this place our course bore about northeast, until the 31st of August. Here nine of the company started on their return to Port Orford, and the remaining nine continuing with me up Rogue River in a northeast direction, until the 7th September, our provisions having given out, we laid by this day for the purpose of curing elk meat. Our road up to this place lay over mountains and canyons, densely set with chaparral (underbrush); not being able to proceed more than from three to eight miles per day. From this place I could examine the upper Rogue River country sufficiently well to satisfy myself that we were not more than from twenty-five to thirty-five miles west of the Oregon trail leading to Shasta mines. Here a consultation was had, and our scarcity of provisions as well as the country's opening out to the north, influenced by a plain Indian trail, we were induced to travel to the north, believing that we could soonest obtain supplies in that direction. On Tuesday night, the 9th, we reached the headwaters of a stream flowing into the ocean at or near Cape Blanco. We traveled down it some distance, through an open country, and on Wednesday picked up an Indian boy who acted as our guide. On Thursday we started in a northern direction, crossing some low hills, and on Friday, the 12th, fell onto the southern branch of the Coquille River--which flows into the ocean in latitude about 43 deg. 10 mts. In passing down the southern branch, we had several beautiful views from high points of the large and extensive valley of the Coquille, which appeared to be generally level bottom land, densely covered with ash, maple, birch, some oak, and rich vegetable undergrowth of vines, nightshade, &c., such as is produced in the Missouri and Wabash bottoms. On Saturday morning, 13th, being entirely out of provisions, and not having had one-quarter's allowance for the last several days, it was thought advisable to abandon our animals, as we could make but little progress with them, and that too not in a direction so as to warrant the obtaining of any provisions. We, therefore, obtained Indian canoes and Indians to transport us to the mouth of the Coquille River. After passing a few miles we came to the junction of the south and north forks, which form a stream about eighty yards wide, where the tide ebbs and flows from two to three feet, at a distance of fifty miles from its mouth. From the junction of the forks, the course of the river is north of west, passing through a valley from ten to twenty miles wide. During Saturday, the 13th, Saturday night and Sunday, up to 9 or 10 o'clock a.m., we descended with rapidity and ease. When within a few miles of the mouth of the river, one of the party, a Mr. Hedden, recognized the river to be the Coquille, which he had rafted in going from Port Orford to Oregon in Kirkpatrick's company, and that the Indians, which had become very numerous, were then hostile, and it would be necessary for us to be on our guard. We were now in sight of the place where we intended to leave the canoes, at the same time passing several Indian lodges on the right bank, where vast numbers of the naked Indians were promenading the banks. One of our party, whose name I will not here insert, insisted most strenuously that we land on the northern bank, at the largest Indian lodge we had seen, and there get our breakfast. To this, Mr. Brush and myself remonstrated. We, however, drew in so near the bank that the Indians could reach the side of the canoe with their hands while in their canoes lying along the shore. They immediately grabbed our canoe and refused to let us push off. On one occasion we succeeded in pushing off some six or eight feet, but they jumped in and pulled our canoe to the shore and commenced boarding us and seizing hold of our arms. We made one instantaneous rush for the shore. I think Mr. Brush fired a pistol, the only one I recollect of hearing. In less than fifteen seconds we were completely disarmed; as there were ten Indians to one white man in the rencounter, and not less than from one hundred to a hundred and fifty standing around. In drawing my six-shooter, I was knocked down. The first thing I remember, I was some fifteen yards in the river in swimming water. I looked around and saw upon the shore the most awful state of confusion--it appeared to be the screams of thousands--the sound of blows, the groans and shrieks of the dying--at the same time I noticed my friend Brush, not far distant from me, in the water, and an Indian standing in a canoe striking him on the head with a paddle, causing the water to become bloody around him. My attention was then directed to a small canoe with an Indian lad in it but a short distance from me. I swam to it; he helped me in, put a paddle in my hand, pointed to the southern bank, and immediately ran to the other end of the canoe. On looking around, I saw him helping Brush to get into the canoe, and he immediately jumped overboard. We then paddled for the southern bank of the river. Upon landing we succeeded in getting to shore, then stripped ourselves of our clothing and, crawling on our bellies up the bank, succeeded in escaping to the thicket. We then continued in our naked condition traveling south, through the worst of hammocks and dense briery chaparrals during the day; at night we approached the beach, traveled all night, and about daylight on Monday morning reached Cape Blanco. On Monday we were taken by the Indians living near Cape Blanco, treated with a great deal of kindness, kept all night on Monday night with every accommodation they were able to afford, and on Tuesday brought into Port Orford in the situation that you saw us in. Mr. Brush and myself are all of a party of ten that remain to tell the melancholy fate of our companions--Mr. Brush being severely wounded by having several inches of the scalp of the top of his head cut off.
    The names of our companions who were murdered are:
A. S. Doherty                aged 30     Texas
Patrick Murphy
               "    22     New York
Thos. J. Davenport
          "    26     Mass.
John P. Holland
               "    21     New Hamp.
Jeremiah Ryan
                 "    25     Maryland
Cris Hedden
                    "    __     Newark, N.J.
J. P. Pepper                      "    28     Albany, N.Y.
    The loss of property--seven United States rifles, with accoutrements and ammunition; one rifle, with fixtures, &c.; one musket; one double-barreled pistol; one Sharp's patent 36 shooting rifle, with implements and ammunition; one Colt's six-shooter, revolving pistol; one brace holster pistols, together with a number of blankets.
    The foregoing contains, substantially, the facts as they transpired. I, however, might say much more, but my feeble state of health and the severe pains from my wounded and bleeding limbs forbid my saying more at present.
    It will afford me much pleasure, at all times, to give such information as I may possess.
                I have the honor to be, sir,
                                Very respectfully,
                                                Your ob't serv't,
                                                                W. G. T'Vault.
Port Orford, Sep. 19, '51.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, October 4, 1851, page 2

THE subscriber intends leaving Oregon City for Port Orford by the overland route, on Monday the 13th inst., and wishes to employ five good men to accompany him for the purpose of exploring the country between Umpqua and Port Orford. Any persons desirous of availing themselves of an opportunity to explore, or to go to Port Orford, are invited to join the expedition. Any information given by calling at my residence in Oregon City.
Oregon City, Oct. 4, 1851.
Oregonian, Portland, October 4, 1851, page 3

    Mr. T'Vault has returned since I wrote to Ann. I have been to see him and have been employed by him till the first of March, or for one year if I wish, at Seventy-five Dollars per Month. I am to go to Port Orford three hundred miles south of here. He is going to move his family there this winter. It is a new place and he says it will make a business place. It is right in the mining Region. He says there will be an opening for making money there in the Spring. He is a very fine man. His wife is very much of a Lady, one of those plain women just the kind that I like. They have three children. Two girls, young Ladies, and one Boy about the size of Fred. We will leave tomorrow. We are going through by land and I will get to see a good deal of the Country.
Letter by John R. Tice, Oregon City, October 12, 1851, quoted by J. F. Santee, ed., "Letters of John R. Tice," Oregon Historical Quarterly, March 1936, page 26  Tice apparently omitted any mention of T'Vault's disastrous expedition so as not to worry the folks back home.

Dear Genl.
    For the first time since I parted with you at San Francisco I embrace an opportunity of writing to you. I assure you I have seen sights since we parted; I took passage on the Sea Gull and arrived at home on the 12th of August, and on the 15th again set out for Port Orford after having expended all my money for horses and outfit. As I was taken into the partnership of the Port Orford Company upon condition that I should furnish four horses with their packs complete and return to Port Orford by the then-returning Sea Gull and go myself to superintend and make if practicable a road from Port Orford to the interior; in consideration I was to receive one-eighth of [the] entire enterprise.
    Accordingly I embarked on the 15th August from Portland and on the 21 took up my march from Port Orford with 18 men. [For] the result of my expedition see Oregon Statesman October 7th, enclosed.
    But I will enter more particulars into my sufferings as I can do so without it appearing egotistical, as my report was intended for publication and this is not. On the morning of the 14th Sept about ten o'clock myself and some of my men (for 9 had abandoned me two weeks before) were descending the Coquille River within 2 miles of its mouth on latitude 43°10' longitude 124°8' we came near the shore to try and get something to eat, for we had been without provisions for several days and were very weak and hungry, when within a few yards of the shore the edge of our canoe was seized by Indians who were in their canoes and near the shore and we were dragged near the shore; however, no manifestations of hostility were yet made, yet there was a great number of canoes & Indians in them also some 200 on the bank. We made signs and tried to get some provisions, but could not get any. We then tried to push off, but the Indians held onto our canoe. From the great number and our peculiar position we were anxious to get away without an attack [illegible]; as we would push off they would hold onto our canoe; finally they made a rush. Not less than fifty of them rushed upon us, sank our canoe and seized our arms before we could raise our guns to our [illegible], our arms was instantly taken from us and the most murderous attack made with clubs and knives. I was struck and hardly able to sit up in the canoe, but as I rushed to the shore was stabbed and knocked down by 2 blows, one on the breast, the other on the back, and suppose I was thrown into the river for dead or to be drowned if not dead. The first thing I remember I was some 20 or 30 feet from the shore in swimming water and was helped by a young Indian lad about 15 years old to get into a small canoe. The boy then ran to the other end of the canoe and assisted a Mr. Brush to get in the same canoe. He then jumped overboard and Brush and myself paddled the canoe to the opposite bank. When we got there, neither of us able to stand, we rolled out and crawled a few yards, pulled off our clothes and crawled up the bank. During the whole time there was the most dismal screams, the sound of strokes from clubs that it is possible to imagine, yet none of the Indians followed us. We continued our course by the sun, keeping in the thick chaparral all night, then went to the beach, traveled all night and the next day, and on the 16th arrived at Port Orford in so feeble a state there it required two Indians (as we had met with some friendly Indians on Monday night) to assist us to walk. It has been ascertained that three others of my party made their escape and went north to Umpqua. Some friendly Indians sent their squaws and found five dead bodies and buried them. Thus ended my first expedition. In a short time I am going to start upon a second overland expedition and [I] pray God that I shall have better luck. Genl. Hitchcock has established a military post at Port Orford and ordered troops there. It is a good location, and I hope that he will continue it. When I arrived there on the 16th Sept. Lieut Wyman of the Artillery was there building winter quarters. Since my defeat he ordered 150 men, part of the same troop that I went to California with last summer, back to Port Orford. They are under the command of Col Casey. If you can do us any good, do it.
Umpqua River, 1960s
    Political matters are as you left them. I think you are gaining popularity as far as I can learn.
    I want you to write to Capt Tichenor (his name is William Tichenor) and give me as favorable a recommend as you can, also to T. Butler King and Judge Pratt; those men are all my friends, but I wish them to know that I have other friends. King is popular with the army, also in California, yet he is a Whig, and it might be of service to me.
    You will see from the papers that my prospects are in the ascendancy, and by the help of God I will keep it there, for I will not drink or gamble.
    A. Holbrook goes to Washington. You must watch & pray; he's a Whig.
    You ought to write letters to the Oregonian, also to the Oregon Times.
I have got a quiver of arrows & bow that I got from them damnable Rogue River Indians that I am going to send you by Newell's express or by Holbrook. I want you to exhibit them on all occasions and tell how you got them, who from, how I got them, who from, and how you have seen me and where.
    Now I will say that we are all in better health just at this time than ever you saw us. I am getting not only fat but corpulent. Mrs. T'Vault is fleshy to corpulent. Upon my honor you would be astonished.
    Gen. I hope you & your good family are all well.
                        I remain your old friend
                            W. G. T'Vault
                                Oregon City Nov. 1 1851
The date on this letter was misread as being from 1857; it can be found on the second microfilm reel of the Jo Lane Papers.

    Squire T'Vault has returned from the country in the neighborhood of Port Orford, where he was not successful in viewing out a road from Fort Umpqua to Port Orford. He and three others are still surviving out of a party of nine whites, the other five having been murdered by the Indians of the Coquille River. T'Vault says that he discovered the most fertile valley on that river that mortal has ever been permitted to look upon. Ash, maple and other timber familiar to the Ohio and Wabash bottoms with the wild cucumber vine is to be found there in its most flourishing state, and he is of opinion that corn could be raised there in great abundance.
Nathaniel H. Lane, letter of October 6, 1851, Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library

    FROM PORT ORFORD.--We learn from a gentleman who came passenger on the Sea Gull from Port Orford that a practicable route for a road has been found from that place to intersect the Oregon trail. We are also informed that since the troops have chastised the Indians on the Coquille River all the other tribes have manifested the greatest friendship for the whites, and that peace and prosperity is the order of the day at Port Orford.
Oregonian, Portland, December 20, 1851, page 2

     "My father and his brother, Dr. Edward W. Day, took up a donation land claim on Butte Creek, at what is now Eagle Point. Mr. Neucom [Newcomb?] had a claim next to my father's. During the Rogue River Indian war, Chief Sam nailed a beaver skin on the front of Neucom's house and also on Colonel T'Vault's house, and the Indians never bothered either of these settlers. Chief Sam said it was a sort of Indian flag that would protect them, as the Indians would recognize them as friends."

Interview with Mamie Day Nelson. Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," 
Oregon Journal, Portland, August 19, 1927, page 10

To the Citizens of Jackson County.
    The undersigned takes pleasure in availing himself of this opportunity of presenting a synopsis of the Acts and Resolutions passed by the Legislative Assembly at the late session, in which Southern Oregon has an interest in common with the Territory. Before proceeding in detail it will be necessary for me to say that at the commencement of the session a disposition was manifested to prevent any legislation, urging that Oregon was or would be admitted as a sovereign State before the holidays, and if so all acts passed by the Territorial Legislature would be null and void. This position was assumed by that portion of the members who last September opposed organizing a State government, asserting that Oregon would not be admitted as a State, that the Kansas question would surely carry with it the question of the admission of Oregon, that Kansas would refuse to accept the Lecompton Constitution with the "English programme," consequently such refusal would result in the rejection of Oregon. It was well known that Kansas did refuse to come in under the Lecompton Constitution and "English programme," and that no Congressional action had taken place with regard to Oregon at the time of the meeting of our Legislative Assembly. Yet the tune was changed, and those very men who had been singing "no admission" without any visible evidence, was on the first Monday in December last moving to adjourn, and loudly proclaiming that Oregon, if not then admitted, would be by the 20th of December; yet Oregon was not admitted up to the 5th of January, and many now doubt whether it will be admitted the present session of Congress.
    For the reasons assigned, the Legislative Assembly done but little business until after the holidays.
    Your Representatives from the South acted together as a general thing, except in granting divorces. At an early day of the session a committee was appointed to inquire into and report upon the legality of the Legislative Assembly granting divorces. The committee reported that there was nothing prohibiting the Legislature from granting divorces, but as there was a general law upon that subject, it would not be policy to legislate upon divorces only in extreme cases. The report was adopted, and the undersigned did oppose all divorces unless the testimony satisfied him that the parties came within the meaning of the report. It is to be regretted that such was not the course of the other members from the South. It is however due the Hon. S. Watson to say that as a general thing he voted against divorces, until late in the session, when it had been made clear that no matter how or what sort of a case was presented, so the party wanted a divorce, that it was sure to pass. In such cases Watson and others, for the purpose of reaching other meritorious business, often voted for divorce bills to get them out of the way, well knowing they would pass, no matter how strongly they might be opposed.
    It is not in my power to give you a full list of acts; in fact I may not speak of many that you are interested in, but such as is remembered I shall enumerate. The first act is that of giving to Justices of the Peace jurisdiction in cases of mining claims and water ditches wrongfully withheld, also extending Justices' jurisdiction to administering oaths generally. Resolutions and memorials to Congress for the establishment of a Military Post and Indian agency in the Klamath Lake country; for a tri-weekly mail from Yreka to Portland, to be carried in stages; for an additional Land Office to be located at Jacksonville; for an appropriation for a Military Road from Scottsburg to Fort Boise, on the Middle (McKenzie's) Fork of the Willamette River; an Act to change the Practice and appoint the time of holding Courts in each County, giving to Jackson and Josephine three terms--in the County of Josephine on the first Mondays in February, June, and October, and in the County of Jackson on the third Mondays in February, June, and October, were also those passed. The law in relation to Roads and Highways was amended and revised, and will be published in pamphlet form, for distribution. The Act appointing Commissioners to locate a road from Haley's Ferry to Roseburg, Douglas County, was amended and extended, and it is to be hoped that the Commissioners will view out and locate that much-needed road.
    The Chinese License Law was amended so as to include Kanakas, to reduce the tax to two dollars per month, payable quarterly, and to tax Chinese traders fifty dollars per month. This reduction of the Chinese tax only applies to Jackson County. An Act was passed for the relief of the poor and indigent sick of  Jackson and Josephine Counties. The School Law was so amended that the proceeds of the sale of School Lands shall hereafter remain in the County in which the lands lay, and that the Territorial Treasurer refund to the several Counties the amounts of money received from the sale of Common School Lands.
    An Act giving the County a lien upon the property of each person charged and convicted of either the crime of felony or misdemeanor. An Act was passed giving County Auditors jurisdiction to take acknowledgments of deeds and mortgages.
    Charters were granted to Water Ditch Companies in all cases to protect the parties as well as the public.
    An effort was made to relocate the seat of government. This vexed question was introduced at an early day in the session, and caused considerable interest and excitement. The House passed the Bill repealing all laws locating the seat of government, and providing that if it should be necessary for the Governor to convene the Legislature he should convene the same at Salem, unless he should be secured by bond to the State that all offices and public buildings should be secured free of expense for four years, also for the transportation of all furniture to such place; and to submit the question of where the seat of government should be to the people. In the Council it was amended by striking out the second action, leaving it with the Governor to have the public buildings, offices, etc., furnished free of expense for four years, and locating the capital at Portland. The two Houses disagreed. A committee of conference could not agree, and the question was left just where it started.
    An Act was passed authorizing the Commissioners of Jackson County to levy a tax to create a redemption fund to liquidate the County debt. The undersigned was under the impression that Jackson County was in debt from ten to twenty thousand dollars, and knowing well that County orders had been bought and sold at prices far below their face, and that the money speculator was the only individual benefited, that the people must be taxed to pay not only the principal but interest on the County liabilities, that for the year 1858 one and one-half percent County tax had been levied for County purposes, and knowing that from five to six mills County tax would pay the ordinary annual expenses of the County; that if the County Commissioners and the people so wished they should be permitted to raise a fund for the purpose of paying the County debt, thereby diminishing instead of increasing the tax, and prevent money holders and speculators from buying County warrants at less than par, that the people, the tax payers, should be benefited in equal proportion. Since my return home the County Auditor informs me that the outstanding debt, including interest, on the 20th of June next will probably not exceed ten thousand dollars, and if the people and the County Commissioners shall think proper to keep the tax for 1859 for County purposes at fifteen mills, it is a fair conclusion that by the 30th of June, 1860, by a proper administration of County affairs, the County will be out of debt, and there will be no necessity of acting under the provisions of the Redemption Act.
    The Penitentiary, that has been and still continues to be such an eating moth on the Territorial Treasury, has had the affairs of its management partially changed, and a Superintendent is to be elected at the June election.
    There was much discussion in relation to the Quartermaster General and his office, but of this I forbear, as the report of the Military Committee has been printed.
    The two-thousand-dollar appropriation to Roberts & Shartle, I voted against. Having been on the committee that examined that claim, I was satisfied that there was equity in the case, but believed that Jacobs & Co. were equitably liable to them. I could not vote that they should be paid out of the people's money. Those who voted for the appropriation no doubt believed differently, and it is left for them to explain.
    In conclusion, let me say to my fellow citizens that in the discharge of my duty as your Representative, I was not actuated by any other motives than a determined zeal to faithfully represent you.
    I am, respectfully, your ob't. serv't.,
"Correspondence," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 26, 1859, page 1

For the Sentinel.
Salem Woolen Factory.
    DEAR SENTINEL.--During my stay at Salem, the present winter, I visited the extensive Woolen Factory at that place. The enterprising proprietors deserve great credit, and the country cannot but be benefited by this enterprise. The fact of tapping the Santiam River and diverting the water from the main channel through a thickly settled and farming district, affording water for irrigation without diminishing the quantity necessary to propel all the machinery for manufacturing purposes, is alone of great benefit to the surrounding country. The Factory, under the control of the experienced Mr. Pratt, its Superintendent, cannot help but do well. The advantages of the enterprise are so many that the space of a letter almost forbids my entering upon the subject. Suffice it to say that the first quality of blankets, flannels and woolen cloth are being manufactured at prices far below that paid for foreign manufactured woolen goods of the same class, in proportion to the quality and durability of the article. There can be no comparison in point of profit and advantage to the country over those of a similar kind manufactured in the Atlantic States. The inducement to produce the wool is one of the great advantages resulting to the whole country, which is incalculable.
    Oregon exhibits a vast superiority over almost any portion of the United States, in the expense of raising and maintaining sheep. It is hardly admissible that the Northern States can produce finer wool than this country, when the breed of sheep here shall be improved to the same extent as they are there.
    The vast regions of high and rolling land with their valleys, the purest of atmosphere, the thousands of crystal springs and fountains of salubrious water, cannot but make Oregon one of the best wool-growing counties on the continent. This Woolen Factory will call the attention of the producer to this profitable pursuit, and I for one do believe the time is not far distant when the hitherto unsought-for hills and high lands of Oregon will be improved and dotted over with hundreds of thousands of sheep.
    Would it not be a wise move for some of our politicians and statesmen to urge the matter of granting to Oregon all the mountain lands within her limits? Congress would certainly make the grant, for the mountains are of no value to the General Government, and if given to the State, would become immensely valuable, by disposing of the hills and mountain slopes to settlers at a nominal price for the purpose of pasturing and raising sheep. This must and will be the case. Cattle raising hereafter will diminish and sheep increase. The mutton will supply the place of beef, and the wool will be manufactured to clothe a large portion of the people who now depend upon Europe for these supplies.
    These lands, when they are owned and applied to such profitable use, will still add to the support of our State Government, by becoming taxable. I am therefore inclined to the opinion that this pioneer Woolen Factory will cause investigations and improvements, and finally lead to the development and successful improvement of our country more than the most sanguine imagine. I therefore wish them success, and that they may continue with their heretofore energetic enterprise until some of the results which they so fully merit are obtained.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 26, 1859, page 1

ROSEBURG, OREGON, March 24th, 1859.
    FRIEND BUSH--I observe by the last number of the Arkansas Traveler [a contemptuous name for T'Vault's Oregon Intelligencer] that the editor of that sheet takes exceptions to a letter which I addressed you some weeks ago, relative to the state of politics in our county. The old gentleman seems to be quite warmly enlisted in the cause of Gen. Lane, considering the position he occupied a little more than three years ago. Then, he was supposed to be "furnenst" Lane and "fur" T'Vault; and as Lane's family and friends couldn't brook opposition to the General then any more than they can now, Mosher, who happened to be cognizant of one of the Col.'s little peccadilloes, resolved to make it the instrument of his punishment. So he persecuted him for perjury. The intensity of the Colonel's feelings upon his escape from conviction was such that he never found vent for them until two or three weeks ago, when he inserted them into the Traveler, in a little paragraph commencing "There air times," &c. While the trial was in progress, it was suggested by a member of the bar that the indictment should have been headed "Territory of Oregon vs. W. G. T'Vault. Indictment for not supporting Jo. Lane." After the trial, the Col. indulged in some animadversions against his prosecutor, which resulted in hostile feelings between the parties, which subsisted, I believe, until quite recently, when Mosher, thinking the Traveler's influence might be useful to the Lane interest, opened negotiations with a view to a pacification. I am gratified to say that the result was highly satisfactory. The first interview between this now very cordial pair, is said to have been deeply very affecting. The meeting of David and Jonathan, or of the Emperors Nap. and Aleck. at Tilsit, wasn't a circumstance. What happy concatenation of circumstances combined to produce this entente cordiale, of course I don't know. Do you?
    I observe that the Col. don't take the trouble to dispute the facts which I stated in my letter, but contents himself with a few little paragraphs--intended either to be very funny or very serious--written in his "usual happy and effective style." One of them might, perhaps, be tortured into a denial that "Burnett preferred Deady to Lane," last spring. So I'll just reiterate that statement again. Burnett was for Deady, at that time, in preference to anybody else; and for that reason, and no other, it was decreed at the land office at Winchester, that Burnett should not be elected to the Legislature--and he wasn't.
    At the same time, an attempt was made to extend the land office influence into Coos and Curry counties. By the advice and approval of the tenants of the land office, a Lane man was brought out against Tichenor, the regular Democratic nominee, and anti-Lane. This man, who was merely a tool in the hands of Lane's friends, and who ran altogether upon the Lane issue, received just the opposition vote, and of course was not elected. The land office influence was not powerful enough to control the sturdy Democracy of the coast.
    If Lane's friends do not succeed in making the Democracy of Douglas County shoulder the General for life, it will not be for want of untiring exertion. The tenants of the land office, who depend upon Lane for their means of livelihood, show a lively appreciation of their obligations to him; and one or the other of them is generally traveling about the country, strengthening the weak and comforting the faithful in the cause of Jo. Lane. One of their strongest catches is to awaken a feeling of county pride, on the ground that the General is a citizen of Douglas County; but it is well known that Lane considers Washington City as his home, and has no intention of residing in Douglas County, or anywhere else in Oregon, unless he is obligated to.
    The Traveler wishes to know if "Douglas pretends to say that Gen'l. Lane has no principles, or that he has violated the rules and regulations of the Democratic Party?" I admit that Gen'l. Lane has this advantage over the editor of the Traveler, that he has some principles, although he has a peculiar way of laying them very quietly to one side when they are likely to prove troublesome, or to make a vote against him. I do say, however, that the has most assuredly violated the rules and regulations of the Democratic Party, in procuring the appointment of grossly incompetent persons to responsible offices (of which we have an example in our own county), and in countenancing and encouraging bolters and disorganizers, and retaining them in office, contrary to the expressed will of the party.
    Notwithstanding the combined influence of the Traveler and the land office, people in these parts are beginning to do their own thinking. The sentiment is fast gaining ground that Lane and his favorites have fattened long enough at the public crib, and that they ought to give place to others.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 12, 1859, page 2

