The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

The Pacific Highway
U.S. Highway 99--predecessor to Interstate 5.

County Commissioners Are Asked to Provide for it in the Coming Annual Budget--Everybody Wants Good Roads; Let's Have 'Em

    Growing out of the action of the county court a short time ago, perhaps, when it ordered the unmentionable condition of the main county thoroughfare out of Ashland northward toward Talent improved with crushed rock, has come an agitation for the continuance of the improvement northward through the county until the main highway across Jackson County shall be, if not a Roman road, different from anything Oregonians have been accustomed to be satisfied with in the past.
    The project for the crushed rock improvement of the road leading into Ashland from the north is held in abeyance temporarily and perhaps until spring, owing to the unexpected antics of the weather man, who with his freak actions has played havoc with many an out-of-door plan this fall. The county court had arranged for securing a large amount of crushed rock from the Warren Company's plant below Eagle Mills, used in the recent paving operations in Ashland. It was to be gotten out after certain work in Medford was completed, and Roadmaster True had his plans set to go at the work of placing the rock, when all plans of the Warren Company were knocked into a cocked hat by the weather man. It is reported that they have suspended work on their paving contract at Medford until spring, which it is expected carries with it a suspension of the much-needed road improvement project for a like period, unless the county crusher outfit should be called into requisition after the unfavorable weather conditions now prevailing are past.
    Meantime the road into Ashland from the north is as fierce as ever, and, in fact, all but impassable, having been greatly aggravated by the heavy hauling of last summer and fall by the paving company's outfits to and from the rock crushing plant.
    Jackson County has made more progress in road building in the last few years than ever before in her history, notably in the administration of County Judge Dunn, whose improvement policy is being largely followed under the present regime, but there a room for great improvements yet. Everybody believes in good roads. Why not have them as far as the main county thoroughfare is concerned, at least? The county commissioners are soon to fix the apportionment of taxes for the coming year and make up the budget of probable expenses. A good round levy for road purposes will meet with less objection on the part of the taxpayers and the public than any other feature of the budget.

Ashland Tidings, December 6, 1909, page 1

Commercial Club Asked to Participate in Movement by Sending Delegates to Meet Those of All Other Towns Along the Route.

    The Medford Commercial Club, along with other commercial clubs and county courts from Portland to Ashland, has been invited to send delegates to the Pacific Highway meeting, which has been called for 1 o'clock Friday, March 3, in the convention hall of the Commercial Club. Because they are taking great interest in the plan of building a feeder highway between Portland and the sea, commercial interests of St. Helens and Astoria were invited to send representatives. The county judges of the counties between Portland and the sea were also invited.
    It is designed that the Pacific Highway movement in Oregon and Washington shall promote the building of an interstate bridge between Vancouver and the point on the Oregon bank of the Columbia River. To place the necessity of such a bridge squarely before the authorities of both Multnomah and Clark counties, the county courts and commissioners have been invited to come to the meeting and discuss ways and means and feasibility.
    Judge J. T. Ronald, president of the Pacific Highway Association, is expected from Seattle to tell what has been done in actual construction in Washington and British Columbia.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 26, 1911, page B3

Is Completed. Bad Stretches in Medford, Phoenix, Talent and Ashland.
    The completion of the county road from Medford to Ashland marks a forward step in the betterment of the highways.
    With the construction of the asphalt macadam road from Medford to Central Point under way, and sixteen of three miles of road along "Millionaire Highway" and sixteen miles of road now completed in the Prospect and Derby district, there is abundant cause for congratulation among good road enthusiasts.
    But it is one thing to build a good road and another to keep it up. It is one thing to have good county roads and another thing to have poor city roads.
    The road just completed to Ashland, for example, has about a mile and a half which in the rainy season would make the highway practically impassable. These stretches belong to Medford, Phoenix, Talent and Ashland.
    It has been announced that Ashland has already taken action to improve its portion of the county highway.
    Medford, Phoenix and Talent should do the same.
    A road, like a chain, is no stronger than its weakest link.
    The thousands of dollars that have been spent by the county on the Ashland road are little better than thrown away when there are three stretches in the highway which are in bad condition.--Sun.

Jacksonville Post, July 22, 1911, page 1

    The Jackson County Commissioners, at a public meeting in Jacksonville, Ore., on the 4th inst. that was attended by scores of good roads enthusiasts from all parts of the county, decided to call an election to vote for a bond issue of $1,500,000 for good roads.
    This action was taken in the belief that a bond issue authorized by the people of any Oregon county is legal without action by the legislature, by virtue of an amendment to the state constitution passed at the last election which gives the people this authority. As the legislature failed to pass an enabling act, opinion has been divided as to whether the amendment has gone into effect. Prominent attorneys of Jackson County declare, however, that the action of the commissioners in calling for the bond issue is entirely within their legal rights.
    October 2nd was set by the commissioners as the date for the election, and if the issue is passed, as soon as it is legalized, all the county warrants now out will be taken up. Consensus of opinion in Jackson County at present seems to be enthusiastically in favor of the bond issue. So sure are the commissioners that it will carry, that work on the county roads will be continued pending the election.
    Twenty-six automobiles filled with Medford good roads workers went to Jacksonville to attend the meeting, and many others went by train and vehicles.
    The only point on which any opposition developed was to whether bonds or warrants should be voted, and the more conservative policy of deciding to raise $1,500,000 by means of a bond issue carried.
    "I am for good roads," said John D. Olwell, one of the most ardent supporters of a bond issue, in his talk to the commissioners and those who attended the meeting. "In time we shall have 30,000 carloads of fruit in this valley to haul, and without better highways such a crop could not be moved. During the rainy season the roads will be impassable.
    A county with an assessed valuation of $36,000,000 and an indebtedness of only $350,000 can raise a million or two for good roads and never know it. If an individual owned Jackson County, he would raise $1,000,000 for this purpose tomorrow for the simple reason that such work would greatly increase the value of his holdings.
    In commenting on this matter, the Rogue River Courier, of Grants Pass, says:
    "The county court of Jackson Co. has decided to call an election to vote on good road bonds, October 2nd. The amount to be asked for is $l,500,000 and it is claimed that the people of that county will not be satisfied until they have the best roads in the state of Oregon. The order for the election is now in preparation and will be issued as soon as Special Attorney A. E. Reames has the papers ready. It is fortunate that the county of Jackson has undertaken this matter, which enables it to go forward without waiting for another legislature to act in the matter, and it sets an example which other counties can follow. After all, it is the people of a county who are concerned, and they have the power to vote bonds to any extent necessary to give them good roads. Josephine County should take up this subject and ask the county court to call an election for voting the bonds to construct certain much needed roads. Jackson has an advantage when it comes to good road construction, as the court has had the good sense to employ an engineer who has charge of all road work and see to it that up-to-date methods only are used in their construction. If Josephine County should decide to vote bonds it would be absolutely necessary to employ a good road engineer. This county will spend more than $20,000 this year on the roads and, if the work had been done under the direction of an expert, the taxpayers would have received very much more in the way of permanent roads for their money. The great difficulty is to get men who understand the business of road building. The county court has been obliged to employ those who lack every qualification for the work in hand, just because it desires to save money by using cheap men."
    It is a well-known fact that Oregon's roads have been, in years past, the poorest on the coast, considering her resources, but the various counties of that state are now displaying much activity and sound judgment and are in a fair way to show California how to build roads. One thing is certain: Del Norte County may find many things to her advantage by keeping an eye on the progress made in highway construction on the other side of the Coast Range.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, August 12, 1911, page 2

Business Men Meet California State Highway Board and Engineer
at Cole's Station and Discuss with Them Matter of State Highway.
After Luncheon Party Walks to Border Line and Are Photographed
Shaking Hands Across It.

    Oregon met California Monday and shook hands across the border near Cole's station. The occasion was the presence of the California Highway Commission and the state road engineer upon a tour of inspection of the various routes, one of which will be selected for the eighteen-million-dollar highway California is to build from Mexico to Oregon. Those who did the handshaking across the line comprised a hundred officials and citizens of Siskiyou County, California and Jackson County, Oregon. Representatives of both counties are confident from the utterances of the commission that the Yreka-Ashland route will be selected over the Eureka or Modoc routes.
    The gathering was an impromptu one. At 10 o'clock Monday morning, a phone [call] from Yreka was received by E. T. Staples at Ashland, stating that the highway commission would be at Cole's at 2:30 o'clock that afternoon, escorted by a delegation of Siskiyou County people and requesting representatives from Jackson County so that Oregon's claims and promises could be properly presented [to] the California commission. Inside of an hour a dozen automobiles from both Medford and Ashland were on their way across the Siskiyous. At Cole's, an elaborate luncheon was provided by Mrs. Cole and fruit of all kinds was distributed by the Ashland delegation.
    Jackson County's plans for good roads and the story of the million-and-a-half-dollar bond issue was eloquently set forth by Judge W. M. Colvig, Mayor W. H. Canon, W. H. Gore and other Medford speakers, by E. T. Staples and Mayor Neil and other Ashland speakers, and the purposes of the Jackson County court set forth by County Commissioner Geo. L. Davis. The supervisors of the Siskiyou County and several of the leading citizens of Yreka responded, pledging cooperation with Jackson County in road building. The members of the California state commission and their engineer also spoke briefly, and while not openly committing themselves, left the impression that the Siskiyou route for the El Camino road would be selected as the most practical, benefiting the most people, and the best from a scenic standpoint.
    After luncheon, the party walked to the border line and were photographed shaking hands across it. Among these from Medford were Mayor Canon, John D. Olwell, G. L. Davis, J. A. Westerlund, W. H. Gore, W. M. Colvig, J. M. Root and G. Putnam. Among the Ashland contingent were E. V. Carter, E. T. Staples, F. D. Wagner, Otto Winter, F. G. McWilliams, L. L. Mulit, G. F. billings and others.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 17, 1911, page 1  The photograph mentioned was printed in the Oregon Journal on December 8, 1911, page 18.


(Special Dispatch to The Call)

    ASHLAND, Ore., Oct. 16.--Greetings across the state boundary line at the historic old Cole's station were exchanged today by citizens of Ashland and Medford with members of the California state highway commission. The Californians are traveling in automobiles on a tour of inspection of the route of the proposed north and south California highway.
    A banquet was spread under the trees on the lawn of the Cole's hotel, in the heart of the Siskiyous.
    In the speeches that were made reference was made to the old pioneer trail that has linked the two states since Fremont crossed it in 1843, and the Jackson County officials promised that the California highway would be extended through to Rogue River not later than next June.

San Francisco Call, October 17, 1911, page 1

J. S. Howard Points Out Benefit of Locating Asphalt Macadam Road in Straight Line
Parallel to Southern Pacific Railroad.

Cost for Right of Way Would Be Offset by Savings in Building Shorter Route.

    A movement was started this morning to have the proposed asphalt macadam road to Central Point changed from its present location to parallel the railroad track. It is pointed out that this would be a straightaway continuation of Central Avenue and would be over a half mile shorter than the present road which contains several angles. If the road was next to the railroad track it would be without a curve or an angle of any kind and would indeed be a boulevard.
    J. S. Howard is fathering the movement. In outlining his plans, he prepared the following statement.
    To the editor: The county court has contracted to expend $12,000 a mile to make an asphalt macadam road to Central Point. (Good.) Now if the county is to spend that amount why not get the best results possible for the money?  Why not extend North Central Avenue to straight through parallel with the railroad to the south end of First Street in Central Point?
    The following facts are in favor of the change of the road: First, the distance by the present road from East Main Street, Medford to the south end of First Street, Central Point is 22,300 feet or 4.22 miles. The distance from East Main and Central Avenue, Medford, to the south end of First Street, Central Point, by a line parallel with the railroad is 19,500 feet or approximately 3.7 miles, a difference of nearly one-half mile. Now, in good weather there are about 500 vehicles each day passing over the road to Central Point and if the road was laid out parallel to the railroad it would mean a saving of 250 miles of travel each day and save construction and maintenance of the extra road. Second, from the north end of Central Avenue as laid out through the Ish-Gore addition to the city of Medford, to the south end of First Street, Central Point, the distance is 9800 feet or 1.86 miles. This is all the new road to be laid out, and you have only three property owners to deal with. A road sixty feet wide would take an area of 13.40 acres, worth at the most $500 an acre, which would make the cost of the road $6,700 if it had to be all condemned. Now at $12,000 per mile, the saving of a half mile in distance would offset the cost of condemning new road.
    The above facts show that we can get a road to Central Point parallel with the railroad and as straight as an arrow, save over a half mile in distance and have one of the most magnificent drives in the valley, and the ground would be less difficult for construction.
    If any move is made it must be made soon before construction starts. The Commercial Club should take the matter up at once, securing the cooperation of the Central Point club. The automobile club should make a hustle. The farmers clear to the north end of the country would be benefited.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 14, 1911, page 1

Howard Has More Facts.
    To the Editor: Permit me to add a little to the subject of a straight road to Central Point. Since my communication a day or two ago I find that a great interest in the matter has developed. While in a general way we all knew that the county court contemplated improving the road between Medford and Central Point, we never thought that they proposed improving it in the splendid and substantial manner contemplated in their present action. Otherwise the matter of placing the costly improvements on the shortest and best route would have received more serious consideration.
    If a railroad or private corporation had the matter of such expensive improvements under advisement they would investigate every feature of the situation and would thoroughly explore every part of the country traversed to find the shortest and best route before making such permanent improvements. If one-half mile can be saved it will mean a saving of 250 miles per day, counting all the travel passing over the route, which at 5 cents per mile would cost the public $12.50 a day or $4500 per year, or 6 percent on $75,000. These things would all be considered in railway construction. Another item: Central Avenue is already paved for over one-half mile nearer than any other thoroughfare.
    There has never been any revision of the present county road since the early emigration passed through the valley before its settlement in 1846. The requirements of the emigrant travel were wood, water and grass, and these requirements were met by keeping as near Bear Creek as possible. Hence the location of the present county road, unchanged or over 60 years, except where the improvement of donation land claims pushed it out of its general course and made many unseemly angles.
    The "old mossbacks" have been severely criticized by the late, more progressive, element, so now if they are willing to practice what they preach, let them get out and hustle for modern improvements and straight and good roads. I saw the county judge last evening and he said the contract was not fully signed up as yet and that he would hold the matter in abeyance for a few days if our people wished to act. Now you progressive fellows from the effete East, get a hustle on you and show us old mossbacks what you can do.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 16, 1911, page 4

Southern Oregon Counties Want Special Session to Authorize Indebtedness.
Special to the Union.
    KLAMATH FALLS (Ore.), July 19.--County Judge William S. Worden as vice-president of the Central Oregon Development league and E. R. Reames as president of the Klamath chamber of commerce have given their moral support to the movement now on foot by the people of .Medford and Jackson County to have Governor West call a special session of the legislature. They have telegraphed their desires in the matter to Secretary Sawhill of the Bend club, whose organization also favors the special session.
    The purpose of the special session is to take up road improvement matters. Among the matters that would come up at such a session is the introduction of a bill authorizing counties to incur indebtedness for permanent road work, after the approval of such a course by a majority of the voters of the county.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 20, 1911, page 7

    Jackson County will vote next Tuesday on the issuance of $500,000 of road bonds for the construction of Oregon's first link in the Pacific Highway. Thus Jackson County voters have the opportunity to set the pace in Oregon's race with progress.
    If the bonds are authorized, 48 miles of paved highway will he constructed in the immediate future. This stretch of good road will connect with the California state highway on the south; pass through Medford, Ashland and Central Point, thus adding five miles to the total mileage; cross the Siskiyou Mountains at easy grades, and terminate at the Josephine County line. But this terminus can be only temporary, for once Jackson County sets the example, Josephine and other counties will fall in line. Good roads are built by money, but they are multiplied by good example.
    The Jackson bonds should carry by a large majority. Two years ago that county, by a majority of four to one, voted $1,500,000 in bonds, but the proposed issue was invalidated because there was no enabling act. The legislature removed this handicap, and now Jackson is again to the front. Good roads mean something more than talk in Jackson--they mean actually improved highways, greater prosperity for the farmer, larger growth for the cities and villages, more wealth in the county.
    It is noteworthy that Jackson County has combined sound financing with other progressive ideas. The bonds are to be serials; $100,000 will be paid at the end of 10 years, and the remaining $400,000 will be retired in equal installments at five-year intervals. Thus the bonds will all be paid during the life of the improvement, interest will be saved, and no excessive burden will fall upon taxpayers at the end of 30 years.
    The present highway over the Siskiyou Mountains has a 33 percent grade in places; grades on the new highway will not exceed six percent. The new road will pass [omission?] population, and through each township except two. Jackson County was given 25,000 population by the census enumerators; the new highway will serve 19,000 of the people who live either directly on or close to it.
    In the past much money has been wasted on roads. That day is passing. Jackson County's new highway will be constructed under direction of the state highway engineer. Jackson taxpayers will get value received for the bonds they vote, and the dividends returned by good roads are tremendous. They exceed bank stock dividends.
    It may he that residents living off the new highway will vote against the bonds. If they do they will vote against their own interests. Jackson County has been spending an average of $100,000 a year in taxes on roads, and the greater part of the money has gone on the highway it is now proposed to permanently improve. Remove that money sink and annual taxes can go toward improvement of outlying roads. The money will go there, for one good road will demand other good roads. That has been the experience everywhere.
    Jackson County is to be congratulated on her ambition to become Oregon's southern gateway. The 53 miles of improved highway should be completed before the San Francisco exposition opens. Visitors from all parts of the world should be given visual demonstration that Oregon is a progressive state--and there could be no better demonstration than 53 miles of first-class highway in Jackson County.
Oregon Journal, Portland, September 2, 1913, page 8

Siskiyou Highway Beekman's Dream
    "It has been one of my desires of my life to see a fine highway over the Siskiyous," states C. C. Beekman, pioneer banker of Jackson County and for upwards of half a century one of its leading citizens. "Ever since I conducted the express office at Jacksonville in the early '50s and carried millions in gold over the mountains for the argonauts, I have looked forward to the time when the two states should be permanently linked together by a trunk highway. The old trail of pioneer days served its purpose long ago, and the toll road which followed it has also had its day. The time is ripe for the coming of the real highway, one that both county and state can be proud of, and one that will provide a fitting entrance into the most beautiful valley in the country that is the gateway to the finest state of the Northwest.
    "The road bonds to be voted upon September 9 offer a businesslike and practical method for highway construction. I am heartily in favor of the improvement and sincerely hope the bonds will carry."
Ashland Tidings, September 8, 1913, page 1

Jackson County, Oregon, Will Build Roads Connecting with California.
Special to the Union.
    ASHLAND (Ore.), Sept. 10.--Jackson County is preparing to build roads to connect with the state highway in California as the residents voted bonds yesterday in the sum of $500,000 for road purposes. The issue as shown by complete returns carried by a vote of about six to one.
    In all the towns along the proposed route of the highway, the vote was largely in favor of the bond issue except in Ashland, where only twenty-nine votes were cast over two-thirds of the vote. In the remote precincts of the county the vote was against the bonds.
    In the campaign for the bonds those favoring the issue made a strong fight on the proposition of making connections with the California state highway running through Siskiyou County.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 11, 1913, page 1

Route Presents Panorama of Mountain Scenery with Views in Two States.

New Road Will Run Along Skyline of the Siskiyou Mountains.
Special to the Union.

    MONTAGUE (Siskiyou Co.), Sept. 24.--The work on the Pacific Highway in Oregon in Jackson County is under way and the first work is to be done on the Siskiyou Mountains. A careful survey has already been made and an entire new road is to be built, and no part of the present road (the old Dollarhide toll road) is to be used.
    There will be no grades on the highway more than six percent. On the old road there were short stretches of 20 to 30 percent grades.
    The route selected will make one of the most picturesque highways in the world. The road will run along the skyline at the summit of the Siskiyous for more than two miles, with the Rogue River Valley in view on one side and Shasta Valley stretching far to the south on the other side, with Mt. Shasta in all its grandeur forming a background. It is a surpassing panorama of mountain scenery. No curve on the line has less than 150 feet radius.
    The line is free from forest, and snow will not accumulate as it does on the present road. The road will be 24 feet wide and 16 feet paved.
    That portion of the Siskiyou mountains where the highway will cross them 15 in Oregon. The distance from the boundary line to Montague is 27 miles.
    Jackson County was the first county in Oregon to take advantage of the county bonding law. At a recent election $500,000 bonds were voted by an immense majority. The work is to be in charge of the state highway engineers. Until the bonds are sold the work is being paid for by the issuance of county warrants drawing 5 percent interest.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 25, 1913, page 7

State Highway for Siskiyou
    New life was instilled into the business interests of Siskiyou County by the receipt of the news on the evening of Wednesday, the 29th ult., from Sacramento, to the effect that the California state highway commission had, on the afternoon of that day, formally decided to accept, as the route for that portion of the state highway located in Siskiyou County, the survey extending through the Sacramento Canyon via the towns of Dunsmuir, Sisson, Yreka and Hornbrook and connecting with the new highway now being constructed over the Siskiyou Mountains in Jackson County, Oregon.
    The California highway commission has had under consideration for some months past the subject of routing the state highway through Siskiyou County, and to that end an official survey had been made over the route above referred to, and a survey had also been made which branched off from the above-mentioned route at a point between Gazelle and Grenada, and extended along the line of the railroad via Montague to an intersection with the official survey above referred to near Hornbrook.

Blue Lake Advocate, Blue Lake, California, November 15, 1913, page 2

    With the placing of two 15,000-pound girders at the south approach of the railroad bridge the work upon the new trestle required by the county court is brought to a close. The new work is of steel and concrete, spanning the Pacific Highway, which is much broadened at that point by the improvement. The roadway will now be lowered several inches, and a drainage ditch constructed, after which the work train which has occupied a siding here for the past month will pull out for engineering stunts elsewhere.
"Local News Notes,"
Gold Hill News, November 22, 1913, page 3  This must be for the railroad overpass near Tolo.