    A little more than two years ago, Mr. John H. Reed, a lawyer of moderate ability, who hung out his shingle in Jacksonville in partnership with Gen. Lane's son-in-law, Mosher, was nominated in Jackson County as a Democratic candidate for delegate to the constitutional convention. A short time previous to his nomination, he had been concerned, with Mosher, in the prosecution of T'Vault, editor of the Sentinel, for perjury, and had therefore incurred that worthy's wrath. Accordingly, during the canvass, the Sentinel pursued Mr. Reed most vindictively, attacking his character, both public and private, in the vilest Billingsgate of which its editor was master. To such an extent did the editor of the Sentinel carry his malignity that Mr. Reed was obliged to silence him by a threat of personal chastisement ("a very cogent mode of reasoning with 'old T.,'" Reed said.)
    However, Mr. Reed was elected, and at the time appointed appeared at Salem and took his seat in the convention. During his short stay here he acquired the respect of his associates, without much reputation, but his career in the convention might have been a brilliant one, but for its brevity. Mr. Reed doubtless intended, when he took his seat in the convention, to remain during its continuance, but Mr. Reed was but human, and subject to human impulses and human passions. Mr. Reed had his weaknesses, among which was an inveterate hostility to bunkum speeches. Now it chanced that Delazon Smith was also a member of the convention, and his besetting weakness was a passion for making bunkum speeches. Upon the questions that arose, Mr. Smith favored the convention with his views, greatly to the annoyance and disgust of Mr. Reed, who declared that Smith's "brains were all in his mouth." At length, Mr. Smith so exasperated Mr. Reed, that one day, when he had commenced a speech upon some question, the irate delegate from Jackson, with a portentous frown on his brow, rose from his seat, tore up his papers and trampled them under his feet, jammed his hat on his head, strode from the hall, went to his hotel, ordered his horse, paid his bill and returned in wrath and disgust to his constituents in the "sunny South." Just before leaving Salem, he wrote and sent to the Jacksonville Herald, for publication a correspondence in which he "pitched into" Mr. Smith and has oratorical pretensions unsparingly; it was not published, however. And, until a quite recent period, Mr. Reed entertained a profound contempt and dislike to Delazon Smith.
    It is rather amusing, considering these things, to find Mr. Reed now supporting Delazon Smith for U.S. Senator, and rather astonishing to find him acting as sub for T'Vault during the absence of that worthy from the sanctum of the Sentinel. We can account for Mr. Reed's present support of Smith, on the ground of his connection with the Lane party, but we are at a loss to conceive how he could condescend to play second fiddle to T'Vault, a man whom he despised and hated, and whom he had frequently denounced as an epitome of everything that was vile and infamous. But so it is. We must take the facts as we find them, and leave to others the task of assigning the philosophical wherefore.
    In the Sentinel of May [sic] 28th, we find an editorial article headed "The Oregon Statesman," evidently from the pen of Mr. John H. Reed, and intended as a complete extinguisher of the Statesman. Indeed, if we may believe Mr. R., this paper was already in a rapid decline, when he undertook to give it the finishing blow, and it only needed the "withdrawal of a prop" to bring it tumbling down. The reasons which induced Mr. R. to the belief that the Statesman was in a sinking condition are several. 1st. It had ceased to support Jo. Lane. 2nd. He (Mr. R.) had discontinued his subscription. 3rd. "The school houses scattered throughout the land, the general dissemination of learning," &c. 4th. "We (i.e., T'Vault, Reed, Jo. Lane & Co.) need no Bush." Several other reasons doubtless exist, equally convincing. We shouldn't be surprised, however, if the Sentinel, under the management of Messrs. T'Vault and Reed, aspires to the position of party organ, and imagines the Statesman to be the only obstacle in its way to that dignity. At least, such a conjecture, under the circumstances, is quite natural.
    In the course of his article, Mr. Reed gets off the following, which, were it not for his relations to those gentlemen, might be considered a good hit at Lane and his "ancient enemies," T'Vault and Delazon Smith:
    "We often see men of ordinary caliber, and less than ordinary integrity, elevated by circumstances to a position and a power above their deserts, and to a place from which they will drop at once when the supporting power is withdrawn."
    If the quotation was not intended for the persons we have named, it is at least quite applicable to them.
    The closing sentence of Mr. Reed's article is a model of impudence. Says he:
    "Whether or not the Republicans will have him (Bush) after we have discarded him, remains to be seen."
    It matters not whether the personal pronoun "we" means only Mr. Reed, or includes also the senior, demands Mr. T'Vault. The idea of them, or either of them, discarding the Statesman or its editor is so supremely ridiculous that the Republicans, and everybody else, can but join in the laugh at it.
    However Mr. Reed is, on the whole, something of an improvement upon the editorial staff of the Sentinel. He is less frequently guilty of violations of the orthographical and syntactical rules of Messrs. Murray and Webster than his predecessors in the editorial chair of that sheet. Indeed, he makes a quite readable article, and those of its readers who have been often completely bewildered and befogged in endeavoring to follow its luminous senior through half a column of stuff, travestied from the N.Y. Day-Book, which nobody--not even himself--understood, must be exceedingly gratified to learn that Reed "writes for it," and that at least a portion of the editorial matter of that interesting hebdomadal is couched in plain English, however much it may lack in common sense.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 14, 1859, page 2

The "Oregon Sentinel."
    In November, 1855, we issued the first number of the Sentinel, The country was then involved in a bloody and sanguinary Indian war. Business men and those in whose judgment we would most likely confide expressed the opinion that it would be next to an impossibility to sustain a newspaper at this place under the surrounding circumstances. Situate far in the interior, the heavy and extraordinary expense of transporting materials, high price of workmen, and sparsely populated country--these with many other drawbacks and disadvantages then enumerated would defeat the enterprise of publishing a newspaper at Jacksonville. In fact many who expressed their willingness to assist had so little confidence in the success of the enterprise that they would only subscribe for six months to commence with. On the 24th of November, 1855, the first number of the Sentinel was issued. At that time the subscription list was less than two hundred. We advocated the justness of the Indian war in Oregon, defended out settlers from the base calumnies charged by General Wool, Beeson and others, of bringing on the war with no other motive than to rob the treasury of the United States; attempted to develop the advantages of Oregon, and particularly of the sunny South; advocating the true principles of Democracy as enunciated by Democratic National Conventions; endorsing the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States upon the subject of slavery, so far as decided upon. We contributed our mite to the admission of Oregon as a slave state, advocating the adoption of the pro-slavery clause in the [Oregon] constitution, with the belief that the Constitution of the United States secures to all citizens the right expressed in the popular sovereignty principles and inherent in the people, when they form a state constitution preparatory to their admission into the confederacy as a sovereign state.
    The Sentinel  has not dodged or prevaricated on any issue, nor has it changed political principles from the first to the present issue. It has been frank and independent upon all subjects, laying before its readers the very latest foreign, state, local and general news. In short, the Sentinel has been free from vulgarity and blackguardism, and become an acceptable family newspaper.
    It is no longer a question of doubt as to the success of the Sentinel, having stood the test of all the surrounding disadvantages, and personal prejudices, and gained that standing throughout the country which honesty of purpose and correctness of principle is always sure to obtain; the war against us having been waged in a merciless manner, regardless of honor or private and domestic rights, attacked not only from the remote parts of the state, but by hired and soulless pieces of of humanity have we been annoyed without cause or provocation.
    The good people of Oregon, and particularly of Southern Oregon, have sustained us to the fullest of our expectations--and instead of a subscription list of two hundred, we today have a circulation of not less than fifteen hundred copies.
    We are under great obligations to the good people of Oregon for their generous patronage and in return pledge ourselves to continue to vindicate their rights and support the true principles of the National Democracy, not turning to the right or left to bandy epithets with any who may so degrade themselves as to merit the contempt of an intelligent public.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 30, 1859, page 2

    The following pleasing incident is related to us by an eyewitness, and the principal actor is still a resident of this state and a well-known local politician in his own county: During the early settlement of this valley a legal individual, whom we shall call T. "for short," was engaged in carrying the mail from Yreka to Oregon City. On one of his trips, in the spring of '52, T. arrived at Willow Springs, then a lively and flourishing mining camp. The boys were on a big spree, and as T. was tired and thirsty, he concluded to hang up there for the night. His mule cared for, and the great U.S. mail sack stowed away, T. joined the festive crowd and was soon on a regular "tear." It so happened that the Indians had been committing some deviltry in the neighborhood, and the probability of a great outbreak was the prominent topic of conversation. T. considered himself a man of great executive ability, and as sundry drinks had made him rather lively, he proposed active measures at once, and with an Arkansas yell suggested a war dance to begin with. The boys responded, and soon the crowd was engaged in a performance that would have made the liveliest tribe this side of the Rocky Mountains ashamed. T. was conspicuous! With an appalling whoop, he skinned his coat. Another yell, and off came his buckskins. Snatching an old saddle blanket and throwing it over his shoulders, he danced first on one leg, then on the other; he squatted, pirouetted, waltzed, and jumped like an excited savage till the crowd stopped in breathless admiration. T. was frantic with delight. He was Big Injun! Observing an old-fashioned dinner pot standing in a corner of the camp, he concluded that it would add much to his warlike appearance and just cap the climax, which it certainly did. To seize it and thrust his head into it was the work of a moment; to get his head out was another thing. Another drink and away went the dance, led by the now-invincible warrior. Forth from the iron circumference came the most ghostly yells; the blanket flew wildly; T. bounded and leaped and yelled, till at last, in a moment of desperate frenzy while making a cut at an imaginary foe, the pot slipped over the warrior's nose, and there it stayed. The crowd roared and danced round the imprisoned chief, but in a short time the situation became very uncomfortable. The bottle was passed, but unfortunately the neck would not pass the edge of T.'s helmet. Efforts to release him were unavailing; nature had provided him with a proboscis of extraordinary dimensions, and a large portion of his head was behind his ears. Stretched on the ground,
"He lay like a warrior taking his rest,
With his iron pot around him."
Matters were becoming serious. T.'s lips were getting parched, his head was swelling, but the pot wouldn't give a hair's breadth, and piteous groans, like a voice from the tomb, came from the sonorous depths of the unyielding prison. Various plans to release the prisoner were proposed. One suggested blowing up the pot with powder, but T. objected as well as he was able; another proposed to build a fire around it and melt it off, but the warrior writhed in agony at the idea of having his classic head roasted like an Irish potato, and with a half-smothered yell darted to his feet, and several of his tormentors became very intimately acquainted with his formidable headpiece. The scene was now indescribable. T. commenced the warrior's death song. The drunken crowd whooped madly as the now-desperate victim went butting and driving among them like a flying Mercury or blind Samson among the Philistines. Someone seized him by his flying undergarment, and down to earth he came again. A number of the boys, who thought the fun had lasted long enough, seized Don Quixote and held him fast. One stalwart fellow took the pot by the ears, and bracing himself against T.'s shoulders, gave a vigorous pull, but an awful and unearthly groan from the pot warned him to desist--T.'s nose was about to come out by the roots! One sensible fellow, not so drunk as the balance, procured an ax, and laying the pot with its precious legal contents on a rock, poised himself for a giant and decisive blow. "Strike a soft lick," moaned the prisoner. Down came the ax fair and square; the pot rang like a steamboat bell, and its sonorous tones mingled with the despairing groans of the victim. In broken accents he called for pen, ink and paper, and intimated that his last dying speech and confession might be a warning to the rising generation. He recounted the number of public positions he had filled, related in an undertone a number of little peccadilloes, and bemoaned the sad fate that forced the "Webster" of the Pacific to end his days in an infernal old three-legged pot. Fortunately no such fate awaited him. A messenger was dispatched about twenty miles for a file, and the doughty chief, who was going to eat the whole Rogue River tribe without seasoning, was filed out the next day, his handsome nose turned up like a half-peeled potato, his head swelled, and himself feeling like a man who had been in a tight place. He still lives--is quite venerable now--but loses no opportunity to administer a vicious kick to every three-legged pot that comes in his way, provided it can be done on the sly.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 22, 1868, page 2     A marginal note on the issue preserved by the Southern Oregon Historical Society, M66E, bundle 1, identifies the victim as W. G. T'Vault. The author of the marginalia also considered the reference significant enough to index it with a notation on the inside front cover of the volume: "T'Vault at Grave Creek House 1852--Aug. 22, 1868." T'Vault was often referred to as "T" or "Tee." (This identification would also explain the reference to an "Arkansas yell.") On the other hand, in 1957 Winifred Cantrall recalled that her grandfather, John E. Ross, was the man in the pot. See also articles of October 2, 1949 and April 2, 1960, below.

    Colonel Ross evidently had a penchant for thrilling his audiences with his version of an Indian war whoop, for a story which makes its rounds in Jacksonville tells of the bachelor party given for Nat Dean upon his approaching marriage to Ann Huston [November 15, 1852], which was the first marriage in Jackson County. The party was attended by W. G. T'Vault, editor of the first newspaper in southern Oregon, The Table Rock Sentinel, and Colonel Ross was present. Following supper, Colonel Ross proceeded to give his famous Indian war whoop. The spurred T'Vault into doing a war dance, and in his entertainment, T'Vault placed a heavy iron kettle upside down on his head. In his frenzied exhibition, he failed to realize the pot had slipped well down over his forehead and nape of his neck. All because of his eagerness to outdo Colonel Ross' war whoop, the editor had so encased his head in the kettle that it could not be removed by members of the group. The party had to be broken up to deliver the victim to a blacksmith, who begrudgingly got up from bed to extricate the pot by means of his trade.
"Reminiscences of Early Days in Jackson County Told at Pioneer Group's Meeting," Medford Mail Tribune, October 2, 1949, page 12  See article of October 22, 1868, above.

    T'Vault has not been 3 weeks at home since you left. He is now up in the Umpqua pretending to look out a road to Port Orford, but I fear he will do no good neither for himself nor country.
Nathaniel H. Lane, letter of January 20, 1852, Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library

For the Oregon Times.       
    Friend Waterman: Having just arrived in Portland, and learned that much interest is manifested with the people generally in regard to Shasta Butte City [i.e., Yreka], and just having arrived from that district of country, I avail myself of this opportunity of informing you with regard to my views as to the location of that place. If the Deputy Surveyor has made the correct observation at the north mouth of the Kenyon, where Mr. Knott is located, it seems to me that no doubt can exist, as he has located that point in latitude 42 deg. 51 min. [it's actually 42.9308º], consequently it can be but 51 minutes south to the 42 parallel, which is known to every traveler to be a distance of at least one hundred and fifty miles, and I should think would make a little more than 51 min.
    Lieut. Emmons, in 1843, took an observation as he passed through Oregon to California and I am informed that he located the 42nd parallel on the top of Siskiyou Mountain, at a large rock well known to all travelers [Pilot Rock] which is some twenty miles north of Shasta Butte City; and still farther, Col. Fremont states that Shasta Butte is in latitude 41 deg. 28 min. and all who have ever been in that country know full well that Shasta Butte is not more than 25 minutes south of Shasta Butte City.
    It is difficult to ascertain the precise location of any point inland; but every observation heretofore goes to prove that Shasta Butte City is in California, or at least south of the 42nd parallel of longitude [sic].
    It is now reduced to an absolute certainty that Grave Creek, which the Oregon and California road crosses, is the principal branch of the Coquille River [it's a tributary of the Rogue River], as I have been down from the road to a point where I know that I have been exploring, during the past season, and no doubt remains of obtaining a good road from Port Orford to the Oregon road to California, and the distance of travel from the ferry on Rogue River to Port Orford will not exceed ninety miles. I have been over all the ground but about the distance of twelve or fifteen miles, and do believe a good wagon road will be made by the first of next June, and open well for settlers one of the best agricultural countries west of the Rocky Mountains.
    I remain yours, &c.
        W. G. T'VAULT.
Portland, Feb. 10th, 1852.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, February 14, 1852, page 2

E X P R E S S.

WILL positively run every two weeks between Winchester and Shasta Butte City, touching at Rogue River, Smith's River, Josephine Creek, Klamath & Humbug Creek.
    Letters and Packages forwarded to Winchester by mail, care of T'Vault & Co.'s Express, will be received and delivered to address.
    E. B. Comfort, Portland.   
    McCracken & Goodwin, Oregon City.
    Martin & Barnes, Winchester.
    A. A. Skinner, Indian Agency, Rogue River.
    R. P. Daniel, Josephine Creek.
    Dejarlais & Martin, Minersville, Humbug Creek.
    Coras & Martin, Humbug City.
    McCracken & Goodwin, Shasta Butte City.
    Packages of any kind insured and forwarded with dispatch.
    Agent for Proprietors.
    Office at McCracken & Goodwin's, Oregon City and Shasta Butte City.
February 14th, 1852.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, February 14, 1852

Oregon and Shasta Express

WILL positively run every two weeks between Winchester and Shasta Butte City, touching at Rogue River, Smith's River, Josephine Creek, Klamath and Humbug Creek.
    Letters and packages forwarded to Winchester by mail, care of T'Vault & Co.'s Express, will be received and delivered to address.
    McCracken & Goodwin, Oregon City.
    Martin & Barnes, Winchester.
    A. A. Skinner, Indian Agency, Rogue River.
    R. P. Daniel, Josephine Creek.
    Dejarlais & Martin, Martinsville, Humbug Creek.
    Cross & Martin, Humbug City.
    McCraken & Goodwin, Shasta Butte City.
    Packages of any kind insured and forwarded with dispatch.
    Agent for Proprietors.
    Office at McCraken & Goodwin's, Oregon City and Shasta Butte City.
February 7, 1852.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 17, 1852, page 3

T'Vault 1852-4-10p4WeeklyOregonian
April 10, 1852 Weekly Oregonian

    W. G. T'Vault is on the eve of moving his family to Rogue River, where he says he has taken a claim. They are all well and send their regards.
T'V. is the most cultus tillicum ["worthless person"] in these parts. I am glad he is going to move.
Nathaniel H. Lane, letter of April 20, 1852, Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library

    NEW POST OFFICES. Deer Creek, Jackson Co. Dardanelles, Jackson Co., W. G. T'Vault, P.M.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, December 25, 1852, page 2

    We have upon our table the first number of the long-expected Mountain Herald, published at Yreka, Siskiyou County. It is a small though spirited and in every way creditable sheet, and will prove a valuable auxiliary no doubt to our interior exchange list. It is to be published every Saturday, by Thornbury & Slade. We cordially extend a welcoming hand to our border cotemporary. The number before us contains the following items of news:
    ELECTION NEWS.--The following is the result of the election in Jackson County, O.T., as far as heard from at Jacksonville, on Thursday last, at 1 o'clock.
For Delegates to Congress.
    Gen. J. Lane 611     Judge A. A. Skinner 515
State Representatives.
    Chauncey Nye 530     G. H. Ambrose 567
---- Millen 462 D. W. Thorp 377
District Attorney.
    C. Sims 447     S. F. Chadwick 124
D. W. Bremen 388 W. G. T'Vault 33
County Auditor.
    C. S. Drew 824     L. Jackson 250
Sacramento Daily Union, June 15, 1853, page 2

Mountain Camp, Aug. 26, 1853.       
    Mr. Bush--Dear Sir:--I have to inform you of the melancholy news which at this time pervades the entire settlements of Rogue River; that is war with all its horrors, between the whites and the combined Indian tribes of Southern Oregon and Northern California. You have, no doubt, ere this been informed of the Indian depredations up to the murder of Dr. Rose and John R. Hardin. Since that time many of the first men of our country have fallen either by assassination or in open battle. Time and opportunity will not permit me to enter into detail of the many smaller depredations committed by these savages--suffice it to say that for craftiness and bravery, they are equal to the Florida Indians, and their mode of war very similar, using the canyons in the mountains instead of the Florida hammocks.
    Sam, the great war chief, with Joe, the civil chief, and Jim, a chief of smaller grade, took a position five or six miles north of Table Rock, in a canyon of dense brush. There they reported that they intended to give battle to our forces under the command of Col. John Ross and Capt. Alden, of the U.S.A. About the 15th August, the forces proceeded to the Indian camp to give them battle, sending an independent detachment under Capt. H. Elliff in their rear to bring on the attack while the main force was to charge them in front. But when they arrived, the Indians were nowhere to be found, having moved their camp several days before. 1st. Lieut. Ely of Capt. Goodall's company, from Yreka, was sent in search of the Indian camp, and the main force returned to headquarters on Stuart's Creek, for the purpose of obtaining supplies to pursue the Indians into the mountains. On the morning of the 17th Lieut. Ely, with 22 men, discovered the Indian camp, some 10 miles north of their former camp, upon the right-hand creek called Evans Creek. We immediately fell back some two or three miles to an open prairie interspersed with small washed gullies and branches of willows and sent two men as an express to headquarters, remaining with 20 men to await the arrival of a sufficient force to attack the Indians; the Indians in the meantime, availing themselves of the advantages of the gullies and brush, crawled up and commenced an attack at a distance of a few yards, say 20 or 30, killing two men at their first fire and causing the small force to make a precipitate retreat to a ridge covered with pine trees, a distance of 250 yards, when they took a position covered in the rear by elevated ground and prairie in front. The Indians flanked and very near if not quite surrounded them. The men were brave and most valiantly sustained their position for three hours and fifteen minutes, when J. D. Carly, Esq., of Yreka, arrived with five other men, in advance of the main force. The Indians, seeing this new arrival, immediately took to flight, carrying off 18 horses and mules with their caparisons together with blankets and camp equipage. The loss on our side was, killed, J. Shane, P. Keath, Frank Perry, A. Douglass, A. C. Colburn, and L. Lockting. Wounded--1st Lieut. Ely, shot through the wrist, John Albin, James Carrol, and Zebulon Schutz, all slightly. The entire forces in the field again returned to headquarters on Stuart's Creek, to complete their supplies.
    On the morning of the 21st inst., Gen. Jo Lane arrived at headquarters and joined the army under the command of brevet Col. Alden and Col. Ross, and on Monday morning by sunrise the whole force was en route, the battalion under Col. Ross, consisting of Capts. Miller and Lamerick's company, going down Rogue River and then up Evans Creek till they found the trail of Sam and Joe, or until they met with the battalion of Col. Alden, consisting of the companies of Capts. Goodall and Rhodes, which marched in the direction of the battleground of Lieut. Ely. The orders were that which attachment found the main Indian trail was to pursue it, and the other follow on when they came up, if they did not meet before finding the trail. Gen. Lane and myself joined Col. Alden's command, and late in the evening we found that the Indian trail had taken to the mountains in a north direction from Evans Creek. Tuesday morning we made an early start, pursued the trail all day, passing over the most difficult mountains, as they were barely "passable, not practicable" to pass. Tuesday night we tied our animals to brush with grass, and Wednesday morning was in early march on the Indian trail, ascending a high mountain. Passing along the summit four or five miles, we heard the Indians a short distance ahead in a ravine, at a distance of about six hundred yards.
    The order was instantly given to dismount, and Col. Alden, with Capt. Goodall and about thirty of his company, proceeded down the Indian trail to attack them in front. Capt. Rhodes, with some fifteen or twenty men, was sent down a ridge to the left, to attack them on the left and prevent an escape down the canyon. In a few minutes the Indians fired on Col. Alden when within some 30 years of the camp, and the battle commenced, raging with much fury. Col. Alden was badly wounded the first fire, also Pleasant Armstrong, of Yamhill, was shot through the breast, exclaiming as he fell--"a dead center shot." The battle continued raging with great fury, the yells of the Indians, the howling of dogs and the sharp continuous crack of the rifles lasted about one hour, when our pack train arrived and furnishing ten men more, Gen. Lane at the head of those ten, followed down the trail to the battleground, and with brave determination, ordered a charge, leading himself. When he arrived near the camp he received a wound through the right arm. The battle continued for about four hours, and the Indians called for quarter, or a parley. When finding that Gen. Lane was there, they insisted on his coming into their camp. The old hero, although pretty badly wounded, and suffering much, immediately went into the Indian camp (or fortifications, for it was represented to be a stronger place to charge than "Chapultepec") and had a talk with Sam, Joe and Jim. An armistice was agreed upon for a short time. We buried our dead, and in a short time Col. Ross with his command arrived, and a general treaty was talked of, and an armistice with Joe and Sam was agreed upon for seven days, at which time they were to meet Gen. Lane and give up their rifles.
    Our loss in battle was three killed on the ground--Pleasant Armstrong, F. Bradley, one name not known. Wounded, Col. Alden, Gen. Lane, ---- Hays and two names not known.
    The Indians say 12 killed dead, and 20 wounded--most all mortally. Much talk of a continuous war, and many are anxious for peace. If there is not peace Rogue River will be the grave and resting place of many a brave and good man. The best men generally are the first to fall, and the most clamorous for extermination are not the most interested, yet many good men go for a war of extermination.
    On the 25th, I am informed that the Indians attacked Wm. Dunn's house, in the south part of the valley, killed three men, wounded two or three, robbed the house, burnt the hay and grain. On the same day they attacked a pack train, killed 2 men, wounded 2, and captured 2 animals and cargo. This was on Applegate Creek.
    I will have to give you more anon.
W. G. T'VAULT.               
"Latest from the Indian War," Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 6, 1853, page 2

In Justice's Court,
TERRITORY of Oregon, county of Jackson, ss. To Geo. Turner. You are hereby notified that a writ of attachment has been issued against you, and your property attached to satisfy the demand of W. G. T'Vault, amounting to forty-six dollars and costs. Now unless you shall appear and answer before S. H. Taylor, a justice of the peace in and for said county, at his office, in Jacksonville, on the 1st day of March, 1855, judgment will be rendered against you, and your property sold to pay the debt.
    Dated this 29th  day of December, 1854.
W. G. T'VAULT, Pl'ff.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, January 27, 1855, page 3

    In Rogue River Valley, on the 18th Feb., at the residence of Col. T'Vault, by E. A. Stearns, Judge of Probate, D. M. Kenney, attorney at law, to Miss Lizzie T'Vault, eldest daughter of Col. T'Vault, all of Rogue River Valley.
Sacramento Daily Union, March 6, 1855, page 2

For the Statesman.
Jacksonville, April 15th, 1855.      
    Dear Sir:--Last night, at the Eldorado, when under the influence of liquor, Charley Mason struck Col. T'Vault in the abdomen with a knife, opening so large a wound that the bowels protruded. Mason has fled. T'Vault is under the care of Drs. Alexander & Books, and is yet, at 10 a.m., living. There is not a probability of his recovery, nor that he can survive many hours.*
    A great effort will be made for the Argus, which, I have it under the publisher's "broad seal," is to be thoroughly and radically Know-Nothing--though it appears in its prospectus as a very religious and very honest thing. It would be a good time to put the unsuspecting on their guard.
    Several men are now on their way below, to draw war money. Lane stock is good here.
Yours, &c.,
*Dr. Robinson, who left at a later date than the above, informs us that Mr. T'Vault was getting better, and that it was thought he would recover.--Ed. Statesman.
Oregon Statesman,
Oregon City, April 28, 1855, page 2

    By a letter received from Jacksonville we learn that Col. T'Vault, and a man by the name of Mason had a fight recently. Mason stabbed T'Vault, and it was supposed he would not recover from the wound.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, April 28, 1855, page 2

    [In October 1855 I approached W. G. T'Vault,] editor of the Oregon Sentinel, with an offer of ten dollars for its insertion, about a column and a half of matter. He answered, "No I have been denounced enough already for what I have published for Indians. I hate them; damn them; I wish that they were all dead, and I don't believe that there is ten men in the two counties (Jackson & Josephine) but what have the same feeling." I have reason to believe that this editor spoke as a representative for the great majority of people west of the Mississippi River.

John Beeson, September 17, 1867; NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 615 Oregon Superintendency, 1866-1869, frames 378-381

Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, 1855.
    Edited by W. G. T'Vault, who had been the first editor of the Oregon Spectator. When he tried to brighten up his Southern Oregon paper, largely by means of the scissors, the sarcastic W. L. Adams at Oregon City said this about him:
    "Under the head of 'Accumulated Fun,' we find in the Table Rock Sentinel half a column of what the Editor thinks to be the very essence of wit, consisting of short items clipped from other papers. Take the following sample which Col. T'Vault thinks is rare, rich and racy.
    Isn't "Tom Dryer" a "h--l of a fellow" in his own estimation?--Statesman.
    "At last accounts of Jacksonville, the grasshoppers had committed fearful ravages in that section, having destroyed nearly everything green except the editor of the Sentinel; and it was feared from the demonstrations they were making, they had an idea of 'girdling' him."
Alfred Powers, History of Oregon Literature, Portland 1935, pages 714-715

    We have received the first number of the Jacksonville paper. It is called the Table Rock Sentinel, and is published by Messrs. T'Vault (Col. Wm. G. T'Vault), Taylor and Blakely, the two first named being the editors, we understand. It is published on the Umpqua Gazette materials, and resembles that paper in typographical appearance.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 8, 1855, page 2

    THE JACKSON COUNTY ELECTION.--Contrary to our expectations, Gen. Miller was beaten for the council. John E. Ross, Whig, or K.N., was elected by a vote of 305 to 181 for Miller. We have not heard the particulars, but we think that Gen. Miller was deserted by a portion of the Democrats. Is it not a little singular that in these war times, the patriotic Know Nothings should have brought out a candidate? Oh, hypocrisy! The Know Nothings are opposed to "party" when out of power, or in the minority, but uncompromisingly in favor of it where they are in power, or in the majority.
    The election for representative resulted in the election of Hale, Democrat. He received 307, and T'Vault 132.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, January 1, 1856, page 2

Salem January 4th 1856
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon Territory
Dear Sir
    In the month of August 1851, Anson Dart, then Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, gave me [a] letter appointing me to the duty of notifying the Indians along the coast in the neighborhood of Port Orford when he would be at Port Orford and treat with them.
    The letter was copied in a book kept in the Superintendent's office.
    You would confer a favor on me by forwarding me a copy of the letter to this place at your earliest convenience; the original was destroyed by the Indians.
Respectfully your obt. servt.
    W. G. T'Vault
Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 41.

Salem, January 19th 1856.           
To His Excellency
    Geo. L. Curry
        Governor of the Terry. of Oregon
Dear sir:
    In compliance with your personal request I hasten to give you such information as I possess. Much of the information that you desire is not in my possession, and in fact there is no means of obtaining the same.
    The first murder was in May last on Indian Creek, which occasioned considerable excitement. In the last of May, or first of June, John's band of Indians killed Philpot on Deer Creek. A few days afterwards the same band killed Dyer and McCue near the ferry on Applegate River. In July the Indians killed some seventeen persons on the Klamath and Humbug rivers, whose names I have not been able to obtain. On the 2nd of September Fields and Cunningham were killed on the Siskiyou Mountains, and 12 or 15 head of oxen; Sept. 3rd, Warner was killed on Cottonwood. In September Keene was killed some six miles from the Mountain House, and another man wounded; 8th of October Lupton and Shepard were killed; 9th of October, Goen. [sic] W. Hamilton, Isaac Skelton, Hague and a man name not known, John P. Jones and his wife, Samuel Belcher, Cartwright, Mrs. Wagner and daughter, Mr. Harris, one other man, name not known, Frank Reed, Mr. Harris, Mrs. Harris and daughter [sic--they survived]; 10th of October, Saml. Grahame, John B. Powell and George Fox; 17th of October, Picket, Saunders, Ben Taft, J. D. Adams and John, a Chinaman; 18th of October, a Spaniard near Mooney's ranch; 23rd of October, Bailey and Charley Johnson; 30th of October, Mr. Wiley on Althouse. In Jany. 1856 Martin Angel, Hull and Dr. Myers.
    The foregoing is a correct list of those persons that were killed, except those that were killed in battle. There is but little doubt that many murders have been committed of which I have no information. The Indians also report that they have two white women prisoners and it is probable that they have. If so it is conjectured that they are Mrs. Haines and daughter, or Mrs. Harris and Mrs. Wagner.
    In the meantime should I obtain any further information it will give me pleasure to inform you at an early period.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        W. G. T'Vault
Jo Lane Papers.

Jacksonville O.T.
    March 15th 1856
E. M. Barnum
    Adjt. Genl.
        Dear Sir
            Yours of March 11th was received last night by express, and I hasten to say that I have only in part done my duty to my country, and am pleased that I at least have one testimony that finds no fault with my duty in raising the three new companies.
    In reply to my having fallen into an "error" or "misapprehended" your notions, I can only say that when I left Salem with "General Order No. 25" I left without any instructions in writing further than those contained in the order. We had some conversation as per the subject of a general nature, but my judgment in relation to the duties was at that time as also by written instructions. What that of any other persons would have been who knew as much in relation to the duties, as I did, I have only got to refer you to your official letters to show that if I raised and mustered in any of the three new companies "not to order them to report to the 2nd Regt. if said regt. was disbanded." This then certainly gave me to understand as I had understood that my duties were confined to enrolling and mustering in the three new companies. I never expected any further duties to be given me either by the powers these commanded or those who I knew at that time would have the commands. Yet it was unexpected to me that part of my duties that had been give me verbally and in writing should be taken away and given to anyone, much less to the very individual who you have said was recommended for that duty by the present Genl. Lamerick.
    Understand me, my dear sir, I am not writing this to complain. I have no complaints to make. The time is near at hand when men will have to be weighed, and if they are found lacking it will not be that they can be sustained by recommendations but the command will go forth "depart and hunt your holes."
    In the appointment of mustang officers for Southern Oregon I then and now thought I knew the duties devolving upon those officers. On the appointment of Assistant Adjt. Genl. I knew thought I knew knew that it was the duty of mustang officers to report to the Adjt. Genl. Then a double duty devolves on the mustang officer, for he is also Asst. Adjt. Genl. and must first report to himself and then report to the Adjt. Genl. This is all right; the only reason why I mention it is that we may both understand it, or in other words that you may understand how I look at it.
    I have reported in part my official conduct to Adjt. Genl. Welsh, and have been delayed making a full report on account of Capt. Abel George having gone to Yreka and not returned. Please say to me how long before I shall be required to report, and be discharged from duty. I suppose I could find out by asking Genl. Lamerick or Welsh but will prefer you on account of reasons hereafter to be stated to you.
    None, no, not one, can tell what Southern Oregon will come to if we can get a few more impostors [Know Nothings?]. I think this war will last, at least during the Democratic administration of President Pierce. O [illegible] not a gold people. Tell me in your next.
I remain respectfully yours
    W. G. T'Vault
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 2, Document 511.

July 7th 1856
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent Indian Affairs O.T.
Dear Sir,
    In relation to the publication of the treaty with the Cayuse, Walla Walla and Umatilla Indians, signed by yourself & Gov. Stephens and ordered to be published six months in the Umpqua Gazette, a newspaper published in said Territory, we have to say that it was published 3 or 4 times in the Umpqua Gazette when their office changed owners in part, also the name of the paper was changed to the "Table Rock Sentinel," Boyd, one of the proprietors of the Umpqua Gazette, selling his half interest, A. Blakely, one of the original proprietors, still retaining his interest by one half. Said treaty was published the number of times ordered in the first instance by the proprietors of the Sentinel. Will you inform us by letter whether you will pay the same, and also what is necessary for us to do to present a proper acct. We will further say that no other persons besides ourselves are authorized to receive or receipt for the pay for said publication.
Respectfully yours
    T'Vault & Blakely
        Proprietors of "Table Rock Sentinel"
            Per W. G. T'Vault
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.

The subscriber will LEASE his FARM situate 10 miles north of Jacksonville on the main traveled road to Northern Oregon. He will also let a quantity of Stock. Persons wishing a pleasant location on the road, with an opportunity of a good stand, would do well to examine. Terms liberal.
Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 6, 1856, page 3

    At Jacksonville, Oregon, June 8th, of bilious fever, G. L. T'Vault, only son of W. G. T'Vault.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 15, 1857, page 2

    G. L. T'Vault, only son of W. G. T'Vault, editor of the Sentinel, died at Jacksonville, on the 7th inst. of the bilious fever. The deceased was junior partner in the Sentinel office.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, June 27, 1857, page 2

    GONE FROM EARTH TO LIVE IN HEAVEN.--We have received the Table Rock Sentinel, and with it the painful intelligence of the death of George Lycurgus, only son of W. G. and R. T'Vault, of Jacksonville, Oregon. We knew him when a little boy, and like all who were acquainted with him, we loved him. His bright, intelligent countenance and winning ways endeared him to everyone, and made him the idol of his parents, with whom we deeply sympathize in this great bereavement. We had predicted for him a future of fame and usefulness, but at the threshold he is cut down. Truly and sincerely do we regret his demise, but God himself hath taken him. "He doeth all things well."
Weekly Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, June 27, 1857, page 3

    At the residence of his parents, in Jacksonville, on Sunday, the 7th day of June, George Lycurgus, only son of W. G. and R. T'Vault, aged 18 years.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 30, 1857, page 3

The Harmonious.
    "When rogues fall out, honest men agree," is an old adage, and is verified by the Kilkenny cat fight now going on between the several Democratic newspapers in Oregon. If the hundredth part of what is said of each other by the different editors and wings of the Democratic Party be true, Oregon Democracy is a "queer fish."
    How is it that the Democracy of Oregon have got into such a fog that no two can agree as to their locality? They have several experienced navigators of the Democratic school on board. There is Burns with his Herald, T'Vault with his Sentinel, Hall with his Ox [Occidental Messenger], Bush with his Statesman, Leland with his Standard, and our colored cotemporary, Hibben, with Lane's Times, all of which are said to be Democratic charts of the first magnitude.
    All of these papers are claimed to be supremely Democratic, and each insists that Democracy is founded on truth, sustained by principles, and triumphs by its unchanged advocacy of right. Yet no two agree as to principles, no two advocate the same doctrine, and all accuse each other of the most flagrant violations of truth. Some argue and insist that to be a Democrat you must be pro-slavery; others that to be a Democrat you must favor freedom; others proclaim that a Democrat may think, speak and act as he pleases upon the question of slavery and maintain his standing in the Democratic Party; and still others denounce everybody as an abolitionist, Black Republican, freedom shrieker, who don't swallow the Nebraska-Kansas act, Cincinnati platform, Old Buck, Jo. Lane and Hibben, Salem platform, Salem clique, together with all the lies and slanders ever published in the aforesaid newspapers, type, presses, imposing stones, cases, furniture and ink, together with the several editors, hangers-on and whittling loafers who congregate about every Democratic printing office in Oregon, and swear he is still hungry and famishing for more Democracy.
    The last class are more honest and liberal than either of the other wings. They adopt the old Democratic watchword, to the victors belong the spoils, and practice what they preach. They are liberal, because they would take into their warm embraces the devil with all his Satanic majesty's imps with the smell of brimstone upon their garments, and promise them place and power if they will sustain and uphold their peculiar notion of Democracy. They will even receive into favor and prudishly fondle a renegade Whig, a [illegible] abolitionist, a canting hypocritical free-soiler, aye, a Know Nothing, if he will vote the Democratic ticket with Jo. Lane's name upon it; then he shall have at least a nomination on the regular Democratic ticket.
    Can this be Democracy? and will the people sustain it long? The plain and simple truth is, Oregon Democracy looks no further than office and power for the leaders of that party, and each and every one of these several Democratic newspapers is laboring solely and entirely for the purpose of inducing the people to surrender all power, all right, and all direction of public affairs into the hands of their respective favorites.
    They assume the insulting insinuation that the masses of the people can be galled and cheated into their support by this "claptrap" sham fight; that they can take advantage of the assumed ignorance of the people and use them as they please. Therefore, the whole band known as the Salem clique, with their varied party hues and colors, and political uniforms, are engaged in a sort of guerrilla warfare with their Democratic brethren outside the boundaries of their camp, and are using their newspapers for the purpose of extending the area for the centralization of power, so as to include Marion, Linn, Lane and Polk. These counties are to control the balance of the territory or state, and are to have and to hold the dispensing of party favor outside the ring.
    But if the people should by chance defeat these nefarious schemes, then it will be time to speak further upon this subject. Now, as these rogues appear to disagree to an extent that a reconciliation would seem to be hopeless, honest men might come together and get their dues. We shall see what we shall see.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, October 24, 1857, page 2

    ANOTHER SLAVERY ADVOCATE.--The Oregon Sentinel, published in Jacksonville, is the second paper in Oregon which we have seen that advocates the introduction of slavery into the new state:
    "We have no fears of contradiction when we say no pro-slavery man in Oregon wishes to force his neighbor to become a slaveholder--he only asks the privilege of being permitted to own slaves or let it alone, at his pleasure. The pro-slavery party in Oregon insist that it is not a question that the people of the United States, outside of the Territory of Oregon, have a right to control; that if the people of Oregon decide that slavery in Oregon shall exist, that it is a domestic institution for Oregon alone, and no person is compelled to become a slaveholder unless he desires it. Will it promote the prosperity of the new state, and add to it general wealth, physically, morally and politically? These are questions which we propose to discuss and place before the people at the proper time. Those who may differ with us on any of these questions have the right, and we shall not attempt to take it from them. The question of slavery in Oregon should not be discussed in any other manner than upon principles. The system of ridicule and personal abuse is low, vulgar and beneath the dignity of men who wish to be governed by correct principles. If it is wrong to have slavery in Oregon, it should not be adopted, because those who oppose may be ridiculed and abused, and vice versa. If it is expedient and politic, it should not be prohibited because the pro-slavery man be slandered."
Sacramento Daily Union, July 17, 1857, page 2

Liberal Labor-Saving Operation.
    We see by a late number of the Table Rock Sentinel, published at Jacksonville, O.T., by W. G. T'Vault, Esq., that one B. F. Dowell, formerly a squeaking sort of a Whig, has saved the harmonious a wonderful deal of trouble, by suggesting, selecting, NOMINATING and DECIDING that Jo Lane and Col. Kelly shall be the first U.S. Senators, and L. F. Grover shall be the first Representative from the future virgin state of Oregon in the Congress of the United States. Now this is wondrous kind and generous on the part of Mr. Dowell, as it has saved the unwashed a vast deal of "noise and confusion," full of "sound and fury signifying nothing." They have been spared the toil, trouble, perplexity, and responsibility of deciding this all-important question.
    It may save a vast deal of crimination and recrimination, besides expositions of the plans, plots, designs, and secret determinations of those who rule over us and all matters of public interest, decided in secret caucus at Salem. If the Standard, Times, Pacific Christian Advocate, Occidental Messenger, or Statesman should happen to protest against this volunteer aid on the part of Dowell in designating who among the unwashed of the Oregon Democracy shall put on the senatorial and official robes, which might cause a rupture among the faithful; then, and in that case, we propose that all be dumped out upon the Salem platform, so that each may take his chance for "office and spoils." In the meantime, we pray, or will try to induce, Bro. Pearne of the Pacific Christian Advocate to pray to the great head of the Democratic church that the disappointed and disconsolate may be imbued with a spirit of Democratic submission and Democratic patience, to await their allotted time.
    What Judge A, B, C, and D, or Gen. E, F, G, and H, together with Cols. I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, and T, and Majors U, V, W, X, Y, and Z may think of this arrangement is another question. Mr. Dowell and the Table Rock Sentinel, W. G. T'Vault its editor and proprietor, have foreordained that Gen. Joseph Lane and Col. Kelly should go to the United States Senate, and Mr. Grover shall be elected to the lower house. Therefore it is no use talking or making a muss about this trifling matter.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, July 25, 1857, page 2

    SUGAR CANE IN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel advocates the introduction of slavery into Oregon Territory, and as one of the grounds upon which this advocacy is based publishes the following item, in its issue of Aug. 22nd:
    "We are informed that the Rev. D. Stearns has raised about two acres of the Chinese sugar cane, and that it was planted and grown upon the common prairie soil of this county, and has grown luxuriantly. He is preparing to manufacture the cane, and the impression is that he will obtain seven hundred gallons of syrup. We have not seen the Rev. Stearns, but have obtained the information from a reliable source. Seven hundred gallons of syrup to be produced from the sugar cane raised on two acres shows that the soil of Oregon will produce one article that the free state men admit slave labor can be profitably employed at. Now, the soil and climate of Oregon as an argument against slave labor in Oregon is all a humbug. It is a good soil and climate for everything in Oregon. The seven hundred gallons of syrup will sell for two dollars per gallon, at wholesale, yielding seven hundred dollars per acre. So much for the soil and climate of Oregon."

Sacramento Daily Union, August 31, 1857, page 1

Slavery in Oregon.
    In discussing the slavery question in Oregon, the Jacksonville Sentinel, a strong pro-slavery paper, makes the following admissions in regard to the unfitness of Oregon for slavery. The Sentinel contends for slavery upon the ground that it will give the slaveholding states the balance [of] power in the U.S. Senate:
    "Now, the question of expediency and policy is, no doubt, a matter that will govern many in their votes upon this subject. The effect of slavery, morally, is also an important ingredient in the discussion, and but little is said about the ultimate result of the principle, and its effect on the government of the United States."
    And again:
    "Let us admit that slave labor cannot be profitably employed in Oregon; that it is a cold climate; that the products of the soil will not justify such labor; that Oregon is surrounded by non-slaveholding Territories; that it would be impolitic to allow slaves within the limits of the future state of Oregon. We say, suppose those questions govern the people, and Oregon is admitted as a non-slaveholding state, is that all? We think not. The principle is of more importance than all those matters of policy and expedience above referred to."
Weekly Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, October 24, 1857, page 5

Jacksonville OT
    December 2nd 1857.       
Dear Sir
    It is not my desire to trouble you often as I am well aware of your great press of business. Oregon has decided by an overwhelming vote that the people approve of their constitution and are opposed to having slaves. This is as I expected. Bush says slavery is not of itself a matter [of] which a national political issue can be made. This I think is a mistake, yet I am willing to admit it ought not to be the case.
    Young America and Democracy, the constitution and the decision of the Supreme Court are the truest work I fight by, and if any abolitive Black Republican attempts to elect a President or any other officer in opposition be it national or sectional I shall oppose him.
    Genl, I wish to have a regular semi-monthly correspondent at Washington during the present Congress. Try and get me one. I want young America, no old fogey.
    Will Congress admit us? Will Washington Territory give us our boundaries as stated in our constitution? Will the Chinese claim be stricken out? Is Burns [?] going to be elector at the Umpqua? Who is going to be judge in place of Olney? If Oregon is admitted will Deady be ousted states judge for this district? The judge has lost popularity with the pro-slavery party since you left.
    Col W J Martin of Winchester is spoken [of] for Gov of Oregon. I'll be [illegible] if he is a candidate if I don't go for him.
    Grover, Williams, Delazon Smith and Deady are working hard for U.S. Senate. Smith & Williams will be hard to beat, for the free state men will urge their claims.
    Tell [illegible] of SC to send me all the pro-slavery documents he can.
    What a left-handed lick the President hit Dreyfuss about his father-in-law. Stephen [Douglas] will have hard work to win the President. Breckinridge, if any man from a slave state can be elected, is the man for 1860.
    I saw Floed the other day; all was well.
    My family are quite afflicted but are getting a little better.
    I would be glad to hear a little from you occasionally to publish.
                        Yours truly
                            W G T'Vault
Jo Lane Papers.

    The Sentinel never has advocated the organization of a pro-slavery Democratic Party in Oregon. We have time and again declared that it did not affect the Democracy of any Democrat to vote against slavery in Oregon, unless he was actuated by the Black Republican doctrine, and urged that as a reason why slavery should not exist in Oregon. In that case, just so far as he was governed, and urged it as a reason why there should not be slavery in Oregon, any of the Black Republican doctrines, then we said and still say he who done so endorsed just so much of the Black Republican doctrine as he offered as a reason why slavery should not exist in Oregon. The question is now settled, and the practical use of slaves is prohibited. Then let all good Democrats be satisfied in a national point of view with the Constitution and the decision in the Dred Scott case, and be content to have the Kansas and Nebraska measure govern in the founding of new state governments.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 30, 1858, page 2

N O T I C E .
The subscriber is desirous of Renting his Farm, located about ten miles from Jacksonville. There are about four hundred acres of enclosed land, of the best quality, good farm houses, and excellent water. It is one of the best grass farms in the country: about fifty acres of timothy will be ready to cut the present year. About 40 acres broke and in good cultivation. It would be preferable to lease said farm for a period of not less than two years, with the privilege of 8 or 10 milk cows. For particulars, apply to the subscriber at the Sentinel office.
    Jacksonville, O.T., Jan. 30, 1858.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 30, 1858, page 3

    In Jacksonville at that time [April 1858] were two weekly newspapers--the Sentinel, of William G. T'Vault, and the Herald, of William J. Boggs. T'Vault was an early pioneer of Oregon from Arkansas. He was editor of the Oregon Spectator in 1847, and founded the Sentinel, the first newspaper in Southern Oregon, at Jacksonville. He was aged, crafty and crooked in his walks and ways.
James O'Meara, "Our Pioneer History," Oregonian, Portland, November 9, 1890, page 16

    W. G. T'VAULT and J. W. MCCULLY, members of the House from this county, left here on Thursday for Salem. A. M. BERRY, Senator from this county, and DANIEL NEWCOMB, member of the House, will start about Monday next, we learn.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 26, 1858, page 2

    Col. T'Vault, of the Jacksonville Sentinel, was in town this week and paid us a visit. He handed us a short news item of public interest, which we have placed in our advertising columns.
    We hear that the Herald of Jacksonville is to be removed to Roseburg.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, July 17, 1858, page 2

House and Lot for Sale.
THE property known as the "T'Vault Property," situate on the bank of the river just below R. Canfield's store, Oregon City, is for sale. It is a delightful family residence, and destined to be valuable. For terms, apply to the subscriber or R. Canfield at Canfield's store.
    July 17, 1858.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, July 17, 1858, page 2

Jacksonville O.T.
    August 31 1858
Genl Lane
    Dear Sir
        It is with some misgiving that I write you as I have not had a letter from you for the last five or six months; in all probability your other friends engross your time. Yet I have done my duty as I discern it. I have supported you with a zeal and a success hitherto unknown. It is truly gratifying to me that I have never made a political promise to a friend but what I have redeemed it to the letter. Southern Oregon has done her duty manfully in your support. Your friends Mosher, Martin, Shelby & hosts of others could tell you how successful I have been.
    The Jacksonville Herald expired at No. 52 Vol. 1. I am the owner of the entire press & material and now without a rival journal in Southern Oregon. I have not called a Lane friend or the Democracy to contribute the first farthing nor do I expect to do so, but on the contrary as soon as that paper was started at this place the land office advertising was taken from me and contributed to the support of an [illegible] Lane paper.
    I am under obligation to you for your kindness in paying Edwards $120 also Mr. Topping $25 for Lane correspondence during the last session. I will repay you at the earliest moment when you return.
    The Portland Times is ably conducted and I suppose you may depend upon its support. The Statesman you know all about so it is unnecessary to say what it will do.
    I am truly thankful to you for the many kind favors received during the last session in the way of speeches & books. Hoping that you may triumph as long as your political course merits the support of the Democracy I now am truly your friend
W. G. T'Vault
I leave tomorrow for Salem; shall visit your family on my way down. I believe Mosher & myself are on good terms again.
Jo Lane Papers.

    The first regular session of the House of Representatives of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Oregon, begun and holden at Salem, the thirteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, being the second Monday in September, the day fixed by the Constitution for the meeting of the Legislative Assembly of said State:
    The Hon. Wm. G. T'Vault, member from Jackson County and Speaker of the House of Representatives, appeared, took the chair and called the House to order, at 2 o'clock P.M.
    Whereupon, Chester N. Terry, Chief Clerk, and J. H. Brown, Door Keeper, appeared and entered upon the discharge of the duties of their respective offices.
    The following members appeared and took their seats, to wit:
    Messrs. Burch, Cochran, Curzan, Crooks, Dryer, Hannah, Hedges, Jennings and Tichenor.
    And there not being a quorum of members present,
    On Motion of Mr. Hedges, the House adjourned until tomorrow at 10 o'clock, A.M.

Salem Sept. 15th 1858.
Col. B. Jennings
        In accordance with my promise, I herewith forward to you enclosed a copy of the Journal of the two day session of the House.
Yours truly,
    Chester N. Terry
Jo Lane Papers.

    JACKSONVILLE SENTINEL.--This paper, published in Southern Oregon, has been for some time past edited by W. G. T'Vault, late Speaker of the Oregon Legislature. In the last number T'Vault announces that it will hereafter be edited by "Wm. J. Robinson, who is well known in this section of the country as a sound, reliable, pro-slavery Democrat. He has been in the Sentinel office nearly two years, and we hope he will meet the expectations of his numerous friends in conducting the columns of the Sentinel as editor; on account of other business, we will no longer act in that capacity." A pro-slavery Democrat we should think rather out of place in Oregon.
Sacramento Daily Union, October 21, 1858, page 2

    At the anniversary of the Jackson County Bible Society, Rev. Wm. Roberts, Agent of the American Bible Society for Oregon, delivered an appropriate discourse from 2nd Timothy, I, 10. After which, the reports of the Secretary and Treasurer were read, and the election of officers for the ensuing year was held. President, Rev. M. A. Williams; Vice President, Judge L. A. Rice; Secretary, Col. Wm. G. T'Vault; Treasurer and Depositary, Wm. Hoffman; Executive Committee, Rev. J. O. Raynor, Curtis Davenport, S. Humphrey.
Pacific Journal, Eugene, October 30, 1858, page 3

Portland, OT
    December 24 1858
Dear Genl,
    You may think it rather astonishing to receive two letters from me by the same steamer, but as the honorable members of the Territorial Legislature have come to Portland to spend the holidays. I have come too and on yesterday wrote you a letter giving the names of certain gentlemen who I looked upon as your opponents or siding with the "Bush" attack. While coming down here on the steamer Messrs. Jennings & Hedges of Oregon City while in conversation with me expressed some doubts as to the reliability of Wait at least Col. Jennings did--from everything that I could learn I put him down as siding in his cool manner with the opposition, and so stated the matter in my letter to you. Col. Jennings & Hedges thinking I would write you from this place and in all probability do what I did do express my opinion of his position in relation to you went to Mack and desired to know of him how he stood in relation to you they then came down here today and requested me to so write you. Therefore upon their request I write you that they say Waite is a Lane man but I have not learned enough to say that I would trust him there is [an] office to be filled by appointment and it becomes your duty to leave them filled with voluble "Lane" men.
    I have not yet visited Mrs. Shelby my business preventing but I shall on tomorrow take my "Christmas" dinner with her by special invitation.
    Act discreetly in all things of a political nature and your friends will do their duty--[illegible] is finding fault with Jennings' appointment.
Yours truly as ever
        W. G. T'Vault
Jo Lane Papers.