Major Bowlby Describes Jackson County Requirements.
Pacific Highway Through Siskiyou Mountains
Will Be Hard Sur
faced, Level and Have No Railway Grade Crossings.
    SALEM, Or., Nov. 21.--(Special.)--Major H. L. Bowlby, state highway engineer, returned from Jackson County today with further particulars of the award by the county court there of the largest contract for building a road ever made in the Northwest. The court awarded to the Keasall, McDonald Logging Company the contract for grading 13 miles of the Pacific Highway through the Siskiyou Mountains on its bid of $107,540.30, the estimate having been $140,000. It is provided that the thoroughfare shall be 24 feet wide and that the grade at no place shall be more than 6 percent.
    Major Bowlby announced that there were nine bidders and that competition was keen. The contract provides that all culverts and bridges shall be of concrete. The survey of the route of the Pacific Highway in Jackson County eliminates all crossing of the tracks of the Southern Pacific Company at grade.
    It is expected that the company will start work November 28 and have it completed next July. About 300 men will be employed, and it is planned to complete the grading as soon as possible. One mile and a half of rock excavating will be done by state convicts. Major Bowlby said that the camp would be opened February 1. Jackson County has sold $500,000 of bonds with which to build its share of the thoroughfare, and the indications are that it will be completed through the county within two years.
    Major Bowlby said that bids received for hard surfacing three miles of the highway between Medford and Central Point had been rejected by the court because they were thought to be too high. The court will advertise for new bids and will increase the distance to 10 miles, which will be between Central Point and Ashland. This will make the proposition more attractive to bidders and will be to the financial advantage of the county. It is the intention to hard surface the entire stretch of road through the county.
Oregonian, Portland, November 22, 1913, page 7


  Construction of the Pacific Highway has been officially commenced. The ceremonies of Friday afternoon were epoch marking. They signaled the commencement of the first hard-surfaced link, outside the confines of the cities, of the great Pacific Highway. In fact, they inaugurated work on one of the first, if not the first, hard-surfaced road in the national highway system.
    The group of men who gathered around Samuel Hill when he turned the first shovel full of dirt was a notable one. Mr. Hill, a man of international fame as a road builder, as well as a former railroad head of ability, had journeyed from his home in the state of Washington to take the leading part in the work. With him stood Oswald West, the chief official of this great commonwealth. Major Bowlby, the state highway engineer, who will have charge of the building of the highway, was also present, as was J. S. Howard the father of Medford, the veteran engineer who first demonstrated the possibility of a highway over the Siskiyous which would be both efficient and scenic. Gathered around the historic group were Judge Tou Velle and the members of the country court and other county officials, the mayor and city officials of Ashland and other citizens of Jackson County to the number of about 125. 
    The scene of the ceremonies was just above the junction of the California road with the Green Springs Mountain road to Klamath Falls. The party, which left Ashland about 1:30 in the afternoon, reached there about 2:30 and no time was lost in preliminaries.
    William Colvig, president of the Medford Commercial Club, acted as master of ceremonies, and after a few well-chosen remarks handed to Mr. Hill a shovel, the handle of which was finished in gold and the blade in silver. On the handle was the inscription, "Samuel Hill, Siskiyou Mountain Highway, November 28, 1913," while the blade carried the inscription, "State Highway commission, Oswald West, Governor; Ben W. Olcott, Secretary of State; Thomas B. Kay, State Treasurer; H. L. Bowlby, State Highway Engineer."  "F. L. Tou Velle, County Judge; W. C. Leever, County Commissioner; J. C. Smith, County Commissioner; Keasal & McDowell, Contractors."
    Mr. Hill accepted the shovel and before inserting it in the soil paid high tribute to Jackson County for taking the lead in good road building and informed them that the eyes of the nation were upon Oregon and especially upon the Rogue River Valley. If the people of Jackson County received full value for money expended, then the good work would go on throughout the state and throughout the nation. If they did not, then it would stop. He also highly complimented Governor West and others and paid a eulogistic tribute to the building of good roads, after which he turned a shove of earth toward the construction of the road.
    Following the address of Mr. Hill there were loud calls for Governor West, who responded briefly. Governor West declared also that the success of the good roads movement depended largely upon whether or not the people got one dollar's worth of road for every dollar expended and expressed the opinion that under the "tireless" Judge Tou Velle it would get full measure for its investment. He then alluded to the efforts being made by disgruntled contractors to besmirch the character of Judge Tou Velle and others and stated that he had directed the prosecuting attorney to take the matter up. Governor West declared that he had known for three months that efforts had been made to "get next" the Jackson County court, and that the parties had pursued the same tactics in other places to force officials to buy their wares. He declared no firm need come to the state highway commission and seek business unless their hands were clean, as they would not get it.
    J. S. Howard called the attention of Governor West to the fact that in the past when a melon was cut by the state of Oregon the slice handed to Southern Oregon was so thin that you could read the Lord's prayer through it, and expressed hope that the $250,000 voted for good roads would be more equitably divided. He was assured that it would.
    Bert R. Greer assured the county court of the belief of the citizens of Ashland in their integrity and pledged the support of the community in all good works, after which the party returned to Ashland.
Ashland Tidings, December 1, 1913, page 1

Proposed Pacific Highway to Follow Ancient Survey
    The writer, with probably a majority of the rest of the citizens of the valley, has often wondered why it was that the highway leading down the valley ever made the detour around over the hill north from the Billings [railroad] crossing instead of continuing in an almost straight line down alongside the higher ground to the sulphur springs as is proposed by the highway engineers. A Tidings representative happened to get to talking with Welborn Beeson of Talent a few days ago on the matter and he gave a very interesting bit of history.
    Welborn Beeson, Sr., the father of the present gentleman of that name and of Emmett Beeson, was a surveyor in Jackson County in the early days. He was engaged as engineer in laying out the old county road and his survey was very nearly that of the present Pacific Highway survey except that it went above the springs near the bank instead of below them, and then nearly followed the present railroad grade into Main Street. The road was laid out on that line, and the construction of the road was stopped by an injunction gotten out by the then owners of the Eagle Mill, which it would have left to one side of the main road.
    Mr. Beeson is strong in his advocacy of the line as proposed by the highway engineers and believes that it should be used if the right of way can be secured at any reasonable price. Mr. Beeson characterizes the Billings crossing as very dangerous. Carl Beeson, his younger brother, was injured there a number of years ago when the wagon he was driving was struck by a train, and there have been many narrow escapes.
Ashland Tidings, December 8, 1913, page 1

Rights of Way Come Easy in Siskiyou County State Agent's Report.
Special to the Union.
    YREKA (Siskiyou Co.). Dec. 7.--J. P. Churchill and Solon Williams of the Yreka chamber of commerce have been at the northern section of Siskiyou getting rights of way for the California state highway. They report that the people generally are enthusiastic, and are granting rights of way free of charge to the county. The citizens generally throughout the county are jubilant over the fact that construction will commence immediately on the first unit of the highway, beginning at the Oregon line.
    The contractors on the Jackson County, Oregon, highway have shipped a carload of scrapers and tools to Hilt, and propose to commence work at once in the Siskiyou Mountains.
Sacramento Daily Union, December 8, 1913, page 6

San Francisco Headquarters Are Established by Association
    SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 13.--After spending three months in preaching the good roads doctrine in Southern Oregon and Northern California, Geo. E. Boos, secretary of the Pacific Coast (Tri-States) Good Roads Association, who was elected at Eureka last August, has opened California headquarters at 821-823 Balboa Building. Boos expressed great satisfaction at the number of good, hard-surface roads that are being built throughout his territory.
    "The contract for grading thirteen miles of the Pacific Highway over the Siskiyou Mountains, connecting California and Oregon," he said, "was let for $108,000, to be completed May 1, 1914.
    "The total mileage for the Jackson County highway, fifty-two miles, for which there was voted half a million dollars in bonds, will be completed by December 15, 1914. The grades over the Siskiyou Mountains will be reduced from 30 percent, to not more than 6 percent.
    "The Northern California counties are taking hold well, as are those of Southern Oregon. Shasta County will this month vote $400,000 for roads; Humboldt is considering a million-dollar bond issue; Siskiyou County is right now spending a $50,000 fund for roads and rights of way and will shortly vote a bond issue of a similar sum; Josephine County, Oregon, is petitioning for a $200,000 bond issue; Douglas County is preparing for a bond election, and it is so all along the line.
    "Many districts are building and promoting laterals and links to the main highways. Considering all the various movements, I predict that in 1914 and 1915 more scientific road building will be done on the Pacific Coast than has ever been thought of in the past ten years.
    "I am in San Francisco to boost, for if our association's efforts will be encouraged, I do not see why we should not do even better in Central and Southern California than we have done in the north. We want to strengthen our association with a membership of at least 5,000 by July, 1914." 

Humboldt Times, Eureka, California, December 14, 1913, page 1

C. B. Watson Discusses the Pacific Highway
    To the Editor: Apropos of the interesting newspaper discussions concerning the location of the Pacific Highway southerly from Ashland, I will venture a word.
    First. I have full confidence in the good judgment and public spirit of our county engineer in locating this great highway with eyes single to the accomplishment of efficiency, directness and the greatest good to the greatest number, keeping steadily in view the welfare of the taxpayers in whose interest this great project is undertaken.
    The small section of road embraced in the discussion involves but about four miles in all; each of the three lines presented being about the same in length, the shortest having less than a quarter of a mile advantage.
    I am leaving out the proposition of Mr. Davis as being wholly impracticable under the circumstances. His proposition is to continue the line of the Ashland Boulevard in its straight course southeasterly to a junction with the old Oregon and California stage road and bring the Pacific Highway over it. This would be more direct but would involve a great expense for right of way through the finest farms in the upper end of the valley, to purchase which would require a large sum of money and the construction of an entirely new road for several miles. The people who own these lands have their homes, etc., down on the line of the "stage road" which is the present route of travel with easy grades and good roadbed which can be readily and at reasonable expense made into the highest efficiency for the new highway.
    Neither do I agree with Mr. Davis' view of the scenic value of the route he proposes. It would be better for that purpose to run through the center of this beautiful "upper valley," with the beautiful farms on both sides and a better view of the Siskiyou Mountains by reason of being farther away from them.
    The first proposition in to leave the "stage road" at the Homes place, where the road is already constructed and is good, and enter the Boulevard at its eastern terminus. This would bring the highway over the whole length of the Boulevard and would be a very attractive route. Two objections to this route are made, and not without force. The first is that from the point where you leave the "stage road" the direction is southwesterly until you reach the Boulevard and then almost northwest into the city with a strong upgrade for the first mile and a quarter, then downgrade the rest of the way; and second, the crossing of the railroad is over the track and on this heavy grade one way up and downgrade the other with a curved track on one side and trees on the other.
    The second route is to leave the "stage road" just below Mr. George Owens' place and turn west along the section line between sections 11 and 14 and sections 10 and 15. This line is perfectly straight and comes into the Boulevard at Ashland Street. This route is already established as a public highway and open for travel a part of the way and cleared for the roadbed the rest of the way. On this route the road will pass under the railroad track--where it crosses a draw--with a very easy grade. This route will meet the Boulevard pavement near the point where it enters the city. It will also pass through the new cemetery, with the city cemetery on one side and the Odd Fellows' beautiful site on the other and about one-fourth of a mile from the Normal School buildings. From the point where the line leaves the old stage road there will be a rise from the creek bottom to the bench lands at a grade of 5 or 6 percent for less than one-fourth of a mile and from that into the city it is almost level; no appreciable difference in it saving only a few draws to be crossed, the heaviest of which are already filled and in use. This is the most direct, most feasible and least expensive of all the routes, besides accommodating more people, being directly accessible for those who travel the Dead Indian Road. This route lies through the center of the valley above Ashland and furnishes the easiest and most even grade, and whatever difference there is in distance will be found to be in favor of this route. A well-balanced poem could be written on the scenic features of this route; balanced because your view is on both sides with sufficient distance from the Siskiyou Mountains to give an impressive view of their grandeur.
    The third proposed route is to follow the old stage road to where it enters Ashland via East Main Street. Here again our crossing of the railroad is over the track. The second route above described enters the city limits at Walker Avenue, almost one-half mile east of the Main Street entrance. This third route continues down the old stage road practically in the creek bottom for about a mile below where the second route leaves it. This mile is low with that character of loam sediment over which good roadbeds are difficult to build, and at the end of this mile it climbs to the plateau above, having more of an elevation to overcome than at the second and with a much heavier grade unless a new right of way is secured and a new roadbed made, which if done will have to be cut through heavy sandstone.
    Doubtless interested readers of this know that the valley grows wider for some distance above this city. If a triangle were laid down so as to cover the territory embraced in and adjacent to that involved in these several routes, it will be seen that the one which I have designated as "second'' will run almost through the middle of it, and follows section lines, therefore a straight line. An examination of the land over which it lies shows it to be the most perfect material for a roadbed and is practically level.
    Ashland, Dec. 31, 1913.
Ashland Tidings, January 1, 1914, page 1

    There were days when the roads of the West were all bad, and under the circumstances nothing else was to be expected, but those days have passed away and the people are now demanding the best in the way of roads. Communities responding to this demand will be repaid a hundredfold in population, progress and prosperity, while those who fail to respond will remain stagnant as heretofore.
    Fortunately the good roads fever is spreading in the state. We owe Jackson County a debt of gratitude for her leadership in the great movement and for her untiring efforts to inoculate every man, woman and child within our borders with the good roads bug.
    At present all eyes are upon Jackson County. If the money she is raising through the sale of her bonds is spent in a businesslike manner and a dollar's worth of high-class road is obtained for every dollar expended it will prove of inestimable value to the good roads movement throughout the state. But if, on the other hand, the money is wasted it will prove a disastrous blow not only to Jackson County, but to the whole state.
    Jackson County is to be congratulated upon having a competent county court to supervise the work, and with the usual Rogue River spirit to back it up, success is bound to crown your efforts.
Gold Hill News, January 10, 1914, page 1

Medford-Central Point Road First on Program
    Work on paving the Central Point-Medford road will begin within the next few days and be completed within sixty days from time of beginning. The pavement will be four inches of reinforced concrete with granitoid surface, sixteen feet in width. The work will be done by the county under direction and supervision of the state highway engineers. The base rock and the sand will be furnished by the Medford Concrete Construction Company. The granite for surfacing will be quarried by the county at Ray Gold.
    State Highway Engineer H. L. Bowlby met with the county court Wednesday and ratified contracts for cement and rock. He states that the reinforcement, which prevents expansion cracks, will cost about 10 cents per yard extra, and that the cost of the road will not exceed $1 per square yard, or about $9000 per mile, as against $1.25 per square yard for two-inch Warrenite.
    "The road will be a permanent one," says Major Bowlby, "and nowhere in Oregon are climatic conditions more favorable for cement construction. The cement highway that we will build will be a fine one, for there will be no cheating on quantities. There will be no contractor's profits. The cost will be minimum, and cement roads will enable all the money to remain in Jackson County, when the Gold Hill cement plant is in operation."
    R. E. Edwards of the firm of Edwards & Lazell spent Tuesday visiting the Gold Hill plant and the various rock quarries, where he passed upon the materials and got samples for testing.
    The county court and highway engineer now plan to pave only eight feet in width over the Siskiyous, with eight feet graded on each side. This will cut down the cost and leave money enough to complete the grade through the county.
    County Judge Tou Velle left Thursday for Chicago, where he meets the bond buyers to settle a few points in dispute, and sign the bonds and get the money. He will be gone ten days.
Gold Hill News, February 14, 1914, page 1


County Judge Tou Velle Takes Bonds to the Buyers at Chicago.
   Medford, Or., Feb. 14.--County Judge Frank L. Tou Velle has gone to Chicago, where he will turn over to the bond buyers the $500,000 road bonds voted last fall by Jackson County for the improvement of the Pacific Highway, from the California border to the Josephine County line. The bonds we purchased by a syndicate composed of Wells & Dickey company of Minneapolis; C. W. McNear & Co., Chicago; Weil, Roth & Co. of Cincinnati, and R. M. Grant & Co., of New York. They paid a premium of $8.90 per $1000. The bonds are the first ever issued in Oregon and have been approved by the New York attorneys of the bond buyers. The money will be turned over to Judge Tou Velle on receipt of the bonds.
   Contract for the grading of a new highway over the Siskiyou Mountains, 13 miles in length, 24 feet in width, with maximum 6 percent grade, and [a] cement viaduct over the railroad, has been let to J. W. Sweeney of Portland, a well-known railroad contractor, at an estimated cost of $120,000. Mr. Sweeney is working a large force of 400 men as soon as weather permits.
   Bids for paving the Central Point-Medford macadamized road, four miles long, 16 feet wide, were rejected as excessive in price, and the county will pave this portion of the highway itself, laying four inches of concrete with two inches granitoid surface. If the work can be done at the estimated figure, it is probable the county will build cement road the entire distance, as it will be much cheaper than figures bid on asphaltic pavement. Paving will begin this week and be completed within 60 days from date of beginning.
   The Pacific Highway in Jackson County will be graded 24 feet wide, paved 16 feet, have a maximum grade of 6 percent, no sharp turns and no railroad crossings. If made of concrete, as seems probable, all materials will be manufactured at home, the cement by the new Portland-Beaver cement plant at Gold Hill, the culverts by the Medford Concrete Construction Company, and the rock from local quarries.
   Engineering and construction are under the supervision of H. L. Bowlby, state highway engineer, and Frank A. Kittredge is resident engineer. He was formerly employed in a similar capacity by the highway engineers of both Washington and California, having charge of the Cloverdale work in the latter state.

Oregon Journal, Portland, February 15, 1914, page B8

     State Highway Engineer H. L. Bowlby arrived in Medford Monday to spend several days on the Pacific Highway work. He finds 100 men at work an the Siskiyou grade and 50 men on the Central Point section. More men are wanted on both. The county pays a minimum of $2.25 for an eight-hour day on the Central Point paving work.
    The paving gang are now at work on the curve this side of Central Point. This curve is being paved six inches in thickness and is reinforced with steel rods. This is because the fill is recent and has not had time to settle.
    From the curve south the work is expected to go much faster.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 6, 1914, page 2

(Siskiyou News)
    Noel E. Graves, Siskiyou County highway engineer, accompanied by Division Engineer T. A. Bedford of the California Highway Commission, left for Southern Oregon last week to look over and study the Jackson County unit of the Oregon state highway. They inspected the grades on the Siskiyous now being constructed, and found this portion of the work being handled in a systematic and skillful manner. The road over the Siskiyous will be 24 feet in width and will be surfaced with concrete for a with of 16 feet, with shoulders of crushed rock or gravel. The maximum grade is six percent and the minimum radius of blind curves is 100 feet, while on open curves it is 200 feet. The average cost of grading this section of the road is about $10,000 per mile.
    They also inspected the concrete-surfaced section of the highway now being laid between Medford and Central Point, accompanied by the engineer in charge, and Mr. Graves states that this work also is of a high-class and very permanent nature, but in his opinion is quite expensive in comparison with the California work of like character.
    The concrete surfacing of 16 feet in width and five inches in thickness is being laid in two courses with a very interesting and efficient equipment of machinery and a force of skilled mechanics under the able management and supervision of Assistant State Engineer Kittridge, who has charge of the entire Jackson County work under Major Bowlby, state engineer of Oregon.
    The concrete surfacing, as above stated, consists of two courses, having a total thickness of five inches The lower course, or base, consists of two parts cement, two and half sand or fines, and five parts coarse crushed rock, while the upper or finishing course consists of two parts cement to two parts sand and fine crushed rock and a small portion of lime. The materials are distributed for a mile or two ahead of the work along the sides of the road by traction engine and dump cars. The mixing and distributing of the concrete on the finished road is done by one machine which is run upon a track. This is followed by a forming and rolling machine, also run on a track, which forms and rolls each course of concrete as it is delivered by the mixer.
    The wearing surface is then troweled by hand by expert workmen, after which it is covered with sand and thoroughly seasoned for several days. About 300 linear feet of surface 16 feet in width is laid per day of eight hours, and the average cost per mile runs from $10,000 to $12,000.
    Mr. Kittridge informed Mr. Graves that the grading of the road to the California line would be completed by November, by which time the California Highway Commission expect to have the California highway completed from the line to Hornbrook.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 13, 1914, page 2

    The Jackson County unit of the Pacific Highway is being built in a thorough manner, according to the best modern methods of highway construction. It will be a permanent road and a great asset to the Rogue River Valley. The stability of its construction demonstrates the efficiency and economy of state supervision. A dollar's worth of road is being secured for every dollar expended.
    Contractor J. M. Sweeney, who is cutting the grade over the Siskiyou Mountains for a distance of 13 miles, says his contract is 40 percent finished. Making the usual allowance for contractor's estimate, it may be said that about one third of his work is done. The laying of the concrete pavement between Medford and Central Point, a distance of three miles, by the engineers of the state highway commission will, according to the estimate of the engineers, be completed by the middle of this month.
    In the matter of construction work, about the only criticism which can be fairly made is that contractor Sweeney is not making fast enough headway. He says, however, that from now on he is going to push the work by increasing his force of laborers and teams.
    In crossing the mountains the road runs east of the railroad grade, making a series of loops to the summit, along which it proceeds for quite a distance before descending the southern slope.
Easy Grades and Long Curves.
    The view from this backbone is a magnificent one, rivaling some of the vistas along the Columbia River. One looks down across the pine-covered ridges into the head of the Rogue River Valley on one side and into the beginning of the Shasta Valley on the other. The maximum grade is about 5 percent and the curves are long and sweeping, giving an unobstructed view to travelers for a long distance ahead, guaranteeing safety. The old road over the mountains crosses the railroad track a dozen times. All of these crossings but two have been eliminated on the new route, and these two are under the grade.
    The culverts are all of concrete, and the roadway is 24 feet wide.
    By railroad it now takes three hours to go from Ashland to Hilt, just across the California boundary, a distance of 40 miles. When the highway is completed the trip by automobile can be made in half the time.
    It is expected to have the grading over the mountains finished by fall. The hard surface will be applied next season.
    At the California state line the California highway commission has let a contract to continue the highway on towards Yreka.
    About the only individual in Jackson County who will not be benefited by the highway is L. D. Dollarhide, who controls the toll road over the Siskiyous. When the highway is completed his occupation will be gone. As this is the last season he will have an opportunity to collect any revenue from his road, his toll gate is the scene of considerable friction and has led to controversy with the county court, which lately issued an order instructing him to charge only $1.50 for an automobile. Mr. Dollarhide interpreted this as meaning that he could charge the sum fixed for five passenger Ford cars, but on others he fixed the toll at $2.
    Before reaching the toll gate, coming from California, the traveler is told that he will be taxed whatever amount the gatekeeper thinks he will stand for. These stories are not encouraging travel.
    Some question es to the legality of Mr. Dollarhide's franchise has been raised, and it is possible that a test case will soon be made in the courts of the county. 
*    *    *
    Leaving Copco, we headed toward Ashland, through Hornbrook, where we struck the Pacific Highway. Just as we were negotiating the last pitch on the Dollarhide Hill, about 100 yards from the summit, our automobile stopped. Something went wrong with the transmission. Some of the bumps we had passed over had knocked the gearing out of place. We left the car with the chauffeur and walked to Siskiyou station, where a telegram to Ashland was sent for another machine. We reached Ashland about 9 o'clock that night, and half an hour later our own car came in. The chauffeur had located the trouble.
    The next morning we drove to Medford to view the concrete paving between that place and Central Point, which is being done under the direction of State Highway Engineer Bowlby. En route, as we were coming out of Ashland, Major Bowlby pointed out the spot over which there is a conflict about right of way through the Billings place. At this point the county road makes a sharp turn on a slight grade and crosses the railroad track. It is a very dangerous crossing, as an approaching train cannot be seen.
    Engineer Bowlby's survey calls for a tangent, which will lead under the railroad track, eliminating all danger. But Mr. Billings is unwilling to grant the necessary right of way over his ground.
    Near Medford we made a slight detour to observe a piece of road that is being macadamized under the direction of the United States office of public roads. It does not seem to be any improvement over the old system of filling up mud holes with gravel, and if national aid is to take that form it will be largely a question of pork.
Making a Cement Road.
    In putting down a concrete surface between Medford and Central Point, Major Bowlby wanted to demonstrate that a satisfactory pavement of concrete could be laid as well as giving a market for Jackson County cement. The pavement is 16 feet wide and the shoulders, four feet on each side, are to be of macadam. The expansion joints of the pavement are filled with tarred felt. In laying the pavement the engineers have held the cost down to a little over a dollar a running foot, and by the establishment of a central mixing plant, it is hoped to make a still further reduction in cost. Under the present system, the material is strung along the road and wheeled by hand into the mixer, which is propelled along the road by its own power. Another attachment spreads the mixture over the road to a depth of about five inches.
    Immediately behind this is a huge roll, which gives a one-inch crown to the road. But little time is consumed from the time the mixture is dumped until it is spread, and there is no setting of the material until after it is in position.
    Immediately behind the roll come two men with trowels, who apply the finishing touches. As soon as the concrete is laid a wet canvas is spread over it to prevent it from drying out too fast and cracking. The canvas lies over the pavement several hours. Hydrated lime is used in the mixture to hold the water. It also binds the gravel, sand and cement closer together and reduces the voids, making it more compact. The mixture being used is one part cement to seven parts aggregate. The completed part of the pavement contains no cracks and bears on its surface a refutation of the stories told by those interested in private paving companies. It is being laid at the rate of 400 feet a day.
    In laying a pavement of this character it is evident that it requires great care and purity of material. It is a question whether it could be entrusted to a private contractor.
    It is hoped to have the section completed by the middle of the month. It will not be open to travel until 30 days later, in order to give it time to get fully set.
No Heavy Rock Work.
    The next day we went out to where contractor Sweeney is making the grade over the Siskiyous. Along the 13 miles he has established five camps containing 300 men. One surprising thing in connection with the work of grading is that there is no heavy rock work. There is, however, something more difficult to handle, and that is streaks of gumbo or blue clay, which, on account of its cohesiveness, is harder to remove than rock. When powder is applied to it it only blows out in potholes. It simply has to be dug out by pick. If contractor Sweeney loses money on his contract it will be because of this same gumbo.
    The road is pretty well graded to the summit and Mr. Sweeney estimates that his job, which extends to the California line, is about 40 percent done. He said that he was going to put an additional force of men at work, now that most of his overhead was arranged for, and drive it through before fall.
    Mr. Sweeney said, "I feed good," and he proved it by giving us a luncheon at one of his camps. It was the best meal we had on the entire trip. There was two or three kinds of salads, roast beef, cold tongue, berries, sliced tomatoes, cucumbers, three kinds of pie, strawberry shortcake and ice cream.
    "I find it pays to feed men good," repeated Mr. Sweeney. Even if you make allowance for its being a special occasion, the meal demonstrated that "Sweeney feeds good," and that the men live well for the $6 a week he charges them. The wages paid are $2 per day. For the thirteen miles of grade Mr. Sweeney will receive about $130,000.
"Jackson County Building its Unit of Pacific Highway in Permanent Form," Oregon Journal, Portland, July 5, 1914, page D3

(By Frank A. Kittridge, Resident Engineer.)