    William G. Tevalt and Jonathan S. Harvey, attorneys, came to Plymouth not far from 1840, and followed the practice of law among us for two or three years.
Warren Taylor, "Marshall County--Its Early History," Marshall County Republican, Indiana, April 14, 1859, page 3

LANE COUNTY, July 29, 1859.
    A traveler from the south this evening gave me a copy of T'Vault's paper of July 23rd. In it I find the following insinuation against the honor and integrity of Governor Whiteaker and Secretary Heath, who are to officially count the votes:
    "The election is so close that the exact vote cannot be known until all the returns are officially counted. Look out for election returns. They have been 'found missing' when it suited certain parties."
    This vile insinuation against public officers is from the pen of W. G. T'Vault, who has been prosecuted in Oregon for perjury; who, it is bruited, scaled prison walls within which he was confined upon accusation of murder and fled from Arkansas to Indiana, and was hurried from there by the appearance of an Arkansas public journal, containing a sheriff's advertisement, offering a reward for his apprehension and return to that state; whose reputation in Oregon has always been and is unequivocally bad; who was, I understand, in Salem last winter taunted to his face with having received an indirect fee of fifty dollars for his vote in the legislature. This is the man who, in the service and pay of Gen. Lane, libels public officers and private citizens.
    There is also in this number of the Arkansas Traveler* a letter dated Linn County, signed "Truth" (appended to that communication, as black a lie as one word can be made to express), devoted to abuse of yourself (Bush) principally, and Nesmith, Waymire and Barnhart incidentally. It is either from the pen of Delazon Smith (who is exceedingly lauded in the letter) or from the pen of his hireling in the Umpqua.
    This letter says Delazon has been charged with having had the delirium tremens in Washington. That, so far as I know, is the first time that charge has been seen in print.
Nevertheless, I am well informed it is strictly true, that he was not only habitually intoxicated in the Senate, but that on one occasion he went from his room raving with the delirium tremens, and wandered into the lowest class of a grocery in Washington City, where he called the degraded inmates about him, told them, as ran the delirious fancy of his brain; that he was about to die, and he wanted them to come about him and witness the scene, and that he remained there, in that state, until discovered by an acquaintance, who led him away. This letter, which is Delazon's own, whether written by himself or his paid admirer, says "he (Mr. Smith) had a return of the Panama fever at Washington, and was confined to his room two weeks; that Gen. Lane hears testimony to this." When and where did Gen. Lane hear this testimony? And, if it was Panama fever, why was it necessary to prevent members of Congress from seeing him, that the admission bill might not be prejudiced by his condition and conduct? If he had not been a disgrace to the state, why did not Gen. Lane say so to members of the legislature, when they asked him, and when he knew his full denial of the charges against Smith would have elected him?
    It is idle for Delazon Smith to attempt to attract the public gaze from himself by assaults upon the legislature, or anybody else. It is vain to deny that Gen. Lane has pronounced his conduct a disgrace and a shame, and bitterly complained of the trouble and mortification he subjected him (Lane) to. And it is worse than folly to suppose that if he was to be returned again to Washington, that he would be any less abandoned and reckless, or any less a disgrace to himself and to our young state.
    All the evidence--and it is strong and conclusive--goes to show that when Delazon Smith got away from Oregon, he threw off all restraint, and gave himself up to dissipation, debauchery and disgrace. Gen. Lane knows this--bitterly knows it--and Mr. Grover knows it.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 9, 1859, page 2  *The Oregon Intelligencer.

    MR. EDITOR: I am indebted to the kindness of a friend for a copy of the "Arkansas Traveler"* of August 6th, in which I perceive that the editor, forgetful of his own antecedents, has seen fit to indulge in personal invective against all who differ with him in opinion relative to his candidate for the Presidency, Gen. Lane. Among others who are the recipients of the Traveler's ire is my old fellow immigrant, Hon. F. Waymire, of Polk County, whom T'Vault speaks of as "old Fred Waymire," "the poor old critter," "biddable dog," "old humbug," and other kindred epithets, which might be supposed to be familiar to tenants of a border prison.
    It is doubtless true that T'Vault did not write these articles himself, as they bear some evidence of having originated with another member of the Lane family. Yet they appear in the Traveler as the production of its nominal editor. I have no apprehension that the articles in the Traveler will injure Mr. Waymire where he and their author are known. I crossed the plains in 1845 in company with Mr. Waymire and "Captain" T'Vault, and had some opportunity of comparing the characteristics of the two men, or I should have said more properly, one man, and one beast. While Mr. Waymire's character and conduct were such as to command the respect of his fellow emigrants, "old T.," as he was sometimes called, merited and received the contempt and execration of all with whom he came in contact. The scandal regarding his treatment of a poor orphan girl who came under his care, and was said to be his niece! was such as to receive general execration. The Traveler knows that he can have this subject further explained if he desires it, by addressing certain parties he well knows at Champoeg.
    It used to be amusing, when assembled around the camp fires at night, to hear T'Vault descant upon his performances in the national convention which nominated Mr. Polk; some persons were credulous enough to believe that he was honored with a seat in that body, but there was one in the company who knew better, and also thought he had looked upon that hideous countenance before, through the rusty grates of an Arkansas prison; besides recognizing the steel-trap deformity of one of the animal's paws, which befitted an occupation different from that of conventions.
    I have myself on one occasion seen the degraded slanderer knocked down and kicked, and on another occasion beaten from a room with a chair for taking liberties with what was not his own, among gentlemen at a card table, and it is said that Gen. Lamerick once ran his head into a snowdrift and played "Hail Columbia" upon his seat of honor, with a "heavy" pair of boots. Add to his general reputation the perjury trial, and you have a character which carries with it a shudder. Yet this character, debased, degraded, execrated as it is, controls a press which is subsidized by Lane to blacken and defame honest men. Such characters meet with ready reward when principles are abandoned. With Oregonians it will ever be a source of deep mortification that the speakership of the first House of Representatives of the state of Oregon inflicts untold dishonor upon our history.
    Indeed Lane's extremity must be great when he fraternizes with and procures appointments for such characters, and the forbearance of the people of Oregon will be great if they much longer endure it. If justice ever claims its own, Lane may lose, among other allies, "Simon Suggs" [T'Vault].The devil in making up his jewels may not take all of them at once, but leave some of the lot to occupy the Traveler tripod.
    Mr. Waymire's standing as a Democrat has never been questioned, and the Traveler's abuse is based upon the fact that he had the audacity to ask Gen. Lane certain questions relative to Delazon Smith. The fact that Mr. Waymire was an old man, and had spent a lifetime in the service of the Democratic Party, and had done as much as any other man to elevate Lane to the position which he has disgraced, all this was no shield to the "Old Apostle"; Jo Lane ordered him butchered. I hope that Mr. Waymire will survive the attack and believe that he will be honored by the people of his county when T'Vault will have no vote to sell.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 23, 1859, page 2  *The Oregon Intelligencer.

    The new editor of the Portland Times has discovered, in the columns of the Arkansas Traveler*, where it grew spontaneously, an "excellent letter, written by a Jacksonville lady." If we hadn't the lady's word for it, that she is a lady, we should suspect her, on the "internal evidence" contained in her letter, of being no other than W. G. T'Vault, senior editor of the Traveler, herself. At all events, we're quite positive she is neither Reed nor Mosher.
    Our "lady" starts out with a diluted extract from Mitchell's School Geography. Then "she (Oregon, not the lady) feels proud at so early an age (shouldn't wonder!) to be amply able to furnish a President to fill the highest seat of our nation--the Marion of Mexico." (Whew! what a redundancy of verbiage--quite feminine.) Here we have it established, on the authority of a lady--and who will venture to dispute the lady's veracity?--that the highest seat of our nation is the Marion of Mexico, and that we have a President who is "amply able" to fill said "Marion." And the Portland Times endorses the statement. But neither the Times, nor the Traveler, nor the lady, informs us what the "Marion of Mexico" is, except that it is "the highest seat in the nation." We have a theory of our own in regard to it, which, in the absence of any other explanation, we will venture. It is well known that the admirers of Gen. Lane are wont, when speaking of him, to style him "the Marion of Mexico," and our conjecture is that the "Marion" is some magnificent trophy--perhaps the golden throne of the Montezumas--captured from the degenerate descendants of the Aztecs.
    Says the lady: "Our sons ere long are to fill the places of a Lane, a Deady, a Williams, a Stout, a Logan, and a host of like kindred spirits too numerous to mention." If time and space permitted, the lady would no doubt have filled out the list with the names of "a T'Vault, a Mosher, a Chapman, a Reed," &c., &c. Delazon Smith's name is left out (some whose names are in would rather have been left out) because Lane and Smith being a "unit," the mention of the former left it unnecessary to name the latter. "But Lord forbid," says the lady, piously, "that we should nourish poisonous Bushes, with their kindred shrubbery, to pollute the atmosphere of a community! Pluck out every root and branch," says the lady, virtuously, "and cast them out of your nurseries. Endeavor," says the lady, fervently, "to cultivate and cherish shrubs that send forth the pleasant odors (sweet-scented and highly perfumed) of truth, honor, integrity and virtue." Excellent lady!
    "Our example and conversation," says the lady, reflectively "should be high-toned and above censure, instead of meddling with what is none of our business." An excellent sentiment, most worthy lady, although not at all in accordance with your previous observations. "We should make it a rule," says the lady, reprovingly "to speak evil of no one." Admirable advice, good lady, which you would do well to follow. Finally, "we should select a channel high, pure and straightforward for our thoughts and conversation to run in," to enforce which excellent precept the lady lends the aid of her example by letting her thoughts--original and borrowed--"run in" the Arkansas Traveler, and, trickling thence, to distill their precious waters through the Portland Times.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 19, 1859, page 2  *The Oregon Intelligencer.

JACKSONVILLE, Ogn., Sept. 10th 1859.
    EDITOR STATESMAN: You will be sorry, no doubt, to learn that "old Simon Suggs," as Reed christened him, has left the control of the "Arkansas Traveler*." It was at first reported here that Reed, who has been for some time associated with Suggs as junior editor, was to succeed him as sole conductor of that journal. But it seems that such is not the case.
    The Traveler appeared today on a half sheet of wrapping paper, its columns decorated with T'Vault's "Maledictory," as an antiquated Esculapian joker of these parts styles it. It is devoted to praise of the paper and its editor, denunciation of the editors of the Statesman, and regrets that he can't remain in connection with the Traveler, to assist in electing Jo. Lane President! But this highly desirable arrangement, unfortunately, cannot subsist, owing to Suggs' "age, and circumstances over which he had no control." What those "circumstances" are, and whether a requisition from the governor of Arkansas had anything to do with them, the readers of the Traveler are left to infer. At all events, Lane has lost one of his most faithful adherents and distinguished supporters for the Presidency in T'Vault's retirement.
    The Sentinel has managed to drag out an existence here for three years and a half, and its editor has succeeded in gaining political preferment, through the use of such means and such instruments as can only be successfully employed--and that only for a time--in unsettled communities like ours. It is due to a large portion of our people to say that his conduct and character were but imperfectly known to them, and that the charges made against him were represented and believed to be the result of interested persecution. This impression was strengthened, latterly by the intimate relations assumed with him by Mosher and Reed, who conducted his prosecution for perjury, and were his principal denouncers for other matters and pecadilloes. Reed went so far at one time as to write to Arkansas for the particulars of the affair which caused T'Vault's hasty departure from that state, with the avowed intention of making them public. But now, within the last few months, those two worthies have been--to use a familiar expression--"as thick as thieves." I used to like Reed pretty well, and I like some of his qualities yet, but he fell some in my estimation when he entered into such close relations with "old T."
    Several weeks ago, T'Vault contracted one-half of the Sentinel establishment to Mr. U. B. Freaner, from Crescent City. Freaner is a printer, I believe, but not an editor of a newspaper. It was understood that the other half was held by Reed and Peebler, the latter of whom has been for some time running the mechanical branch of the Sentinel. I now learn that Mr. O'Meara, of the Standard, who arrived here yesterday, has negotiated for the interest of Reed and Peebler, $1500 of which is to be paid in one month. This is common rumor on the street, and I presume is true. Col. Fry, of California, came here with Mr. O'Meara.
    Mr. O'Meara will, I suppose, conduct the Sentinel henceforward. He is a tolerably shrewd politician, and has picked up a good deal of the science of politics during his California experience. What his course will be I have no means of knowing, as I have had no opportunity for any conversation with him on the subject.
    "Old T." says Lane is to give him an office. A while ago he used to say that he (T'Vault) and Smith would be the U.S. Senators, and Lane the next President.
    Lane stock is depreciating considerably in this market. People here are getting the scales removed from their eyes very rapidly. They have no expectations from him in the future, unless T'Vault should succeed in electing him President, and most of them are willing to acknowledge that a wrong was committed in discarding Grover and taking up Stout. There is a good deal of scrip here, and the holders are tired of waiting for Lane to pay it.
Yours,        PILOT ROCK.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 27, 1859, page 3  *The Oregon Intelligencer.

Retirement of Father T'Vault.
    W. G. T'Vault, the Nestor of the Oregon Democratic press, has taken leave of the editorial chair. His valedictory appears in the last number of the Jacksonville Sentinel, and no doubt his numerous friends will be affected to tears on reading it. It was written by himself--the following sentence proves it:
    "So far as the political history of Oregon is concerned, the success of the Sentinel and the Democratic Party as it has been, is now and most likely to be hereafter." [sic]
    We are sorry in parting company with Father T'Vault, but we assure him that we will endeavor to keep his memory before our readers by publishing once a year his celebrated description of the scenery around Jacksonville, which we have already presented annually to them for three years. This alone is worth the subscription price of the Sentinel, and is a fair sample of T'Vault's style. It follows:
    "Those who love scenery, cannot but be delighted by visiting that portion of Jacksonville situated on the eminence of an evening the valley shows, the beautiful plain interspersed with groves and dotted with scattering timber still further on the mountains forming the eastern rim of the great valley of an evening at this season of the year, the clouds hanging in the horizon over the summit of the hills, the sun as at this moment reflecting its golden rays, with occasional shades in the background, formed by indentations in the mountain," &c., &c.
    The publication of the Sentinel will be continued by U. B. Freaner & Co., and as heretofore will advocate Jo Lane niggerism. In a moral point of view, it is a matter of doubt whether the change of editors will be for the benefit of the readers of that journal. The editor visited Williamsburg a short time since--a town that has lately sprung up in the mining region--and goes off in a rhapsody about its wonderful advance in civilization. The most prominent evidences of its refinement are here displayed, or rather the "instincts" of the man betray themselves--in a manner highly characteristic of Oregon Democratic editors generally. He says:
    "In Williamsburg you can get good whiskey--in Williamsburg you can get the best of lager beer--in Williamsburg you can play billiards and smoke cigars, and in Williamsburg we got for dinner as good a piece of roast beef as ever was seen, and finally, in Williamsburg we came nearer disbelieving our own eyes than we ever did before in our life, when the waiter brought in for dessert a rum omelet."   
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, September 24, 1859, page 2

    THE FIRST ON THE PACIFIC COAST.--The Marysville Democrat says Gid. Nightingill, of Marysville, struck off the first paper ever issued on the Pacific Coast, and adds:
    The paper was the Oregon Spectator, published at Oregon City, in 1845 [sic], owned by a joint stock association, the shares being $1,000 each, and edited by Tevault. Gid. Nightingill worked the press, and was the general superintendent of the operations of the concern. Having no roller for the press he went to work to make one--got the glue ready and obtained the molasses. The molasses proved to have been made of beets, and would not work. So Gid. concluded to substitute the old-fashioned balls for the roller, and did so, making the balls without any great degree of trouble.
    The Oregon Spectator lasted for some months, and was a semi-monthly journal. It was about one-fourth or one-fifth the size of the National Democrat.
Sacramento Daily Union, November 24, 1859, page 4

            December 26th 1859
Dear Genl
    I avail myself of this moment to write you a few lines. Our families have been sick during the winter, thought by many the sickness has been occasioned by the cold dry weather, as we have had very little rain within the last few days however it has clouded up and there is a prospect of rain. Mr. Kearny my son in law is laying very low and there is doubts about his recovery. The disease has been most fatal among children some families losing three and four of their children with a severe cold & a putrid sore throat stopping their breathing we have hopes that the crisis has passed & from this time the health of the country will improve.
    Politically you no doubt are aware what the state convention done in the endorsing of the Stout vote as [to] the ratio and the sending of delegates to the Charleston convention. What do you think of J. F. Miller? Will he do or will he go for Bush? Many of the leading Democrats have fears of him.
    James O'Meara the present editor of the Oregon Sentinel is no friend of yours rest assured of that fact and there is many of the Democrats who have him spotted.
    I fear a split in the Democracy of Jackson & Josephine and should such be the result it will require good management to secure the election of such Democrats as will do to depend upon.
    I have strong hopes of your nomination at Charleston but if such should not be the result, we must elect men to the Legislature that will return you to the United States Senate every effort of mine from this henceforth will be to carry out the above policy.
    In the event that the Sentinel fails to support you I have the plan matured that with forever prostrate all its future prospects and will start another paper endorsed by all the leading Democrats of Southern Oregon that is Jackson & Josephine counties.
    By the bye, what the devil is the matter with Stout, no man in Oregon [has] done more to secure not only his nomination but his election for sure.
    If I had not arrived at home just in time he would have been beat and now my dear sir I look upon it that he is more indebted to me for his seat in Congress than any other one man in Oregon, and still he treats me with contemptuous silence. I [illegible] have received the first scratch of a pen from him and consequently he does not deserve the support of Jackson County. I would write to any man alive before I would to him but I think I know Mr. Farrar is his prompter and he wishes to be a United States Senator hence Stout's silence & O'Meara's opposition to you.
    Genl. I am as ever your devoted friend and will so arrange matters that if you should not be the nominee of the Charleston convention that you will receive the support of Southern Oregon for U.S. Senator.
    It is important that the war debt should be paid also that the Pacific railroad should receive Democratic support. Something should be done to establish military posts on the Klamath Lake country an agent should be appointed for the Klamath Lake district and I know of none who would give more satisfaction than your devoted friend A. M. Berry, present Senator from Jackson County, but he will not accept until after the meeting of the next State Legislature, as he is with me distinctly in re-electing you to the Senate if circumstances require it.
    Delazon Smith has taken bold ground and his paper is popular in the South.
    Whenever there should be a move on the political chess board worthy of note you shall be informed but do not trust O'Meara, Farrar or any of their stripe as I do know that it is their intention to defeat you even if they have to affiliate with Bush.
    Bush is politically dead himself but Nes, Harding, Waymire, Haydon, Boise, Gordon & co. with Grover & Drew are still hanging to him as a forlorn hope yet the people are with us.
    Let me have all the news; yours as ever
W. G. T'Vault        
Jo Lane Papers.

    Our ex-legislator, Suggs [T'Vault--a reference to Johnson Hooper's character Simon Suggs], alias Arkansas traveler, has spent most of his time in that region since the discovery, I am told, endeavoring to turn an honest penny by the retail of "rotgut," and occasionally by the "turn of the wrist." He boasts in his cups (tin cup of Minie rifle) that he is the smartest man in Southern Oregon, and Jo. Lane knows it; that if the Democracy of this county do not sufficiently appreciate his talent to nominate him for the legislature, he has only to intimate to Jo. that he wants it, and he can get the Indian Superintendency. I get this from a gentleman who heard him say so, as he says, and one, too, that has no earthly interest in misrepresenting. He merely spoke of it as some gas that he had been listening to a few minutes before; said he had been entertained for an hour with boastings of this character. He (old T.) also said Lane would sooner have him than any other man in Oregon in the Senate with him, but he was too low in funds to enter the arena with so many candidates.
"Letter from Jackson County," Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 21, 1860, page 1

    Old T'Vault shot at a man, lately, at his place near Jacksonville, it is said, with the intention of killing him. Of course the man had his back to him, and old T. was just drunk enough to shoot. He is Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives, elected by the Lane faction.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 28, 1860, page 2

Jacksonville, Oregon:
W G TVault, 53, male, lawyer, $1300 real estate, $1350 personal estate, born in Tennessee
R TVault, 52, female, born in Kentucky
St Mary TVault, 23, born in Indiana
U.S. Census, enumerated June 30, 1860

    NEW MINING TOWN IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--"Dardanelles" is the name which has been given the little town just sprung up on the south side bank of Rogue River, eleven miles from Jacksonville. It is rapidly pushing into importance. Some half dozen buildings are now in the course of erection, and as many contracted for, soon to be built. The steam quartz crushing mill is located there, and workmen are busily engaged in putting up the machinery. Stages run regularly every day between Jacksonville and the Dardanelles. The great mining operations on Rogue River are but a short distance above the town.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, July 28, 1860, page 3

    COLONEL T'VAULT'S SUICIDE.--There is some doubt expressed by the Portland papers as to the death by drowning of Colonel W. G. T'Vault. The Portland Evening Advertiser of the 2nd July says: "It has been the general supposition, and we believe was so held by the Coroner's jury, that the dead body found yesterday was that of Colonel W. G. T'Vault of Jacksonville. There are, however, some that differ. Holman, an old resident, believes that the body is that of a man familiarly known as 'Texas Smith' to all old Oregonians. This Smith had been with Colonel T'Vault for a long time and had a great many business transactions with him. He had been heard to say that when he could be of no more service to the world and himself he would commit suicide. Smith was a believer in atheistical doctrine, and was a man who seemed to be in misery. He was last seen in this city about five weeks ago, and Holman is very confident that the body is that of Smith, and is satisfied that it is not T'Vault's."
Sacramento Daily Union, July 14, 1862, page 1

Lewiston, July 7th, 1862.
    Editor Times:--I see in the daily issue of the 2nd inst., of your paper, the obituary notice and Coroner's inquest, held over a dead body found at Portland, from which you say it "leaves but little doubt that the dead body was that of Col. T'Vault." As to my obituary, I am thankful for your references. But few men live to read what is said of them, after death; however, I assure you that I am still alive, and expect to live to occupy a high and honorable position in the Pacific Republic.
    By request we copy the above from the Portland Times. Well, Colonel, we are glad to learn that you are still alive. You way live to occupy a high position in a Pacific Republic, but we have serious doubts about its honorable nature. We don't believe you will ever occupy either.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 19, 1862.  Snarky reply courtesy of Orange Jacobs.

    We understand Col. W. G. T'Vault, of Oregon, is about making all the necessary arrangements to commence the publication of a journal at Jacksonville with the material of the defunct Southern Oregon Gazette.
Oregonian, Portland, August 22, 1862, page 2

    AHEM! The Oregonian says: "Colonel T'Vault is about to start a new paper, at Jacksonville, on the ruins of the Southern Oregon Gazette." It will soon stop on its own ruins.--Statesman.
    Can't you let the dead alone?
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 30, 1862, page 3

    W. G. T'Vault, of Oregon, who was reported to be drowned, was reserved for a worse fate. He is about to start a paper at Jacksonville.
Stockton Independent, September 4, 1862, page 1

    THE OREGON INTELLIGENCER.--Such is the title of a new paper published in this town, by W. G. T'Vault, editor and proprietor. The first number has been laid upon our table. Its typographical appearance is good. Its position on the absorbing topics of the day, doubtful. The editor in his salutatory says the Constitution is his platform. Well, that is a pretty broad platform, and quite a variety of people profess to be standing there.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 22, 1862, page 2

OREGON INTELLIGENCER.--We have received the first number of the above-named paper, published at Jacksonville, Oregon, and edited by W. G. T'Vault. As an index of what may be expected of the paper, the editor says:
    "The Constitution of the United States shall be our political platform; it has been and is still the great charter of our Union and liberties; by it we have lived; by it the Union has prospered, and under its wise and liberal provisions the citizens of the United States have enjoyed the greatest of human blessings in the form of government; by it union of all the states must and will be restored from the present rebellion, and around which all good, Union-loving men must and will rally, so that they may perpetrate the best government ever organized by man."

The Semi-Weekly Union, Yreka, California, November 26, 1862, page 2

    NEW PAPER.--We have received the first number of the Oregon Intelligencer, published at Jacksonville by W. G. T'Vault, editor and proprietor. So it seems that our old friend T'Vault "still lives." His first sheet looks well and reads well, and if he sticks up to the policy announced in his salutatory, we wish him success.

Oregonian, Portland, November 27, 1862, page 2

    THE OREGON INTELLIGENCER.--This is the name of a new candidate for public favor, started at Jacksonville, Oregon, under the control of W. G. T'Vault. The typographical appearance is exceedingly neat, while its columns are well filled with news, local and foreign. The editor in his salutatory says:
    "The Constitution of the United States shall be our political platform; it has been and still is the great charter of our Union and liberties; by it we have lived; by it the Union has prospered, and under its wise and liberal provisions the citizens of the United States have enjoyed the greatest of human blessings in the form of government."
    The Intelligencer has our best wishes for a liberal support and long life.
Eugene Democratic Register, November 29, 1862, page 2

    The Jacksonville Sentinel says Old T'Vault has started a new paper in that town, called the Oregon Intelligencer, and takes the "Konstitushion" for a platform. That's a bad sign. Jo Lane and the principal rebel leaders have always stood on the Constitution, and yet they resist the authorities elected in accordance with that document. When a man talks about taking the Constitution for a platform, look out for a rebel. They always say exactly what they don't mean.
State Republican, Eugene, November 29, 1862, page 2

    OREGON INTELLIGENCER.--This is the title of a new paper published in Jacksonville, Oregon, by W. G. T'Vault. It says, "The Constitution of the United States shall be our political platform." Success to the Intelligencer.

Weekly Butte Record, Oroville, California, November 29, 1862, page 2

    . . . Old T. has started a new paper at Jacksonville called the "Oregon Intelligencer." By way of a joke, we suppose, the editor says his political platform is the Constitution. If his paper stands on that platform, he will have to edit it at a distance.

"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, December 1, 1862, page 2

    The Oregon Intelligencer has been started at Jacksonville by T'Vault.
Marysville Daily Appeal, California, December 4, 1862, page 2

    HARD UP.--Col. T'Vault of the Jacksonville Intelligencer, a paper seldom heard of and never seen in this place, accuses Malone of the Union of hooking his editorials. Any paper must be in a bad way when it steals anything from Col. T.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, January 29, 1863, page 2

    OPINION OF THE GANG.--The Eugene Review, a secesh paper, which only ranks above the Salem Statesman in ability, has been carefully examining his rebel exchanges, and gives the following opinion of Pat Malone, T'Vault, Miller and Bush:
    "Oregon editors are mostly a poor, harmless set of creatures with a limited knowledge of the world and men, and a less knowledge of books. Oregon editors are temporary concerns. They are generally induced by want to mount the editorial tripod in the hope of earning their bread in the capacity of editor until they can get into some respectable calling."