    Last July the county court of Jackson County authorized a preliminary survey to be made over the Siskiyou Mountains by J. S. Howard. Later the county court, by formal action, requested the State Highway Engineer, H. L. Bowlby, to take complete charge of all work proposed to be done under the bond issue. On September 9th of that year, the people voted in favor of bonding Jackson County for $500,000 by an overwhelming majority. This was the first instance in which an election had been held for a similar purpose under the terms of the new law authorizing the several counties to bond themselves for road work. The proposition, which was submitted by the county court upon popular petition, was carried by a majority of three to one.
Grades Over Summit
    Beginning at the California-Oregon state line, the Pacific Highway follows along the hillside, at an elevation of about 350 feet above the valley and continues is climb on a 6 percent grade for about one mile. Then follows a mile of road with just sufficient grade for good drainage. Near the end of this stretch of road is a spring which runs the year around and will be brought into a concrete trough at the upper edge of the road for use of teams and autos.
    For the next one and one-half miles the road follows the steep hillside on a 6 percent grade. The curves are all easy and the country open, thus making it a safe route in spite of the steep hillside. At the end of this grade is a bench which is nearly the same elevation as the summit at the pass. The road travels along this shelf with light grades and long easy curves for two miles.
    From this point the tourist is able to look southward and see Mt. Shasta and Shasta Valley in California.
See Two States Below
    At the left he looks down into the depths of the valley almost at his feet and more than a thousand feet below. Here and there the bottom of the valley is dotted with farm houses surrounded by green fields and trees. The sparsely wooded slope at the valley's floor affords good
pasturage for cattle and sheep, thus adding to the rural aspects. From the tourist point of view this is an ideal stretch of road, for he has the two extremes of scenery in view at once--the grandeur of the rocks and cliffs immediately above and below him, and at his feet, a quarter of a mile below, the peaceful valley and the pastoral scene. Across the valley may be seen the long ribbon of steel of the Southern Pacific railway when the sun is reflected as the road winds in and out around the hills in an effort to get to the floor of the valley with as easy a grade as possible.
Cold Spring Water Plentiful
    Along this stretch of road is another spring of water so cold that it makes one's teeth hurt and of sufficient quantity to keep a little stream running during the hottest weather. All at once the pass is reached and crossed and one looks down into beautiful Rogue River Valley--over miles of wooded mountains and cliffs, the floor of the valley beyond with Mt. McLoughlin in the distance.
    The highway follows the ridge for a short distance with a view of both of the valleys--one into Oregon and the other in California--visible. Then it drops and runs down along the hillside toward the railway station of Siskiyou at the north entrance of the long S.P. tunnel. Throughout the distance from the summit to the foot of the hill the grade is between a four and a six percent most of the way. There are no curves with a radius shorter than 300 feet and when the whole curve is not in sight the sharpest curves have a radius of 200 feet.
Overhead Crossings
    On the route it will be necessary to cross the railroad twice--once at Dollarhide crossing and again at Steinman. In both of these cases the highway will pass over the railway on concrete bridges. At Steinman a novel, but very necessary piece of construction is seen, where the road not only passes over the railway but turns three-quarters of a circle and passes under itself. This was done to save the expense of making a fill farther down which would have used thousands of yards of material.
    Two miles more of grade and the floor of the valley is reached and the highway winds amid farm scenes which were seen from the summit 3000 feet above. It leads past mineral springs, famous from the earliest days.
    The road passes through Ashland, a beautiful city at the edge of the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains, well paved and pleasingly situated. At the north city limits the road avoids the new dangerous railroad crossing by passing under the railroad.
Through Settled Region
    A half mile farther toward Medford the road passes between two hot springs which are steaming hot all winter long. It is expected that a sanatorium will soon be built here, tests showing the water to have wonderful health properties.
    Between Ashland [and] Medford the road passes through the most thickly settled part of Rogue River Valley and when paved with concrete or bituminous material will make travel and freighting very easy and pleasant between cities. The tourist will feel himself in the land of wonders, for he has traveled in only a short time from the rugged mountaintop to the beautiful valley of apple and pear orchards.
Many Scenic Glimpses
    About a mile of pavement in the city of Medford, the metropolis of Southern Oregon, will be utilized. Between Medford and Central Point the road has had all sharp corners rounded off. The pavement laid is concrete with granitoid surface.
    After leaving Central Point the road again approaches the foothills [and] passes through the pass. Over the Blackwell Hills there is a stretch of road from which the river, valley land, and orchard form a wonderful panoramic view.
    Farther on the road crosses Rogue River, passes through Gold Hill and thence on down along the river's edge to the town of Rogue River, thence along Rogue River to the Josephine County line.
    It has been the effort of the engineers to so locate the Pacific Highway so as not only to make the most permanent road with the least money but also to take advantage and show off to the tourist travel of the world much of the diversified and wonderful scenery of Rogue River Valley.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 27, 1914, page 8

Pacific Highway Well Under Way
    The Talent-Ashland section of the Pacific Highway is being rapidly constructed. According to the account of a Talent citizen, the grading is now completed, the only thing remaining to be done being the putting on [of] the asphaltum. The roadbed will be allowed to settle thoroughly, and then the asphalt will be put on in the usual manner. Motorists in Talent and Ashland are looking forward to the time when they can munch along the road without watching out for fear of breaking springs or skinning tires.
    The decrease in expense for tires alone will be no small item in one year among the auto owners of the city.
Ashland Tidings, August 27, 1914, page 1

Siskiyou Opens Thursday Next
    The new Pacific Highway over the Siskiyous will be opened next Thursday. The occasion will be celebrated by automobilists, if the weather permits. A great number of cars will leave Medford at 9 o'clock Thursday morning, being joined here by others at 10 o'clock, and the trip will be made in grand procession. It is a momentous event. It will mark an epoch in the Rogue River Valley. Every automobilist should make the trip.
    Take your lunch along. The occasion will be one grand picnic festival. The company will take their lunches at a suitable point on the great Pacific Highway.
Ashland Tidings, November 2, 1914, page 1

The Pacific Highway Picnic
    Only about half of the automobiles that started over the Siskiyou grade today got all the way. Heavy rains lately had so softened the grade as to render it exceedingly hard of traffic. About forty automobiles made the trip.
    The Siskiyou grade is certainly a fine one, and when completed and hard-surfaced will be one of the best on the coast.
Ashland Tidings, November 5, 1914, page 1

Ashland-Medford Highway Opens Not Later than Dec. 1st
    Judge Tou Velle informs the Tidings the Pacific Highway will be completed between Medford and Ashland by the middle of this month and will be opened for travel the entire distance not later than the first of December.
    Between Phoenix and Talent there still is about a half mile to be surfaced, while about a mile between Talent and Ashland is to be completed. The paving has been opened to travel the entire distance, it being necessary to travel the temporary roads only along the unfinished mile and one-half in the two places mentioned above.
    It is the consensus of opinion that the contract work between Talent and Ashland will be more satisfactory to the people generally than the stretch from Talent to Central Point. This opinion is caused almost entirely by reason of the surface. The Talent-Central Point highway has not been surfaced smoothly but is considered by the county board to be more durable and will need less repair in the years to come than the Talent-Ashland part.
    There has been some talk of smooth-surfacing from Talent to Central Point, but this has not been decided by the county board.
    One thing is certain in the minds of all who have gone over the highway--when completed Jackson County will have the best roads on the Pacific Coast.
    The paving will stop at the foot of the Jackson hill until legal questions can be more thoroughly gone into by the city and county officials over the matter of right of way.
    A general inspection of the Siskiyou section of the Pacific Highway took place last Thursday, when about sixty-five Ashland and Medford citizens autoed to the big grade. The citizens went at the invitation of J. W. Sweeney, the highway contractor. It was through the efforts of the Commercial Club and Mayor Johnson that so many autoists were persuaded to go. The roads on the highway was very muddy and many cars got stuck and some turned back without attempting the grade. The recent rains had made the red dirt a continuous mudhole. One car, when being pulled out of a sinkhole, had the whole rear end jerked out from under it. Mayor Johnson [got] stuck with his car coming down the 7-percent grade and had to impress the services of about eight men to get him out.
    But, despite the difficulties encountered on account of the condition of the road, the wonderful work was given much attention, and those who had seen it were surprised beyond measure.
    Some indulged in a picnic dinner on the mountain.
    Those in the party from Ashland were: Mayor Johnson, Prof. Vining, Bert R. Greer, Mr. and Mrs. Benton Bowers, Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Whited, Charles Wolf, D. Perozzi, Emil Peil, Ira Shoudy, Sylvester Patterson, Mrs. Kinsman, S. Morris, Olson Ridstrom, Van Wegen, C. W. Root, Dr. Brower, A. L. Lamb and Mr. Grisez. From Medford there were: Boone Carpenter, W. H. Gore, P. J. Neff, F. E. Merrick, Commissioner Leever, Will G. Steel, Marion Lance, J. A. Perl, J. J. Buchter, Leon Haskins, A. H. Miller, C. .M  Kidd, John M. Root, Walter Merrick, Jonas Wold, County Judge Tou Velle, Peter Kershaw, H. C. Garnett, Court Hall, Ed Brown, L. B. Kent, E. A. Welch, J. A. Westerlund, C. Y. Tengwald, Senator von der Hellen, R. A. Holmes, Mahlon Purdin, Edward Soutter, Ralph Woodford, Art Burgess, A. S. Rosenbaum, H. G. Shearer, H. A. Thierolf, Ben Sheldon, John Bell, Bob Teller, F. A. Kittredge, Fred A. Powell, J. C. Power, Ed Weston, Carl Heilbronner and G. E. Boos.
Ashland Tidings, November 9, 1914, page 1

    In a tour of inspection over the Siskiyou Mountains, taken by a party of motorists from Barron's Station, Ore., into California, in which some thirty-six cars participated, only six cars completed the run, two of them being Maxwell "25s."
    For fourteen miles on a steady climb, with the grade anywhere from 1 to 6 percent, the motor caravan traveled, and the first machine over the mountain on this new road, which will form one of the links of the Pacific Highway, mas a Maxwell "25," containing Judge Frank Tou Velle of Jackson County, Ben Sheldon, George E. Boos, secretary of the Ti-State Good Roads Association and Charles B. Wolf, editor or the Ashland Record. All along the road leading up the grade the straggling machines could be seen coming up, but only a half dozen of the original thirty-six cars which started from Medford and Ashland reached the line that day.
San Francisco Call, December 19, 1914, page 5

Tourist Road Through Rogue River Valley
By F. L. TouVelle, County Judge, Medford.

    On November 24, 1914, paving on the first link in Oregon of the great Pacific Highway connecting San Diego, Cal. with Vancouver, B.C. was completed. This link consists of fourteen miles of new pavement and connects the cities of Ashland, Talent, Phoenix, Medford and Central Point.
    Besides the fourteen miles of pavement, the new grade over the Siskiyou Mountains is pronounced by the few tourists who have been over it to be a boulevard.
    Work was initiated on this tourist highway in July, 1913, by the county court, who believed that the people were willing and anxious to bond themselves for the sake of building a good serviceable road not only for their own sake but for the sake of the tourist travel. The hard work of the campaign in the interest of bonding for the purpose of building a permanent hard-surface road was to convince the farmer and property holder of its necessity for their progress and prosperity.
    It was believed by the county court, and many others of those who had had a large experience in these matters in other localities, that if the one barrier separating California from the Rogue River Valley could be removed, and a first-class road built in the valley, the county would receive an inflow of tourists. Before this road was built tourists came to California and either stayed there or got on the train and shipped their autos to Portland.
    By so doing they passed through the Rogue River Valley and were compelled to satisfy their interest in the valley, which has been aroused by expensive advertising and by the wonderful climate and fruit reports which have reached them, by standing on the observation car or looking through the windows. The progressive people of the valley figured out that these people could be made to travel through the valley by auto, if they would provide the roadway; that the tourists would continue their course northward into this valley, and that not only would their desire to see this valley and its wonderful attractions during a few days or weeks be satisfied, but that many of them would return to invest and make this their home. The valley's climate, her mineral and health-giving springs and her unsurpassed fruit-raising possibilities would be advertised to a great extent among the class who can benefit the valley, and which would be impossible to accomplish by any other means.
    With these conditions in mind the court submitted the proposition to the people for their verdict, and upon September 9, 1913, they declared themselves in sympathy with the court and their progressive ideas by an overwhelming majority, and voted $500,000 for road work. Jackson County was the first county in which an election was held under the new law authorizing counties to bond themselves for road building.
    The proposition as put up to the people was to begin at the California-Oregon state line and build northward through the valley, and with this in mind the county court and the California highway engineers met at the state line and decided on the beginning point. The survey was promptly begun and in November the contract for the construction of this heavy work was let. Actual work did not start until the following March. The building has progressed during the summer, and at the present writing the entire job is complete with the exception of the building of one concrete viaduct over the railroad and the excavation connected therewith.
    Many people who have been over the route pronounce it one of the most beautiful and picturesque trips on the coast. The light grades and long, easy curves of the roadway make it a trip where the mountain scenery can be taken advantage of without the usual danger and fatigue encountered so often on the narrow roads of the mountainous regions.
    Beginning at the California-Oregon state line the Pacific Highway follows along the hillside at an elevation of about 350 feet above the valley and continues to climb on a 6 percent grade for a mile, then runs on an approximately level grade, passing around the hillsides and in and out of small valleys until we approach Bear Creek Canyon. Along this canyon the hillsides are very steep, and as the road climbs along the rocky benches one may look into the depths of the canyon below and at the cliffs towering above. The curves are all very easy, thus making it a safe route in spite of the steep hillside. At the end of this grade is a bench which is nearly the same elevation as the summit at the pass. The road travels along this shelf with light grades and graceful curves for two miles. From this point the tourist is able to look southward and see Mt. Shasta and Shasta Valley in California. At the left he looks down into the depths of the valley at his feet. Here and there the valley is dotted with farm houses, surrounded by green fields and trees. The slope of the valley's floor affords fine pasture for cattle and sheep, thus adding to the rural effect. From the tourist's point of view this is an ideal stretch of road, for he has the two extremes of scenery in view at once--the grandeur of the rocks and cliffs immediately above, and below him the peaceful valley. Across the valley may be seen the long ribbon of steel of the Southern Pacific Railway, when the sun is reflected, as the track winds in and out around the hills in an effort to get to the floor of the valley with as easy [a] grade as possible.
    Along this stretch of road is a spring of water so cold that it makes one's teeth hurt, and of sufficient quantity to keep a little stream running during the hottest season.
    The pass is reached and crossed and one looks down into beautiful Rogue River Valley, over miles of wooded mountains and cliffs, and the floor of the valley beyond and Mt. Pitt in the distance.
    The highway follows the ridge for a short distance with a view of both valleys--one into Oregon and the other into California, visible at the same time, then it dips and runs along the hillside toward the railway station at Siskiyou at the north entrance of the long Southern Pacific tunnel. Many long curves are necessary on this route, but our plan of keeping the curves big enough so as to give a long visible stretch ahead has been maintained. At Siskiyou the road approaches the track on a 6 percent grade, turns through three-quarters of a circle, and follows on down the hillside making a hairpin curve. From this point down to Steinman it is necessary to develop considerable distance and put in quite a number of curves in order to get down on a 6 percent grade. At Steinman it is necessary to make a complete loop and come around under ourselves in order to save a tremendously expensive fill. The highway crosses the Southern Pacific tracks on an overhead bridge built of reinforced concrete, then makes the big loop and comes around under another concrete span, carrying the highway over itself. We have another reinforced concrete bridge over the railway at Dollarhide crossing to avoid the grade crossing. It has been our policy to do away entirely with all railroad grade crossings in order to avoid danger to life. By the building of this new road six very dangerous railroad grade crossings will be eliminated. It is the belief of the county court and State Highway Engineer Bowlby that when an expensive road is being built, and an expensive pavement placed on it, it shall be so located that the people a few years hence will not have to abandon the road because of its dangerous crossings and heavy grades. Considerable opposition has developed to under- or overhead crossings in the county, but it is the belief that the plan of absolute safety to life, and the building for future traffic as well as for the present, will be approved by all.
    Two miles more of grade, winding in and out along wooded hillsides, and the floor of the valley is reached and the highway winds along ranch scenes that were viewed from the summit thousands of feet above. It leads past mineral springs famous from the earliest days. Just off the road are the wonderful lithia springs, hot sulphur, soda, iron, magnesia and soda, and a number of carbon dioxide springs of tremendous flow, now being utilized for drinking and bathing, which form the basis for Ashland's watering resort. The road passes through Ashland, a beautiful city at the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains, well paved and pleasantly situated. With the development which this city has now under way for the springs and summer resort possibilities, she will be far ahead of any other city of her class between San Francisco and Portland from the tourist point of view.
    From the foot of Jackson Hill, at the west limits of Ashland, to the county farm just north of Talent, the roadway has been paved with asphaltic concrete. This pavement is five inches thick and sixteen feet wide. From the county farm on to Medford the pavement is six inches thick, sixteen feet wide, and consists of Portland cement concrete. Also the pavement from Medford to Central Point is of Portland cement concrete.
    The fourteen and one-quarter miles of asphaltic concrete was laid by contract, while the Portland cement concrete, nine and three-quarter miles, was laid by the county and state direct, without letting of contract. This was not contracted because of the extreme amount of care required to put this pavement down right. For instance, the omitting of a bag of cement here and there, or by cutting down the number of turns of the mixer for each batch of concrete, the whole pavement may be ruined.
    State Highway Engineer Bowlby and his efficient resident engineer, F. A. Kittredge, under whose supervision this work was done by request of the county court, have made it not only imperative that this work be done with great care and accuracy, but that the theoretical principles of concrete road building be followed out. It has been their plan to be guided not only by their own experience but also by the experience of those men throughout the country who have been laying concrete pavements for years in other states. By numerous and constant experiments in other states the theoretical and practical methods of road building have been united and developed, and they have taken advantage of this to the greatest possible extent.
    Between Ashland and Central Point the road passes through the most thickly settled part of Rogue River Valley, and now that it is paved makes travel and freighting very easy and pleasant between the cities. The tourist will truly feel himself in the land of wonders, for he has traveled in only a short time from the rugged mountaintops to the beautiful valley of apple and pear orchards.
    After leaving Central Point the road again approaches the foothills, passes over the Blackwell Hills, where there is a stretch of road from which the river, valley land and orchard form a wonderful panoramic view.
    Farther on the road crosses Rogue River, passes through Gold Hill and thence on down along the river's edge to the town of Rogue River, and thence along the river to the Josephine County line. For the last sixteen miles before reaching the county line the Pacific Highway follows the banks of Rogue River, and the trip is one of continual change of scenery, new vistas of mountain and valley opening up with each curve of the road.
    It has been the effort of all concerned to so locate the Pacific Highway as not only to make the most permanent road with the least money, but also to take advantage of and show to the tourist travel of the world much of the diversified and more wonderful possibilities of the Rogue River Valley.
Ashland Tidings, December 31, 1914, page B1

Party of 36 Motorists from Oregon--Only Six Cars Completed the Run.
    In a tour of inspection over the Siskiyou Mountains, recently taken by a party of motorists from Barrons Station, Or., into California in which some 36 cars participated, only six cars completed the run, two of them being Maxwells "25," a splendid view of the scenic features of this region was secured as well as an idea of the new highway just completed on these mountains.
    For 14 miles on a steady climb with the grade anywhere from 1 to 6 percent, the motor caravan negotiated with the two Maxwells leading, and the first machine over the mountain on this new road, which will form one of the links of the Pacific Highway, was a Maxwell "25," containing Judge Frank Tou Velle of Jackson County; Ben Sheldon, George E. Boos, secretary of the Tri-State Good Roads Association; and Charles B. Wolf, editor of the Ashland Record. All along the road leading up the grade, the straggling machines could be seen coming up, but only a half-dozen of the original 36 cars which started from Medford and Ashland reached the line that day.
    One of the gentlemen of the party in speaking to George Pearson Jr., head of the Pearson Motorcar Company, San Francisco, stated that the performance of the two Maxwells "25" won the admiration of the entire cavalcade.
    "The performance in reaching the crest of the new Siskiyou Mountain road." said Pearson, "is another example of all-around efficiency, and is in line with the work they are doing all over the United States today. The fact that so many cars started on this run, and only six finished and that two of these six were Maxwells, ought to convince the motoring public that there is more merit tucked away under the hood of these machines than under any other car selling for as much, or double the money.