Oregon Argus, Oregon City, February 7, 1863, page 2

    WINKED OUT.--T'Vault's Jacksonville Intelligencer has winked out. It never was a very bright light in the newspaper world.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 11, 1863, page 3

    GONE IN.--The Jacksonville Intelligencer, a bogus Union concern, published by old T'Vault, has died of the disease of denouncing the government. Dixie fever is worse than delirium tremens.--Yreka Journal.
Red Bluff Independent, February 13, 1863, page 3

    T'Vault's Jacksonville Intelligencer, after a protracted struggle of two or three months, has followed its "illustrious predecessors," and gone to its grave.
"Local and Miscellaneous Items," State Republican, Eugene, Oregon, February 21, 1863, page 2

    RESURRECTED.--T'Vault's Intelligencer. The Colonel is as tenacious of life as a mud turtle, and may live to attain a "high position," but not in his "Pacific Republic." The paper contains Saulsbury's speech, and an "underground" dispatch from Yreka that "Charleston has not fallen."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 11, 1863, page 2

    CONSCRIPTION.--The North is to be subjugated and coerced into the army for the trifling purpose of subjugating and coercing the South into the Union.--T'Vault.
    The above bit of secesh pleasantry is from T'Vault's Intelligencer. It expresses T'Vault's valuation of the Union. It signifies his horror of taking an equal chance with his neighbors of being obliged to take a murderous musket in his hands to shoot at "southern brethren" and "wayward sisters." T'Vault is a peace lamb, as well as a stoic philosopher. He is as indifferent to ordinary "trifling" matters--such as the agonies of national death--as was Nero while Rome burned. Nero fiddled; T'Vault turns up his chivalrous nose and denominates the preservation of the Union a "trifle." What it was to Nero that the proudest city of the old world should crumble into ashes, so it is to T'Vault that the grandest of modern national governments should be rent into fragments and cast helplessly under the tramp of traitors and despots.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 20, 1863, page 2

    T'Vault thinks the time is not propitious for the agitation of the question of the formation of a Pacific Republic. The discussion of the subject has been indefinitely postponed, owing to the arbitrary arrests and unconstitutional killing, by the "abolition Negro Unionists," at Gettysburg, of many Southern Democrats; but be it understood T'Vault is still a candidate for a "high position in the Pacific Republic."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 1, 1863, page 2

    HUMBUG.--T'Vault's article stating that dissatisfaction exists in our community because of the location selected for the military post in the Klamath country, and intimating that a petition is in circulation for the removal of Col. Drew.
    The article indicates nothing more than a desire on the part of T'Vault to become a champion for any person or party that will accept his services. He can find no willing sacrifice.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 5, 1863, page 2

    Oregon is on the eve of an election, and the Democratic Copperocracy is bestirring. The Jacksonville Intelligencer, a Copperhead paper of no small pretensions, is anxious that the party shall show its true colors, and, in its own language, "not adopt any two-faced declaration of policy or principle." The Intelligencer is an out-and-out organ of Jeff. Davis, and makes no effort to disguise the truth. It says:
    "The party, in this and the neighboring county of Josephine has already declared in favor of an early and honorable peace. The Democracy in other counties have declared the same views, and we trust that these sentiments will be incorporated in the party platforms in such a manner as to unite and cement the Democracy, and ensure peace at the earliest possible period that it can be done in an honorable and constitutional manner. The Democracy in this portion of Oregon do not wish the adoption of any two-faced declaration of policy or principle. They desire to meet the issues presented by the enemy fairly and squarely, without subterfuge, evasion or equivocation. And they have arrived at the conclusion that the time has come when the momentous issues, involving the fate of the nation, which we will be called to act upon, should discard entirely from our councils and policy all claptrap and subterfuge, all principles which face every point of the compass, and--deceive no one. We do not desire to win a victory by flying false colors, and a defeat under such circumstances would be attended not only with humiliation but disgrace."
    "An honorable peace," obtained by treating with rebels, who have declared a thousand times, and through every channel of communication, that they would treat only on terms of separation--eternal separation. The South seceding for the establishment of an independent government are fighting for that and nothing else, and the Copperheads propose to treat with them. What for? To agree upon terms of settlement--the lines of territorial boundaries, terms of trade as established between all foreign countries, stipulations and agreements as to the arrest and confinement of fugitive slaves who escape into the United States, claims for personal damages growing out of the war, etc., etc. They have no sectional pride about the contest. They are willing to admit that the North is "coerced" instead of the South. That the federal government is a tame and weak old granny and impotent of self-defense or ability to assert her rights or punish her enemies. All this comes under the head of "honorable peace," as defined in the Copperhead dictionary.
    We are sorry to see such exhibitions of pusillanimousness in the Northern and free states. But we are thankful to know but few Northern-born citizens, of prominence and ability, are willing to admit themselves slaves of the Secessionists. The proposition of the Intelligencer comes from one of the native-born friends of Jeff. Davis, who has strayed away from the land of his birth. Being among us under such circumstances, it is not so surprising that his affections should be with the Secessionists. Under the stale plea of "Democracy," he would create a division in the North in aid of his old friend Jeff. But what is the most surprising is the fact that Northern men are led astray by the influence of these secret agents of the Southern Confederacy. That men can be so blind seems inexplicable. We  must attribute their course more to party prejudice and ignorance than to rebel sentiments. It can hardly be possible that the freeman of the North, educated to the enjoyment of a Republican government, can become an out-and-out Secessionist at heart. We must be more liberal in our sentiments than to charge premeditated traitorism upon the mass of the Democracy. We will be charitable enough to believe that the bone and sinew of the Democracy are not disloyal, but neglectfully and stubbornly blind to the teachings of the day. Surrounded as they are by southern-born Secessionists, whose every heart-throb is for the final success of the rebellion and the perpetuation of Negro slavery, they are misled and deceived. The prominent leaders of the party, in every county in this state, as well as in Oregon, being of this class, it is almost impossible for the honest and humble members of the Democratic Party to go clear of them and their influence. It is almost a matter of necessity with them that they accept Secession leaders, or go without leadership. Many of their present leaders were in the van in former days when the country was at peace, and their influence and hold upon them is hard to be shaken off. But the honest loyal Democrats should notice one important and significant fact in this connection. It speaks louder than words or Democratic resolutions and platforms. "Democratic" leaders have increased in numbers since the inauguration of the war of rebellion, while Democratic voters have lately decreased. How is this? Plain enough to the intelligent and loyal man. The Southern-born prominent men in the North, old Whigs and Know Nothings, have all joined the "Democratic Party," because it is disloyal and friendly to Jeff. Davis Democracy at the South. While this additional leadership has been drawn to the party by the magnet of Slavery and the sectional feeling engendered by the war, the loyal voters in the body of the party have been withdrawing, resulting in reducing the party from a great majority to a small minority. Honest Democrats who would be  loyal should notice this fact because it is important and significant. When we find all the Southern men in the so-called Democratic Party of 1864, it is not by accident but design and choice, and the fact converts the party into a Southern-sectional organization. Let Northern Democrats ponder over this fact, and examine the company they are in.
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, April 8, 1864, page 2

    W. G. T'Vault is succeeded in the Jacksonville Intelligencer by P. J. Malone, formerly of the Corvallis Union.
Idaho World, Idaho City, January 28, 1865, page 3

To the Editor of the Oregon Sentinel:
    SIR--In the Reporter of the 18th instant it is my misfortune to be mentioned, in connection with others, in terms of commendation.
    As it is evident the Reporter aims thereby to foment discord, which he supposes to exist among the supporters of the government, it will be well for those gentlemen, as well as I, to examine their past conduct and their feelings carefully in order to reform so far as not again to deserve the praise of an enemy.
    I have been unable to discover in anything I have said or done why an obscure farmer, in no way before the public, has received so large a share of this damning praise. It is true, I would have all the measures of the Administration the wisest and best, and all its appointments to office the ablest and most meritorious--with some of these I have not been satisfied--but if by a word of censure I have offended a friend or given pleasure to an enemy of the country, that word shall be spoken no more.
    The Reporter says I am the "most consistent partisan." While there was even the appearance of patriotism in the party calling itself Democratic, I have treated its supporters with the tolerance and courtesy I claim for myself, but since the fair issue made up and presented to the people in the late presidential election, I have considered those who arrayed themselves against their country upon the trial of that issue as unworthy of either tolerance or courtesy--those who understood the issue, because they are traitors, and those who supported the wrong through ignorance, because they have not qualified themselves to discharge a high political trust understandingly. With a man I believe to be a true friend of his country I never have nor never will quarrel because we do not agree in the mode of best promoting its welfare; and even now, when political parties no longer exist, and men are for their country or against it, I feel more of sorrow than anger towards those who, through ignorance and the prejudices of birth and education, array themselves on the side of its enemies.
    The Reporter says I am "the deepest thinker"--"of great depth of thought"--which seems to be an admission that my thoughts are correct. I have told the editor of the Reporter that I thought him a traitor of as deep a dye as Jeff Davis, and certain others, his present patrons, were no better. As these thoughts are based on better evidence than the admissions of the Reporter, I think, sustained by these admissions, I have a right to consider them well founded.
    I think further that it is no credit, even to a "copperhead" community who would turn out a native-born citizen, who "has done the state some service," and put a "foreigner" and natural traitor in his place. The "old man" about whom the Reporter uses the refined terms "drivel" and "slobber," whatever wrong he may have done or said in the heat of controversy, or by following false lights, has a heart in his bosom which in times past "beat true to the music of the Union."
    In Oregon, twenty years ago, when as now there were no political parties, when all were British or all Americans, and the side of wealth and advantage were with the former, that "old man" and myself stood shoulder to shoulder for our country, and for his sake it grieves my heart if we do not so stand now; and I am grieved there is a community anywhere
so forgetful of past services, so steeped in treason that would turn that "old man" and faithful servant out, and put a "reptile" in his place, who cannot write three lines without betraying the bitterness of his hatred to our country, and the grossness and filthiness of his nature.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 13, 1865, page 3  The "old man" is T'Vault, recently ejected from the Intelligencer.

    JESSE APPLEGATE UPON PAT MALONE.--The card of Mr. Applegate, in which he so pungently expresses his repugnance to the hypocritical praise of Patrick, the Puritan Hater, we copy from the Sentinel of last week. No word of ours could add to the force of that brief letter. It is a volume in itself.
    The Arena seizes upon this letter as another pretext for discouraging enlistments in the army. Its fulminations will have about as much effect upon this as upon the price of potatoes, or the next change of the moon.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 13, 1865, page 2

    Sunset T'Vault thinks the "beast with seven horns" has got into California.
    Perhaps; but he has had his horns pretty well knocked off by the recent election.
"Local and State News," Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 10, 1865, page 3

    Poor Jeremy [James O'Meara] has been left out in the cold by the T'Vaultingers of Jackson County. The Intelligencer was endorsed by the late mass meeting at Jacksonville as the organ of the "Democracy." It seems T'Vault has captured the "learned pig" from Erin. Jeremy will have to call together his Long Tommers again, and find a learneder pig.
"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 14, 1863, page 2  O'Meara had exhibited a "learned pig" early in his career.

    The Arkansas Traveler [the Sentinel's contemptuous name for T'Vault's Oregon Intelligencer] presents in its last issue a woeful bill of grievances against the Administration of President Lincoln. Humbug! All who are acquainted with the past history of the grayback editor know that he has most to fear from the strict enforcement of the civil law of the state. If common report speaks truly, he was not from Arkansas to Oregon "exiled and banished without due process of civil law." "No rogue e'er felt the halter draw with good opinion of the law."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 23, 1863, page 2

    T'Vault wears a butternut breastpin and countenance. If those credentials are not sufficient to prove his Democracy at a glance, see court records.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 3, 1863, page 2

    TERRIBLE, IF TRUE!!--The intelligence published by the irrepressible and still vaulting T'Vault has the latest news; we don't exactly see the meaning of the last line, but that is our fault, and not the clear-headed writer's:
    Oregon is soon to be the theater of conscription, when her hardy sons and once-free American citizens will be seen marched through our towns manacled to a chain--their destiny to become unwilling soldiers--such has been the case in New York for the past month. O American Liberty! thou art eclipsed and visible all over the world.
Oregonian, Portland, October 14, 1863, page 2

    RETURNED TO HIS POST.--Sunset-Scene T'Vault has resumed the editorial chair of the Intelligencer. How do we know? By its bungling, murthering treason against the United States and Lindley Murray.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, November 23, 1863, page 2

    DIDN'T LIKE IT.--In the trail before the Recorder's Court, on Tuesday last, the editor of the Grayback [the Oregon Intelligencer] was conspicuously present, with pencil and paper, to obtain an item--a witty item at the expense of O. Jacobs, Esq. The gentleman, in the course of his address to the Court, said he had been summoned there to answer for refusing to pay his dog tax, but thanked God that he had never been brought by warrant into a court room to answer a charge of perjury
or forgery. About that time the gay and seductive T'V. ceased reporting. He evidently considered it personal.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 26, 1863, page 2

    RECORDER'S COURT.--On complaint of Marshal Banks, O. Jacobs, Esq., on Tuesday appeared before the town Recorder, U. S. Hayden, to answer for refusing to pay a tax on his poodle dog, as required by a recently enacted ordinance. There was full as large a crowd in attendance to watch the progress of the trial as there was at the last mass meeting of the "Democracy." J. D. Fay, Esq., attorney for the plaintiff, and Jacobs & Russell for the defense. Able, eloquent, sharp and witty speeches were made by the legal gentlemen. The dog law was torn to shreds, reconstructed, dissolved, and again made whole. At dark the trial closed, and the Recorder, taking the matter under advisement, adjourned the Court. Today we learn the Court has decided that the proceedings were irregular, and dismissed the suit. We understand that another suit will be instituted.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 26, 1863, page 2

    T'Vault appears to have a widely extended notoriety. The San Juan Press speaks of him as a "man who had to flee from his own country for the crime of murder--a fugitive from justice." It must have been an aggravated case to drive a man at that early date from Arkansas, then a noted refuge for desperadoes, for the crime of murder. Wonder if his victim was an abolitionist. How appropriate it is that he should be a champion of the guerrilla Democracy and a defender of the M.E. Church South.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 30, 1864, page 2

    STYLE IN OREGON.--A correspondent of the Oregon Sentinel, having written that Douglas warned the people against the intrigues of Copperheads, the Intelligencer (Copperhead) thus replies in the pure Saxon of the party:
    You lying, slanderous puppy, Douglas said no such thing; and you wish to put treasonable language in the mouth of a great and noble friend of the Constitution which you detest as much as the devil does the receipt of Christ. You never can approach the honored Douglas as near as T'Vault does; you are a midnight assassin, and dare not show your name and face in open day.
Sacramento Daily Union, April 16, 1864, page 2

    To T'Vault belongs the credit of having nominated Col. Kelly for Congress. He first hoisted Kelly's name in the Intelligencer more than six months ago, and has long been able to see ability in his composition and good qualities in his character which no one else could discover. The Albany Convention but reaffirmed T'Vault's choice when it nominated him, and the branch of the copperhead party who profess to be for the prosecution of the war were mortified to find that they could only count fourteen votes in the convention for their candidate Ben. Hayden, while the peace men could muster seventy-one for Kelly. They will of course support the nominee, because that is the only way they can give expression to their hatred of the Union party and the Administration, but they do it grudgingly and unwillingly.
    And not only did T'Vault nominate the candidate, but he marked out the platform for the convention to adopt, and it follows his lead in the latter item as implicitly as it did in the former. The following extracts from the editorial of the Intelligencer of April 2nd last (ten days before the convention) show how true this statement is:
    "But we desire now in advance of the meeting of the convention to declare what we conceive to be the sentiments of a large majority of the Democracy of the state, and what we know to be the sentiments of the Democracy of Southern Oregon in regard to the grave questions in relation to the war, which will indubitably come up for discussion before the convention. The party, in this and the neighboring county of Josephine, has already declared in favor of an early and honorable peace. The Democracy in other counties have announced the same views, and we trust that those sentiments will be incorporated in the party platforms in such a manner as to unite and cement the Democracy and ensure peace at the earliest possible period that it can be done in an honorable and constitutional manner. The Democracy in this portion of Oregon do not wish the adoption of any two-faced declaration of policy or principle. They desire to meet the issues presented by the enemy fairly and squarely, without subterfuge, evasion or equivocation. And they have arrived at the conclusion that the time has come when the momentous issues, involving the fate of the nation, which we will be called to act upon, should discard entirely from our councils and policy all claptrap and subterfuge, all principles which face every point of the compass, and--deceive no one. We do not desire to win a victory by flying false colors, and a defeat under such circumstances would be attended not only with humiliation but disgrace.
    "Let the candidate be whoever he may, let him come from north or south of the Calapooia; we care not; we prefer the adoption of right principles to the selection of any friend of ours or our section. All we ask is that he shall stand squarely upon a platform unmistakably in favor of a close of the present war, and an honorable peace, and we will ensure him the enthusiastic support of the gallant Democracy of Southern Oregon."
    When the friends of Kelly and T'Vault succeed in their present attempt to destroy the government, T'Vault's ardent desire to "occupy a high position in the Pacific Republic" may be accomplished. Our advice may not be of much weight with the worthies who aspire to engineer such a movement, but we venture modestly to suggest that if Col. Kelly should be elected president of the new republic which traitors would erect on the western ruins of our beloved country, he will be in duty bound to make T'Vault his premier.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 2, 1864, page 2

    The election in Josephine County has resulted in the election of all the Democratic candidates but one. Thomas Floyd has beaten George T. Vining for Sheriff. T'Vault is reported to have received a majority of fifteen, which will elect him District Attorney, over B. F. Dowell, by one vote.--Sentinel.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 13, 1864, page 2

    Col. T'Vault of the Jacksonville Intelligencer, who was a candidate in the late Oregon election for prosecuting attorney, was defeated by one vote. He claims that his opponent received about fifteen illegal votes. Old. T. acknowledges his defeat and appears contented with the reflection that he came within one of being elected.
Washingon Statesman, Walla Walla, Washington, July 1, 1864, page 2

    VOTE FOR CIRCUIT JUDGES AND PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS.--First District--For Prosecuting Attorney: B. F. Dowell, 651, W. G. T'Vault, 650. Dowell's majority, 1.
Oregon State Journal, Eugene, July 16, 1864, page 2

    PACIFIC REPUBLIC.--Another Democratic editor has joined old T'Vault in advocating the secession of the Pacific states. Beriah Brown, of the San Francisco Democratic Press, is one of the ablest, and at the same time one of the most malignant Copperheads on the western slope of the continent. He said lately:
    "If the people of the Pacific coast, who possess within themselves the ability and power of maintaining an independent national existence, and within their territory all the elements of national wealth, are to be shorn of their municipal rights and municipal independences, to be made the mere tributaries of a central government thousands of miles away, then we say, most distinctly and emphatically, let them make for themselves a 'Pacific Republic.'"--Daily Statesman.
    T'Vault must be a thorn in your side, for we cannot be in your way, either as a newspaper publisher or obtaining office from Old Abe. We admit you can outlie us, outsteal us, outtalk and outwrite us in the advocacy of treason, and the destruction of the Constitution and the rights of the people. Don't be uneasy about a Pacific Republic or Old T'Vault. Yet you are excusable, as you never was known to have an original idea, only being identified as a political teaser.
Oregon Intelligencer, Jacksonville, August 6, 1864, page 2

    On last Saturday evening, the Democracy held what they called a ratification meeting. The speakers were Col. T'Vault, Counselor Neil, E. D. Foudray, Esq., and the Right Hon. Skedaddling J. B. White. The gallant Colonel was a little murky in his utterances, and considerably prophetic. His faith was strong. It reached forward to the time when he should "occupy a high and honorable position in a Pacific Republic."
"Copperhead Gatherings," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 21, 1864, page 2

    AN INCIDENT.--While T'Vault was haranguing the Democracy at their ratification meeting on last Saturday evening, he had occasion, at the commencement of one of his eloquent apostrophes, to use the following words: "Whar's your tax collectors?" Whereupon a crowd of Chinamen, who had hitherto been listening in mute admiration, suddenly became demoralized, and fled in disorder.
    Moral. A few more such speeches, and there will be a disaffection among the raw Copperhead recruits, as well as copperface.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 21, 1864, page 2    The Chinese gentlemen apparently thought the sheriff had arrived to collect the "poll tax" levied on all Chinese nationals in Oregon.

    Never did poet speak more truth in fewer words than Burns, in the following lines:
"Man's inhumanity to man
Makes countless millions mourn."
    Of all the inhumanity practiced by mankind, none is so distressing as ingratitude, none which so tortures the soul and harrows up the mind, often covering the victim with the clods of a suicide's grave, or driving him in despair to waste his life in the inebriating bowl. As an instance of dire ingratitude, perhaps unparalleled in this part of the country, we would refer to the course of the Democratic Party towards their "Faithful Defender," the late editor of the Intelligencer, Col. W. G. T'Vault, under whose leadership they have obtained their present power in Southern Oregon. He who first conceived the idea of starting a Democratic journal in Jackson County. He who since this war began has hung their party banner on the outer walls, and cried aloud in denunciation of Abraham Lincoln and his "vandal soldiers" in the field. He has built up a paper in the service of his party, on which he has spent much brain capital and midnight oil. Through that paper he has fought their battles, printed their lies, and done their job work in general. But now the election is over and they have carried the day. Power and spoils are to be divided among them. A time had come when the father of Democracy in Jackson County, and its "Faithful Defender," might begin to reap the reward he had so richly won. But, kind reader, mark the mournful sequel: During the latter part of last week, signs of disaffection began to be discovered in the ranks of those ever whose welfare he had long and watchful vigils kept. Small knots of the unterrified were occasionally seen in close communion on the corners, and, ever in their midst, an ominous-looking individual [probably P. J. Malone] of newspaper notoriety. The Colonel's keen perception soon snuffed trouble in the breeze. Feeling bitterly the injustice about to be done him, and knowing full well the disaster that such a course was sure to bring on his devoted party, he determined if possible to defeat the insurgents, and bring everything again to an equilibrium. A premonitory demand was made on him to deliver up his paper, which, of course, he refused. A writ of replevin was then issued, and the press and material was turned over to the tender mercies of P. J. Malone, and the old Democratic veteran turned out to graze, being no longer deemed serviceable.
    Oh! Ingratitude, ingratitude! how bitter art thy sting! Where'er thou strikest, thy writhing victim quails. By thy blighting influence the veteran Defender has now to see his cherished paper in the bands of one who is a stranger in our midst. Aye, the paper which his own mind devised, and his hands established, a paper which he has, through many difficulties, brought up, and nourished, and watched with fatherly care and pride from its first number until it was ruthlessly wrested from him.
    And now the Oregon Intelligencer is gone. It is numbered among the fleeting things of this earth, which are no more, and from its ruins springs the Oregon Reporter, the name of which was never before in print.
    A journal here in silence lies,
Which had oft and loudly lied before.
    Kind friends around did close its eyes
When death came in and closed its door.
    'Tis lying still, yet lies no more,
Its race is run, its trouble o'er.
    For further particulars see the Colonel's valedictory in this issue of the Sentinel.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 17, 1864, page 2

Valedictory of W. G. T'Vault.
To the Patrons of the "Oregon Intelligencer":
    The undersigned respectfully tenders to the patrons of the Oregon Intelligencer, and the people generally, his thanks for the manner in which they have sustained that paper.
    The issue of the Intelligencer was commenced in the fall of 1862, without a subscriber, when Jackson County had, at the June election previous, gone about one hundred Union Republican, or Abolition, majority--the first time that the Democracy had ever been defeated in the county. Notwithstanding the officials of the county and the Oregon Sentinel were all anti-Democratic at the late June election, Old Jackson again returned to her first love--Democracy.
    The press, and type we used for issuing the Intelligencer, was owned by a number of prominent Democrats, who had purchased it after the Southern Oregon Gazette had been suppressed. Great fears were entertained that the Intelligencer would share the same fate; consequently, prudence dictated that a conservative course of policy should be pursued; hence, many radical Democrats complained that there was not enough of Copperhead poison in his columns, also the opposition, particularly the radical portion, contributed their mite of opposition; therefore, we had much to contend against, yet with all this we contributed all we were able to carry Southern Oregon Democratic, and the vote shows a favorable result. It is not our desire to create the impression that the Intelligencer effected all this, but one thing is certain, we done all we well could to bring about this result.
    The owners of the press, through the chairman of the Democratic Committee, have thought proper to place the "institution" under other and different persons. Their object for so doing is not a matter for me to discuss. If we had a thousand complaints, this is not the time and place to make them.
    It is a well-known fact that we edited the first newspaper ever published in Oregon (The Spectator), in 1846. Afterwards, in 1855, was the principal founder of the Table Rock Sentinel, at Jacksonville, afterwards purchasing the entire interest in the concern, changing the name to Oregon Sentinel, and continuing its publication till late in the fall of 1859. During the entire period of our life, we have not heard that our Democracy was ever doubted.
    We have no complaints to make for lack of patronage during our newspaper career in Oregon. There is no question but that the change in the times, the scarcity of money, and the great number of newspapers published on the Pacific Coast, particularly in Oregon, renders patronage more limited than heretofore.
    On Saturday, the 10th instant, after the issue of our paper, we were notified that the office was wanted. We desired, as a matter of courtesy, to be permitted to publish another number and give to our friends a valedictory. However, on Monday, the press was taken. Through the kindness of the proprietor of the Sentinel we make this acknowledgment, for past favors, to the public, and to the Democracy especially, hoping that as we have retired from publishing a paper, those who are indebted to us for subscription and advertising will promptly pay their bills, which will be forwarded in a few days.
    W. G. T'VAULT.
Jacksonville, December 16th, 1864.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 17, 1864, page 2

    THE OREGON INTELLIGENCER.--This Democratic sheet has expired, and the valedictory of W. G. T'Vault, the late editor, appears in the Sentinel, and it appears that the press and materials have been turned over to P. J. Malone, as the foundation of a new Copperhead paper, to be known as the Oregon Reporter.
Portland, December 24, 1864, page 2

    Pat Malone, the notorious scavenger who ran the Corvallis Union until the sheriff run him out of his den, and closed up the concern, has lately turned up in Jacksonville, and is causing keen distress among the "sturdy Democracy" of Jackson County. Ever since Pat succeeded in escaping from the bogs of Ireland, he has been a disgrace to the better class of his countrymen and a disturber of the peace and good will of the "harmonious Democracy." Some two years ago he made a pilgrimage throughout Oregon, and succeeded in begging two or three thousand dollars to buy a "new power press," and then skedaddled. He now comes before the public to make another raise, and will doubtless succeed in bleeding "unterrified Democrats" to some extent; though it is probable that quite a number have become terrified at witnessing his proceedings, and will refuse to "shell out" as in days of yore.
    Pat is regarded as a half-cracked monomaniac, and is despised and repudiated by the copperhead leaders; but he has some influence with the rank and file of the party, and invariably uses it to foment strife and mutiny in the camp of the unterrified, to the immense distrust and mortification of the more aristocratic and conservative leaders of the party.
    True to his natural instinct for mischief, Pat has been for some time past engaged in getting up a feud among the Democrats in Jackson County, and has succeeded beautifully. The Intelligencer, edited by T'Vault, had been pursuing a "conservative" course, until by that policy the party had gradually gained in that county, until at the last election they had a considerable majority. Pat couldn't bear to see things go on so smoothly. So he went to work with the proprietors of the Intelligencer and succeeded in persuading them to turn T'Vault out to grass. Old T' refused to obey, but Pat resorted to "coercion," made a raid into the Intelligencer office with the sheriff, suppressed T'Vault's paper in short order, and commenced the publication of the Oregon Reporter. T'Vault bewails his sad fate, and complains bitterly of "man's inhumanity to man." In his "valedictory," published in the Sentinel, he says:
    "The press and type we used for issuing the Intelligencer was owned by a number of prominent Democrats, who had purchased it after the Southern Oregon Gazette had been suppressed. Great fears were entertained that the Intelligencer would share the same fate; consequently prudence dictated that a conservative course of policy should be pursued; hence, many radical Democrats complained that there was not enough of copperhead poison in its columns. * * * The owners of the press, through the chairman of the Democratic Committee, have thought proper to place the "institution" under other and different persons. * * * It is a well-known fact that we edited the first newspaper ever published in Oregon (the Spectator), in 1846. Afterwards, in 1855, was the principal founder of the Table Rock Sentinel, at Jacksonville; afterwards purchasing the entire interest in the concern, changing the name to Oregon Sentinel, and continuing its publication till late in the fall of 1859. During the entire period of our life, we have not heard that our Democracy was ever doubted.
    "* * * On Saturday, the 19th inst., after the issue of our paper, we were notified that the office was wanted. We desired, as a matter of courtesy, to be permitted to publish another number, and give to our friends a valedictory. However, on Monday, the press was taken."
    Thus an old war-horse, whose "Democracy was never doubted," was summarily excommunicated and driven from his office and vocation by a roving "Paddy from Cork," merely because he wouldn't put into the columns of his paper "enough of copperhead poison to suit radical Democrats"; though he contends that he embellished the aforesaid columns with as much copperhead poison as "prudence dictated." Well may he exclaim, in the language of the unterrified, "Is this America, is this free America"--or is it "swate Ireland!" But Old T' deserved his fate for having issued poison in such small doses for having issued poison in such small doses as would neither kill nor cure his party; and Pat deserves a medal for breaking up and distracting the copperhead nest in Jackson County.
Oregon State Journal, Eugene, December 24, 1864, page 2

    SECESH CHANGE.--The Yreka Journal says P. J. Malone, of the Corvallis Union, suppressed some time ago for disloyalty, has taken old T'Vault's place in the Jacksonville Intelligencer, and changed its name to the Reporter. Malone is the vilest of traitors, a blackguard and a disgrace to any cause.
Morning Union, Grass Valley, California, January 3, 1865, page 3

    ALEX. BLAKELY was elected Speaker of the House in the Idaho Legislature on the 16th November. The Argus says: "Blakely is a practical printer, and has distinguished himself as an editor. He was editor of the Eugene (Oregon) Herald during 1859 and 1860, in which capacity he wielded influence and won political friends. He is an old editor and the founder of the Jacksonville Sentinel."
San Mateo County Gazette, Redwood City, California, January 7, 1865, page 1

    ELEGANT.--They got ashamed of his conduct--ashamed of the old man's drivel and slobber in the "Intelligencer"--as the pronounces it--and came to the conclusion to take the office from him.--Reporter.
    'Tis true--they took it from the "old man," but many of them wish now that they had left him malone.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 14, 1865, page 2  The "old man" was T'Vault; the editor of the Reporter was Patrick J. Malone.