San Jose Mercury Herald, January 17, 1915, page 21

    SALEM, Ore., Feb. 5.--House bill No. 390, introduced by W. I. Vawter, and read first time January 29, reads as follows:
    A bill for an act to authorize the highway commission to complete the Pacific Highway over the Siskiyou Mountains in Jackson County, to connect with the Pacific Highway under construction in Siskiyou County, California, to the Oregon state line, and authorizing the highway commission to use funds belonging to the state road fund for such purpose.
    Whereas, Jackson County has expended approximately the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, under the direction of the state highway commission, in partially building and constructing a road and highway to connect with the Pacific Highway under construction in California, and,
    Whereas, it will require approximately the additional sum of one hundred seventy-five thousand to two hundred thousand dollars to complete said stretch of road, and,
    Whereas, said road is a part of the highway in process of construction connecting the highways between California, on the south, and Washington, on the north, now, therefore,
    Be it enacted by the people of the state of Oregon: That the state highway commission be, and is hereby, authorized and directed to aid Jackson County in completing the Pacific Highway over the Siskiyou Mountains, said highway commission to expend from "state road fund" in any one year not to exceed twenty per centum of the amount raised under chapter No. 339 of the general laws of Oregon for 1913, or any other law or act passed in lieu or substitution thereof, and providing for funds for highway construction in the state, the amount, however, to be expended on said highway over the Siskiyou Mountains not to exceed in the aggregate the amount expended thereon by Jackson County.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 5, 1915, page 3

Ah! Girls Find a Rival of Jitney
    MEDFORD, Ore., March 5.--Medford has a rival to the jitney bus which promises to revolutionize transportation in the Rogue River Valley. The rival is the roller skate.
    Several girls organized a roller skating party to Central Point last Sunday, and the affair was such a success that another excursion to Ashland is planned for next Sunday. Meanwhile, orders for highway skates have swamped local dealers.
Tacoma Times, March 5, 1915, page 7

    People who have planned to drive automobiles from Portland to the California expositions over the Pacific Highway this year have a rare treat ahead of them. It has been my privilege to cover the greater majority of the highways within a radius of 100 miles of Portland--north, east, south and west--and the most pleasant surprise of my entire touring experience was in covering the road between Portland and Ashland last Tuesday and Wednesday in order that I might give the readers of the Journal firsthand information regarding the exact condition of the highway between this city and the California line.
    Leaving Portland Tuesday morning at 7:35 in a Buick 37 touring car, and accompanied by Mel G. Johnson, manager of the Howard Automobile Company, Thomas J. Mullin, advertising manager of the Journal, Chester B. Moores, automobile editor of the Oregonian, and Harry (Skinny) Hays, traveling representative of the Howard company, who did the driving in a masterly fashion, we followed up the Willamette Valley, over the Umpqua divide and into the Rogue River Valley to Medford and Ashland, a distance of 343 miles from Portland in the surprisingly fast running time of 15 hours and 29 minutes.
Road 100 Percent Better.
    The words "impossible," "can't be done" and "it's suicide" have been frequent expressions whenever information was asked regarding the roads between Portland and California. Naturally, those of us in the party who had never made the trip left Portland anticipating awful things before we reached our destination. As we rolled smoothly over the roads and mile after mile clicked off on the speedometer and no signs of the "impassableness" appeared, great disappointment began to show on our faces.
    Inquiry of Mel Johnson, who made the trip last September, brought forth the answer that the roads were in a 100 percent better condition than last fall, and that he was most agreeably surprised to find the great amount of road work that has been and is being done along the entire route.
    Even the much heralded Pass Creek and Cow Creek canyons and the Glendale-Wolf Creek divide were found to be in much better condition than they ever have been before. These three points have ever been the stumbling points to an all-year highway between Portland and the southern portion of the state.
Only [a] Few Places Left.
    With the rapid work that is being done on all three, the next 60 days will see very travelable roads over this section. The greater part of Pass Creek Canyon, 30 miles south of Eugene, has been macadamized, and there are only a few places of 100 or 80 yards each that still remain to be put into condition. Great piles of crushed rock have been distributed near these places, and the work will be completed shortly.
    Through Cow Creek Canyon, heretofore the bugbear of all Oregon, a new road has been completed for a distance of two and one-half miles, cutting down the 15-20 percent grade to 8 percent. This will be opened for travel by May 15 at the latest.
    There are a dozen or more crews working on the steep grades between Glendale and Wolf Creek. This road in my estimation is the worst to drive over of the entire route, with the possible exception of a two-mile stretch of Cow Creek Canyon which is very steep, narrow and treacherous, which will be eliminated when the new grade is opened. There are two long up and down grades between these points that are being widened and ironed out, and wherever possible the grades reduced.
Driver Should Know Car.
    However, it will take much money and labor to put the roads over these several divides between Glendale and Hugo, a distance of 14 miles, in condition for all-year travel. During the dry weather no machine will experience trouble negotiating them. The party driving this part of the highway should know his car thoroughly and be prepared at all times to make quick stops. The grades are steep and sharp, and whenever another machine or rig is met, one of the two has to back to a passing point. The most dangerous feature of the Oregon highways is that they are all too narrow. Even in the valleys the roads are merely wide enough to accommodate one vehicle, and consequently everyone has to drive in the same tracks. In this way after a rain they soon become rutty and rough.
    When the party left Portland Tuesday morning it was the intention of reaching the California line by Wednesday evening, and there take the train back that reaches Portland at 7 a.m.
Go on Joy Ride.
    At Roseburg, however, we were delayed more than an hour Wednesday morning in starting. Eight miles out we had our third blowout of the trip, which delayed us some 10 minutes, and a few miles further along "Skinny" Hays lost the Pacific Highway and took us for an eight- or 10-mile joy ride around the rim of the Umpqua Valley, delaying us another 40 minutes. These delays, amounting to nearly two hours, necessitated the abandonment of the trip at Ashland, where we arrived at 3:45 p.m., after a stop of 24 minutes at Medford.
    From information received at these two points, and from a telegram received at Portland Thursday morning from McGee and Murray, driving the Buick car that made the trip from San Francisco to Spokane through Eastern Oregon, across to Seattle, and down the Pacific Highway on its return to San Francisco, the road from Ashland to California will not be in good shape for the next 60 days.
Road at Dunsmuir Bad.
    These two men left Portland with us Tuesday morning and continued on south from Ashland Wednesday afternoon, after we had turned back to Medford to take the train for Portland.
    Just south of Glendale we met a party of five, three men and two women, who started from Seattle to San Francisco, and turned back from Dunsmuir, Cal., stating that the Pacific Highway near that point was in very bad condition and they had abandoned their trip.
    Tuesday we met an Oldsmobile that had come through from California, and they told the hotel manager at Roseburg that the worst road they had encountered was near Dunsmuir, Cal., where the Pacific Highway was torn up. They stated it would be at least two months before it would be pleasant to take that portion of the road.
    It would take columns to describe in detail the highway between Portland and Ashland. The readers of the Journal can feel safe in starting on the trip any time after July 1, providing there has been at least four days of sunshine.
Road Panorama of Beauty.
    Every mile of road that needs repairing will have been worked by that date, and weather conditions being favorable the trip will be greatly enjoyed. The road from Portland to Ashland is a panorama of beauty; you are led through valleys and along rippling streams with everchanging views of orchards in bloom, great fertile fields ready for seeding, stretches of foothills covered  with a thousand shades of green, and here and there a peep of snow-clad peaks and great canyons. These will make the trip one long to be remembered by young and old. Hotel accommodations to all of the principal towns, such as Salem, Albany, Corvallis, Eugene, Roseburg, Grants Pass, Medford and Ashland are much better than will be found in most cities of their sizes, and the prices quoted are very reasonable.
Do Not Fear Road Conditions.
    If you are hesitating making this trip on account of fear of road conditions, forget it! A one-cylinder will make any portion of the route just as surely as the highest priced six, except possibly not quite so fast.
    Possibly the most pleasing and lasting impression of the trip is when you roll onto the hard-surfaced highway at Central Point. Jackson County is to be highly congratulated for having paved the first portion of the Pacific Highway for a distance of 20 miles between Central Point, Medford and on to Ashland.
    Mel Johnson, T. J. Mullin, Chester B. Moores, and the writer returned to Medford from Ashland and caught the 5:30 p.m. train for Portland, arriving Thursday morning at seven. All are of the opinion that the Pacific Highway is in excellent condition for 95 percent of the distance, and highly recommend the trip to any who have an automobile and understand driving same. The time made by the Buick is much higher than the average party wishes to tour. About the right way to split the trip is to make a three-day jaunt of it, driving about 100 miles per day.
"Pacific Highway from Portland to Ashland in Fine Shape," Oregon Journal, Portland, May 2, 1915, page 22

Ben C. Sheldon of Medford, Oregon, Arrived Here Wednesday Night En Route to the World's Fair
    "Driving over Sonoma county's section of your state highway reminds me of our new $16,000-per-mile section of the Pacific Highway, constructed last year in Jackson County, Ore. We spent half a million on good roads last year with practically no state aid. The only way we can make that investment pay is to cultivate the 'tourist crop.' Your section of California should [be] and probably is awake to its possibilities. It leaves new money and takes away none of your own."
    Such was the statement of Ben C. Sheldon of Medford, Ore., who passed through Santa Rosa Wednesday evening on an auto trip down the coast route. He has been sent to the Exposition by his county to advertise the tourist attractions of the "Scenic Loop"--starting from San Francisco, thence north by way of the Sacramento Valley, climbing the Siskiyou Mountains over the new five-percent grade, to Medford, then out to Crescent City and back to the city by way of Eureka, Ukiah and Santa Rosa.
    "This trip cannot be excelled on the continent for variety, scenic beauties and general outdoor attractions." declared Mr. Sheldon. "Its advantages should be made known to all auto owners."
    This public-spirited movement of the Medford residents is in accord but on a far more extensive scale than that of Crescent City, mention of which was made in these columns recently. Crescent City had the plan of catching the summer and fall crop of tourists from the Northwest to the Exposition, while Medford people plan to create a distinct California "Loop," which will grow steadily in importance for years to come as it becomes more and better known.
Press Democrat, Santa Rosa, California, July 29, 1915, page 2

On Paved Highway
    Ashland is at the southern end of 16 miles of paved highway and at the northern end of the Siskiyou drive, extending 22 miles to the California line. The drive is one of the truly magnificent highways of the Pacific Coast, and is being paved from a continuing state appropriation to complete, $35,000 of which is available each year, the first installment being expended this year.
    The road problem has not been serious at Ashland, except for the mountain grades. The land is of granite formation, and roads of decomposed granite wear well and have been made freely by the county and by settlers. For real heavy traffic, hard surfacing will be necessary. . . .

Roadsides Weeds Museums
    Noxious weeds line the roadsides in sections of Jackson County, spreading weeds over the land of the hard-working farmer who keeps his own acres clear of the pest. Regular weed museums exist along the Pacific Highway, even, where nearly half a million dollars has been spent in hard surfacing a main thoroughfare through the county. On both sides of the paving wide stretches of idle land lay as a menace to farm and orchard and garden.
    Jackson County should make adequate preparations to abate the weed nuisance next year.

A. H. Harris, "Special Writer Outlines Community Needs of Ashland," Ashland Tidings, December 23, 1915, page 7  Reprinted from the Portland Evening Telegram of Dec. 7.

    Next week, beginning Monday, has been designated as "Letter Week" for residents of Oregon, and most of our exchanges have insisted that their readers write letters to friends in the East and elsewhere setting out the advantages, etc. of Oregon, with a view to increase the travel of tourists and prospective settlers.
    While the motive is praiseworthy and may result in some benefit to the state at large, it seems to us that the readers of the Post who live in this city, and in fact in the county, can do much more good by each and every one writing a personal letter to Judge TouVelle and commissioners Leever and Madden, setting out in plain terms the need of improving the Jacksonville-Medford road and asking that steps be immediately taken for the hard surfacing of the same.
    Then when tourists and others have come to view our beautiful valley they will find the county seat connected up with the Pacific Highway and easy of access to all, our own people as well as visitors.
    Tell them that the present "chuckholes" in this road are a shame to a progressive people like the inhabitants of Jackson County--a people who have spent half a million dollars in paving a road from "nowhere to nowhere.''
    Will you write such a letter or will you sit still and keep on growling about the condition of this road? Try it once, every one of you. This is part of our letter, and it will be sent to each member of our county court.

Jacksonville Post, November 15, 1916, page 2


Has Finished in Good Shape, Eighteen Miles from Central Point to Ashland.
People of the County Have Spent Money Freely
on Grades Through the Siskiyous.

By J. W. Morris

Consulting Engineer Oregon State Motor Association.

    Medford, Or., March 3.--Jackson County claims the distinction of being the first county in Oregon to do any paving on the Pacific Highway. From Central Point, through Medford, Phoenix and Talent to Ashland, a total of 18 miles, the work is finished. The grades are practically level. The turns are few and far between. The hard surface is good for more miles per hour than safety and the laws of the state permit. If you want a practical demonstration of what paved roads mean to a community, just take a trip down here.
    If you have not the time, go over and talk to the Southern Pacific officials. Once upon a time, the time of mud roads, they had a flourishing motor service over their rails. With the coming of the pavement in 1915, there sprang into existence a line of interurban motor buses, with various and divers "jits" on the side. Now the rail motor is no more. It gave a few dying kicks and then turned over on its side for evermore. The new service is comfortable and frequent, every half hour. The fare is 1½ cents per mile, half the rate of the railroad.
 San Francisco in Evidence
    I find that there exists down here quite a feeling that Jackson County is the Poland of Oregon and California. They look upon Portland and the Willamette Valley as one empire and upon Southern Oregon as another. While the territory belongs to Portland commercially, I am told that the San Francisco jobbers make up to the merchants the small differential in the freight rate. At any rate, the hotel registers show more people for San Francisco than from Portland. As this is the winter season, it is not illogical to conclude that these traveling men from the south are not up here for their health.
Portland Has Been Fair.
    On one point, the one, fortunately, in which the Oregon State Motor Association is most interested, it is agreed that Portland has been fair. That point is road legislation. The people of Jackson County have spent their money like good sports on the grade through the Siskiyous to the California line. And they have something to show for it. With grade crossings eliminated, with 6 percent grades and with easy curves, this part of the highway, when paved, will offer an attraction to the tourist which will not soon be forgotten. It has not as yet reached its proper share of publicity, but for scenic splendor it is not to be surpassed. Coming from the south, the foot of the mountains is reached 11 miles this side of the Oregon-[California] line. Then commences the beautiful valley of the Rogue. Healthy orchards stretch on both sides, interspersed with vigorous alfalfa fields and green pastures. The handsome farm houses bespeak a prosperity which cannot be faked. The towns through which you pass are up to the minute in their improvements. If you stop over, you will find Ashland and Medford supplied with water as pure as that which has made Portland famous. They boast, with justification, that the rainfall is only 21 inches, but I suspect that they have some job on hand to make the traveler believe this of Oregon.
Get the Most Out of Autos.
     Jackson County has 1500 automobiles, and they are owned by a class of people who get the most out of them. I have seen every make from a Lizzie to a Loco. Broadway and Washington is not the only spot in Oregon where you have to keep your eyes open for traffic. If you don't believe this, try going to sleep on Main Street in Medford.
    Several years ago, an automobile club was started in Medford, but it died aborning. Probably just as well. No isolated club can accomplish much. The old Automobile Club of Portland with 600 members realized this, hence its reorganization into a statewide institution. Jackson County will become quite an important factor in the association. They are fully awake to the value of publicity. When they get into harness with the same vim on cooperation they will certainly give a good accounting of Southern Oregon.
Oregon Journal, Portland, March 4, 1917, page B5

    The following story was written by M. F. Duryea, formerly secretary of the Ashland Commercial Club, but now executive secretary of the Moline, Ill. Commercial Club, and appeared in The Road Maker of Moline:
    The Pacific Highway is a great international highway from British Columbia to the Mexican border, passing through the coast states of Washington, Oregon and California. To it might well be applied the advertising slogan of the great railroad system that parallels it for hundreds of miles; it is indeed a "road of a thousand wonders"! Not only does this highway traverse a country rich in scenic beauty, but leading from it are roads of the most magnificent scenic attractions of the United States.
    The touring motorist will find much to interest him as he journeys over this main artery of travel up and down the western part of the United States, for it will lead him through fruitful valleys and thriving towns, along peaceful rivers and mountain torrents, through shadowy forests and over mountaintops and close to snow-clad peaks. Like the kaleidoscope of his boyhood days, each turn will bring before him a new combination in tree and field and sky that makes a picture long to be remembered.
    One of the most beautiful and wonderful stretches of the Pacific Highway is that from Medford, in the lovely Rogue River Valley of Southern Oregon, to Hornbrook, California, crossing the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains. Not only is this stretch of the highway wonderful from a scenic standpoint, it is even more remarkable as a piece of splendid engineering in road construction.
    The old journey over the Siskiyous, on what was known as the Dollarhide toll road, was one of discomfort, as well as danger. It was a "rough and rugged road," with grades as high as 30 percent, that taxed the best of machines. Seven grade crossings over the Southern Pacific railway made it dangerous, for at all of them the grade on rail and road was heavy. The new road, laid out in masterly fashion from the northern slope of the Siskiyous to the California line by Frank A. Kittredge, the engineer in charge of construction for the Oregon State Highway Commission, has no grade crossing, and its maximum grade is 6 percent. The Southern Pacific tracks are crossed but twice on the journey to the summit from Ashland, and in each instance the motorist finds a splendid concrete bridge to carry him over in safety. A fine piece of engineering is the approach to the first of these bridges with a great, broad and easy loop thrown out over the mountainside, around which the motorist may drive at full speed.
    Automobile drivers will discover this new highway to be easy work, for its broad, sweeping curves and light grades do not impose any tax on his strength or nerves. All curves, except the "blind" ones, are built with a radius of 100 feet; the "blind" curves are built on a 150-foot radius. All the curves are slightly banked to the inside for safety and to allow drivers to take grades on speed. The roadway on the Oregon side is twenty-four feet wide at all places, with an increase in width on curves where necessary for safety. On the California side the roadway is somewhat narrower, but the grading is similar to that of the Oregon side.
    The progressive people of Jackson County, Oregon, have bonded themselves for $500,000 for the purpose of constructing a paved highway from the north boundary of the county to the California line. Part of this work has been completed, and the tourist on the Pacific Highway can now speed over a sixteen-foot pavement from Central Point, through Medford, the gateway to Crater Lake, to the southern limits of the city of Ashland.
    The state of Oregon is assisting in the work of paving the highway over the Siskiyous. This will be what is known as a "two-course" cement pavement, six inches in depth, with a top dressing of rich mixture.
    In order not to interfere with the heavy tourist travel over this road in the summer season, the state is laying an eight-foot strip of the pavement first. Later on another similar strip will be laid, making altogether a sixteen-foot pavement across the mountains. The distance from Ashland to the summit of the Siskiyous over the Pacific Highway is sixteen miles, and to the California line it is twenty-two miles.
    Every foot of the journey from Medford to the California line will prove of interest to the tourist, for each turn of the road brings before him a scene of rare charm and loveliness. It passes through all of the famous orchard and farming districts of the Rogue River Valley. The view from the summit, facing southward, is almost beyond description. Ahead, and just to the left, one sees the snow-capped top of stately Mt. Shasta, one of the mighty peaks of the great Cascade Range, glistening against the exquisite blue of the California sky. Overhead, to the east, towers great Pilot Rock, guardian sentinel of the pass over the Siskiyous. To the right, down hundreds of feet, there are the tracks of the Southern Pacific, winding their tortuous way through the Shasta Valley, and the little town of Hilt, that looks like  collection of toy houses. On and on to the south and west, beyond the valley, roll the hills and peaks of the Coast Range and the Sierra Nevadas, covered with snow or "with verdure clad." No man within whose breast there is a spark of love for things that are beautiful, or a reverence for the things that God has made to delight the children of men, can gaze upon this view from the Pacific Highway on the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains without receiving an impression and an inspiration that will last as long as life itself. It is truly the "road of a thousand wonders."
    The people of Oregon and California may well be proud of this highway over the Siskiyous--proud of the change from the old conditions that made the journey so irksome. It is a fine investment, one that is bringing returns in increased tourist travel that will be worth millions of dollars in the years to come. It is a fine investment as well from the standpoint of the pleasure and comfort it will bring to the citizens of Oregon and California, and to the thousands of motorists who visit the Pacific Coast each year in search of health and recreation.
    The tourist who neglects to take this trip--who fails to experience the beauty and grandeur of it--will leave unwritten one of the best pages of the story of his sojourn on the Pacific Cost.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 5, 1917, page 9

State Authorizes Siskiyou Road Work.
    Fifty-nine thousand dollars is available for further construction work upon the Siskiyou grade, and the state highway commission in a meeting at Portland, Thursday, authorized early prosecution of the work on the Siskiyou highway. Work will be started as soon as weather conditions permit, which will not be for at least a month yet.
    At present the highway is graded from the foot of the mountain, seven miles east of Ashland, to the California line, and the road in California is graded on through to Yreka. From Barron's ranch to Steinman an eight-foot cement pavement has been laid, and this will probably be extended to the summit. Last fall the outer half of the road was laid with crushed rock and topped off with fine rock from the summit toward Ashland and several miles finished before bad weather ended the work for the winter. The inner half of the road will be paved. With almost $60,000 available, good progress should be made this year. --Ashland Tidings.

Jacksonville Post, March 24, 1917, page 1

A Three-Percent Grade.
    The Southern Pacific Co. through Fred A. Ricker, valuation engineer, offers the following striking illustration of what is meant by the three-percent grade encountered on its line over the Siskiyou Mountains on the Shasta Route:
    A passenger on the rear platform of a train of ten cars, each seventy feet long, may look ahead and behold the engineer seated in his cab from 20 to 25 feet higher up than the passenger. At the same time, the bottom of the locomotive's driving wheels will be from six to eight feet higher than the top of the last car in which the passenger is seated. This is accomplished by the fact the passenger and the engineer are over 700 feet apart, and there is a three-foot rise in every hundred.

Jacksonville Post, July 14, 1917, page 2

Caterpillar Wheels Are Unable to Travel Over Highway.
    Roseburg, Or., Dec. 31.--The Pacific Highway is now absolutely closed to motor vehicles. L. B. Swinford, a tourist, tried a system of caterpillar wheels to surmount the mud, and after much planning, expense and effort, he failed, and shipped his car by freight. His plan was to use large wooden blocks on the wheels, instead of tires, something like a caterpillar engine. He spent the week in Roseburg making preparation. A few minutes' actual experience in the mud beyond Oakland was enough to satisfy him that his plan was a failure.
Jacksonville Post, January 5, 1918, page 1

    A large force of men and teams has worked through the winter placing crushed stone on the Pacific Highway in the Siskiyous on the California side. The surface is yet rough, but within a few weeks it will be covered with crushed stone, with a surface very much like smooth pavement in appearance and in durability. Owing to bad weather and the isolated location, this has been a difficult piece of work, but Superintendent M. J. Tilly has demonstrated his ability as an engineer.
    Mr. Tilly has other forces on the highway along the Klamath and Shasta rivers, which are maintaining a smooth roadway and widening the road. This portion of the highway is a very good road at present, but the California commission is not satisfied with anything short of the best in meeting the requirements of highway traffic.
    The commission has appropriated for the macadamizing of that portion of the highway along the Klamath and Shasta rivers, and this work will be rushed to accommodate the coming summer traffic.
The Road-Maker, March 1918, page 70

    Judge Tou Velle has received the following letter from the state highway engineer announcing the survey of the Green Springs Mountain road and the paving this summer of the Siskiyou grade:
"Hon. F. L. Tou Velle, County Judge, Jacksonville, Or.
    "Dear Sir: The state highway commission has recently authorized a permanent location between Klamath Lake and the valley adjacent to Ashland and Medford. An engineering crew will commence this work about the first of next month.
    "For your further information, will say that the state highway commission has also approved of the paving of Ashland hill to commence as soon as the grading is completed and somewhat settled. If we can compact this grade sufficiently the work will be started about Jane 15. Respectfully,
    "State Highway Engineer."
Medford Mail Tribune, March 23, 1918, page 4

   Engineer Balser is here to begin the work of hard surfacing the Ashland hill. The state will do the work and has shipped the necessary machinery to Ashland. Two trucks are also on the way down from Salem and the work will be pushed to completion. It is also hoped by the highway commission the government will allow them to issue $500,000 in bonds so they can finish macadamizing the Siskiyou Mountains before winter.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 14, 1918, page 2

    County Judge Gardner, County Commissioners Owen and Owens and W. H. Gore, who was chairman of the House good roads committee in the recent legislature, arrived home this forenoon from Portland quite well pleased with their conferences with the state highway commission and government forestry and post road officials, and with the utmost confidence that government and state aid will be forthcoming for the construction of a highway between Medford and Eagle Point, and another highway from Jacksonville to the Blue Ledge mine.
    The visit of the Jackson County delegation was prolific in good omens for the speedy construction of the Pacific Highway work in the county already planned and for the proposed new highways.
    One of the main purposes of the visit was to take up again with the state highway commission the new highway construction work already approved by the commission in the absence from the state of Simon Benson, the chairman of that body. With Mr. Benson present and giving his unqualified endorsement the commission reaffirmed its decision on Jackson County work.
Let Contract April 15
    Then the commission announced that it would let the contract for the construction of the new highway section between Central Point and the Gold Hill bridge on April 15, and that as soon as the weather  permitted the work of paving the highway over the Siskiyous would be commenced. Bids for grading and paving of the highway between Ashland and the foot of the Siskiyous would soon be call[ed] for, it was also announced, and further that soon would be issued a call for proposals for grading construction of the highway between Ashland and Klamath Falls over Green Spring Mountain, and that the Jenny Creek section, which is the hardest part of this road, will be undertaken first and would be completed this year.
    The Jackson County men then put to the state highway commission and Engineer L. I. Hewes of the Forestry Aervice, in informal conferences, the two proposals for seeking state and government aid in constructing the proposed Eagle Point and Blue Ledge roads as post roads. The proposal for the Medford to Eagle Point road was for a 16-foot highway with two feet on the outside of macadam, the county to pay 23 percent of the cost, the state 25 percent and the government 50 percent.
    The Blue Ledge highway proposal, of which the cost is estimated at $54,000, provides for the sharing [of] the cost of construction between county, state and government on the same basis as the Eagle Point road. 
Outlook Favorable
    While the highway commission has taken no formal action as yet on the two proposals its members informally expressed their approval, and engineer Hewes not only regarded the proposals with favor but stated that there was no doubt of the government aid being forthcoming if the highway commission endorsed the projects.
    Furthermore, a telegram was received by the commission yesterday from Senator McNary at Washington with regard to the Medford to Prospect section of the Crater Lake road, saying that the government bureau of public roads is willing to do its part if the project is designated by the state highway commission. Secretary Steele of the Medford Commercial Club received a similar telegram from Secretary McNary.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 28, 1919, page 6

    The first car over the Siskiyous from California this year arrived in Medford yesterday, the journey from Dunsmuir, Calif., taking three days. Eugene Crandall, editor of the Calgary "Motors and Motoring," drove the car, being en route from Los Angeles, California where he spent the winter, to his home. The road is closed between Redding and Dunsmuir, but construction work has started and reports in Redding were to the effect that the road would be open about May 1st. Mr. Crandall shipped his car to Dunsmuir and then motored to Hilt. The other side of the mountain he reports in very bad condition, it being necessary to shovel through drifts mile after mile, but his car has made a path and if there is no more snow the only difficulty will be a landslide two miles from the summit on the California side, where a portion of the road has almost disappeared and Mr. Crandall nearly lost his car. A temporary bridge in his opinion will have to be built here, and he believes it will take a week to make this portion of the highway passable.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 3, 1919, page 4

    At 3:30 yesterday afternoon J. A. Curry and Joe Harrell in a Mitchell Six made the first attempt to get to Hilt over the Siskiyous [this year]. The going was good until they got well up on this side of the mountain, where they encountered a sink hole about six feet deep, where the only way to pass was to take the bank on the other side of the road. This they did successfully. After they had reached a point about a mile from the summit another difficulty in the way was a slide which placed a large boulder in the road. Getting around this consumed some of their time but plowing through the mud and snow they passed over the summit and arrived at Hilt after getting through several slides on the other side.
    At 6:30 p.m. they started back for Medford and Joe says the way that Mitchell ate through the snow was marvelous.
    Coming down on this side of the summit they found a Cadillac and a Cole Six stuck in a snow slide, and after pulling the Cadillac out the Cole was able to get through the road thus cleared.
    There was much brush and poles used by the parties from California who came over in the morning.
    The trip is at this time a dangerous one, but in a week or ten days the road should be open for general traffic so the parties who made the trip report, after arriving home at 9 o'clock last night.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 4, 1919, page 3

Siskiyou Road Is Open
    Ashland, Or., April 27.--The Pacific Highway from Ashland across the Siskiyou Range to the California line is open for travel. Road Supervisor True, with a crew of men, inspected the road last week and found snow gone from the highway. The heavy gravel slides have been removed, and the roads are drying fast.
Jacksonville Post, May 3, 1919, page 1

    County Judge Gardner arrived home this morning from Portland, where he attended the state highway committee session Tuesday at which bids were opened for Pacific Highway construction in this county, and brought the news that the commission has definitely decided to carry out its original plan of constructing the highway through Gold Hill, and pay no further attention to the protest that had been entered against this route.
    Judge Gardner says that yesterday seven bids were opened for the Pacific Highway construction from Gold Hill to the county line, and two bids for the paving of the highway between Ashland and the top of the Siskiyous. No effort was made yesterday to figure up the bids to see which was lowest, and the successful bidder may not be chosen for a day or two, but the Judge says that unlike the first bids submitted some time ago on Jackson County highway work these were regarded as very reasonable.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 7, 1919, page 7

    From end to end, the Pacific Highway will be paved a width of 16 feet wide. This was the decision of the state highway commission yesterday when two contracts awarded on a basis of a 12-foot pavement were changed to a 16-foot pavement. While a 16-foot pavement, with two-foot shoulders on each side, has been the standard for the state construction, two stretches were narrowed for financial reasons.
    Oskar Huber, who has the Siskiyou section, offered to reduce his bid $500 a mile, or a total of $6,000, if the commission would broaden the 12-foot road to 16 feet. This proposition was accepted, on motion of  Commissioner Booth, who explained that the finances were such that a 16-foot pavement could be laid, based
on the prices which have been submitted by contractors since the April meeting. Bids opened yesterday were lower than those received in April, and the same satisfactory trend was observed in the big batch of contracts let in the first May meeting.
    A four-mile section between Wolf Creek and Grave Creek had been awarded to the Warren Construction Company on a 12-foot basis. A. J. Hill, representing the company, was summoned and asked what he would do if the road were widened four feet. He agreed to knock off $250 a mile for the four miles, and Commissioner Thompson moved that this section be made standard width, these sections broadened to standard, [and] the entire Pacific Highway will be a 16-foot road from the California line to Portland. The 16-foot width has been adopted on the lower Columbia Highway.--Portland Oregonian.
    W. H. Gore worked for this extension on the Pacific Highway to 16 feet while in Portland, and H. L. Walther was also influential in securing the change by securing petitions favoring the same from prominent Medford citizens.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 29, 1919, page 3

    PORTLAND, June 16.--From Portland to the California line, the Pacific Highway will be graded, rocked or paved by the end of the year.
    This is the information brought back by Highway Commissioner W. L. Thompson today after a trip over the highway with commissioners Benson and Booth. Thompson arrived Saturday morning, Mr. Benson following later and Mr. Booth stopping off at Eugene. The trip of inspection will have the result of speeding up work along the entire stretch of highway.
    "What will interest the public more than any other phase of our trip," said Thompson, "is the fact that the Pacific Highway will soon be open all the year; that by January 1 it will be passable from end to end, and that Oregon will have its link finished before California can build to meet us.
    "In short, the Pacific Highway is rapidly approaching completion. The commission desires it to be as safe as possible, which is the reason for the policy of elimination of grade crossings.
    "This will be an all-year road," explained Commissioner Thompson, "and the commission will take up its development when the country is ready to speed money for cooperation. Government money will also go into the road as it will be a cooperative project with the state aiding.
    "We looked over the location of the Crater Lake-Medford road," continued the commissioner, "but no action was taken. The location is now under consideration and before a decision is made the government survey will be studied."
Medford Mail Tribune, June 16, 1919, page 6

    K. E. Hodgman, district engineer of the Pacific Highway, has returned from Salem and says the commission has decided not to pave the section of the Crater Lake Highway from Medford to Eagle Point this year but will make permanent surveys of the Crater Lake Highway, and locate the same from Medford to Prospect, via Eagle Point, which has not been done, and will first lay macadam and then pave afterwards.
    This means the Eagle Point section of the road will not be paved this year and that no macadam will be laid on that road this year. This road was all arranged to be paved to Eagle Point this year and the commission was ready to advertise for bids, but a row was raised among our own people with the result of losing the work this year.
    The Clark-Henery Company is laying about 800 feet of base and 1200 of macadam daily on the Gold Hill-Central Point section of the Pacific Highway.
    Schell and Campbell are making splendid progress on the highway from Grants Pass to Gold Hill and have several miles completed.
    Oscar Huber is getting everything in readiness and will soon be laying pavement over the Siskiyous.
    Mr. Gilbisch., contractor for grading one section of the Green Springs Mountain road is at work. The
county court has the other section and hopes to get started soon.
    Brown, von der Hellen & Natwick, contractors, are making the dirt fly on the Prospect-Crater Lake road.
    Mr. Hartman, of Jacksonville, has the contract for the two small trestles between Central Point and Gold Hill. Mr. Parker is building the concrete bridge across the Rogue River at Rock Point.
    All this road activity furnishes employment for lots of labor and in a week or two twice as many men will be at work on the roads.

Medford Mail Tribune, July 16, 1919, page 6

    Bids for much other work were to be considered at a subsequent meeting, including regrade work at Smith Hill, in Josephine County; the paving of that part of Pacific Highway extending from the Oregon-California line on the summit of [the] Siskiyou Mountains northerly to the foot of the mountains; grading of Pacific Highway between Oakdale and Myrtle Creek, the county of Douglas offering to pay $10,000, the state paying the rest; grading and paving the highway between Albany and Tangent, in which Linn County is to cooperate with the state; paving 7 miles of highway from Jefferson northward; closing up unpaved gaps on Pacific Highway in Clackamas County; improvement of highway near Gold Hill in Jackson County; grading 14.1 miles of road in Columbia County between Scappoose and McBride's crossing; paving 3 miles of highway in Wasco County, between The Dalles and Seufert.
"Work Progresses in Oregon," The Road-Maker, Excavator and Grader, August 1919, page 64

    Good roads and Medford are terms synonymous, although to the autoist the connection is perhaps not perfectly clear. A search into the records will indicate just how potent a factor Medford is in the good roads program now being carried out in Oregon.
    From this city are handled details of work being done by the state highway commission in Jackson, Josephine and a portion of Douglas counties.
    Headquarters for a force of sixty-seven engineers and assistants are located in the Medford National Bank in this city, under the general direction of K. E. Hodgman, division engineer, a very competent and efficient engineer who is always on the job.
    Surveys have been tabulated and maps made here for road work in this district now under contract at a total of $2,728,288.45. This includes Tolo, Rock Point and other bridges and culverts.
    Four great highways are included in those under jurisdiction of the Medford office, the total length of which is 286 miles. The Pacific Highway from the Cow Creek Canyon to the California line covers 116 miles. The Ashland-Klamath Falls highway from several miles beyond Ashland extends to Keno for a distance of 43 miles. The Medford-Crater Lake Highway from Medford to the national park boundary totals 70 miles. The Grants Pass-Crescent City highway from Grants Pass to the California line measures 47 miles.
    Jackson County has completed eighteen miles of paved roads; has 68 miles under contract for grading preliminary to paving; 41¾ miles under contract for paving.
    The total of the contracts for road work now under way in Jackson County is $1,891,383.00.
    Of the paving work now in progress on the Pacific Highway Oscar Huber has completed about four of the twenty-one miles he has contracted for from Ashland to the California line. They will complete two or three miles more this year.
    Clark & Henery have completed seven of the nine miles from Central Point to Gold Hill and will complete their work this fall. Mr. Shell, who has the contract from Gold Hill to the Josephine County line, will not lay any pavement in this county this year but will complete the work from Grants Pass to the Jackson County line this year.
    On the Green Springs mountain road A. Giebisch has two steam shovels at work making good progress grading, and the Jackson County contract has two crews at work from the mountain to Jenny Creek.
    Brown & von der Hellen are making splendid headway on the Crater Lake road, clearing and grading from Prospect to Central Point.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 13, 1919, page 12

As Good a Highway as Can Be Found in the Entire State of Oregon
    The new stretch of paved highway is now open to the public the entire distance from Central Point to Gold Hill, with the exception of a short stretch at Tolo, where the overhead crossing is not yet completed.
    Next year the space between Gold Hill and the Josephine-Jackson County line will be paved and the highway over the Siskiyous completed, and then the trunk highway in Jackson County will be second to none in the West.
    Road building has long been the most serious question before the county courts. No road will be lasting, no matter what its construction, unless it is built of a hard surface. The Jackson County court is deserving of praise for taking advantage of the proffer of state aid in highway construction. No better investment could be made nor could anything be done to ensure better development of Jackson County than to build good roads of lasting qualities.
    One road in this county is still deserving of attention, a road that is traveled as much as any in the county. That road is the Jacksonville-Medford road, a stretch of about six miles, but still one of the most important in the entire county.
    It is quite likely that the road between this place and Medford will receive prompt attention in the spring, especially so if the proposed bond issue is put across.
    The bond issue as we are given to understand would raise a certain amount of money in Jackson, say a million dollars. Then the state would cover our million and the federal government would put up an additional two million; making a total of four million dollars spent for roads in Jackson County, at a cost of one million to us.

Jacksonville Post, November 22, 1919, page 1

    George T. Collins arrived home Sunday by train after having made a trip in an auto to Redding last Saturday, which will be good news to a number of people in the valley who are contemplating a trip south but have been deterred from doing so for fear that the roads were impassable between Ashland and Redding.
    "As I have occasion to go south about February 1st and found it would cost about $65 to ship a light car, about 2,500 pounds, from Medford to Redding (I believe several have shipped their cars recently as far as Redding), I thought I would take a day off and see how far I could get, so I left Medford at 5 a.m. on Saturday in a light Oakland six made Yreka in three hours and Redding in four more without any trouble whatever--did not even try to hurry," said Mr. Collins.
    "The road over the Siskiyous has been blocked by a slide at Bear Gulch near the California line, but it was possible to get through with care. The fog early in the morning bothered more than the road did. Oskar Huber's men were ready to blast a steep hillside of solid rock at that point to prevent further slides and I expect that a few hours after I got through the road would be blocked again for a few days.
    "There is nothing that can make the Siskiyou road impassable excepting deep snow or slides. Rain does not affect it at all as the base is hard all the way. From the California line to Yreka is excellent; from Yreka to Gazelle the same; from Gazelle to Weed, a little bumpy but perfectly dry, and from Weed to Dunsmuir is very good.
    "The Sacramento canyon from Dunsmuir to Redding has been the subject of more misinformation than any other piece of road on the coast. It is always reported as impassable, and wild stories are always circulating about the terrible detours, mud holes, etc. I made three round trips over this road last year and always found it good, and when I went through Saturday it was better than I have ever seen it.
    "From Dunsmuir to Lamoine, which is about a third of the way, the road was muddy, but no more so than the road from Medford to Jacksonville, and a much better road. From Lamoine to Redding the road is a boulevard, hard, smooth and dry. The grading is all completed, all the bridges are in and open to traffic, and not a detour the entire distance. Road men are working all the time, rolling, scraping, filling in chuckholes as fast as they appear, etc., for the entire 68 miles.
    "It was foggy and raining all the way when I went through, but if it rained continuously for a month it would not hurt that road a particle, as it is so well graded and drained. I did not use chains anywhere between Medford and Redding.
    "Anyone who can drive at all can make this trip in perfect safety. I would not hesitate to start from Dunsmuir for Redding at midnight on a bicycle with one hand tied behind me."
Medford Mail Tribune, January 26, 1920, page 3

    The work of closing the gap in the pavement on the Pacific Highway between the Josephine County line and Gold Hill is expected to progress rapidly, and it is confidently predicted that within a few months the highway will be paved all the way from the top of the Siskiyous to Grants Pass. The rock crusher that has been employed by the Schell company in the mining operations southeast of Grants Pass is being moved to Foots Creek, where rock will be crushed for the road building operations of the company in Jackson County.
"Local Briefs," Medford Mail Tribune, February 19, 1920, page 2

    Excellent progress is being made on the various paving contracts on the Pacific Highway in Southern Oregon and on grading contracts on various market roads.
Hot Stuff Crew Moves
    The "hot stuff" crew of the Oskar Huber company is moving their base of operations on the Siskiyou grade from the lower level, where they have completed their work to the vicinity of Steinman station. They this week "hooked up" the stretch from the old Kingsbury place to Barron's with the stretch from Barron's to Steinman. About three-quarters of a mile remain to be paved to hook up the Steinman stretch with the completed pavement which is laid as far as Siskiyou.
Close Lower Mixing Plant
    The mixing plant located where the Dead Indian road turns off will be temporarily shut down and the plant at the summit opened up to supply the hot stuff for the paving on the upper levels. The highway from Siskiyou to within two miles of the California line remains to be paved and will be completed by early fall.
    The plant at the summit will then be shut down and the valley plant reopened. The lower plant has exhausted the piles of material which quarry and sand-pit crews have been accumulating for the past year. By the time the work near the summit is finished there will be enough material on hand to run the lower plant again and the portion between Owens ranch and the Kingsbury place will be paved.
    Due to the fact that the Talent irrigation ditch dam will back water over the Pacific Highway near the Dodge place, a new grade will be established for a stretch of about three-quarters of a mile, and it may not be possible to pave this portion before spring. If the weather holds good into late fall all but this stretch may be completed.
Overhead Crossing
    Work on the overgrade crossing south of Ashland is being pushed. Tourists have been detoured by the Boulevard route which is in good shape.
North of Ashland
    North of Ashland the pavement is completed to Gold Hill and will be done in a week or ten days from Grants Pass south to Rogue River. The Rogue River-Gold Hill stretch will probably be completed before the Siskiyou section is completed, and with good luck the Pacific Highway will be practically complete from Grants Pass to the California line by late fall.
"Finish Paving Barron Sector," Weekly Ashland Tidings, August 4, 1920, page 2

    In order to make a solid road in sticky, we have to take away the sticky about three feet deep and replace it with solid material such as rock gravel which will stand up during the rainy weather. It is hard enough to build a good concrete road on free soil, which you will notice by taking a ride over the Pacific Highway from Medford to Phoenix. You will notice a crack an inch wide crooked like a snake's trail, all along through the center of the highway. I just saw it with my own eyes yesterday and saw them repair it. I went as far as Phoenix and I don't think I ever lost sight of that crack in the road.
The Crater Lake Highway," C. Engelhardt, Medford Mail Tribune, September 21, 1920, page 5

    RIVERSIDE--After several months of inactivity work has been resumed on the highway between the Riverside store and Birdseye Creek bridge. The rock crusher at the forks of Foots Creek has started operations and the road from that place to the store is being put in condition for hauling the rock. It is hoped that the weather will be favorable for a rapid completion of the work.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 5, 1921, page 3

    District Engineer Hodgman reports that Shell & Calvert have resumed paving near Foots Creek, between Gold Hill and Rogue River. There is a five-mile strip to complete paving between Medford and Grants Pass, which should be finished in August. Preparations are being made in the Siskiyous to begin work as soon as the road will take paving. There are only 2½ miles to pave between Ashland and the California line.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 1, 1921, page 8

    ASHLAND, April 6.--The middle of the month will witness Pacific Highway paving operations resumed in this locality. Preliminaries have been under way for some time past. Expert mechanicians are "tuning" the big auto trucks, and equipment in general is being gotten in readiness, notably the rock crusher on the summit. Two and a half miles is the extent of work to be completed in order to finish the job intact up to the California line from this city. This stretch is not continuous, comprising several units. There also remains the overhead crossing, east of town, to pave, the superstructure having undergone the settling process the past winter, and it is needless to add that this ordeal was a severe one in view of the rainy season and washouts. The Oskar Huber offices in city hall, also the state highway engineer's headquarters in Pioneer Block, are already assuming the busy attitude indicative of something doing.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 6, 1921, page 6

    The news will be welcomed by many autoists that E. R. Jones, now residing in Ashland, is going to build a road house on top of the Siskiyou Mountains and will handle everything to accommodate the tourists including gasoline, oils, cold drinks, tobaccos, eats, etc. He is planning on serving quick-order lunches. The building will also be equipped with pool tables and places of amusement, a rest room for the ladies, etc. It is quite an undertaking and if Mr. Jones' plans all work out all right it will be an up-to-date place of business and a big drawing card for autoists. He will begin the work at once.
"Build a Tourist Road House on Top Siskiyous," Medford Mail Tribune, April 13, 1921, page 3

    ASHLAND, Aug. 1.--(Special.)--It is definitely established that the Pacific Highway unit, from Ashland to the California line, 21 miles in extent and completed, has cost $800,000. The paving on the mountain section of this unit is standard width of 16 feet "in the clear" and 18 feet round the curves, and it is mostly all curve. In the meantime the construction company is finishing up the odds and ends on the big job, making it first class in every detail.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 1, 1921, page 3

    SALEM, Ore., Aug. 18.--Bids for the improvement of approximately 55 miles of highway and construction of several bridges at an aggregate cost of more than $1,000,000 will be considered at a special meeting of the state highway commission in Portland, Aug. 30.
    Thirteen counties in the state will be affected by the proposed road improvements, while bridges will be constructed in six counties.
    It was announced at the highway commission offices today that an effort will be made to get many of the contracts under way this fall.
    The proposed work in Southern Oregon is as follows:
    Jackson and Klamath counties--Ashland-Klamath Falls highway Jenny Creek-Hayden section, two units, 14.3 miles, grading.
    Jackson County--Pacific Highway Ashland-Talent section, widening present roadbed.
    Pacific Highway, Central Point-Gold Hill section, widening present roadbed.
    Josephine County--Pacific Highway, Wolf Creek-Grave Creek section, widening roadbed.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 18, 1921, page 4

Weekly Report on Pacific Highway
    To the Editor:
    As to the condition of the Pacific Highway between Roseburg and the California line as of August 21, beg to report as follows:
    Roseburg-Myrtle Creek, 20 miles--Paving in progress immediately south of Roseburg; detours used when available; traffic is allowed to pass at all hours.
    Myrtle Creek-Canyonville, 10 miles--Take detour via Riddle, which is rough and slow.
    Canyonville-Galesville, 11 miles--Good macadam.
    Galesville-Wolf Creek, 14 miles--Paving under way at both ends; traffic passed at all hours.
    Wolf Creek-Grave Creek, 5 miles--Paved.
    Grave Creek-Pleasant Valley, 18 miles--Over Smith Hill; macadam now completed.
    Pleasant Valley-Grants Pass, 10 miles--Macadam now completed.
    Grants Pass, through Medford, Ashland to California line, 65 miles--Paved.
Medford-Crater Lake Highway.
    Two routes are being used, one via Central Point, Bybee Bridge, Trail and McLeod to Prospect, the other via Eagle Point, Reese Creek school house, Derby to McLeod and Prospect. Advised to use the route via Trail.
    Division Engineer.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 20, 1921, page 4

    A. E. Shearer and G. O. Brandenburg, representatives of the Oregon State Motor Association, stopped in the city last night on their way back to Portland from Ashland. They are making a campaign for membership throughout the state and are also marking the Pacific Highway so that it can be recognized.
    They have put up temporary cardboard signs, which they hope the highway commission will remove and replace with permanent ones. The membership of the association, until recently, has been only seven or eight hundred, which is a small number considering that there are 85,000 pleasure cars in the state. The association is now somewhat larger, but not large enough. Medford is fairly progressive in this matter, as it now has more than 100 members, but the organizers declare that considering the good that the association can render the state and that every new member added to the roster means that much more toward placing the association in the front rank of organizations that advertise and bring business to Oregon, it is easily seen that 100 members is not a sufficient number for a city with as large a population.
    The California State Association has mapped Oregon roads as far north as Portland merely because the Oregon association did not have the members nor the financial backing to do it. However, since the recent reorganization the Oregon association is doing it and getting help in the form of data from the Californians.
    The greatest need at the present time is to help the motorists of the state. The Oregon State Motor Association is a branch of the national organization, the American Automobile Association, and is purely a public service organization. The local office is in the Chamber of Commerce building.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 26, 1921, page 6

Weekly Report on Pacific Highway
    To the Editor:
    As to the condition of the Pacific Highway between Roseburg and the California line as of September 11, beg to report as follows:
    Roseburg-Myrtle Creek, 20 miles--Paved.
    Myrtle Creek-Canyonville, 10 miles--South of Myrtle Creek take detour via Riddle to Canyonville, rough and slow.
    Canyonville-Galesville, 11 miles--Good macadam.
    Galesville-Wolf Creek, 14 miles--Paving in progress at both ends, about seven miles south of Galesville, a detour via Glendale to Stage Road Pass is used from 7:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
    Wolf Creek-Grave Creek, 5 miles--Paved.
    Grave Creek-Grants Pass, 18 miles--Good macadam.
    Grants Pass, through Medford, Ashland to California line, 65 miles--Paved.
Medford-Crater Lake Highway.
    Two routes are being used, one via Central Point, Bybee Bridge, Trail and McLeod to Prospect, the other via Eagle Point, Reese Creek school house, Derby to McLeod and Prospect. Traffic is advised to use the one via Trail.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 10, 1921, page 10