    James O'Meara has retired from the editorial control of the Eugene Review, and is succeeded by Mr. A. Noltner, the proprietor of the paper. W. G. T'Vault is succeeded in the Jacksonville Intelligencer by P. J. Malone, formerly of the Corvallis Union. Rev. W. F. Boyakin has taken the editorial control of the Corvallis Gazette.
"75 Years Ago in Boise Basin--From Files of the Idaho World, Idaho City, 1865," Idaho Statesman, Boise, January 28, 1940, page 21

    The Circuit Court for this county has appointed a special term on Wednesday, the 8th of March next, for the trial of Wm. Wilkenson, on the charge of larceny. The only other business of any importance that has been transacted since our last issue was a series of amended complaints, demurrers, arguments and orders in the case of J. N. T. Miller against W. G. T'Vault, for the press, type and materials of our late cotemporary the Intelligencer. On argument of the demurrer to the third complaint, the plaintiff's attorney moved to amend again which motion was allowed by the Court, and leave given the plaintiff to file his fourth complaint by Thursday morning last, and the defendant twenty days to file his answer to the same, and then the Court adjourned on that day. So this cause is continued until the next term of the Court.
    For the information of our readers and for a judicial and literary curiosity, we copy one of the amended complaints, and the demurrer to the same. They are in these words:
J. N. T. Miller, plff. } Circuit Court of the state of Oregon,
vs. } for the county of Jackson,
W. G. T'Vault, dft. } Feb. Term A.D. 1865.
    The plff. herein for the amended complaint avers that he has a special property in the press and materials, stock, ink and paper, type, fixtures and appurtenances belonging to the Oregon Intelligencer newspaper, and upon which said newspaper has been heretofore published and printed; by virtue of being the chairman of the Democratic County Committee of Jackson County, Oregon, and the managing agent of the stockholders in said personal property, goods and chattels.
    And this plff., further complaining, says that he is entitled to the possession of said goods and chattels as said chairman and managing agent.
    And this plaintiff further says that defendant has become possessed of and now wrongfully detained from said defendant, prior to the commencement of suit; and up to the time said goods and chattels were taken possession of by the Sheriff, under a writ of ------ issued in this case; and although said goods and chattels were often demanded, prior to commencement of their suit by plaintiff, defendant utterly neglected and refused to deliver said goods and chattels to plaintiff.
    Whereupon plaintiff demands judgment against said defendant, that defendant be adjudged to deliver said goods to plaintiff, damages for the detention thereof, in the sum of five hundred dollars, together with the costs and expenses of this suit.
JAMES D. FAY, Attorney for Plff.
    J. N. T. Miller vs. W. G. T'Vault. In the Circuit Court of the state of Oregon, for the county of Jackson.
    The defendant demurs in the amended complaint of the plaintiff on the following grounds:
    1. The complaint does not state facts sufficient to constitute a cause of action.
    2. The complaint does not state who is the owner of the property.
    3. It states that the plaintiff has a special property in the articles described in the complaint as the managing agent of the stockholders; but it does not show how the plaintiff became the agent of the stockholders of the property, nor who are the stockholders in the property.
    4. The plaintiff in his complaint claims a special property in the articles described by the complaint as the chairman of the Democratic County Committee of Jackson County, Oregon; but it does not show who are the Democratic Committee; nor who the Democratic Committee represent; nor who are the Democratic Party.
    Attorneys for Defendant.
    This demurrer was of course sustained by the court, but the "Judge in delivering his opinion remarked that he supposed the last part of it, about the Democratic Party, was intended only for a little fun." Doubtless it was so intended by the author of the demurrer, because it would be impossible for the plaintiff to guess who the Democratic Party are at this day and time, much less ought to be required to swear who they are. We have some few Democrats who do not lament the loss of the Intelligencer who generally belong to the Union Party. We have others who are war Democrats, who lament the loss of the Intelligencer. But there are another class in our midst who have lots of brass and considerable copper in their composition, who profess to be Democrats, who in truth and in fact might more properly be called secessionists and Copperheads. This class are delighted at the downfall of the Intelligencer, and rejoice over a rebel victory and the bright prospects of the Oregon Reporter, having a free Copperhead circulation for four months longer.
    A good lawyer would naturally conclude that it would require considerable brass for the plaintiff and his attorney to file such a complaint as this, and then argue that it was a good one before an intelligent court of justice. It will be seen on examination that it is demurrable, on two or three grounds not stated in the demurrer. It is very uncertain whether the plaintiff claims the property in his own right, or for the Democratic Party, or for the stockholders, and it has no venue nor any value to the property, yet the plaintiff and his attorney claim $500 damages. This case still promises to be interesting to Democrats.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 25, 1865, page 3


    Fay is still exercised about the case of Miller against T'Vault. Last week his "leader" in the Reporter was on the subject. He throws up perjury against Col. T'Vault and rails at Dowell for defending him--on the charge of perjury made nearly ten years ago--and against Dowell's claim for supplies furnished the volunteers of 1854. We would respectfully inform him, the Reporter, and all who are inclined to violate law, that Dowell has quit defending criminals, and now offers his services as prosecutor; also, that Hon. P. P. Prim, who assisted in defending T'Vault, is now judge of this judicial circuit, and that his aid cannot now be obtained in behalf of criminals; therefore, all who are predisposed to violate law, like the Reporter and its particular friends, had better be a little cautious or they might not fare as well as Col. T'Vault did. You show that you have a vindictive, wicked and depraved heart by taunting an old man with perjury who has been honorably acquitted by an honest, good and intelligent jury of his country nearly ten years ago. This is not all. You well know the good people of this county applauded the verdict of the jury by immediately afterwards electing him to the legislative assembly of Oregon. The Legislature ratified and confirmed the justness of the verdict of the jury and people by electing Col. T'Vault Speaker of the House of Representatives at its first session after the charge of perjury was made against him.
    We are not the special defender of Col. T'Vault. T'Vault, Fay and Miller are all modern Democrats of the secesh order. We only wish to state facts and correct false impressions. God knows, T'Vault, as a modern Copperhead, has sins enough to answer for without being taunted with perjury. If the Copperheads have not used the Millers to kill off Col. T'Vault, still he has good cause to remember the Miller family. John F. Miller, who ran for governor of Oregon a few years ago, was foreman of the grand jury which found the indictment for perjury against Col. T'Vault. Now, his brother, J. N. T. Miller, sues T'Vault for the press, type and material at the Oregon Intelligencer, for the purpose of placing a newspaper in the hands of a reckless, vindictive youth to persecute an old man whose head is blossoming for the grave. It is fit and appropriate for such to burlesque the volunteers of 1854, and to call it an "expedition to fight the emigrants."
    This same John F. Miller was one of the first men that signed the roll of volunteers to protect the lives and property of the emigrants of 1854. After he signed the roll of volunteers, he electioneered for captain of the company, but was disgracefully beaten by his brother-in-law, Jesse Walker. When he could not be made captain of the company, he shamefully deserted he ranks and became one of the bitterest enemies of the expedition.
    From the day John F. Miller saw he was beaten for captain, he and all the pliable tools of the Democratic Party, such as Miller, Bush, Fay and Malone, have been opposed to the payment of the volunteers and the payment of their expenses in 1854. They are afraid to attack the volunteers directly, but they attack them and their interests, indirectly, by attacking the principal claims and the claim holders, and by burlesquing the expedition, calling it the "Expedition to Fight the Emigrants." This presents the payment not only of the claims, but the volunteers. It is impossible to get the volunteers paid without paying all just expenses. Hence to gratify their malice they call it the "Expedition to Fight the Emigrants."
    Fay says the claim of Dowell, for some $13,000, is too much for his party to stand. Dowell's claim is for transportation, and for the meat and bread which the volunteers and emigrants of 1854 ate. These volunteers were all regularly called into service by John W. Davis, then the governor of Oregon, and the just expenses and services of the volunteering are over fifty thousand dollars.
    We call upon the emigrants who ate the flour and meat, which was purchased with Dowell's money, to know if they will support men who willfully taunt an old, gray-headed man with perjury who has been honorably acquitted and who, also, burlesques those who have been your protectors against a ruthless, savage foe, and who supplied you with bread and meat when you were destitute and hungry.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 25, 1865, page 2

    Nearly every column of new matter in the last Reporter teems with abuse of T'Vault, Dowell or "Old Virginny." It is self-evident that Fay, who is editing the Reporter, has T'Vault and Old Virginny on the brain, and that he is haunted day and night with the grey hairs and ghost of T'Vault, and the possibility of the approaching dissolution of the Reporter. He seems in the distance breakers ahead.
    A few days ago T'Vault summoned Miller to appear before a notary, to give evidence and to produce the original subscription, which was circulated in 1862, to buy the press and materials of the Reporter, and the bill of sale of Mr. Pomeroy to Miller, for it, and also a partially signed instrument in writing leasing the property to Col. T'Vault. Miller came forward and testified that all these instruments of writing were in the hands of his attorney, James D. Fay, and that Fay refused to give them up to him. T'Vault being foiled in this way by these technical, legal jugglers, then applied to Judge P. P. Prim, at Chambers, for an order to compel Miller and Fay both to allow him to inspect and take copies of these original instruments of writing. This motion was resisted by Miller and Fay. Fay, in his argument, admitted these instruments were in his possession at the time of the commencement of the action, and at the time the subpoena was served on Miller, and that he had put these papers all out of his possession to prevent T'Vault from seeing them until the plaintiff, in his clemency, saw fit to produce them. The Judge found that the evidence was necessary material and under the control of Miller and his attorney, Fay, therefore ordered Miller to allow T'Vault to inspect and take copies of all three of these original instruments of writing, within ten days from the time of making the motion.
    These legal, dodging jugglers evaded a legal subpoena duces tecum of a notary public, but we presume they will not try to evade the order of Judge Prim for fear of having to board with Mr. Owens, our sheriff, who keeps the only stone boarding house in town. Col. T'Vault had not seen these instruments at last accounts, but the ten days having not expired, he may reasonably conclude they will dodge as long as possible, so as not to incur the pains and penalties attached to a contempt of court.
    Fay gets frantic at the idea of the blacks [i.e., Republicans] getting possession of the Reporter through Dowell. Don't be alarmed about Dowell buying the press and materials of the Reporter. Dowell has just ordered a large supply of new type, paper and an improved press from New York. He don't want your old worn-out worthless trash. Fay had probably heard that T'Vault was disgusted with his partners in the Reporter, and he was preparing a bill in chancery for a dissolution of the co-partnership and to sell out the press, type and materials of the Reporter.
    T'Vault and his daughter, St. Marian T'Vault, on Thursday last filed their bill against Miller, Fay and others, alleging that they were the owners of four hundred and seventy dollars worth of stock in the press and materials, and that it was bought by Miller for $1,000, with the money of several gentlemen, and with $20 of the money of "Old Virginny," and that this pure, honest J. N. T. Miller, chairman of the Democratic Committee, fraudulently took the bill of sale in his own name, after he received the money from the association, and that Miller had fraudulently brought an action at law, founded on this bill of sale to deprive T'Vault of his just and equitable rights.
    It is a notorious fact that 18 or 20 men furnished this model copperhead Democratic chairman money to buy the property in dispute, and each were to own an interest according to the amount of money furnished by each individual, yet this pure, spotless chairman takes a bill of sale to himself, and commences an action to recover the whole of the property in his own name, and then unblushingly comes out in a card in the Reporter, to array the community against Col. T'Vault, and to get the sympathy of the people. To cap the climax of his iniquity, he refuses, until compelled by an order of the Judge, to permit T'Vault to see the original papers. Copperheads and traitors may applaud the conduct and card of this chairman, and sympathize with such a man, but every honest, good Democrat will forever detest and spurn such vileness.
    Today, the 1st of April, is the time advertised by this lucrative, litigating chairman of the Democratic Committee, to devise ways and means to beat T'Vault. We opine his attorney is the only April fool that will meet him today in secret conclave to devise ways and means to cheat T'Vault or his daughter out of their just rights. It is certain he will not get a majority of the committee.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 1, 1865, page 2

    HOW HE FELT.--"How do you feel" was addressed to Col. T'Vault the day after Miller and Fay, in the Pat Malone organ [the Oregon Reporter], pitched into him. The Col. promptly replied, "I suppose that I feel like Lazarus did when he was licked by the dogs."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 22, 1865, page 2

    T'VAULT LICKED BY THE DOGS.--The Copperhead Party in Jackson County is becoming beautifully less by degrees, and Pat Malone, Fay & Co. have read T'Vault out of the party, and formally consigned him to the "abolitionists." After they had pitched in to him through the Reporter, says the Sentinel, he was asked how he felt. He replied: "I suppose I feel about like Lazarus did after he was licked by the dogs."
Oregon State Journal, Eugene, April 29, 1865, page 3

    THE TROUBLE IN JACKSON COUNTY.--From a gentleman lately in from Jackson County, we learn that the trouble among the copperheads in that region is still increasing. It will be remembered that Pat Malone made a raid on T'Vault last winter, suppressed his paper, and started the Reporter. As we predicted at the time, Pat soon after commenced his old tricks--abusing and blackguarding indiscriminately. In a short time he had "Democracy" in a perfect ferment--fighting like wolves among themselves. Things continued in this shape, till finally the copperheads became so disgusted with Pat that they were going to tar and feather him. The ruffian got wind of it, and skedaddled over into Umpqua, where he remained several weeks, only returning to Jacksonville a few days ago, after the excitement had measurably subsided. In the absence of Malone, Fay, who is as big a blackguard, but lacks the ability, ran the machine. While at Roseburg Pat perjured himself, if his writings express his opinions, by taking the "abolition oath" to get a title to some land. But of course a man who encourages treason and rebellion, resulting in war, murder, famine, and every other imaginable crime, would not hesitate to swear to anything under the sun, if it would promote his interest. All of his style of copperheads are in the same fix, though we are happy to know that Pat, with the Arena and Review, represents only the left wing of the party.

Oregon State Journal, Eugene, Oregon, May 13, 1865, page 2

    DEPARTURES.--Messrs. W. G. T'Vault and R. H. Haines start for the Owyhee tomorrow, to try their fortunes in that new Eldorado. They have been connected with the interests of Southern Oregon since its earliest settlement--W. G. T'Vault as a farmer, lawyer and editor; R. H. Haines as a merchant.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 17, 1865, page 2

    COL. W. G. T'VAULT returned home on Wednesday last, in good health and fine spirits. Owyhee must have agreed with him. "He is not dead!" On the way home, at Salem, he purchased the press, type and materials of the Oregon Arena office from C. B. Bellinger and Urban E. Hicks. We have not learned whether the Col. will start a campaign paper at Portland or the Dalles or take the material to the Owyhee, I.T.
    The Colonel showed us enough of Owyhee diamonds to buy the "Reporter Office." [Owyhee "diamonds" were worthless--as was the Reporter.]
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 3, 1866, page 3

    A DEMOCRATIC "LANDMARK" GONE.--The Copperheads of Jackson County have come to grief. Their woe is much and grievous. Their oracle, the poetic, the sturdy Democrat, W. G. T'Vault, who once left Arkansas for his country's good, but more for his own personal safety, has gone from among them. He had been their "landmark," their guide through tribulation, their comforter in affliction, their sheet anchor of hope when their sun obstinately would not shine on Confederate prospects. but "landmark," guide, comforter or sheet anchor he will be to them no more. He has departed from the "eminence of a summer evening," and gone to dwell in places where Confederates more do congregate, and where guerrillas rejoice in the perquisites of road agencies. His abode he hath pitched in the "Saint's Rest" of the West, Idaho, where he will soon rejoice all true Confederate Democrats by issuing to them through a new paper, the weekly drivelings of his demented but unswervingly staunch Confederate brain. "Old T." has bought the press and material of the incipient Vindicator, with which Hicks & Bellinger had purposed to afflict the people of the Dalles, and is now on his way to Owyhee. We don't know the name of his proposed new paper, but it will sing only Confederate psalms set only to Confederate music. All the Confederate road agents, guerrillas and bushwhackers will join with him in the chorus.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, March 5, 1866, page 2

    Messrs. Hicks & Bellinger, who lately issued a prospectus for a newspaper at the Dalles, to be called the Vindicator, have sold their press and material to W. G. T'Vault, who is now on his way with it to Owyhee, where he purposes to establish a newspaper.--Agriculturist.
    A slight mistake as to the whereabouts of Col. T'Vault. He is here with his family.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 10, 1866, page 2

    Col. T'Vault, formerly of the Oregon Intelligencer, and late of the Owyhee mines, was in town yesterday. He is on his way to Owyhee, whither he some time ago sent the material for a printing office, and he now goes to start a Democratic journal. He informs us that he is now permanently leaving the state, where he has so many years fought, bled and died for the true-blue Confederate Democracy. Owyhee or Oregon is to be congratulated--we rather think the latter.
Oregonian, Portland, March 27, 1866, page 2

    It is needless to say that the following specimen of correct and powerful writing is from the pen of W. G. T'Vault, of the Idaho Index--widely known as "Old T." The article bears the caption of "Slander," printed in huge black letters:
    It has been concocted and posted by some brainless jackal who, doubtless imagined in the lust of his ignorance, he was doing something smart. The thing was so utterly devoid of wit that it only received the supreme contempt of sensible men. If there is one hole or pit in the regions of hell, where the damned are entitled, that is deeper, hotter and more scorching, that is the place for the midnight slanderer and assassin who seeks to defame the character of those who he fails to be able to associate with. The abortion of the witless hyena, who attempted to ridicule, has the silent consolation of listening to his own disgraceful effort as uttered from the mouth by all good men.

Oregonian, Portland, September 15, 1866, page 1

    The Idaho Times, T'Vault's paper, and the organ of the Owyhee County Democracy, is dead.
"From Idaho," Oregonian, Portland, September 20, 1866, page 2

    Our neighbor speaks of the wonderful feats of the baseball clubs. His wonderful feat was getting T'Vault in the lager beer saloon, and strategically surrounding the Colonel's fist with his eye.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 3, 1867, page 2

During the Episcopal Visit
    October 13, 1867, we the undersigned have received the abjuration of protestantism and profession of faith of Col. T'Vault, a lawyer of Jacksonville, on a Sunday after high mass, in the presence of the Rev. Father Blanchet, pastor, and many other persons in the Church of St. Joseph of Jacksonville..
F. N. Blanchet, Archbishop of O.C.
   October 14, 1867, we the undersigned have solemnly baptized, in the Church of Jacksonville, after the two masses, Col. T'Vault, a lawyer of this town, aged about 60 years, the Godfather being the Archbishop undersigned.
F. N. Blanchet, Archbishop of O.C.
   October 21, 1867, Col. T'Vault, having received the holy communion at Mass, celebrated by the Arhbishop, gave at the end of it the Sacrament of Confirmation to said Col. T'Vault.
F. N. Blanchet, Archbishop of O.C.
Register of St. Stephen's Church, Roseburg, from Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest:Roseburg Register and Missions, Binford & Mort 1986, page 11

    ALMOST A FIRE.--On Monday afternoon an alarm of fire was given, and it was found that a large volume of flame was coming from the chimney of the building occupied by Col. T'Vault and family. A few buckets of water were applied, and a serious conflagration prevented.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 23, 1867, page 3

    A moot legislature has been organized in Jacksonville, Colonel T'Vault speaker. Jackson County is made a state, and each precinct represented as a county.
"State Items," Morning Oregonian, Portland, December 11, 1867, page 3

    JOINED THE CHURCH.--Bishop Blanchet, of the Roman Catholic Church, in conversation with one of our citizens, stated some weeks ago, that when on his journey south last fall he baptized into the Church two old and distinguished citizens of Oregon, Gen. Lane and W. G. T'Vault.
Salem Daily Record, February 13, 1868, page 2

    DISTRICT ATTORNEYSHIP.--W. G. T'Vault received the Democratic nomination for District Attorney for the 1st District, comprising the counties of Jackson and Josephine. The Col. is an old lawyer, and practiced at the bar in Oregon when law and equity was first administered to the citizens of the young Territory. The candidate is certain to be elected as he has no opposition, and he will, no doubt, make criminals feel the heavy hand of the law.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 28, 1868, page 3

    MISTAKEN.--Those who think that none but lawyers are eligible for the office of District Attorney are mistaken. The constitution of Oregon requires no such qualification. It is true that lawyers only can practice in the courts; but Mr. Kahler will be admitted before the first term of court after the election; and we here assert that his opponent--W. G. T'Vault--has never been admitted to practice in any court in this state.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 30, 1868, page 2

Political Treachery.
    There is said to be honor even among thieves; and if this be true, there should be some degree of honor and consistency among politicians. Some, however, have none. Before our state convention was held, W. G. T'Vault was out as a candidate for District Attorney; and there was a distinct understanding that if we would not bring out a candidate against him, he would keep silent and take no active part in the canvass. We made no nomination, as Mr. Comstock was telegraphed not to make any, there being no candidate in Josephine County. We kept faith, but how has T'Vault kept his? When he thought it too late to put a candidate against him, he took the field against us, and worked against some of our candidates with more zeal than did their opponents. He even descended to matters, in connection with one of them, that were none of his business, and no concern of the people's. This is the reason why there is now at this late day a candidate against Mr. T'Vault. Many Republicans, who heretofore were willing to let the office of District Attorney go by default, and many Democrats, who had less confidence in T'Vault than the over-confiding Republicans, clamored for another candidate, and Mr. Kahler took the field. Those who have insisted on Mr. Kahler presenting his name to the voters of this judicial district are evidently under the impression that a man incapable of keeping political faith is unfit to be trusted with a judicial office.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 30, 1868, page 3

    NORTHWARD.--W. G. T'Vault, District Attorney, started in a buggy on Wednesday morning for Salem. He expects to reach there at the commencement of the State Fair.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 12, 1868, page 2

    Col. T'Vault and General Joseph Lane have both professed religion and joined the Catholic Church. The old sinners have deceived the people and been obedient servants of the devil all their lives, but now in their dotage they are both trying to cheat the devil out of his just rights. Gen. Lane has been so strongly impressed with Catholicism that he has been remarried to his wife. Col. T'Vault ought to follow suit. It is meet for such worthies to float together, and there should be no bastards in the royal families.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 3, 1868, page 2

    Col. T'Vault, meeting me on the streets of Roseburg, clasped my hand with both of his and said, with deep emotion: "Mr. Royal, I thank you for what you did for our dear boy." When George was a member of my advanced class in algebra, Davis' Bowdon's, the whole class of young men and women had been stalled on a hard example, when the Col., George's father, visited the school. Calling up the class, I said: "Col. these young people all confess that they can't work a certain example. I say they can. I know they understand every principle involved. I shall test them now by calling up your son. George, you may go to the board and work it out." George turned pale as a corpse and hesitated a moment, then gritting his teeth he walked up to the board and with a trembling hand, while his father watched every figure, and the class looked on in doubt and breathless anxiety till they saw the last figures, and that George had triumphantly won the day. Was there ever a prouder father, or happier boy?
    But the Col. had no thought of this incident when he said: "I thank you for what you have done for our boy. For," he added, "when he returned home he was so changed. He was a sunbeam in our home and in the community. He was so exemplary, so gentlemanly, and led such a beautiful Christian life as long as he was permitted to stay with us, and then when called to die he passed away so triumphantly." Then with tears he repeated, "I thank you for what you did for our son in leading him to Christ."
    Soon after this the Col. himself professed Christianity and died in the faith.
Southern Oregon Historical Society Research Library MS 161, Thomas Fletcher Royal journal vol. 7

    The last victim of the smallpox was Col. W. G. T'Vault, and remarkable to record, he was the only Catholic who was stricken with the dread disease, though he remained away from church from fear of exposing himself to the contagion. A few minutes before his death, he said to Sister Mary Francis of Assisium, "I have faced the enemy on the battlefield, I have occupied positions of honor in my country and now must I die of smallpox?"
"Jacksonville Chronicles," Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, Southern Oregon Historical Society Research Library, MS 352

Death of a Pioneer.
    The last victim of smallpox among us was Col. W. T'Vault, who died at 11 p.m. on Thursday. Although in the fullness of old age, being 62 years old, it is painful to reflect that after a busy life and prominent services he should be struck down by so dreadful a malady that not a single mourner dared follow him to the grave.
    Mr. T'Vault was one of the early pioneers of Oregon, and has filled a prominent place in its territorial and state history. He was a native of Missouri [Tennessee], and came across the plains as captain of a company of emigrants, in 1845. To him is due the honor of editing the first newspapers published on the Pacific Coast, the Spectator, which was first issued in February 1846, at Oregon City. Col. T'Vault was connected as editor with the Table Rock Sentinel, the first newspapers published in Southern Oregon and afterwards published and edited the Intelligencer, which was started on the material of the Crescent City Herald, in this county. He also published and edited the Index
at Silver City, Idaho, and was District Attorney for a short time in that territory. Mr. T'Vault was a member of the provisional legislature of Oregon. He was a member of the first State Legislature of Oregon, from Jackson County, and was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives over Ben Harding, afterwards U.S. Senator, which position was filled by Mr. T'Vault with honor and ability [to clarify, Harding served as U.S. Senator, not T'Vault]. He took an active part in the Indian war of 1856 [sic] in this valley, having led a company in the last battle that took place before Gen. Lane's treaty. [This reference must be to T'Vault's guiding Kearny's expedition in 1851.]
    Mr. T'Vault was a prominent politician, having acted uniformly with the Democratic Party, and at the time of this death occupied the position of District Attorney of the 1st judicial district, to which he was elected in June 1868. Like all prominent men he had many bitter enemies and warm friends. He was a man of strong and generous impulses, warm in his friendship, positive in his opinions. Whatever faults he may have had are now forgotten--covered with the clods of the grave, and all that was good and generous in him should only be remembered. He was baptized into the Catholic Church a few months since, and in his last hours was faithfully nursed by the Catholic Sisters of Charity, receiving the last offices of the Church from the hands of Father Blanchet. His remains lie in the Catholic cemetery, and let us hope that his spirit is at rest.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 6, 1869, page 2

    JACKSONVILLE, Feb. 5.--Two deaths from smallpox occurred here yesterday. One of them was District Attorney W. G. T'Vault, well known as one of the pioneers of Oregon, and once Speaker of the Assembly. No new cases have shown themselves for several days, and only four cases are now under treatment in this county. Since the commencement of the epidemic there have been sixty-five cases, eighteen of which have been fatal. All except four are now convalescent.
Oregonian, Portland, February 6, 1869, page 2

    Since last week we have had seven new cases of smallpox, four in the country and three in town--the latter are little Johnny Love, W. G. T'Vault and John Brewer. The two last were taken yesterday. Three of the former are in Ball's family, and the fourth is the wife of David Stearns on Wagner Creek--her case is said to be serious. All the patients at the two hospitals have been discharged as convalescent. Mrs. Howlett, Mary Ralls, the Bryant family and little Johnny Love are out of danger. Maggie Love and a half-breed woman at Brewer's are not expected to recover. It is hard to say when the terrible disease will disappear and we again urge vaccination and every possible precaution against contagion. Treat every ailment with suspicion until satisfied that it is not smallpox.--Sentinel.