State's Most Important Traffic Artery Stretches 345 Miles from Columbia River to California Line and Will Be Paved Throughout in 1922--
Only Short Distance in Siskiyous to Finish.
By John W. Kelly.
    Oregon's section of the Pacific Highway is virtually completed. It extends 345.6 miles from the Columbia River to the Siskiyou Mountains, where it meets the California line. The few miles in this distance which are not now provided with a hard-surface pavement will have a hard-surface finish in 1922.
    This is Oregon's most important traffic artery, for it threads the valleys between the Cascade Mountains and the Coast Range, where the population of the state is most dense. At the Columbia River, by means of the interstate bridge, it connects with the Pacific Highway in the state of Washington, and Washington is speeding to completion its section of the road up to the British Columbia line. In the province, plans are now being laid to give a finished highway from the international boundary to Vancouver, B.C., which will be the provincial extension of the Pacific Highway.
    At the top of the Siskiyou Mountains, one of the oldest geological formations on the North American continent, the paved Pacific Highway of Oregon joins with the California section, which is paved only in places, but eventually will be hard-surfaced.
    Thus, considered from end to end, the Pacific Highway affords the motorist an available thoroughfare from British Columbia on the north to Mexico on the south. Traversing three states, the Pacific Highway is the one road of continuous unbroken line which ties together the states bordering on the ocean. For this reason it possesses military possibilities as well as commercial. If a real military road is constructed, however, it will probably be located nearer the coastline and built in a manner calculated to withstand the transportation of navy guns.
    When completed, the Pacific Highway in Oregon will represent an expenditure of $14,913,000. This sum will provide a finished, hard-surfaced road across the state, with no grade in excess of 5 percent, and that maximum rarely touched throughout the entire length.
    Expenditures to November 1, 1921, under state supervision, amounted to $9,613,444.67. The estimated cost to complete the highway is $5,300,000.
    Of the 345.6 miles, there are now completed, which means paved, 254 miles. In addition there are 69.7 miles which have been surfaced with broken rock or gravel. About 11.6 miles more have been graded to the state standard.
    Only ten miles of the highway remain to be graded to standard, and but 91.3 miles remain to be paved.
    Because of its great area, there are 42,000 miles of road in Oregon, most of which consists of county roads. In the state highway system there are approximately 4300 miles. Since Oregon deals in large figures when talking road mileage, the 91.3 miles yet to be paved on the Pacific Highway sounds insignificant, whereas in many states, particularly in the East and in New England, a paved highway 91.3 miles in length would be considered a notable undertaking.
    Cost of construction of the Pacific Highway has been shared by the state and the federal government. Here and there along its length there are sections on which the federal government cooperated, and there is a section which the forest bureau aided in financing, as the highway cuts through a part of a reserve in Southern Oregon.
    The state's portion of money for highway construction does not come from a general tax, but is raised by capitalizing the motor vehicle licenses and by a small tax on gasoline and distillate. By this method the motor owners of the state pay for the roads, as they receive the direct benefits. Tourists entering the state contribute in a small way to the construction cost by paying the tax on the gasoline which they consume while within the boundaries, and the greater amount of fuel they use the more tax they pay.
    Government aid has been provided from post road funds and forestry funds, the government money being matched dollar for dollar wherever it has been used by the state highway commission.
    From end to end the Pacific Highway is of the highest type of road construction, having gentle grades, wide curvature, good width, with shoulders and drainage. The bridges on this road are among the finest to be found anywhere in the West, or in the entire country for that matter. These structures are of concrete and possess beautiful lines.
    So far as is humanly possible, the state highway commission has made the Pacific Highway "foolproof." Railroad grade crossings have been eliminated with a single exception, and this exception will not obtain when the road is completed. The exception noted is at Oregon City.
    For most of the distance the Pacific Highway follows, in a general way, the old wagon roads used by early settlers and the stage coaches. The main old road crossed and recrossed the tracks of the Southern Pacific, providing numerous death traps. By careful location, the engineers have placed the Pacific Highway so that these man-killer crossings no longer menace traffic. When the necessities commanded, the highway has been provided with either overhead or underground crossings, the cost of these substantial and permanent safeguards being shared by the state and the railroad company.
    As a further precaution, the highway has been supplied with guard fences on curves and wherever the road is built on the side of steep mountains.
    Two classes of pavement have been laid by the highway commission on this thoroughfare, the bitulithic and the concrete. Most of the pavement on the Pacific as well as on other primary highways in Oregon is of the bitulithic or "blacktop" type, as it is easily laid, does not tie up traffic long while being put in place, and is cheaper than the concrete. The high cost asked for concrete, until the past few months, compelled the highway commission to award contracts for the black pavement in preference to the white. Where concrete is used on the Pacific Highway it is seven inches in thickness, resting, of course, on a base.
    It is over the Pacific Highway that most of the tourist travel will move for years to come, as the road gives easy access to Oregon for all tourists motoring in California. The road traverses valley after valley, the intervening ridges being crossed by means of natural passes. There is not the wild, rugged scenery on the Pacific such as is found on several other state highways, but branching from it is the road to Crater Lake and the road to the Oregon Caves. Scenery on the Pacific Highway is varied and abundant, but of a more soft and soothing variety than can be boasted of on several highways.
    The Rogue River Valley, Umpqua Valley and the Willamette Valley are the most fertile in Oregon. These are the valleys which were found and settled by the pioneers and, consequently, they became the centers of population. Along the Pacific Highway there are progressive towns, each of which has provided an automobile park for motor tourists who desire to camp. Two or three of these camp grounds are the most complete to be found anywhere in America. Their patrons are many. It is the programme of the state highway commission to put under contract for 1922 all the unpaved sections of the highway. The 91 miles to be paved are not a continuous strip, but are located in various districts and are gaps in the present pavement. Within the past few weeks contracts have been awarded for some of this work, and plants will be on the job ready to lay pavement with the opening of road weather in spring. If the 1922 season is as favorable as that of 1921, the gaps will all be cleaned up before autumn; otherwise a few miles may be held over until the 1923 season.
    Irrespective of the uncompleted sections, it is now possible to drive from the Siskiyous to the interstate bridge on pavement almost the entire distance by making use of the west side highway. With the close of the 1921 season detours are almost a thing of the past on the Pacific Highway, for which drivers rejoice.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, January 2, 1922, page D7

    PORTLAND, Ore., April 20.--The Sexton Mountain section of the Pacific Highway near Grants Pass, 75 miles of bituminous pavement, has been awarded to A. D. Kern for $183,280.
    Work on paving from Grants Pass to Smith Hill, on Sexton Mountain, six miles, was started yesterday, says District Engineer Hodgman, and will be pushed to completion. Contracts for paving over Smith Hill and through the Cow Creek Canyon were let by the highway commission yesterday.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 20, 1922, page 1

    Their experience of last night encountered on their way home by the Pacific Highway from a visit with friends at Grants Pass will never be forgotten by Mayor C. E. Gates and Mrs. Gates. It was uncanny and thrilling, and is still a mystery. 
    The head of the city and his wife were en route home at 1 a.m. in a big Studebaker Six auto, about a mile and a half this side of Rogue River, going at a twenty-five (censored) mile-an-hour pace, when the powerful flashlights showed a white object ahead in the road. "What can that be?" each exclaimed to the other. It was a moonlight night, and they didn't know, but as they approached nearer the white object was disclosed to be a man, garbed only in white pajamas, red bandanna handkerchief tied about his head, and wearing socks, who was busily engaged running at a swift pace, head to the front and looking neither to the right nor left.
    This greatly puzzled Mr. and Mrs. Gates, who could not account for the man's attire and actions at that hour. Neither did he slow up nor look around or up as the car flew (censored) past him, but maintained his onward speed at the right side of the road. As they passed by Mrs. Gates looked around and saw the man was still running. Was he intent on escaping from a pursuer or pursuers or was he running in his sleep? No one knows.
    While the Medford folks were still speculating on the meaning of the unwonted spectacle, their car came suddenly to a stop two miles on the other side of Central Point, having run out of gas, although its tank had, prior to the trip, been half filled with gasoline. The mayor thinks someone must have partially emptied the tank after it was filled.
    They waited there helpless on the highway, with nerves somewhat at high tension because of the strange sight of the running man they had seen on the highway some distance back, until finally a Ford car out of Central Point came along whose driver, on approaching, shouted out the welcome question, "Is that you, Pop?" However, on measuring his tank it was ascertained that his car had only a little gas. Nothing was left to do but hitch the two cars together in a sort of fashion, by which the big Studebaker was hauled by the little Ford back to Central Point. The fastening line parted just as the garage was reached in that town, but each car was able to swerve out of harm's way.
    The garage was closed, and Central Point at that hour, about 2 a.m., was like a graveyard in its quietness and darkness. Leaving the two cars, Mayor Gates started out to find someone--rather a hopeless seeming task, until quite a distance away he heard a cough around the corner of a nearby building.
    "Please come here out of that, any kind of a man will look good at this time of night," shouted the mayor. Back came the welcome words for the second time that night, "Is that you, Pop?"
    It was the night watchman, who happened to have a key to the garage, from which the Medford car was given an ample supply and the homeward journey continued without further mishap.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 7, 1922, page 3

    The Oregon State Highway Commission has recently completed putting in a line of mile posts beginning at the post office in Portland and numbering south to the California border. The posts stand several feet out of the ground and each post is so placed as to be easily noticed by the passing motorist. Post number 310 is used at Medford, 344 of these concrete milestones having been necessary to complete the line to the California border.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 23, 1924, page 2

    O. N. Pierce and Company, Portland, was given the contract to erect a service building at Siskiyou on the Pacific Highway, for $4867.
"Let Contract for Highway Station Top of Siskiyous," Medford Mail Tribune, July 30, 1924, page 2

    The Pacific Highway right of way through Josephine and Jackson counties was ordered to be made a uniform sixty feet. In many places there it is less. Judge Duby announced that on all new state roads he will insist on the right of way being eighty feet wide.
"Order Widening Pacific Highway," Medford Mail Tribune, January 15, 1925, page 8

    No longer will Medford be without highway advertising. Contracts were signed this morning with Foster and Kleiser for two boards fifty feet long and ten feet wide that will bring to the attention of the motor tourist the fact that Medford is the gateway to Crater Lake as well as the largest city in Southern Oregon.
    Believing in the necessity of pictorial advertising for the city of Medford and realizing the concerted effort being put forth by other cities to gain this most necessary trade, several of the merchants and business men of this city assumed full responsibility for these roadside bulletins. Those who came forward without solicitation in this movement are: Fred Heath, Haskins and Heath drug stores; Jones and Kirkpatrick, Mann's Department Store, Henry Fluhrer, Colonial Bakery; Albert Shaw and Sons, Ideal Auto Camp and the Merrick Motor Inn.
    The bulletins will carry a huge pictorial of Crater Lake in high colors bordered by an unusually attractive decorative design. To the left of this will be a smaller bulletin with a big tree background upon which will appear in bold, white lettering: "Largest City in Southern Oregon."
    Across the bottom of the board in huge lettering visible for a quarter of a mile will appear the name of the city and the distance from the point where the sign is posted.
    This is the first step in a well-planned campaign to make Medford so well known to highway travelers that there can be no question in their minds of the many advantages this city has to offer vacationists.
    Indications are that this will be the greatest tourist year on record. However, business men without exception express the belief that to protect ourselves from the zealous and praiseworthy tourist campaigns of neighboring cities, it is most necessary that every individual citizen, as well as civic organization, bend every energy in letting the highway tourist know what and where Medford is, and how to get there.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 6, 1925, page 3

    Markers, constructed of concrete and brick, approximately eleven feet high with a base six feet square, and with electric lights so placed as to illuminate the word "Medford," will soon grace the north and south entrances to the city on the Pacific Highway. The design for the markers was selected by a Crater Club committee, after careful study and consideration of similar monuments erected in other cities, and last evening the final arrangements were made for their erection by the Medford Concrete Construction Company.
    Erection of the markers will mark the completion of a project which the local booster organization has long had under consideration and will help in the campaign of advertising the city which is now being carried out through the use of billboards in California and on the highway north of here. The markers will cost over one thousand dollars, and it is hoped by the Craters to raise a portion of the sum by staging a public frolic on April 1st.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 17, 1925, page 3  The markers are not known to have been built.

    "A comprehensive maintenance program for the Pacific Highway in Josephine and Jackson counties has been outlined by the highway department, following the visit here yesterday of S. Baldock, maintenance engineer of the state highway department," says the Grants Pass Courier. "The work will result in improved highways in this portion of the state. Mr. Baldock was taken over the roads yesterday by J. G. Bromley, resident engineer.
    "Shoulders on the highway in the two counties will be widened in both counties. Fences are to be moved back to the right-of-way line in every instance. A new location from Wolf Creek hill to the town of Wolf Creek will be sought and the highways changed to eliminate many curves.
    "Stone will be placed on all shoulders along the highway and broken and corrugated portions of the pavement will be resurfaced.
    "In addition, the right angle turns on both sides of Central Point are to be eliminated by new grades, removing these danger points. The work will be done this winter."
Medford Mail Tribune, October 19, 1925, page 8

    "The publicity director of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce calls the Pacific Highway "the Main Street of the Pacific Coast," and that is what it really is, and it is to the interest of Medford to see that business is good all along the street," said Harry L. Wells, editor of the Pacific Coast Travel, today at the Kiwanis Club luncheon. "Three routes of travel north and south are developing," said Mr. Wells. "The chief one, for the present at least, is the Pacific Highway. To the west a new route is being opened. Before long the Roosevelt Highway will be in good condition for travel, and then it is expected that the majority of machines that go up the Redwood Highway from San Francisco will continue up the coast and not come over to the Rogue River Valley at all. For the present they will reach the Pacific Highway in the Umpqua Valley, but eventually they will go still further up the coast. On the east the road from the Columbia River by way of Bend and Klamath Falls is developing and promises to take the bulk of the southern travel from Canada and eastern Washington and Oregon. The wonderful Columbia River Highway will be an important factor in preventing this.
    "The thing to do right now is to so establish the Pacific Highway in the minds of the people as the great, standard and most desirable route north and south on the Pacific Coast, that travel cannot be diverted from it. This can only be done by the right sort of publicity. By the right sort I not only mean very high class and artistically attractive, but publicity of the whole route and not merely of individual attractions here and there.
    "One who has not been accustomed to view the matter in this way scarcely realizes that the Pacific Highway is the longest, the best and the most comfortable to travel in the world, and is bordered all along its 1800 miles with beauties and marvels of nature such as no other tourist automobile route in the world possesses. The work which the Pacific Highway Association has undertaken is to sell to tourists and vacationists the whole highway, a complete trip, such as they cannot find anywhere to equal. We are tying up the pulling power of Lassen, Shasta, Crater Lake, Oregon Caves, Hood, Columbia River, Rainier, Puget Sound, Baker and Vancouver Island into a single attraction and selling them all in one bunch. That has never been done before, and it is the new theme in advertising which is going to bring through Medford along the Pacific Highway thousands of tourists who could never be won by the advertising of individual attractions as has been done in the past. We are selling them a wonderful trip, not some particular thing to see.
    "We expect in this way to so popularize the route that no tourist will cross the continent without including in his itinerary a trip over the Pacific Highway. When this shall have been done the towns along the highway need not fear the competition and loss of trade from other highways, but unless this is done they will feel it
    "I have been all along the highway clear to Victoria, B.C., and have spoken on this subject to many chambers of commerce and service clubs, and I find a keen appreciation of this idea of a mutual advertising campaign for the entire route, with the cost distributed all along the way in small amounts, which total enough to make a real campaign. Adequate and effective advertising cannot be done on the local plan. No community can afford it and no small group of communities can afford it. But by each doing its small share a wonderful campaign can be carried on."
    Mr. Wells said that in Southern California alone 400,000 people entered the state by automobile this year, only a comparative few of whom came north at all and still fewer as far north as Medford. Thousands of them could be brought up here if made to realize such a wonderful trip as the whole of it is. A fine art book of the entire route is being prepared, which will be distributed by the hundreds of thousands in all tourist centers, the greatest of which is Los Angeles, where 15 different information bureaus are at work and where the association has an information bureau of its own in the Chamber of Commerce. Other offices will be maintained in San Francisco, the central place, and Seattle. Work like this on that portion of the Pacific Highway between San Francisco and Los Angeles increased travel 70 percent this year, he said, and now like work is being done all along the highway. He said that it was possible in this way before long for the Pacific Highway to be known everywhere as the one most desirable motor tour of the whole world. Mr. Wells is accompanied by H. F. Dorgeloh and A. L. Craig of the Pacific Highway Association.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 16, 1925, page 3

    To the Editor:
    Some of my readers will remember an article I wrote some months back about the administration of our road laws.
    This is a sequel to that.
    On the evening of April 24, I was going home down beyond Rogue River. Two cars had just passed my car and gotten out of sight, and as I had a clear road ahead of me, I was holding my car as close to 30 miles per hour as I could, when another car sounded behind me and I moved over to give good clearance, but it came alongside and out stepped Mr. McMahon and ordered me to stop, which I did. I got out to see what he could have stopped me for and discovered that a flag I had on a dozen window jambs that extended about four feet back of the car was gone. I supposed he wanted to upbraid me for this. He asked to see my license for operating a motor vehicle, which I showed him. He asked if I had a speedometer and I told him I had. He asked how fast I was going and I told him about 30 miles per hour. He said, "I don't believe you have any brakes." I told him I had the regulation 1925 Star 4-wheel brakes. He then told a friend that was with him to get into my car and test out the brakes while I followed in their car with Mr. McMahon. He brought the matter up of my former letter and ordered me not to write any more. He said, "Judge Taylor was awfully mad about that letter and what do you suppose he will do if you appear before him again?" I am not personally acquainted with Judge Taylor. It might be that he would do all or even more than Mr. McMahon suggested he would, but there is one thing in his favor--he has never tried to muzzle me to keep the public from knowing the truth.
    Mr. McMahon said he would have arrested me on three charges, but he was not going to do it.
    The other officer then reported concerning the brakes. He said, "They are adequate, but in need of adjustment." We all know that is the case in the life of every car. We do not adjust them until they need it. Mr. McMahon then handed me a slip of paper and told me to sign and send to T. A. Raffety, Salem, Ore.
    On looking up what was on the slip I found: "This vehicle is being illegally operated, speeding recklessly, brakes inadequate and no flag on extended rear."
    Yes, I signed it under protest as untrue and sent it in. I am a law-abiding citizen and dislike very much to write or say anything against a law enforcement officer, because those who are lax in their morals with regard to law enforcement may take advantage of the situation. On the other hand, a more gigantic evil may creep into our system if we permit an officer to hide behind a star of our fair state to satisfy his sordid greed and revengeful animosity. The record sent to Salem stands there against me, a monument to Mr. McMahon's ingenuity for political corruption.
    As a respectable citizen I will not pay tribute (without protest) to such infamous corruption.
    1132 Court St., Medford, Ore.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, May 6, 1926, page 1

Marvelous Scenic Attractions and Excellent Highways Make Southern Oregon a Tourist Paradise.
No matter which direction you travel from Medford, this guide will lead you to the best of Southern Oregon's resorts, auto camps and service stations.
Pacific Highway North
    Leave Main Street, turning north on Riverside Avenue.
    1 mile. Gateway to city--Pacific Highway.
    1.2 miles. Pete's Garage, authorized Ford service and general repairing.
    1.5 miles. Owen-Oregon Lumber Co. Railroad crossing, mill to left; service station, all-night service.
    4 miles. Central Point, an up-to-date city. Independent garage, general auto repairing, conducted by C. T. Genzel.
    Damon Cafe, home cooking, famous for vegetable dinners and coffee.
    Rexall Drug Store, R. H. Paxon, proprietor.
    4.8 miles. Right turn leaving Central Point.
    7.2 miles. Bonney Bros. service station, accessories; also fruits, vegetables.
    Willow Springs service station, spring water, grand view Mt. McLoughlin and Table Rock.
    9 miles. Table Rock, old Indian lookout and battle ground.
    8.9 miles. Viaduct over Southern Pacific railroad.
    9.1 miles. Gold Ray Dam, road to right.
    13.8 miles. Entering Gold Hill, across Rogue River bridge, a thriving city, mining camp in the early days; free auto park.
    14.2 miles. Hi-way Hotel Cafe at Gold Hill, opposite depot on Pacific Highway; lunch goods, soft drinks.
    Nugget Garage, general repairing, day service only.
    Rexall Drug Store, Martin Bowers, proprietor.
    16.2 miles. Across Rogue River, cement bridge.
    18 miles. Alaska Auto Camp. Service station, store, free tourist camp, bank of Rogue, good fishing.
    19.7 miles. Riviera, F. C. Elliott, proprietor. On Rogue River and Foots Creek. Camp with tradition dating back 43 years; cabins de luxe; beautiful grounds, lunch room, garage, service station.
    22.2 miles. Anderson's Auto Camp and service station. Shady grounds, half-mile river front, good fishing, new cedar cabins, lunch room.
    Town of Rogue River two blocks east across bridge.
    23 miles. Riverdale tourist park, 2- and 3-room cabins, service station, store, tires and accessories.
    24.8 miles. Savage Rapids station, near big irrigation dam, deer park, camp grounds, bathing, boating, fishing, store.
    Next city Grants Pass.
Pacific Highway South
    Set your speedometer at zero; travel south on Riverside or Pacific Highway.
    1 mile. Jackson County Fair Grounds, best in Southern Oregon.
    3.7 miles. Evershady Auto Park, Gus H. Samuels, proprietor. Service station, store, ideal camp grounds, modern cabins with gas for cooking, 5 acres of shade, lodges and parties welcome to grounds for picnics.
    4 miles. City of Phoenix. Stores, restaurants, service station, accessories, tires rebuilt.
    4.5 miles. Blue Flower Lodge. Built in 1855 [sic], established as a blockhouse and inn during early days, antique furniture, shady grounds. Chicken and turkey dinners, best of service.
    6.2 miles. Southern Oregon Experiment Station.
    6.6 miles. Entering Talent, two service stations, stores, bank.
    9.3 miles. Bear Creek Camp. Good shade, spring water, lunch counter, no cabins, trout fishing in Bear Creek, excellent camp grounds, 20 acres.
    10 miles. Jackson Hot Springs. Mr. and Mrs. Milton, proprietors. Open-air plunge in pure sulfur water, excellent accommodations, store, service stations, shady camp grounds, modern cabins, gas for cooking. The springs are white sulfur water containing radium and other valuable medicinal minerals. Dance hall, tennis courts.
    Southern Oregon League baseball grounds.
    13.3 miles. Ashland, the second largest city in Jackson County. Modern in every way, splendid stores. One of the finest hotels in the state. Lithia Park, on Ashland Creek, one of the finest parks on the Coast, snow-capped Mt. Ashland in the distance. Strictly modern municipal camp grounds, wonderful picnic ground, fishing in Bear Creek.
    Camp store and service station, L. H. Nelson, proprietor; lunch goods, soda fountain. Photographic views of all the principal scenes of Southern Oregon.
    Ashland Natatorium, largest Southern Oregon, one of the finest in the West, located two blocks north of Lithia Hotel--white sulfur water, crystal clear, temperature 68°.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 4, 1926, page B6

    "The suggestion for bonding for public roads originated in my office. The suggestion for bonding this county for building the Pacific Highway and the method of financing the bonds also originated in my office. The only reason I went to the legislature was to help put over the program for highways and highway legislation. 
W. H. Gore, quoted by Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man," Oregon Journal, Portland, May 10, 1927, page 16