"State Items," Oregon State Journal, Eugene, February 6, 1869, page 2

    The Unionist of yesterday (5th) says: We learn from a private letter shown us yesterday that Col. W. G. T'Vault, of Jacksonville, is down with the smallpox. Considering his great age and the irregular habits of his life, it is a grave question whether he will recover
"State Items," Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 6, 1869, page 2

    Col. W. G. T'Vault, who died of smallpox last week at Jacksonville, came to Oregon in 1844. He was connected with the provisional government before the Territory was organized, and after that event was a member of the territorial legislature. In 1858 he was elected Speaker of the House, being the first meeting of the legislature under the state constitution. In 1846 he was editor of the Oregon Spectator, the first newspaper published on the Pacific Coast. In 1847 he entered into a law partnership with Samuel R. Thurston, in which he continued till 1849. In 1852 he went to Jacksonville and subsequently established two or three newspapers in that town. His last newspaper adventure was at Owyhee, about three years ago. Last June he was elected prosecuting attorney in the First Judicial District of the state. Few men in Oregon have been more generally known.
"State Items," Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 8, 1869, page 2

FEBRUARY 8th, 1869.
    The members of the Jacksonville Bar held a meeting today at the office of O. Jacobs, for the purpose of adopting some appropriate resolutions in memory of Col. Wm. G. T'Vault, deceased, late a member of the Bar, and at the time of his death District Attorney for the 1st Judicial District. Hon. P. P. Prim was chosen chairman of the meeting, and C. W. Kahler secretary. James D. Fay stated the object of the meeting, and on motion of Mr. Jacobs a committee was appointed by the chairman to prepare resolutions and present them in open court in the afternoon. The chairman appointed as said committee O. Jacobs, J. D. Fay, E. B. Watson and J. R. Neil.
    Upon the coming in of the court in the afternoon, Mr. Jacobs presented the following Resolutions on behalf of the committee, and moved their adoption, accompanying the motion with a short address to the Court and Bar upon the loss of this veteran and useful member. Mr. Fay followed, referring briefly to the eventful life and public service of the deceased pioneer attorney of Oregon.
    Whereas, since the last session of the Honorable Court, Wm. G. T'Vault, the oldest member of the Bar, and District Attorney of this Circuit, has fallen a victim to the terrible contagion now prevailing in this county, Therefore be it
    Resolved, That in the death of Col. T'Vault this Bar loses its oldest and one of its most esteemed members, this community a faithful guardian of its interests, the public a prominent citizen, and the law a veteran exponent and advocate.
    Resolved, 2, That we deeply sympathize with the family and relations of the deceased over their great loss; and as a token of respect for our departed friend, the members of this Court and Bar will wear the customary badge of mourning for thirty days.
    Resolved, 3rd, That the minutes of these proceedings and a copy of these Resolutions be spread upon the Record of this Court, and that a copy of the same be transmitted by the Secretary to the family of the deceased.
P. P. PRIM, Chairman.
C. W. KAHLER, Sec'y.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 13, 1869, page 2

    From the California papers we learn of the death of W. G. T'Vault, of smallpox, in Jacksonville, Oregon, on the 4th inst. Col. T'Vault was a pioneer of the Pacific Coast, and was well known in this portion of Idaho. He started and published for a short time the Index newspaper, here in Silver City. T'Vault, before age and dissipation impaired his faculties, was a man of no inconsiderable ability. He was born, we think, in the state of Georgia [probably not], and emigrated to Arkansas in the year 1833, where he acquired his military title by being elected colonel of the state militia; he was, about the same time, a candidate for delegate to the constitutional convention of that state, but was defeated. He afterwards studied law, and practiced his profession a short time in Arkansas, and from there moved to the state of Indiana; he was a member of the legislature of that state for several sessions, and about the year 1845 emigrated to the then Territory of Oregon, where he lived for a number of years. After Oregon became a state of the Union, he was twice elected to the assembly, and was speaker of that body one or two sessions. He joined the Catholic Church a few years ago. At the time of his death, he was acting in the capacity of district attorney, and was well advanced in years.
Owyhee Avalanche, Silver City, Idaho, February 13, 1869, page 2

    Col. W. G. T'Vault, who died of smallpox last week at Jacksonville, came to Oregon in 1844. He was connected with the Provisional Government before the Territory was organized, and after that event was a member of the Territorial Legislature. In 1858 he was elected Speaker of the House, being the first meeting of the Legislature under the State Constitution. In 1846 he was editor of the Oregon Spectator, the first newspaper published on the Pacific Coast. In 1847 he entered into a law partnership with Samuel R. Thurston, in which he continued till 1849.
    In 1852 he went to Jacksonville, and subsequently established two or three newspapers in that town. His last newspaper adventure was at the Owyhee, about three years ago. Last June he was elected Prosecuting Attorney in the First Judicial District of the State. Few men in Oregon have been more generally known.--Oregonian.
"State Items," Oregon State Journal, Eugene, February 13, 1869, page 2

    Since the last new case of smallpox appeared, there have been immense quantities of pitch-pine burned in the streets. By day, the town is enveloped in smoke and by night the deserted streets are lit up by lines of fires that blaze and flicker among the shadows, and throw a ghastly and sepulchral light over everything it falls upon.--Sentinel.

"State Items," Oregon State Journal, Eugene, February 13, 1869, page 2

    THE CIRCUIT COURT.--The Circuit Court for Jackson County adjourned on Thursday last. The celebrated case of T'Vault against J. N. T. Miller and others, about the prices, type and material of various Democratic journals that have flourished and died here since the Rebellion commenced, was tried and a decree rendered that the same be sold for a division among the stockholders.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 17, 1869, page 3

    The first editor of this paper was W. G. T'Vault. A man more unfit for the position could scarcely have been found in the country. He professed to have been an editor of a paper in Arkansas, and blew and swelled like the toad in the fable, and whined like a puppy when he gave his valedictory, in the fifth number of the Spectator. He says: "We have among us a class of mongrels, neither American nor anti-American, a kind of foreign, hypocritical go-betweens--as we would say in the States, fence men--whose public declarations are, 'All for the good of the public, and not a cent for self.' The political sentiments of the conductors were at variance with his." Mr. T'Vault was led to believe that Mr. Newell was his only friend, from the fact that he was absent from the meeting of the Board when his successor was appointed; and complains of Dr. Long and J. W. Nesmith. Newell and Long acted together. H. A. G. Lee, who succeeded T'Vault as editor, was far better qualified for the position, though he did not suit this same Board of Directors, as Newell was the maneuvering spirit. Lee was too strongly American in his sentiments, and too intelligent to be a dupe of the influence of which T'Vault complained.
W. H. Gray, A History of Oregon 1792-1849, 1870, pages 455-456

    St. Marian T'Vault, of Jacksonville, has been sent to the insane asylum.
"Pacific Coasters," State Rights Democrat, Albany, January 5, 1872, page 2

    The following post offices have just been established: Cascade Locks, Wasco County, Ogn., Ashley H. Ball, postmaster; Milton King County, W.T., Walter D. Cotton, postmaster. Discontinued. Dardanelles, Jackson County, Oregon; St. Joseph, Yamhill County, Oregon.
Vancouver Independent, Vancouver, Washington, December 12, 1878, page 5

    It is a noteworthy fact that the Oregon Sentinel was issued for the last time from the same spot where it was first brought into existence over a third of a century ago. The building in which the initial number was issued by Col. T'Vault burned down in 1873, however.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 23, 1888, page 3

    Capt. Tichenor then made his way up to Portland [in 1851] in the same vessel, the Sea Gull. There he raised quite a party, I do not know how many, but there were some 40 or 50 men that accompanied him back to Port Orford. They conceived that to be a point where vessels could land, and that it would become a place of some importance. Among them was T'Vault, the editor of the first paper established here. He was a lawyer and a man of some distinction, but claimed a good deal more distinction than he was entitled to, because he was a man that did not know very much. On his return to Port Orford this party was landed there. They resolved to build a fort or stockade, and did so. They were of the opinion that in the interior was a mining region. They desired to communicate with the Rogue River country. Here was what we called the California trail reaching from the Willamette through to the Sacramento. The Rogue River Valley it was known had gold, and it was known that there was gold all the way between here and California more or less. T'Vault and nine men besides himself resolved to go from there to the California trail on Rogue River. Port Orford, however, I should say, was twenty-five miles north of the mouth of Rogue River, where is now Ellensburg. This party resolved to strike Rogue River and follow it up to the California trail. After taking a ridge that led along up by the side of Rogue River they found the country so rough that they could scarcely travel, and they supposed Rogue River went off too far to the south and that they could make a shorter cut by going further to the north. They proceeded on their journey until they struck the headwaters of the Coquille River. They failed entirely to reach the California trail; they did not get halfway, in fact. They had no idea there was a river to the north between Port Orford and there and the Umpqua. They supposed they had struck the headwaters of the Umpqua. Their supplies were nearly exhausted. They found some Indians on the Coquille who they supposed were Umpquas, and through signs, for the Indians had never seen white men before, the Indians replied that that water emptied into the ocean, but the distance they did not comprehend. T'Vault and his party paid the Indians to take them down to the ocean in canoes. After you follow up the Coquille about thirty miles it forks, & they struck the south fork. There the party became dissatisfied, one with the other, and they parted. A portion went on still farther, and those who remained with T'Vault hired a canoe to take them down the river. The other party went on until they struck the upper fork of the Coquille, and they found Indians there, and they hired a canoe to take them down to the salt water. After each proceeded a half a day or so they came together at the fork. There was T'Vault's party, there were ten of them. They were armed to their teeth with revolvers and Henry rifles, well equipped. They made up their minds that they would proceed down to the ocean, supposing still that they were in the Umpqua River Valley. The day previous to their getting to the ocean their provisions gave out entirely, & they got hungry. Well, that morning, the morning of the day they arrived at the mouth of the Coquille, they got a quarter of an elk from the Indians, so that they were middling well supplied for one meal. They proceeded on their journey down to the mouth of the Coquille. They discovered that there was a large Indian ranch on the north bank of the Coquille near its mouth, & it was suggested that they go there & get something to eat. Some of them said they would get something to eat if they killed every d----d Indian there was. They resolved to go ashore on the north bank. These Indians were in their primeval state. They never had seen any white men in their lives, & they were as much surprised as we would be to see men come right up out of the earth. Those that paddled the canoes were Indians that they had brought down the river with them. As they came down opposite the village the river shallowed, & they came pretty near ashore when their canoe stuck a sandbar. There were about 200 Indians, stalwart fellows, that came down to see what had come & they discovered that the white men wanted to come ashore, & some of them waded in & took hold of the canoes to bring them ashore. The Indians appeared so formidable, though they showed no signs of hostility, that the white men were afraid & resolved that they would not go ashore, but would go over on the other side, but the Indians still held on to their canoes. Finally they resolved that they would free themselves from the Indians & go across the river, which they ought to have done in the first place. One raised a paddle & struck an Indian that had hold of the canoe. The Indians struck back. They lay there, & five of T'Vault's men were killed right there. T'Vault was struck in his face & on his nose, terribly; & a man by the name of Brush was struck with an Indian knife of tremendous size, about two feet long, struck about here, & the top of his head taken clean off. T'Vault was stunned, & was still in the canoe. There was a little Indian jumped into the canoe. T'Vault came to himself & saw this man Brush in the water, with the blood streaming from his head. The little Indian got hold of him & pulled him in the canoe, & they then made for the south shore. T'Vault & Brush got away. The Indian paddled them about halfway across the Coquille, & then jumped overboard & went back & left them to paddle across. When they got across they stripped off their shoes or boots & started for the brush--so that they could run. The weather was warm. They had divested themselves beforehand of nearly all their clothes. They traveled in the woods down the coast towards Port Orford. They found by this time that they were not in the Umpqua.
    In the skirmish they used cudgels. There were one or two of the Indians killed with revolvers. The men were sitting down in the canoe, so that they could not manage themselves.
    This happened on Sunday, the 14th of August 1851. . . .  T'Vault & Brush that were so badly wounded were brought in by an Indian that they fell in with on Tuesday. T'Vault when he was brought in was one of the most distressed-looking objects, & so was Brush. They were both barefoot, & their feet were torn terribly. T'Vault reported that his men were all killed but him & Brush. I was taken sick on Monday, & I was very sick when T'Vault was brought in. The Superintendent was requested to send back to the Coquille to know whether they were all killed or not. T'Vault supposed they were all killed.
    This Indian that brought in T'Vault & Brush dispatched two women to go to the Coquille & ascertain the particulars--whether they were all dead or not. The women went & found five of T'Vault's men murdered. They persuaded the Indians to bury them. The squaws did the burying, pretty much. They buried them there in the sand. They said they scooped out a place in the sand, & took the men & placed them side by side & covered them with a blanket & then covered sand over them.
    They said there were two of the men that started out from there. Where they went to they did not know--to the north. They supposed one man had gone into the river & was drowned. The fact was that in the scuffle, being an expert swimmer, he dove right into the water & swam up under the bank of the river & got out.
    Those fellows that went south--their names I have forgotten--they made their way to the Umpqua, & in about three weeks they got to the white settlements nearly famished. One had an arrow in his back. The two had killed an Indian that followed them. That was the report that the squaws brought back.
Josiah L. Parrish, "Anecdotes of Intercourse with the Indians," 1878, Bancroft Library P-A 59

    Mrs. Rhoda T'Vault, born in Warren County, Ky., Nov. 19, 1810, arrived at Oregon City Oct. 14, 1845.

"Southern Oregon Pioneers," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 8, 1882, page 3

    At St. Joseph they joined a train of 64 wagons under the command of Captain TeVault, but on arriving on the South Platt the train divided, Mr. King's party joining that division under the command of James McNeary.
David D. Fagan, "Solomon King," History of Benton County, 1885, page 520

    . . . Mr. Smith joined a train, composed of sixty-six wagons, at St. Joseph, Missouri, and under the command of Captain TeVault commenced the difficult journey across the plains. After successive changes in the leaders of the party, that well-known veteran, Stephen Meek, undertook to conduct them into the Willamette Valley by the old Columbia route, but, unfortunately, when at the place since called Silver Lake, located west of the Blue Mountains, the guide found himself at fault, and declared himself to be absolutely lost. . . .
David D. Fagan, "Green Berry Smith," History of Benton County, 1885, page 526

    T'Vault himself sometime achieved a soldierly title, but how I know not. He was a colonel but not a military colonel. His life was one of the most extraordinary that was ever lived by any Oregonian. I have not the full details of his life in Oregon, and not a word of his previous existence, but subsequent to his coming here in 1845 it was full of adventures and experiences. We find him admitted to the bar at Oregon City, along with Nathan Olney, and appearing as attorney in miscellaneous cases, divorces and such, for there were marriages and dissolutions of marriages in those days. He continued to act as postmaster general and prosecuting attorney for Oregon, but his specialty seems to have consisted in procuring divorces for people. In 1851 T'Vault guided Major Phil Kearny (the hero who fell at Chantilly in the late war), and his command of U.S. troops from Vancouver southward on their way to Benicia, California. This was in the time of the earliest placer gold discoveries in Southern Oregon, and the Indians were hostile and trying to kill every white man that entered their country. Captain Stuart was of this force, and was killed in a battle, or, more properly, a skirmish, on the Rogue River near the mouth of Bear Creek. T'Vault next joined Captain Tichenor's expedition to found a city at Port Orford, in Curry County, and within a few days after landing there he set out with eight others, all well armed, to explore a route for travel between the coast and the old Oregon and California Trail, some thirty
[sic] miles inland. The party were out about a week and had a terrible time. They got out of provisions, and although game abounded and still abound in that region, they nearly starved. Getting down on the navigable part of the Coquille River, a long distance off their proper route, they got an Indian to take them in his boat to the mouth of the river. Landing at a native village to procure food, they were set upon by the redskins, and five of them were slain. L. L. Williams and Cyrus Hedden escaped northward, the former with a dreadful wound, and getting to Scottsburg, Williams lay there for several years--seven, I think--before he recovered sufficiently to be removed. Hedden took care of and supported him throughout. They were good samples of the hardy adventurer of that period. T'Vault with a companion made his escape, naked and despairingly, and got to Port Orford by the aid of friendly Indians. He removed to Jacksonville a year or two later and took part in the various Indian wars of that section. In Nov. 1855 he, in partnership with two others, established the Table Rock Sentinel, subsequently called the Oregon Sentinel, and remained as sole or part proprietor until 1859. In 1863, in war time, he started the Intelligencer, another weekly, at Jacksonville. He was intensely Democratic, but it seems his services were not appreciated by his party, for the "secesh" leaders down there dropped him in a most shameless way, forgetting that "there should be honor among ------," and his paper died. In 1868 the old Colonel caught the smallpox which then raged and, dying, was buried at midnight, followed to the grave by no friend or relative save the Catholic priest, Father Blanchet. Mr. T'Vault filled his various stations in life with ability and credit, and if he was inferior to some in education and freedom from prejudice, he was at least equal to any of his compeers in the art of running a newspaper. Oregon was fortunate in her first, her pioneer editor. . . .
    In April [1846] Mr. T'Vault writes and prints his valedictory, a two-column manifesto, breathing hostility to the directors of the printing association who had, he said, dismissed him, pretending that his syntax was bad, his orthography not good and his principles too heavily charged with Democracy. And so with the observation that it was his proudest boast that he was an American citizen he gave place to Mr. [Henry A. G.] Lee. . . .
H. O. Lang, "The Spectator: The History of the First Newspaper Published in Oregon," Oregonian, Portland, August 6, 1885, page 4  The first installment of the series is in the Oregonian of June 25, 1885, page 2. The "third" installment was printed July 9 (page 2), but the second never existed. The series ends with the August 10 issue, page 6. T'Vault is barely mentioned in the first two parts, usually in his capacity as postmaster, and not at all in the last. The first paragraph of the above excerpt was reprinted in the Democratic Times of August 21, 1885, on page 1.

    A pleasant social gathering took place at the residence of Mrs. W. G. T'Vault last Wednesday evening, that day being the 76th anniversary of her birth. Mrs. T'Vault came to Oregon in 1845, and has lived in Jackson County since 1852; and is one of the pioneer women whose generous hospitality will ever be remembered by the early settlers of this state, and it will be pleasant for her many friends to hear of her continued good health; she has witnessed the progressive development of the Pacific Northwest from a wilderness to an empire, and as the shadows of the evening of her life are lengthening, the loving hands of her daughter, grandchildren and great-grandchildren anticipate her every want. The Silver Cornet Band rendered her a serenade, refreshments were served, and the guests departed wishing Mrs. T'Vault many happy returns of the day, in which the Sentinel, which was founded by Col. T'Vault, her late husband, heartily joins.

"Local Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 21, 1885, page 3

    Mrs. Rhoda Boone T'Vault, wife of the late Col. W. G. T'Vault, died at her residence in Jacksonville yesterday, at 2 o'clock A.M. after an illness of over six weeks. Mrs. T'Vault was one of Oregon's most estimable pioneer women, having lived in this state since 1845. Her last illness was cheered and comforted by the loving ministrations of her daughter and grandchildren and the affectionate companionship of her many pioneer friends. The funeral took place from her late residence, under the auspices of the Pioneer Society of Southern Oregon, Rev. M. A. Williams officiating.--Sentinel.
Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, June 11, 1886, page 3

In Memoriam.
    Mrs. Rhoda Boone T'Vault was born in Bowling Green, Kentucky, Nov. 19th, 1810, and died at her home in Jacksonville June 4th, 1886, aged 75 years. Her father removed with his family to Warwick County, Indiana when she was 11 years of age. They settled near Booneville on a farm which still belongs to descendants of the family. Mrs. T'Vault was a great-granddaughter of Daniel Boone, Kentucky's famous pioneer. In her 17th year she united with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and never changed her firm adherence to the tenets of that church. She was married to Col. W. G. T'Vault July 11th 1820 and five children were born to them, two of whom died in infancy. In 1845 Col. T'Vault and family crossed the plains to Oregon and settled in Oregon City, then a trading post of the Hudson Bay Company. At Oregon City a few years later, Col. T'Vault published the Oregon Spectator, the first paper ever published in Oregon. During the time Mrs. T'Vault resided at Oregon City she endeared herself to the hearts of Oregon's earliest pioneer by her many acts of kindness and hospitality. When the dark clouds of peril and privation lowered most threateningly over the hearts and homes of the brave pioneer her generosity was unfailing and all met kindly cheer and greeting around her primitive hearthstone. In 1852 they removed to Rogue River Valley and shortly after settled on the Dardanelles farm on Rogue River, the first family that settled on a farm in this valley. In 1855 Col. T'Vault came to Jacksonville and began the publication of the Oregon Sentinel, the first paper published in this valley. Since that time Mrs. T'Vault has resided permanently in Jacksonville. In 1857, George, their only son, who but a few months before had been taken in full partnership with his father in the publication of the Sentinel, died, a bereavement that fell with lifelong agony on the devoted parents' hearts. During the smallpox epidemic of 1869, Col. T'Vault died of that disease, and a few years later their invalid daughter, St. Marian, passed away, and since that time Mrs. T'Vault has lived with her widowed daughter, Mrs. E. Kenney, caring with the tenderest devotion for her three orphaned grandchildren during their infancy and youth. As life shadows were lengthening, and the faithful heart of the old pioneer hailed the east that heralded the dawn of the brighter day, her daughter, grandchildren and great-grandchildren gave her every care and devotion, and pioneer friends wafted to her kindly greeting that they had cherished for a lifetime. Thus closed the eventful life of the brave-hearted and loving pioneer, who began her life work when Oregon was a wilderness and completed it, surrounded by every comfort of modern times. May her spirit rest in peace until the last reunion of the old pioneers around the camp fire of Eternity. Oregon City and Indiana papers please copy.
Oregon Sentinel, June 12, 1886, page 2

    WILLIAM G. L'VALT came from Plymouth, Indiana, in 1840, remaining in the county until 1846 [sic], when he removed to Portland, Oregon, and died a few years later.

Biographical and Historical Record of Kosciusko County (Indiana), 1887, page 674

    The hand press used in printing the first paper ever published on the Pacific Coast, Col. T'Vault's Oregon Spectator, is still in use in the Journal office at Eugene, and is said to be one of the best hand presses in the state today. The press has been in constant use for more than 43 years, the first number of the Spectator having been issued on the 5th day of February, 1846.

Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 2, 1889, page 2

    My father was pilot for Kearny's command from Vancouver to Benicia in the summer of 1851 and was with Captain Stuart when he was killed by Indians, where Phoenix now is. And he marked the spot where Stuart was buried.
    A few years later parties came out from Washington to remove the body to the burial place of his mother at Arlington. And Father was able by the mark to locate the exact spot.
    On the fifteenth day of May 1852 we arrived at Father's land claim, which he had named "Dardanelles" because the mountains closed in so narrow just below it. (Now the railroad bridge spans the river at that place.)
    We found the garden vegetables already grown that Father planted before he started [to Oregon] City after us. The turnips and radishes were so astonishingly large that he took a mule load (there were no wagons) to Jacksonville, to distribute among "the boys."

Elizabeth T'Vault Kenney, letter of November 26, 1899

Scraps of Early History.