    The crash of an automobile at the crest of Blackwell Hill yesterday calls attention to the need of a warning sign at the northern approach to this valley gateway.
    This sign in our opinion should be, for two reasons, a "stop" sign. Such a sign would allow all visitors to get the best panorama of the Rogue River Valley obtainable on the Pacific Highway, and it would render such an accident as occurred yesterday practically impossible.
    In lieu of a "stop" sign, "sharp curve ahead, beware of slick pavement" or "danger, sharp curve ahead" should be posted in a conspicuous place.
    Following the accident yesterday, several other cars piled up at this same point. Many accidents have occurred there before. It is undoubtedly one of the most dangerous places on the Pacific Highway in Jackson County.
    And it will continue to be dangerous until an emphatic warning sign is put up. Of all motor signals the "stop" sign has been the most effective in reducing accidents both in country and city traffic. The habit of obeying "stop" signs is more deeply ingrained in the minds of motorists than any other.
    Both for our own protection and protection to our visitors, such a sign should be placed at Blackwell Hill, at the earliest possible moment. There is everything to gain and nothing to lose by taking immediate action.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 19, 1927, page 4

Pacific Highway Completed from Oregon Line
to Canada by Gold Hill Cement Bridge

    The Pacific Highway cement bridge at Gold Hill over Rogue River will be officially opened for traffic on or about August 15, according to County Engineer Paul Rynning, in an Associated Press dispatch received here.
    The bridge proper is completed and ready for acceptance. It cost $53,000. Of this sum $10,000 was paid by the Southern Pacific railroad; the balance being evenly divided between the state and Jackson County. The contract price for the fills was $13,500.
    The work of making the approach to the bridge from the south side is now under way by contractor C. Frank Rhoades. It consists of a fill of 20,000 cubic feet, and will be ready for the gravel coating by the end of this week. Some difficulty is being experienced from seepage water from the cut through Thompson's fill. Culverts are now being installed to correct this trouble. The approach from the Gold Hill side has been completed.
    About 500 feet of pavement on the Pacific Highway will be abandoned to straighten the approach to the bridge. According to County Judge Hartzell, the contract for the paving of the approach will not be let until next spring, giving the fill a chance to settle. It is a quarter of a mile long.
    The old bridge over Rogue River will be abandoned and dismantled, the material being salvaged for use in other parts of the county.
    As far as is known there will be no official ceremony to mark the opening of the span.
    With the completion of the paving next spring, the Pacific Highway will be a continuous pavement from the Oregon state line to Canada.
Eugene Guard, August 10, 1927, page 11

    Work was commenced two years ago by the state highway commission to improve the Pacific and Crater Lake highways. Last year such work was diverted to the Siskiyou Mountain section of the Pacific Highway in correcting the sharp curves on this section of the road by cutting back into the banks and using the dirt and rock for widening on the lower slope of the grade. After this work of grading was completed crushed rock was employed in building up a good shoulder next to the pavement and enlarging the tread of the paved way. This year the same improvement was applied to the valley section of the highway in the valley from Ashland to Grants Pass, employing the rock crushed at Gold Hill.
    A general overhauling was applied to the Crater Lake macadamized highway the past year, preparatory to the work to be done [omission] Crater Lake National Park line to be completed before the park is opened in July.
    C. E. Gates of Medford, a member of the state highway commission, says the same kind of pavement put in for a mile just outside the city limits to the north will be used. The pavement is first swept clean, then about three inches of crushed rock and heavy oil applied, then another layer of finer rock applied and steam rolled. This makes a splendid hard-surfaced non-skid road that is as good as regular pavement, and experiments the past year with this kind of work have proven very successful.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1928, page D4

    The Pacific Highway enters Jackson County on the south at the Oregon-California state line near the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains at an elevation of over 5000 feet. From the foot of the mountain it takes a northerly course down through Rogue River Valley until it reaches Gold Hill, then westerly following Rogue River to the Jackson-Josephine County line, several miles below Rogue River, the most northerly [sic] town of Jackson County. The length of the highway through the county is about 60 miles.
    The autoist on reaching the summit of the Siskiyous, after passing through a very rugged semi-arid region on leaving the Sacramento Valley in California, notes the change, as if by magic Nature seems to wear a new face. The mountains, forests, gorges, canyons, valleys and streams make up a panorama of which the eye never tires. Rogue River Valley is a vast green spot in the distance. On leaving the summit of this massive granite upland and dropping down into Rogue River Valley, a depth of 3000 feet below, the autoist speeds around the picturesque and paved Pacific Highway in Oregon.
    The history of the beginning of the construction of this long extended paved way extending from the Mexican border line and routing through California, Oregon, and Washington to the border line of British Columbia dates back to 1913. At that time Jackson County led the way by voting a half million dollars for the construction of a modern, hard-surfaced roadway through Jackson County from the Oregon-California state line to the Jackson-Josephine County line, a distance of sixty miles.
    Jackson County, in the passage of the $500,000 bond issue, has the honor of being the first county in Oregon to improve its highway under the new state bonding act, and the first county to build a large unit of the Pacific Highway. The county spent this $500,000 in building a paved highway between Ashland and Central Point, a distance of twenty miles, thus linking the cities of Medford, Ashland and Central Point, and this stretch of paved way was the beginning of the Pacific Highway up and down the Pacific Coast.
    The paving of the Siskiyou section beyond Ashland to the state line, and the section between Central Point and the Jackson-Josephine line, soon followed in the early state program linking up Grants Pass, Rogue River, and Gold Hill with the southern county cities of Medford, Ashland, and Central Point.
    During the past ten years, a total of $3,717,580 has been expended on the construction of state highways in Jackson County, exclusive of rights of way which have been secured by Jackson County, and the construction of the bridge at Gold Hill across Rogue River, at an expense of about $60,000 and improvements the past year on the roadbed.Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1928, page D3

Highway Beautification.
To the Editor:
    What is Southern Oregon doing on its program of highway beautification? Ashland is clearing up both approaches to the city--out along the southern entrance streets have been paved and many are planting roses and other shrubs. At the northern entrance, dumping grounds are being cleared and objectionable places placed under orders by the city council and the Chamber of Commerce.
    Near Talent, several interested families are asking for advice, plants and seeds. One woman said, "We are from California and want to make this place look like our California home did. Bring us all the flower seeds and plants you can, and we'll see that they are cared for."
    Grants Pass is awake and much is being accomplished. Trees have been secured from Dean Peavy of the state college, and hundreds have been planted along the highway north of Grants Pass and along the Redwood Highway. Two hundred acres of gladioli are to be planted this year in and around Grants Pass, and even though this is a commercial crop, the blossoms will prove very fascinating and attractive to all during the summer months. Throughout the entire city, gardens and lawns are being planted, and much cleaning up is going forward.
    Frank Fair, who did similar work recently for the realty board along the proposed scenic drive, is working now in Josephine County and meeting with splendid cooperation everywhere. All along the way people are asking for help and suggestions.
    The Willow Springs district, too, has been very active, and through the plant exchange carried on by the Thursday Club many are becoming enthusiastic gardeners and helping to make our highway more beautiful.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, March 16, 1928, page B4

    An auto traffic count on the Pacific Highway at the fairgrounds yesterday from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m., by A. H. Sunderman for the state traffic department, revealed that a total of 3,122 automobiles passed by during that time, including 940 machines from out-of-state points, and exclusive of 29 auto stages and several motorcycles.
    Of the 940 machines from out-of-state points, cars came from all sections of the nation, including motorists from Maryland, New York, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, South Dakota, Nevada, Colorado, Texas, Wyoming, Montana, British Columbia, Kansas, Alabama and other states. The majority of the cars, however, came from Washington and California, with the latter state considerably in the lead.
    Sunderman, the official counter, was of the opinion today that many of the Middle Western tourists were settlers in search of opportunities in Oregon.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 14, 1928, page 3

Budget Approved for Work from Yreka North into Siskiyous--
Program Includes Connecting Up with Oregon Road System.
    PORTLAND, Ore., Dec. 1.--(AP)--Indications that California is preparing steps toward connecting its road system with that of Oregon were seen today in a communication from Charles H. Purcell, highway engineer for California, to H. B. Van Duzer, chairman of the Oregon State Highway Commission. Purcell advised Van Duzer that his budget has been approved. The part of the budget which concerns Oregon follows:
    On the Pacific Highway, north of Yreka, toward the Oregon line into the Shasta Canyon, $500,000.
    Paving Pacific Highway from Yreka, ten miles south.
    Completing macadam surface from Crescent City to Sausalito. This is the Redwood Highway.
    Improving road from Crescent City to Oregon state line, near Brookings, to be used until new road is located; survey approved.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 2, 1928, page 1

United States Highway 99 Longest and Most Scenic in the United States
    United States Highway 99 is the longest continuously improved highway in the country. Beginning at the Canadian line, near Blaine, Wash., it passes through Washington, Oregon and California, and runs practically to the Mexican border. Its entire length of 1,590 miles is improved, and, with the exception of some 95 miles of gravel surfacing in Northern California, just south of the Oregon line, and a few miles at its southern terminus in the Imperial Valley, it is surfaced throughout with the highest types of pavements of concrete or asphalt.
    The highway is one of the most heavily traveled north and south routes in the country. It is the historic inland route of the Pacific Coast, traversing, in the Northwest, the land of the Indian, trapper and explorer of the 18th century, and, in California, the land of the Spanish padres and the "forty-niners."
    It traverses a section of the United States that is the delight of the vacationist. In the nearby mountains are deer, bear, and mountain lions to lure the huntsmen. The numerous mountain streams and lakes, including the Rogue River and Crater Lake, to which it gives access, abound in trout and other fish. All along the route are summer resorts and excellent accommodations for campers. In Oregon and Washington, it traverses immense forests of pine, spruce and fir.
    From various points along the highway, the outstanding scenic wonders of the three states are reached easily: Mt. Baker, Puget Sound, the Olympic Peninsula and Mt. Rainier National Park, in Washington; the Columbia River drive, Mt. Hood, Crater Lake and mineral springs in Oregon; the Sierra Nevadas with Mt. Shasta, Mt. Lassen (the only active volcano in the United States), Lake Tahoe, Mt. Whitney and Death Valley (the highest and lowest points in the country), and the redwoods, in California.
    Crossing Route 99 are five main east-and-west transcontinental roads of the United States highway system which lead to the west through national monuments and forests and over the Coast Range to the shores of the Pacific. To the east, these connecting roads lead to national forests, parks, monuments, and Indian reservations. In one direction or the other these highways give easy access from Route 99 to 24 national forests, five of the larger national parks and several national monuments and Indian reservations.
    From end to end, the route traverses a series of valleys--the most famous of the West: Skagit and Puyallup in Washington, the Willamette and Rogue River valleys  in Oregon, and in California the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Imperial valleys. From these smiling valleys, the traveler looks upward on one side or the other to the peaks of the Cascades, Siskiyous, Sierra Nevada, Coast Range and Sierra Madre. No other road in all America, according to tourists, is so well favored in natural and historic attractions as this great national highway.
    In the improvement of the road, the three states have been helped materially by the federal government, which, according to the Bureau of Public Roads of the United States Department of Agriculture, has cooperated in the construction of 516 miles, contributing to the total cost of $16,798,725, the sum of $8,498,825, a little more than 50 percent.
    From the peace portal on the Canadian border, erected by Samuel Hill and his associates in 1921 to commemorate a century of peace between the United States and Canada, Route 99 begins its run of 324 miles across Washington.
    From Portland, across the Columbia, Route 99 begins its run of 346 miles across Oregon, following the Willamette River through its famous valley settled by emigrants under the leadership of Jason and Daniel Lee, Methodist missionaries. From Portland fleets sail to practically all the world, carrying lumber, wheat, wool and fish. Portland Heights offers fine views of the snow-clad summits of Mt. Hood, at 11,225 feet the loftiest height in the state, Mt. Jefferson, Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Adams and Mt. Rainier.
    Route 99 continues through Oregon City, Salem, Albany, Eugene, Roseburg, Grants Pass, Rogue River, Gold Hill, Central Point, Medford, Ashland and on, to the California line.
    Medford, the gateway to Crater Lake, is 1384 feet above sea level, has a population of over 13,000, and is the largest city in the famous Rogue River Valley, noted for its pear orchards, lumber interests, mining and general agriculture and stock raising.
    Medford is "air-minded," has the only air mail port between Portland and San Francisco, has two air passenger lines and an air express line.
    To the northeast is Mt. McLoughlin, sometimes called Mt. Pitt, which is claimed to be the most symmetrical mountain in the United States and is snow capped nine months of the year.
    To the north is Table Rock, an old Indian council ground. Crater Lake is within three hours' drive of Medford over the Crater Lake Highway, a fine oiled gravel road, which follows the Rogue River to Prospect, and from there climbs to the lake by easy grades through the splendid forest.
    Deep blue Crater Lake, the sea of sapphire, is one of the beauty spots of America. The 35-mile rim road affords exquisite views of the lake, as well as an excellent panorama of the Cascade Range. On the rim, and in other parts of the park, are free tourist camps. Crater Lake was discovered in 1853 by a party of prospectors who called it Lake of Mystery [sic]. The Indians held the lake sacred and endowed it with picturesque superstitions. In Crater Lake park are the Garden of the Gods, the Pinnacles, the Giant Nut Cracker, Wizard Island and the Phantom Ship. Black bear, deer and other game roam at will in the park and are quite tame. A loop road system offers alternate exits and entrances, and all routes to the park pass through beautiful country. Crater Lake's popularity is manifest by its increase of 30,969 visitors the past season over the previous year, the greatest gain of all national parks, the attendance in 10 weeks being over 100,000.
    Ashland, 1,900 feet high, is picturesquely located in the south part of the valley with the peaks of the Siskiyou Mountains on every side, and is famous for its mineral springs. Mt. Ashland, or Siskiyou Peak, at 7,662 feet, is just south, half in California and half in Oregon.
    From Ashland, Route 99 begins to climb the Siskiyou Mountains in graceful loops through beautiful forests of fir, cedar, oak and madrone. It crosses the Siskiyou Pass at Mt. Ashland, and begins its run of 920 miles down the state of California.
    At El Centro, Route 99 is connected by United States Highway 80 with San Diego. To the south it connects with a paved road which runs to Mexicali on the Mexican border. From the international border on the north, the Canadian government has built a paved road joining Route 99 to Vancouver, B.C. Thus there is a continuous and practically paved highway from Vancouver, B.C., to Mexicali on the Mexican border.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 16, 1928, page B6

    As a safeguard in case of future crashes, a steel cable has been stretched along the top of the guard rail at a sharp curve on the Pacific Highway this side of Central Point. The rail this side at Merriman's corner has been wrecked several times, and the addition of a steel cable is believed to be a sure protection against future destruction.
.    As a result of a recent crash, the rail at Merriman's corner was completely rebuilt last November, and since that time it has been struck in several places.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 17, 1929, page 5

    Traffic over the Pacific Highway is slightly greater than at this time last year, according to Wm. Drummond, foreman of the state highway maintenance crew between Medford and the California line.
    The 16-hour traffic check, made monthly, was made Tuesday and showed 2554 cars passing over the Pacific Highway at a point a mile south of Medford, from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m.
    The check at the Klamath Junction showed 579 cars northbound over the Pacific Highway, and 409 cars southbound. There were 421 cars to pass over the Greenspring Highway.
    This monthly check showed traffic over the Pacific Highway to be second heaviest in the state.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 17, 1929, page 7

    "Paper from the pear boxes has caused us some trouble on the Pacific Highway in the Rogue River Valley," says William Chandler, division engineer of the highway department. There is paper in every box, and the wind blew much of the paper around the orchards and onto the highway, so that he had to send men out picking up the paper to keep the road looking respectable. "Gathering wastepaper, cans, bottles and other trash is one of the expenses of maintenance of the highway system. Unless this rubbish was removed every few days the highways would be in an awful mess."--Oregonian.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 27, 1929, page 4

    As the result of an auto accident about 6:30 Saturday evening on the Pacific Highway near the Voorhies crossing, Lloyd Elwood was fined $25 and costs in Judge Taylor's court this forenoon on the charge of reckless driving, which charge was preferred by State Traffic Officer Robt. N. Phillips.
    There was considerable traffic on the highway at that time and according to the testimony Elwood, who was in a line of cars proceeding toward Ashland, suddenly turned his car out to go around the cars in front of him, causing a collision almost head-on between a car coming this way from Ashland in which were Ralph Koozer and his daughter Ruth, by not giving sufficient clearance.
    Both Miss Koozer, who was driving, and Elwood immediately applied their brakes, but too late. The cars were damaged in the collision, but no one was hurt beyond sustaining minor bruises and cuts.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 28, 1929, page 3

County Engineer Plans New Route Between School House and Hopkins Place--Buy Lots for Alteration--Up to State.

    Among the highway improvements scheduled for an early date is the straightening out of the Pacific Highway, between the Main Street of Central Point and the Ike Merriman curve, eliminating one half-curve, and the hairpin curve at the old Fred G. Hopkins place. Plans to this end have been drawn by the county engineer's office. It is a matter for final consideration by the state highway commission, and an early decision is scheduled.
    The present plan calls for a nine-degree curve to start, near the Central Point school, and sweep gently into the highway again, about a quarter of a mile above the Fred Hopkins place, now occupied by J. G. Love.
    The county bought the eight lots and portions of lots from the city of Central Point, and individuals, for the road alteration, at an outlay of $2300.
    Under a law passed by the last legislature road alterations are solely within the jurisdiction of the highway commission. The county will be reimbursed the amount expended in securing the right-of-way.
    The improvement will eradicate the notorious Hopkins turn, which was among the sharpest, if not the sharpest, in the highway system. It was close to a right-angle oblique turn, a worry to autoists and a thorn to speeders.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 5, 1929, page 6

Explains Detour Plans.
To the Editor:
    For the benefit of those interested, and to allay further agitation concerning the detour while the Pacific Highway south of Medford is being resurfaced, I wish to give the following exact information.
    Monday afternoon, March 25, at the meeting called at the Chamber of Commerce at Medford, a committee was appointed composed of "Bill" Gates, Mr. Strang and the writer to see "Pop" Gates and find out if it was possible to eliminate the detour, and what the extra cost would be.
    This committee met with "Pop" Gates Tuesday morning and was informed by him that the widening and surfacing of this five and one-half miles of highway was a federal aid project, the federal government paying 60 percent and the state 40 percent, and that the regular percent of increase added to the contract price where the traffic had to be carried through while the work was in progress was 20 percent. C. A. Hartley's bid for this contract was $119,000; therefore, it would cost $22,000 additional to carry the traffic through, besides delaying the completion of the work.
    After getting this information the committee dropped this question but proceeded to determine exactly how the work would be handled, and what road would be used for the detours. Mr. Hartley and Mr. Neef, the state engineer, had previously informed the writer that they would start at 12th Street and build south to Mr. Hartley's plant. Then start at the south end one and one-half miles south of Phoenix and build back and finish in front of Hartley's plant. This, no doubt, being the cheapest and best method for Mr. Hartley, but this method would add at least 30 days further loss of business to the business houses located south of Main Street on Riverside to Talent.
    When this was shown to "Pop" Gates, he had Mr. Hartley come to his office and this was gone over and Mr. Hartley readily agreed to change his plans, and the following method will be used:
    The work to start at 12th Street and build straight through to the south end of the job, when started at 12th Street the first detour will be at Voorhies crossing. When the work gets there the next detour will be at Phoenix, and when the work reaches that point the next detour will be on the Anderson road this side of Talent. Each point of detour to be immediately open back to the finished highway when the asphalt is laid to that point. All traffic on the detours will enter Oakdale Street from the Kings Highway, and down Main Street in Medford.
    In agreeing to this change of methods, Mr. Hartley assumes added cost to himself, and the writer considers him very considerate to the interests on the affected highway, and all of such business places affected should cooperate with him to the fullest extent to push this work through to its completion.
Yours Very Truly,
    J. H. MAASSEN.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, April 5, 1930, page 4

    A luncheon will be held Thursday, June 11, at the Hotel Medford to further the statewide contest in cleaning up the Pacific Highway, for which prizes of $500 and $200 have been offered by the late Sam Hill.
    Representatives of every grange and other civic organization, both men and women, in each town along the highway are urgently requested to have at least two representatives at the lunch, and more if possible. Mrs. Jessie M. Honeyman will bring all details of the contest so that those in Southern Oregon may line up along with the other counties already at work. Trees will be furnished by the forestry service, and all civic organizations are responding with offers of help.
    C. T. Baker, executive secretary of the Medford chamber of commerce, will preside at the luncheon, and those planning to attend should phone the chamber of commerce (63) so that an approximate estimate may be made as to the number to attend.
    Mrs. Honeyman addresses the grange convention in the morning, and they are especially urged to have representatives at the luncheon.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 7, 1931, page 3

    Much interest in the program for widening and further improvement of the Pacific Highway, proposed by the recently organized highway association,and hope of early work on the project, was expressed at the recent meeting with the Portland chamber of commerce, according to news brought back to Medford by C. T. Baker.
    The case was presented by the Pacific Highway Association representatives to the publicity committee of the chamber of commerce, and met with much approval. Favorable consideration will be given the program at the next meeting of the committee the first week in January.
    Portland realizes that any publicity released will benefit all cities located on the highway. It is thought that the Siskiyou widening project will be started early in the year, as soon as appropriations are made.
    The highway commission's program, it is believed, will cover a five-year period and will be planned to give consideration to all sections of the state. The program may be outlined early in the year at a conference with representatives from all sections.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 29, 1931, page 8