    Mrs. Elizabeth Kenney, now living in Jacksonville, came to the Rogue River Valley May 12, 1852--fifty years ago. Her father, Col. W. G. T'Vault, who had been through here before, came through the valley in the spring of '51 as guide to the dragoons, en route from Vancouver to Benicia, Calif., and was present when Capt. Stuart was killed, a short distance above Phoenix. In order to obliterate the place of burial the cavalry horses were corralled about the grave, and next morning the ground was so cut up by the fresh-shod horses that no trace of the grave could be seen. Col. T'Vault, however, took bearings from the adjacent trees, so in case it was desirable to find the grave he could do so. Sometime in '53 Capt. Stuart's mother, who lived in the East, sent for the body of her son to have it shipped home. Col. T'Vault was called upon and pointed out the place of burial, and the remains were exhumed and sent east. But for this foresight and critical marking by the colonel the remains could never have been found. The colonel located the old Dardanelles place under the Donation Act, and brought the family out from Oregon City in May, 1852. Here the family lived for three years when the colonel sold the place, moved to Jacksonville and started the Table Rock Sentinel and engaged also in the practice of law. There were few people living in the upper end of the Willamette Valley at that time. The town of Eugene had not been thought of. Aaron Rose had taken up a donation claim covering the present site of Roseburg, but there was no Roseburg. There was a ferry at Winchester, on North Umpqua, and old man Riddle had taken up a claim on South Umpqua and built a small log cabin on it. There was a ferry on Rogue River, established by Perkins, and Bills and his son were mining on Big Bar, above the present railroad bridge. So far as known, there was not a fence rail in Rogue River Valley at that time. There were a few shake shacks and log houses in Jacksonville and probably not a half dozen houses of any kind in the valley. Col. T'Vault was postmaster at Dardanelles and Mrs. Kenney was deputy. She is therefore no doubt the first woman postmaster in Oregon, and as her father was absent most of the time at Jacksonville on business, she had the whole responsibility of the business. And it should be understood that it was much more difficult to conduct the business of a post office at that time than at present, for there were few printed forms at that time, and each postmaster was under the necessity of preparing his own forms.
Medford Mail, May 17, 1902, page 2

    In 1845 the [King] family band started out as well equipped as any which undertook the hazardous venture, having five wagons with from three to five yoke of oxen each, and thirty-five head of fine Durham cattle. The entire party consisted of sixty-five wagons, under command of Captain Tevalt and Stephen Meek, and they were more than six months on the way. From Boise City they went by what was known as the Meek Cutoff, and in consequence lost their way and had to retrace their steps a long way.
"Solomon King," Portrait and Biographical Record of the Willamette Valley, 1903, Part 2, page 1087

    As a merchant [T. J. Kenney] met with a fair share of success. and as one of the leading members of the Whig party he was active in politics. February 18, 1855. at Dardanelles, Ore., he married Elizabeth T'Vault, who was born in Evansville, Ind. a daughter of W. G. T'Vault. Her paternal grandfather, William T'Vault, was born, reared and married in France. [He was not.] Emigrating to the United States in 1818, he located in Tennessee, near Nashville, where he had relatives, among them being the Claybornes, people of distinction. Removing to Indiana about the time of its admission to the Union as a state, he settled in Evansville, where he was in business as a capitalist until his death, at an advanced age. His wife, who attained a ripe old age, also spent her last years in that city. W. G. T'Vault was born March 23, 1818, on the ocean, while his parents were en route to this country. [All other indications are that he was born in 1806 in Tennessee. An 1818 birth would place him in the Indiana legislature at the age of eight.] Educated for the legal profession, he first practiced as an attorney at Boonville, Ind., and then in Plymouth, and while a resident of the latter city was a representative to the state legislature. He subsequently lived for a short time in Warsaw, Ind., from there coming across the plains to Oregon in 1845.
    Locating in Oregon City, W. G. T'Vault practiced his profession there for seven years, and under the name of The Oregon Spectator edited and published the first newspaper published on the Pacific Coast. He was active in public affairs, served as the first postmaster general of the Territory of Oregon, and represented Clackamas County in the constitutional convention. He was a man of brilliant attainments and a noted writer and journalist. Coming to Jackson County in 1852, he took up a donation claim of six hundred and forty acres, known as the Dardanelles, as it was the only trail along the east side of the Rogue River. Taking up his residence in Jacksonville in 1855, he started the first newspaper published south of the Calapooia Mountains, calling it the Table Rock Sentinel. In addition to his journalistic work he followed his profession, and for a number of terms was prosecuting attorney for the fifth judicial district. He was for several years a representative to the state legislature, and in 1858 was speaker of the house. He died in [1869] of smallpox. He married Rhoda Boone Burns, who was born in Kentucky, and was a granddaughter of the famous hunter and trapper, Daniel Boone. She was of patriotic ancestry, her father, a corporal in the Revolutionary Army, having received a land grant for his services in that war, a tract that includes the site of the present city of Bowling Green, Ky. Of the union of Daniel M. and Elizabeth (T'Vault) Kenney, three children were born, namely: Thomas Joseph, the subject of this sketch; William G., city marshal of Jacksonville; and Rhoda, deceased. Mrs. Daniel M. Kenney is an honorary member of the State Press Association; a member of the State and Southern Oregon Pioneer Associations and of the Presbyterian Church. W. G. T'Vault was prominent in all public affairs, was acquainted with Dr. McLoughlin and Dr. Whitman, and in his house the first proclamation of the governor of the territory was written. In 1847 he went with a party to interview the Indians, and his daughter Elizabeth acted as interpreter for General Lane.
"Thomas Joseph Kenney,"
Portrait and Biographical Record of Western Oregon, 1904, page 906

    The ship proceeded upon her voyage to Portland, at which place I purchased six horses, some provisions, some swine, and engaged a Mr. T'Vault who had been recommended highly to me by Col. Phil. Kearny,who had been a schoolmate of mine in Newark, N.J. . . . arrived at Port Orford on the 3rd day of September [1851]. A party under T'Vault had been sent with the horses to view out and cut a trail from Port Orford, connecting with the Oregon trail, another under Nolan for a similar purpose. The latter had been instructed by me to ascend to the south of the Sugar Loaf Peak on the southeast of the roadstead, believing the terminus of the great dividing range of mountains leading to the far interior, which has since proved to be such. The party did not follow the advice and consequently wandered through the gulches, ravines, underbrush and jungles. After seven days of hard labor they reached Port Orford, coming in from the north, and to palliate their gross failure named the Sugar Loaf mountain "Tichenor's Humbug." The circumstances stated is the true origin of that beautiful landmark on the eastern side of the bay or roadstead, one which cannot be mistaken by any mariner bound to that place in its approach north, west or south.
    The party under T'Vault had a disastrous and fearful time. Little of mountaineer skill was ever used or exhibited in their devious wanderings. Mountain ridges were not followed or regarded. Immense gorges were plunged into without apparent hesitation. All the animals had to be abandoned; everything was disposed of as far as possible to enable them to travel or wander. In the following year Lieut. Stoneman, with his party of explorers, traced their trail, as shown by the cuttings, and found evidence of more insanity than rationality. They finally reached a point on the South Fork of the Coquille River, near which camp a depot was established the following spring, by Company C, First Dragoons, under Col. A. J. Smith. T'Vault sat down and cried like a child, and all but one of his men declared that they would abandon him. Cyrus Hedden, now a resident of Scottsburg, on the Umpqua River, a man esteemed by all who knew him, declared he would die rather than abandon a comrade, and by the influence he had over the balance of the party undoubtedly saved the life of T'Vault. They gathered roots and berries to save life, being in a state of starvation rendered greatly by fatigue and want of food, and they made slow progress in following the river down but were determined to pursue that course to the ocean. Many Indians were hovering around them. Reaching the main river they finally induced an old Indian in a canoe to approach them and, by exhibiting buttons and such articles as could be spared, engaged the canoe to carry them down the river to its mouth. When about two miles above the mouth of the Coquille River, some of the party declared that they should land and procure some food if they had to fight for it, while others protested, fearful of an encounter with the numerous savages on shore, and while there disputing the canoe drifted into shoal water. The savages from the shore rushed into the water, grasping the canoe and those in it. The fight was then inaugurated. It was everyone for himself. A portion of the men rushed for the shore while others were killed at once. A young Texan by the name of Brush was struck down by a blow of one of the canoe paddles, the sharp edge striking him on the head, glancing down the side carrying a large piece of the scalp with it; he fell into the canoe. The Indian, who had assisted in bringing them down and by signs had warned them of the danger of landing, paddled the canoe into the stream with Brush prostrated in it. T'Vault struck out to swim the river. He was picked up by the Indian and carried with Brush to the opposite shore. T'Vault made all haste to escape, leaving Brush, and pursued his way down the coast for Cape Blanco, then in sight, a cape well known by him, being near Port Orford. He reached the mouth of the "Sa-qua-mi," now called the Sixes River. His rifle was taken from him and he was stripped of all his clothing, save the remnant of what was once a shirt, and permitted by the Indians to pursue his way to the fort. He arrived there in a nude and starving condition the second day after the disaster. Brush avoided the Indians and, wounded as he was, and with only the remnants of a shirt and a pair of pants, arrived at the fort the third day.
    To return to the place of the disaster. Williams and Hedden reached the shore fighting their way as best they could. The former was clinched by a heavy savage. In the struggle they fell with Williams on top. His knife finished the brute, but while down another Indian drove an arrow into his groin. He sprang to his feet and Hedden pulled out the shaft leaving a three-inch piece to which the arrowhead was attached. They escaped to the brush, holding the Indians at bay with their guns while so doing. They both had made good work and caused much mourning in the Indian camp. It was not long before the fatal arrow shaft and head began their terrible work, causing much acute pain and intense suffering. The following day his bowels commenced swelling. He could only with the greatest difficulty put his foot to the ground. His faithful companion would gather salal berries for him to eat and aid him to advance. He begged to be permitted to lie down and die. Hedden encouraged him and helped him every way he could.
    Upon the ninth day after the massacre they reached the mouth of the Umpqua River where fortunately they found the brig Fawn, and Capt. Wood sent his boat to carry them seven miles up the river to the town now called Gardner. Williams was fearfully swollen, his bowels seemed ready to burst, and on the night of the landing at Gardner the wound opened and discharged. This relieved him greatly from the intense pain. Hedden never left him, but labored to earn means for his support, bandaged and tended to his wounds for nearly three years. In the spring of 1855 the shaft and arrowhead were extricated, at Roseburg, Douglas Co., Ore. All who knew L. L. Williams esteemed him for his worth. We will now return to the scene of the disaster. Here five of the party were literally cut to pieces so that the remains of them could not be identified. This disaster occurred a few days before or about the time of the arrival of Doc. Dart, Spaulding and Parrish, as they were all there at the time of T'Vault and Brush's escape to Port Orford. Mr. Parrish at once offered to proceed to the scene and was permitted to do so by Supt. Dart, taking with him the two Indian interpreters. Chief, the one who had robbed T'Vault of the rifle and poor vestige of clothing, now became the "good big Indian," having returned the rifle. They proceeded to the Coquille River, procured an interview with the murderers, gave them some presents and received promises of their being good Indians. Sa-qua-mi, the chief, had rendered himself detestable to the Indians. He started with Mr. Parrish to Port Orford as guide, but about half way there he killed Mr. Parrish, quartered his body and with the help of his squaw packed the quarters to the Indian village and buried them.
William Tichenor, quoted in Orvil Dodge, Pioneer History of Coos and Curry Counties, 1915, page 24

Mrs. E. T'Vault Kenney, 79, Passes Away at Jacksonville.
    Mrs. Elizabeth T'Vault Kenney, a well-known pioneer of 1845, died at her home in Jacksonville yesterday morning.
    Mrs. Kenney was the daughter of Colonel William Green T'Vault and Mrs. Rhoda Boone Burns T'Vault and was born in Warrick County, Indiana, in 1833. She was of Scotch, Irish and French ancestry and was a great-granddaughter of Daniel Boone and directly descended from the Robert Burns family of Scotland. Her father was editor of the first newspaper west of the Rocky Mountains, the Spectator, first issued at Oregon City, February 5, 1846. Later he was prominent as a legislator and lawyer and in 1855 he was editor of the Table Rock Sentinel, the first newspaper in Rogue River Valley.
    In 1852 the T'Vault family removed from Oregon City to Jackson County, and as a young girl Mrs. Kenney was the first postmistress there, the post office being known as The Dardanelles, and was situated on Rogue River, not far from Gold Hill of today. In 1855 she was married to Daniel M. Kenney, a native of Louisiana, a lawyer and a pioneer of 1849. He died February 18, 1860, leaving his young wife with two little boys to rear. Her father died in 1869 and her mother not long afterwards.
    Mrs. Kenney was a member of the Oregon Pioneer Association and also of the Pioneer Association of Southern  Oregon. Her two sons survive.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, October 21, 1911, page 12

    Colonel T'Vault was a notable character in Southern Oregon for many years, beginning in 1852, and had a varied experience as editor, lawyer, Indian fighter, explorer and miner. Moreover, before leaving Tennessee for Oregon he had some newspaper experience, and soon after his arrival at Oregon City in the fall of 1845, he was employed as the editor of the Oregon Spectator, the first issue of which was on February 5, 1846, at a salary of $300.00 a year. He only held the job, however, two months, as it was the policy of the Printing Association which owned the plant to eschew politics, and the uncompromising Democracy of T'Vault made that very difficult. He was also postmaster general of the provisional government of Oregon with a salary of $50.00 a year. The rate at that time between any Oregon postoffice and Weston, Mo., was 50 cents for a single sheet. At the end of nine months he resigned, saying that the receipts for that time had not been enough to pay the expense of transportation for one quarter.
    William Green T'Vault was of Scotch, Irish and French ancestry, and was born on March 23, 1806. He was married to Miss Rhoda Boone Burns, a native of Kentucky and a granddaughter of Daniel Boone, the famous Kentucky pioneer, in 1832. He and his wife and one daughter crossed the plains in 1845, and arrived at Fort Vancouver November 20th of that year. This family, as well as a number of other families, when in camp on the Malheur River where Vale now stands, were made to believe by Stephen H. Meek that a shorter route to the Columbia River at The Dalles ought to be taken than the one usually followed. In this these immigrants were misled and suffered a great deal in consequence. The route then followed has since then been called "Meek's Cut-off." Col. T'Vault died at Jacksonville, Oregon, February 4, 1869, as the result of an attack of smallpox.
George H. Himes, "First Newspapers of Southern Oregon," Oregon Historical Quarterly, March, 1923, pages 56-67

    Colonel W. G. T'Vault, the first editor of the Oregon Spectator, of Oregon City, the first paper published in the Oregon country, started in 1858 the Table Rock Sentinel. The first issue appeared on November 24, 1855. Associated with Colonel T'Vault were two other men, Mr. Taylor and Mr. Blakely. Not being able to agree with his partners, Colonel T'Vault bought them out. In 1858 the name of his paper was changed to the Oregon Sentinel.
    The first number of the Southern Oregon Gazette was published by O'Meara and Pomeroy on August 14, 1861. On account of its secessionist sentiments it was barred from the mails. D. W. Douthitt acquired the equipment of the Gazette and started a paper called the Civilian. This was in May, 1862. The paper did not survive long, and in 1863 Colonel T'Vault took over the Civilian equipment and started the Intelligencer, which also failed, within a year.
    P. J. Malone took over the expired Intelligencer and in January, 1865, started the Oregon Reporter. He sold the paper to Frank R. Stuart, who ran it till 1867, when he took as a partner W. W. Fidler and the name of the paper was changed to the Southern Oregon Press. After a few months the Press suspended and a new paper, called the Reveille, was started. After the suspension of the Reveille, P. D. Hull and Charles Nickell acquired the equipment and started the Democratic News. This was in 1869. In 1872 the News office was destroyed by fire and one of its proprietors, Charles Nickell, bought new equipment and started the Democratic Times.
    When I interviewed John B. Caldwell recently he said:
    "When Father came back from the mines at Florence, Idaho, in 1862, we left Murphy and Father started a hotel at Williamsburg. When Williamsburg began to wane we moved to the Dardanelles, just across the river from Gold Hill. The Dardanelles was located on the claim owned by Colonel W. G. T'Vault. When Klippel, McLaughlin and Williams put up their steam quartz mill to grind the ore from the Gold Hill mine there was a boom at the Dardanelles. [The boom was in 1860.] Naturally, we saw a great deal of Colonel T'Vault.
    "I remember there was a dance held one night at our hotel. Colonel T'Vault was celebrating the prosperity of the Dardanelles. He took a few more drinks than he could carry. He went out into the kitchen of the hotel, where he found a black iron kettle. He put this kettle on his head with the bail under his chin and came back on the dance floor. One of the men, who had been doing more drinking than dancing, hit the kettle a good lick, which forced it down over Colonel T'Vault's ears, completely eclipsing him. Naturally Colonel T'Vault was furious, not only with the pain but with the indignity of his position. He tried to claw off the kettle but it fit so tight that he could do nothing. You couldn't understand what he said, though from the noise going on you knew he was saying plenty. Finally his friends, after everyone had nearly died laughing, tried to pull the kettle off, but they were afraid they would pull the colonel's ears off. They had to rout out the blacksmith, who filed the edge of the kettle and finally succeeded in breaking it.
    "My mother ran the hotel and my father operated the bar. The bar, of course, was a regular mint, for the miners at Gold Hill were good spenders and travel was heavy."

Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," Oregon Journal, Portland, November 26, 1931, page 6

    Thomas G. Kenney was painting the ends of pieces of sugar pine lumber in a lumber yard at Medford when I interviewed him: "I never was given to depending on other people," he said. "I will be 81 next birthday. I get $2 a day for eight hours in this yard, and I can do the work as well as a man half my age.
    "I was born at Jacksonville, December 23, 1855. My father was Daniel M. Kenney. My mother's maiden name was Elizabeth T'Vault, daughter of Colonel W. G. T'Vault, who was born in Arkansas. He came to Oregon in 1844. He was the first editor of the Oregon Spectator, published at Oregon City and the first newspaper in the Oregon country. Later, he was editor of the Table Rock Sentinel, first newspaper in Southern Oregon. He started this paper in the fall of 1855. Still later, he was editor of the Intelligencer. He was in the legislature in 1846. In 1858 he was speaker of the territorial legislature. He always enjoyed newspaper work, though he was a lawyer. He was editor of the Index, at Silver City, Idaho. For two terms he was prosecuting attorney at Jacksonville. He was the first postmaster general of Oregon. In those days it cost 50 cents a letter from Oregon City to Missouri. The Oregon Spectator was started February 5, 1846. When elected to the provisional legislature, in 1846, he represented Clackamas County. He died of smallpox at Jacksonville in 1869.
    "The early-day firm of Appler & Kennedy carried one of the heaviest stocks in Jacksonville. Other merchants in Jacksonville the year I was born were Maury & Davis, Birdseye & Etlinger, Wells & Friedlander, Little & Westgate, Fowler & Davis and a number of others, including J. Brunner, Sam Goldstein and John Anderson. Dr. Jesse Robinson was running the Robinson house. Mrs. W. W. Fowler, then Mrs. Gass, had a boarding house. Joe Davis had a livery stable, and there were saloons, blacksmith shops, bakeries, etc.
    "My father died in 1859, when I was 4 years old. I was the oldest of three children. The others, Will and Rhoda, are dead. My father was among the first settlers at Jacksonville. In the spring of 1852, shortly after the diggings were discovered, there were at least 150 miners working on Rich Gulch. Miss Royal started a school in Jacksonville in the fall of 1853. Archbishop Blanchet came to Jacksonville in 1858, and in the following year a Catholic church was built. His nephew, Francis Xavier Blanchet, came as pastor in 1863, when I was 8 years old. I went to school to him.
    "My grandfather Kenney was born in Ireland and was a Catholic. My sister Rhoda was a Catholic, but I didn't seem to get interested, so I never joined. I started to work when I was 8 years old. My first job was greasing buggies and cleaning stalls in Dan Cawley's livery stable. I worked for him two years. I then got a job as general utility boy in Henry Judge's harness store. Later, he sold the shop to his brother-in-law, Jerry Nunan, so I worked for Nunan till I was about 17, when I landed a job with Henry Pape. He had a saloon and was elected county treasurer, so he had to have someone help him in the saloon. I worked for him a year. Will drove stage for the Oregon & California Stage Company.
    "C. C. Beekman and Tom Reames liked me, and knew I was a good harness-maker. Mr. Beekman said, 'If you will start a harness shop of your own I will lend you the money.' He and Mr. Reames loaned me $100, my brother put up some money, and I started a shop. I was 20 at the time. Reames gave me a letter to J. B. Congle of Portland, which established my credit, and I bought a lot of harness and supplies. I ran this shop about 12 years. Later I ran a grocery and hardware store. I served on the city council several terms. Will was employed by Colonel J. N. T. Miller to drive a freight wagon for the commissary department during the Modoc War.
    "Why do I paint the ends of this sugar pine lumber? The paint keeps the lumber from checking. The company I am working for has a mill near Prospect."

Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," Oregon Journal, Portland, July 3, 1936, page 4

Early Towns' Sites Sought
    Medford, Sept. 24.--Jackson County's first post office, one of the earliest in Southwestern Oregon, was established at Dardanelles on the Rogue River in 1852, but just where Dardanelles was located is not certain, it is revealed by Frank DeSouza, Medford postmaster.
    William Green T'Vault established the Dardanelles post office on October 19, 1852. T'Vault was a distinguished Oregon pioneer. He published the first newspaper west of the Rocky Mountains, founding the Oregon Spectator in Oregon City in 1846. He was a native of Arkansas who came to Oregon in 1845. Besides being one of the first postmasters in the Oregon Territory, he was a lawyer, legislator and journalist.
    The Dardanelles postal records were destroyed by fire many years ago.
    The second post office in Jackson County was established at Mansaneta, October 12, 1853. DeSouza has learned that the first postmaster was William R. Rose, but he has been unable to find where Mansaneta was. [It was in the Central Point area.]
    The Jacksonville post office was established in 1854, becoming the most widely known mining camp in the Pacific Northwest.
    DeSouza's study of early post offices is expected to be followed by placement of markers at the sites of those first founded.
Oregon Journal, Portland, September 25, 1938, page 31

    One of the names intimately connected with the early history of Oregon is that of W. G. T'Vault. He was editor of the first Oregon newspaper, printed at Oregon City and known as the Spectator. Afterwards he started the Table Rock Sentinel at Jacksonville. Besides his editorial functions, he was well known as a lawyer and an eccentric character in general. It was my privilege to become well acquainted with him, as he at one time wanted me to enter his law office and study law. He claimed that he could fit me up in six months so that I could be admitted.
    It was, perhaps, one of the numerous mistakes of my life that I did not take him up, for they had easy and expeditious facilities in those days for turning out lawyers.
    He gave me an incident in his own experience at the bar that is perhaps worth inserting. He said he was engaged defending a Chinaman who was charged by the District Attorney with stealing a sack of flour. But the District Attorney had spelled it "flower." He said he at first thought of demurring to the indictment on account of the erroneous orthography, but, said he, "after studying the matter over a little I come to the conclusion that if f-l-o-w-e-r didn't spell flour what in the h--- does it spell?"
    As an editor he was well versed in the old "Oregon Style" when it was at its best, or rather its worst, when personal abuse was the predominant weapon of offense and defense.
    A single sample may do to illustrate it. Mr. Turner, who was editing the opposition paper, had ventured the opinion that if certain Democratic editors had lived in the time of our Savior, our Savior would have been regarded as a perjured traitor and Judas Iscariot as the curly-headed little boy.
    T'Vault came back at him with: "If dirty work Turner had lived in the time of our Savior, there would have been no Judas Iscariot, for the former would have betrayed his master for just silver enough to buy one nip."
    The jokesmiths found in T'Vault a good subject for the exercise of their alleged wit. One of their best efforts, whether it was faulty in accuracy or not, helps to illustrate the character of the man. They said he and some of his companions were having a convivial time of it near a hamlet known at that time as Dardanelles. This was long before the Volstead Act and the 18th amendment were thought of. In the course of the spree T'Vault was beset with the idea that he must personate an Indian chief and it was suggested that he should have a crown.
    As there was an iron kettle handy, his brow was soon decorated with that symbol of authority. In stepping around too lively, however, the symbol slipped down over his face and nearly smothered the life out of him. His companions had a very sobering time of it rescuing the chief from his sad predicament. They did rescue him, however, and he lived many years afterwards till the scourge of smallpox at Jacksonville put him in the vault we all have to enter, sooner or later. [The victim of this story is also reported to have been John Ross.]
    T'Vault was elected to the first legislature, after Oregon was admitted as a state and became tyee of the lower house, being elected speaker of that body. That he had trouble with the Indians, the newspaper records of that period will attest.
    When mines were first struck in Southern Oregon it was thought that Port Orford would become the port of entry. Many people commenced gathering there on that account. A writer for the Oregonian gives the following account of T'Vault's trouble.
    "An editorial of Aug. 26, 1851 sums up Port Orford as having for proprietors Capt. Tichenor, T. B. King, James Gamble, F. M. Smith, Isaac M. Hubbard and Col. T'Vault. Port Orford matters were bad, according to the various accounts of the T'Vault catastrophe, one being by that individual himself, from which I gather that immediately after arriving from Portland on August 14, with a company of 18 men started to explore a route up the coast and river country.
    Then they bore northeast a few days and on August 31, nine of the party started to return. The other nine kept up Rogue River until September 7. They laid up to cure elk eat, as their provisions were running short.
Editor Caught on Wrong River
    One of their party was Cy Hedden, who had been with Kirkpatrick's party in June. He recognized that they were on the Coquille where the Indians had been hostile at that time and warned T'Vault to be on his guard. They believed they were on the Umpqua and going down to Scottsburg and were much put out when they found their mistake.
    On the 14th of Sept. they passed near some Indian village, intending to land, when naked Indians in large numbers rushed into the water, grappled with them, and climbed into their canoes. They tried to rush for the shore. As he tried to draw a revolver, T'Vault was knocked down and found himself floating down the river.
    On the shore he saw a fierce struggle, heard shouts and screams of agony and groans of the dying. He saw a canoe close by and an Indian lad in it. The boy helped him in and helped Brush in, whose head had been pounded with an Indian paddle, then pointed to the south side, put a paddle in his hand and jumped overboard. They reached the south side, stripped off their clothing and crawled up the bank. They traveled south in their naked condition, following the beach at night and in and through the woods by day.
    At Cape Blanco friendly Indians took care of them and carried them to Port Orford next day. Mr. Brush had several inches of scalp cut off. It is not plain why they left their clothes, unless to deceive the savages, but they could not hide their trail from them. There is some incoherency in this statement, but that of others confirms the T'Vault story. A letter from Gardner, Umpqua River says that Cyrus Hedden and L. L. Williams reached that place after eight days' journey in the wilderness. Another one escaped with them, but they lost sight of him afterwards. Hedden was unhurt, but Williams was thought to be mortally wounded, as two arrows entered him and he was fearfully bruised. They had lived all the time on wild berries and sea mussels.
    In 1853 T'Vault had further Indian troubles on his hands, as the following extract will show: "On August 14 a detachment of five men, consisting of W. G. T'Vault, David Birdseye, S. W. Wall, Wm. R. Rose and John R. Harden were attacked by Indians about one mile south of Willow Springs, in which Rose was killed, and Harden received a wound from which he died August 18th."
William W. Fidler, reprinted in "Editor Caught on Wrong River,"
Daily Courier, Grants Pass, April 2, 1960, page 4

    There was Col. John E. Ross of military fame, who gave an imitation of an Indian war dance, donning moccasins and feathers from an eagle he had killed that day. William T'Vault matched the colonel's flair for impromptu entertainment by developing his own idea of a war dance, for which he plopped a huge three-legged iron kettle upside down over his head . . . the fun soon subsided when the combined strength of all failed to remove the pot, and a blacksmith was called.
"Historic Jacksonville Cemetery Brings Forth Memory of Early Days," Daily Courier, Grants Pass, April 2, 1960, page 12

Last revised May 13, 2024