Ex-Governor West Recalls MT Sign Posting Journey
    Finding of an old Medford Mail Tribune road sign near Bend, Ore., has recalled an incident in Jackson County history when road development was in its infancy in Oregon. George Putnam was editor of the Mail Tribune at the time, and Oswald West was Governor.
    The Mail Tribune has previously published comments from the
Bend Bulletin and George Putnam, the latter now editor of the Salem Capital Journal. Below is ex-Governor West's version of how the old sign came to be posted so far from Medford.
By Oswald West
    When in Salem a few days ago I, as usual, called on my long-time friend, George Putnam, of the Capital Journal. While there, he handed me a clipping from the Bend Bulletin carrying a cut of an old Mail Tribune (adv.) road sign found near Chemult a short time ago by Chet Springer. It provided a good laugh, for it recalled an eventful and never-to-be-forgotten auto trip--Maryhill, Wash., to Medford, Ore.--taken by us in late September, 1913. (Judge TouVelle insists the year was 1911 and that he had not yet become county judge--Ed.) We traveled the north-south roadless route which Sam Hill prophesied would in time afford a fine improved highway open the year 'round to Oregon-California travel.
    Putnam and I, at that time, were all out for highway improvements. As Governor, I had established convict construction camps at several points in the state. Although the men did good work, that policy invited much newspaper criticism. But it served a useful purpose, for a convict camp couldn't be mentioned without bringing to public attention the road work under construction.
    Education of the public, however, was slow work. What we needed most was a "big shot" to carry the banner. So, we prayed for one, and God sent us Sam Hill, wealthy son-in-law of Jim Hill, the empire builder. At that time good old Sam held all the answers to highway problems.
Tales Over Club
    Invited to Oregon, Hill all but took over the Arlington Club, where a number of wealthy and retired loggers and lumbermen were loafing and figuring what to do with their time and money. He took them in hand--wining and dining them--until, under his spell, they became good roads-minded. Then, we were on our way.
    Judge F. L. TouVelle and his Jackson County court were proposing a $550,000 bond issue to provide funds to start the Pacific Highway over the Siskiyous and needed help. So Hill threw a party at his Maryhill, Wash., home. A delegation from Medford, headed by TouVelle and Putnam, attended--as did one from Portland. I was asked to join the party.
    Good roads meetings were scheduled for Medford--Hill and I were to be the speakers. The caravan was made up of several cars. The late and beloved George Trowbridge, of the Oregon Journal, was a guest. Judge TouVelle, George Putnam and I rode in the latter's famous old four-cylinder Buick. We traveled south via Bend. The several cars, in time, became widely separated.
    TouVelle and Putnam, bachelors and friendly enemies, made it a point never to agree on anything. Nothing could go wrong without each charging the other with being the cause.
La Pine Reached
    After spending a night at some forgotten point along the route, we reached the road junction near La Pine. There, of course, were to be found no road signs. So TouVelle and Putnam got into a heated argument over which road should be taken. Well, we took the left-hand road and traveled two-thirds of the distance to Ft. Rock before learning we were on the wrong road. So, for hours, I had to listen to charges and countercharges as to who was responsible for the blunder.
    In time we reached Crescent, where we were fortunate in finding some gasoline. But neither the judge nor the editor had the brains to think of oil. I knew a little about "hosses" but nothing about autos.
    From there on the sand slowed us down and night found us among the pines on top of a mountain instead of at Ft. Klamath, our contemplated roosting place.
    It was on this mountaintop that trouble really came. The old Buick quit on us. After going into a huddle the judge and the editor discovered that, while there was gas aplenty, there was no motor oil. They had forgotten to replenish our supply. So, while I built a fire to offset the "cool of the evening" I had to listen to charges and countercharges as to who was responsible for not attending to our needs in that direction.
Finds Axle Grease
    In looking through the junk in the back of the car I found a small carton of mica axle grease. I was brought up on mica axle grease--having used it to lubricate most everything but a political machine. So, in my ignorance of autos, I suggested that we might reduce it to a liquid state and feed it to the Buick. The two gents offering no objection, I dug it out of the carton and into a can which I set over the fire. Thus did I learn how difficult it was to liquefy mica axle grease. But in time I made it, and the "wise guys" poured the result into the old Buick. It, of course, at once congealed and left us worse off than before. There was nothing to do now but hoof it 13 miles to Ft. Klamath for a night's lodging and relief. This was the 22nd of September, our 16th wedding anniversary, and my wife at home was expecting a wire or telephone call.
    The night was dark and the road rough; it was past midnight when we reached the lone hostelry at Ft. Klamath. All was in darkness. Pounding on the door, the "jedge" shouted: "Ho! ho! Landlord, there are distinguished travelers without who would find shelter for the night!" Soon there was the sound of footsteps descending a stairway. The door opened and there stood the landlord, clothed only in a union suit (which, apparently, was serving also as a sleeping garment), holding high a lantern and rubbing his eyes. Said the "jedge": "Meet the Governor of Oregon." Said the landlord (who had been school superintendent of an Eastern Oregon county): "'Tis sad to think of his excellency finding me 'en deshabille'."
    Fortunately I was able to grab a lift from a homeward-bound Medfordite. I will never forget that wild ride. While some distance out of Medford, we phoned to a mutual friend to dig up a "my size" suit of clothes, with accessories, and have them behind stage at the town hall. There I dressed and, at 8 p.m., joined Sam Hill and other dignitaries as they appeared on the speaker's platform.
    Well, the mission bore fruit: The Jackson County bond issue carried, and the road work was undertaken. This led to a greater state interest and the creation of the 1916 highway commission.
    So, let us not forget how greatly we are indebted, not only to Samuel Hill, but to Judge F. L. TouVelle, his county court, George Putnam and his Medford Mail Tribune, for the inauguration of our splendid state highway program.
    It was on this eventful occasion that the Medford Mail Tribune metal advertising signs were posted.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 28, 1948, page 12

In the Black Column
    Recent payment of the last of its outstanding highway bonds puts Jackson County within the select circle of Oregon's debt-free counties. As a matter of fact, County Treasurer Ralph E. Sweeney points out, that happy state could have been reached some years ago--there was money available to pay off the bonds--but they weren't due until this year.
    The $4000 payment wound up the $500,000 issue authorized in 1922 for installation of pavement on part of the Crater Lake Highway and on the Jacksonville-Ruch highway.
    In 1943 the county paid off the last bonds of a $500,000 issue, authorized in 1913, which financed building the pavement between Ashland and Central Point, the first paving on the Pacific Highway in this section of the state.
    Ordinarily there is much can be said against heavy bond issues, for any purpose, especially from the standpoint of the long-drawn-out interest payments, but time and growth of population in the areas served have amply proved that the million dollars voted for the two road improvement projects was money well spent.--E.C.F.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 21, 1952, page 4

Two Big Highway Projects Now Getting Well Under Way in County
Medford-Ashland and Gold Hill Area Jobs Progressing
Completion Said Due Next Summer or Fall

    Travelers of Highway 99 south of Medford to Ashland can expect to drive at construction speed for a good portion of the way until possibly next fall--depending on the weather--according to state highway officials.
    The inconvenience of construction travel will be more than outweighed, however, at least to most valley residents, with the future prospect of a 48-foot--or four-lane--highway connecting the two cities.
    This long-awaited development began this fall and is one of two main highway sections in the county currently under construction--the other being the highway straightening which bypasses Gold Hill on the south side of Rogue River.
Bridge Completed
    Added to these two major projects was the completion of the new Dodge Bridge about a month ago by the state highway department on Highway 234, again connecting Gold Hill with the Crater Lake Highway.
    The two highway projects are being handled under separate supervision, with the Medford-Ashland section under the Medford state highway department office and the Rock Point-Blackwell Hill section under the Grants Pass office.
    The Medford-Ashland project was let in two sections to separate contractors, officials said, with T. W. Thomas, Portland, awarded the Medford-county farm section on August 28 of this year, and the Acme Construction Company of Eugene doing the county farm to Ashland section with a contract beginning date of November 3. A total of $893,000 is involved.
Prices Told
    The contract prices for the Medford-county farm section was $515,000, with completion due by August 31, 1953, and the other section was let for $378,000, with completion due September 30, 1953. The exact completion date may be sooner, if weather conditions are favorable.
    Three major changes were noted by officials on the project between Medford and Ashland, where the highway is primarily a widening project from the present two lanes to four on the old highway road base. One major change is the separation of traffic on a one-way basis at both entrances to Phoenix. All southbound traffic will be routed in two lanes through the city on the old highway, while the northbound traffic will travel a new two-lane road being built to the east of the city.
Channel Moved
    The other change, on the east side of the old Bear Creek channel, has necessitated a channel change for the creek, with the new highway blocking the old channel in two places. Excavation of an entirely new channel for the creek is being currently carried out 300 feet to the east of the old one. The new channel will be 50 feet wide and about 1,800 feet long. Culverts have been placed under the new highway crossings of the old channel to take care of drainage collected by the old channel.
    Another Bear Creek channel will be necessary in the project, officials reported, and will occur between two bridges on the county farm-Ashland portion, near Jackson Hot Springs. The creek will be rerouted so that it stays on the northeast side of the highway, running parallel to the highway for 2,200 feet, from the bridge near the hot springs to the next bridge toward Talent, where the old Chateau formerly stood.
Ditches Changed
    Other minor ditch changes are in progress just south of Medford, with the moving eastward of the irrigation ditch near the Jackson County fairgrounds, and another ditch movement just north of Phoenix.
    One phase of the highway widening that is taking considerable time is the relocation of both telephone and electricity poles along the right-of-way, engineers pointed out. Work on widening the road base to accommodate four lanes is necessarily held up until the way is cleared of both ditches and poles, they pointed out. Paving will be of the asphalt-concrete type.
    In another phase of the construction, rock is now being crushed for the first unit of the paving project by the J. C. Compton firm, McMinnville, on a gravel bar behind the Starlite Drive-In Theater on Bear Creek.
As Far as Hill
    The Medford-Ashland section will continue from the Medford city limits to the three-lane section on Billings Hill, just north of the railroad underpass at Ashland. The three-lane section will be maintained for the present time in the Ashland approach, officials said.
    The other Jackson County highway project is on a section 4.68 miles long, beginning at the Rock Point Bridge, west of Gold Hill, and along the south side of Rogue River, meeting Highway 99 at the former location of the Davis cafe at the base of Blackwell Hill. The new highway crosses the old one at a distance of 1.6 highway miles east of Gold Hill.
    Except for three traffic interchanges, the highway will be two lanes constructed on a right of way that can accommodate four lanes in the future, according to Grants Pass officials. Four lanes will be provided at the three traffic interchanges, which will be located at Rock Point, the Dardanelles and the base of Blackwell Hill. The latter will be of a temporary nature, as a new road will be constructed over Blackwell Hill sometime in the future.
Separate Contracts
    The road, which is on the opposite side of the river from Gold Hill, and the traffic interchanges, are being handled in separate contracts, according to engineers. Ausland and Dodson, Grants Pass, are building the traffic interchange structures, while the Central Heating Company of Oregon, Ltd., and F. L. Sommers of Eugene and Klamath Falls are building the road.
    The road grading and surfacing contract was let on August 11, and the interchange structures around November 1 of this year. Completion date for the projects is September 30, 1953, but with favorable weather conditions the engineers hope the project will be completed two or three months before this date.
Only One Crossing
    The only road crossing will be at the Dardanelles, where the county road will overpass the new highway, engineers continued. This particular area also involves two irrigation ditch moving projects, one 200 feet long and the other 500 feet.
    With access to the highway limited to the three interchanges, it is necessary to construct service roads on each side of the new highway between Rock Point and the Dardanelles, they added. The Old Stage Road will be used where it is not a part of the new highway.
    Asphalt-concrete paving will be used in the new section, with service roads of the oil-macadam type.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 7, 1952, page C1

Highway Over Siskiyous Oldest Route in County;
Tolls Charged Many Years

Numerous Troubles Encountered During 1913 Construction
Old Stage Trips To South Recalled

(Editor's Note: This is another in a series of feature articles dealing with the change in intercity travel conditions in Jackson County and Southern Oregon during the lifetime of many persons now living in this area.)
Mail Tribune Staff Writer
    "That'll be $1.25 please. Hope you find the road good over the summit."
    That's exactly what would have happened to you if you drove your buggy over the Siskiyou summit after 1859 and up to about 1913. It seems hardly possible that the old roads were financed in such a way with the current more indirect methods now in use. But it worked and was one way, at least according to records, to keep roads in fair shape and still make some money for the person that "owned the road."
    It seems hardly possible in a time of great public road projects that private persons controlled the roads on an original "pay as you go" basis. According to Jacksonville Museum records of the Siskiyou Wagon Road Company, the road was first opened for toll charges on Aug. 28, 1859, and two horsemen were the first customers at 25 cents each. The Lindsay Applegate family operated the road after moving from the Umpqua to the toll house near the present railroad location of Steinman.
Business Not Bad
    Business wasn't half bad. Everybody paid, evidently based on some index of road wear and tear. Prices started with 25 cents for a horseman to a drove of 700 sheep for $20. The most consistent revenue was the stage company, which paid a monthly rate, averaging about $80. At the end of the Civil War, this was just about the only revenue during the bad winter months. However, a year's total for 1864 was $3,738--a tidy sum in those times.
    Road maintenance was extremely hard work in those days. The Applegate cash journal and "Diary of the Weather," which is being presented by Mrs. Myrtle Lee at the museum, reports that during the particularly stormy winter of 1871 the drifts were quite deep. On Feb. 21, 1871, the diary stated that the company "broak (broke) snow all day with three men and two yoak (yoke) of oxen pulled the stage to the summit." They also reported "blasting" rocks out "of the canyon" on numerous occasions. The road in use at this time was evidently not the first road in entirety, as a diary entry of Dec. 28, 1868 reports of a trip to the summit of the mountain on "the old (1848) road" on which they "got two deer killed there yesterday by Frank French."
    Lindsay and Jesse Applegate made their first trip from Yoncalla in a party of 15 men over the Siskiyous (Boundary Mountains) into Mexican territory about 1846, according to a short essay by Frank L. Applegate, prior to the above-mentioned road. A path very near to the toll road was evidently used by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1841. A group led by Lt. Emmons passed over the Boundary Range into Mexican territory and passed by Pilot Rock. Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., who recorded the adventure of the Naval expedition [Wilkes was not on the overland expedition], said that in places the group traversed ". . . a steep and narrow path, where a single horse has barely room to pass." Indians impeded their progress, he related, with the burning of trees to fall across the path "and many other impediments placed to prevent the party from advancing."
Sold Road in 1871
    Such were the hazards of early travel over the Siskiyous. The Applegates sold the toll road privileges to James Thornton in 1871, and Thornton in turn sold to the third and final owners, the Dollarhide family.
    A well-known native of the Ashland community, Clarence E. Lane, remembers many trips over the mountains. He related that in the early days the road "was traveled quite a bit. The Ashland band and ballplayers would often go over the mountains to Yreka."
    He remembers the old stage route, which went from Ashland, with as many as six stages leaving in one morning. First stop was either Casey's or Barron's, he related. They would then climb a small hill over to Wagner Soda Springs, where the road forked for the Greensprings route to Linkville (Klamath Falls) or over the Siskiyous. "Depending on the weather, the stages would then leave the station. If it was snowing, sleds would be used from this point," he continued.
    The Siskiyou stage road would then wind up to a point beyond the present Steinman on the railroad right of way, where the toll gate was located. According to the Applegate toll book and diary, various travelers would spend the night at the toll house. The road then wound up to the summit, where the stages would meet in a widened area just this side of Cole's, the next stage stop, Lane said.
    It was a long time before the road was improved for all-weather travel. A "better roads" movement, in which Jackson County was the premier county of Oregon saw action by 1913. Judge Frank L. TouVelle, Jacksonville, who was county judge at the time, recalls purchasing the toll road rights for the county from the Dollarhides for $1,600. TouVelle said that the dirt stage road was followed closely on the new grading project, as "there wasn't enough money to buy new right of ways."
Didn't Come Easy
    Although part of a historic link of Pacific Coast states, the new road didn't come easily, as attested to by articles in the Mail Tribune during the period.
    An Oct. 16, 1913 article reported that the only thing holding back the advertising for bids was securing rights of way "for the new road over the Siskiyous" and "for alterations along the present road, such as eliminations of sharp turns and the deeding of needed strips for a uniform width of 60 feet. . . ." Further, "In many places the present road is but 40 or 50 feet wide."
    On Nov. 20, the firm of H. A. Keasel and W. M. McDowell of a logging firm at Tacoma, Wash., was awarded the grading contract for $107,534.30--the lowest of nine bids. The award was the basis for elaborate plans by a committee headed by Benjamin Sheldon for the digging of the first shovelful of dirt of the new road. Accepting an invitation on the occasion was Samuel Hill of Seattle, called by the Mail Tribune the "most prominent good roads enthusiast of the Northwest."
    The MT edition of Nov. 28, 1913 had this to say of the occasion: "In the presence of Gov. Oswald West and the state highway commission and a hundred prominent citizens of Jackson County, the first shovelful of earth in the construction of the Pacific Highway in Oregon was turned this afternoon by Samuel Hill, father of the good roads movement in the Northwest."
Scenic Boulevard
    The next day's edition predicted that ". . . the highway will be one of the scenic boulevards of the world." In speaking to the guests, Hill said that ". . .Today marks the beginning of permanent highway construction in the state. Jackson County points the way and leads Oregon, and its example will be followed by all."
    The occasion of the groundbreaking ceremonies was at a point near Kingsbury's Springs, near the present Emigrant Lake. State officials attending the ceremony included West, State Engineer H. L. Bowlby, B. K. Lawson, superintendent of the state penitentiary; and Resident Engineer F. A. Kittridge.
    In other speeches, West spoke out against the "dastardly attempts to get Bowlby and TouVelle by disgruntled contractors," according to the MT. The statement was indicative of the trouble in bid choice which led to an investigation by the grand jury.
    Present at the ceremony in "the Medford party," were those mentioned and, according to the MT, "Mr. J. S. Howard, father of Medford and the original good roads enthusiast of Jackson County shared honors with Gov. West and Supt. Lawson. Others were Judge William Colvig, who represented the county court and also spoke; Judge TouVelle, County Commissioner William Leever, Robert Ruhl, Sen. H. von der Hellen, J. A. Westerlund, Dr. J. M. Keene, W. H. Gore, W. I. Vawter, Dr. E. B. Pickel, George E. Boos, Benjamin Sheldon, Alfred S. Carpenter, Stewart Patterson, W. H. Canon, Porter J. Neff, H. A. Keasel, W. M. McDowell, J. T. Summerville, Charles B. Gay, C. Y. Tengwald, G. A. Gardner, J. R. Woodford, A. S. Rosenbaum, H. C. Garnett, M. Purdin, William Gerig, George Putnam, J. O. Gerking, Perry Ashcraft. "Machines" contributed to transport the group to the location were furnished by Charles Gates, Ashcraft, Leever, Westerlund, TouVelle and Sheldon.
    However, the ceremony didn't exactly mean that the road was on its way. For one thing, Keasel and McDowell were in financial trouble, and Bowlby refused to okay some subcontractors they offered in their place. On Jan. 21, 1914, the MT reported that work will not begin until the weather settles, though much equipment is on the ground."
Contract Transferred
    On Jan. 30, the contract was transferred over to J. W. Sweeney of Portland, whose bid ranked next to Keasel and McDowell at the same price as the latter. At this time, the only work done on the grade was clearing and brushing by a small force under Chris Natwick, "but a large force will be rushed to comply with the contract, which must be completed this summer." In November, Lawson had made a survey to house a convict camp of about 100 men to cut about a mile of heavy rock not under contract. However, Kittredge, the resident engineer, reported on Jan. 21 that plans for the Siskiyou camp for convicts and at Gold Ray quarry were abandoned "on account of the large number of unemployed in the county."
    Originally the road was to be 24 feet wide, with 16 feet of hard-surfaced road, and a maximum grade of 6 percent. However, on Feb. 11, the county court decided, along with the highway engineer, to pave only 8 feet in width over the Siskiyous with 8 feet graded on each side, according to the MT. "This will cut down the cost and leave money enough to complete the grade through the county," the article added.
    Contractor Sweeney located his first camp at Steinman, with later ones at Siskiyou and also near Cole's or at Colestin where the heavy rockwork is on the other side of the divide.
    Judge TouVelle accomplished one of his campaign promises with the depositing of cash from most of the $500,000 bond issue in Jackson County banks. That was the recognizing of county warrants at par value.
    A grand jury investigation was held on the contracting matter, but the evidence against the Portland contractors was not sufficient for indictment. Certain "highly scandalous unsigned letters" were referred to by the jury in regard to alleged attempts by the contractors to discredit TouVelle and Bowlby, according to the MT.
    After the paving, the 8-foot stretch was not widened to 16 feet until 1920, according to County Engineer Paul Rynning.
Siskiyou County Work
    At the same time Jackson County was paving its stretch, Siskiyou County in California was working on its part of the Pacific Highway. The new road was the turning point in the history of two Siskiyou County towns, as Yreka outbid Montague for the highway site. The old road passed through Montague in what was called a "disgraceful stretch of mire." The Siskiyou line met the Jackson County road a mile north of Cole on the mountaintop.
    Grants Pass in Josephine County was not interested in the Pacific Highway at this time, and Hill proposed that the county send its 1915 tourists to Crater Lake and thence through Central Oregon over "good natural roads to Biggs. . . . " Hill suggested this route, as the Willamette Valley area had also "refused to cooperate" in his Pacific Highway plan. Grants Passers were even wooed by a "Lt. Marshall," who was really an escaped convict, who offered to re-route the highway via the Applegate and leave Medford off the line. Fortunately, he was discovered as an impostor.
    In the fall of 1933, what had been considered "modern" in 1913 was again out of date, and work began on the first unit of a new route that was above and to the west of the 1913 road. On Dec. 14, the MT reported construction under way on the first unit by William von der Hellen and Pierson from Neil Creek to Wall Creek.
    This entirely new road was a considerably different one from the old type, "which followed the line of least resistance," according to von der Hellen. He related that hard workers and new equipment were able to cope with the building. He termed some of the new roadbed as through "tombstone granite." He completed about five miles of the present road, with the remainder done in units. The road was completed to the state line in about four years, he added.
    This road is still modern and was actually one of the first attempts to straighten the Pacific Highway in Oregon. This project was continuing in Jackson County last summer, with the next county stretch to be from Blackwell Hill to Central Point.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 13, 1953, page 14

Coast Highway Ground Broken 50 Years Ago
Mail Tribune Staff Writer

    Fifty years ago Thursday, ground was broken for Oregon's Pacific Highway, starting highway construction in this state, which has gained steady momentum since that date. It happened in Jackson County under what the press described that day as "most auspicious circumstances."
    Jackson County people had approved a $500,000 bond issue to finance highway construction, taking advantage of the 1910 amendment to the state constitution which permitted counties to create indebtedness for road building purposes.
    Contract for grading the new road over the Siskiyous had been let during the preceding week for $107,534.
    Last Friday, 50 years later, another contract was let for highway construction in the Siskiyous. It demonstrates how times have changed, pricewise. The Slate-Hall Construction Co., Portland, was low bidder with a bid for $3,512,034 on the Interstate 5 section from the Siskiyou Highway south 2.29 miles to the summit. The bids were opened by the State Highway Department in Salem.
    In 1913, Jackson County was the first county in Oregon to take advantage of the opportunity opened up for road construction. Much was made of this fact at the groundbreaking ceremonies held near Kingsbury Springs at the foot of the new Siskiyou grade that wintry day in November
    Much also was made of an apparent state controversy which had centered in Jackson County with the late Judge Frank L. TouVelle as recipient of the major barbs.
    Oregon Gov. Oswald West was speaker of the day. He called "a spade a spade" in a manner seldom heard, and less frequently published today.
    Front-page headlines in the Mail Tribune of Nov. 29, 1913, reporting the event, read: "West Scalds Bowlby-TouVelle Foes."
    The groundbreaking was attended by a crowd of 700 persons, and the Governor's speech was described by the reporter as the "sensation of the day." It charged "disgruntled contractors" with attempts "to get County Judge TouVelle" through false entries in their books to make it appear that he had used his position to secure automobile tires "for his own use at greatly reduced prices."
    "We know at Salem of these dastardly attempts against the reputation of your public official," Gov. West declared, "and I want to say now and here that I shall make it my business to see that the affair shall be brought before the proper authorities for rigid investigation.
    "We have known of the attitude of those crooks for over a year," the Governor was quoted. "As soon as it was known that Oregon was to have a state highway commissioner, they tried to dictate his appointment, and they got just the man they did not want. Then they tried to get to him. It didn't take them long to learn that [that] was a vain effort, and now they are trying to get him and the county officials when they find them determined that the people shall get a dollar's value in public work for every dollar spent."
Highway Engineer
    This report gives the definite impression that Major H. L. Bowlby was state highway commissioner, but [a] glimpse into history reveals that the highway commission was not created until 1917, and later in the newspaper report Major Bowlby is identified as "highway engineer." This was undoubtedly his position on Nov. 28, 1913.
    Samuel Hill of Maryhill, Wash. was honor[ed] guest of the day in recognition of his years of "energetic efforts in behalf of good roads and the example set in building miles of model paved highways traversing his 7,000-acre estate overlooking the Columbia."
    "Jackson County points the way and leads Oregon," Hill declared in response to the plaudits handed him. "Its example will be rapidly followed by all," he concluded.
    B. K. Lawson, superintendent of the state penitentiary, attended the groundbreaking, having come south to make arrangements for the convict labor camp. The camp was to provide for 100 convicts who carried out the heavy work on the Siskiyou grade, which was not included in the contract.
County Road Building
    Prior to that time, the few citizens left to remember recall that road building in Jackson County had amounted for the most part to hauling an occasional load of gravel to fill up the mud holes. This was frequently done by persons wishing to work out their poll taxes, which were then in effect. [This description of county road building became obsolete with the coming of the Orchard Boom. Poll taxes had been made unconstitutional in Oregon in 1910.]
    Those were exciting days, however, in more areas than road expansion in Jackson County, a perusal of the same newspaper reveals. It was the period in which Medford was in the regular itinerary of the best road shows that toured the nation. The coming of the famous Anna Held was announced for Dec. 4 at the Page Theater on East Main Street at Bear Creek bridge, the theater which was gutted by fire Dec. 30, 1923.
    Many of the stars and leaders of the period are unknown to present-day citizens. But not the late Judge TouVelle, who gave Oregon its TouVelle State Park at Bybee bridge. His name is known to many thousands who enjoy his gift summer after summer.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 1, 1963, page B8

Last revised June 12, 2024