Jackson County 1894
Jackson County and the Rogue River Valley, Oregon.--Jackson County is bounded on the north by Douglas and Josephine counties [sic], on the east by Klamath and on the south by the California state line. Its total area is 1,809,200 acres, all but 200,000 acres of which is surveyed land. The population of the county at the present time is about 11,500. The surface of the county may be divided into three great divisions, as follows: the mountainous, the hilly and the level lands contained in the valleys. The higher elevations of the county, embraced in the mountainous portion, are of value principally for stock grazing. The lower elevations contained in the hilly portion of the county are covered with dense forests of timber, and the low lands contained in the valleys are highly fertile and will produce anything indigenous to the temperate zone, and all fruits or plants of a semi-tropical nature attain the highest state of perfection in these rich valley lands. The character of the soil varies in different parts of the county, and it is not an unusual thing to find several different kinds of soil on a farm of even 160 acres in this part of the state.
The best part of Jackson County is contained in the famous Rogue River Valley, the most productive part of Southern Oregon. This valley is about 35 miles in length and maintains an average width of about 20 miles. It occupies the central part of the county and is crossed by the main line of the Southern Pacific railroad, which furnishes excellent transportation facilities to the farmers of this section. The valley derives its name from the river of the same name, which flows through it. Other important streams, which drain a large area of the valley, are Bear, Little Butte and Sams creeks. The soil of the Rogue River Valley is especially adapted to diversified farming. The climate is practically the same as that of Northern California, the frigid winter blasts which sometimes sweep down over Eastern Oregon being tempered here by the warm, moist breezes constantly blowing here from the ocean.
The Rogue River Valley is essentially a fruit-growing belt. All kinds of semi-tropical fruits do well here, and the Portland market is principally supplied with peaches, melons and other fruit of this nature from this famous fruit district. Near Jacksonville are a number of very fine vineyards that are kept in a high state of cultivation, and wine made from the grapes of Southern Oregon vies in quality with some of the best productions of California wine producers. All the cereals, including wheat, rye, oats, barley and corn, yield large crops on the lands of the valley. The bottom lands of the valley are used largely for the growing of timothy, clover and bluegrass. Alfalfa produces here from two to four good crops without replanting.
For the past 30 years gold hunters have found the mountainous districts of Jackson County attractive fields for prospecting. Placer mining claimed the whole attention of the early miner in this section. Valuable discoveries of gold quartz ledges have recently been made in the county. Capital has been interested in these mines, and large stamp mills are now being constructed to work the mines on an extensive scale. The future of the mining interests of Jackson County, as of all of the mining centers of Southern Oregon, seems brighter today than it has ever been before.
Edward Gardner Jones, ed., The Oregonian's Handbook of the Pacific Northwest, 1894, page 213
ARE RICH IN GOLD
MINES OF SOUTHERN OREGON
Diversified Industries of That Section--The Business Depression
Is Not Felt--Output of the Mines.
Mr. J. T. Flynn, who has just returned from Grants Pass, says that Southern Oregon has suffered less during the present industrial depression than any other section of the state. The prosperity of this section he attributes to the great diversity and high-grade character of its products. In speaking of Southern Oregon yesterday, he said:
"The winter apple crop, amounting to over $300,000, and averaging nearly $200 per acre, goes to foreign markets, principally Japan and Australia. The Bartlett pears have been shipped in carload lots as far east as New York at good profit to the grower. The sugar pine and other finishing woods are sold in Los Angeles, Denver, Salt Lake, Omaha and other points east, and bring as high as $75 per 1000 feet. This lumber is cut at a cost but little in excess of that of the low-grade product of Puget Sound, and yet it brings from three to five times as much money in the Eastern markets. The culling from this lumber is used to make fruit boxes, and finds ready sale as far south as San Diego. Another growing and very important industry in Southern Oregon is hops. The climate of this section is peculiarly adapted to hops, and so far the growers have met with flattering success. The average value of the crop the past year, with hops at 75 cents, was $250 per acre. Southern Oregon products an excellent quality of wheat and corn, but no attempt is made to ship it out of the country. It is fed to hogs, and instead of the grower getting 30 or 35 cents per bushel, as is the case elsewhere, he gets about $1.30. Hogs have found ready sale at the Grants Pass and Medford packeries this season at 6½ and 7 cents on foot. These packeries are supplying the local market with bacon, hams and lard, which means an annual saving on the transportation of raw material one way, and the refined product the other, of about $150,000. We have made up our minds in Southern Oregon that the only way to enrich a country is to sell more than we buy, and we are doing that now to the extent of over $1,000,000 a year. Such a course as this, if followed more generally throughout the state, would soon make Oregon a lender, instead of a borrower, of money."
THE MINES.In speaking of the mines of that section, Mr. Flynn said:
"Southern Oregon is today the best gold mining region in the United States. Jackson and Josephine counties produced last year nearly $1,000,000, and there is no reason on earth why the output should not be five or even ten times that amount. These two counties contain more auriferous gravel of an accessible nature than any other known section of the mineral world. The country is not only supplied with what is called 'old channels,' but contains more ledges and ledge croppings than any other section of equal area in the world. During the past 40 years these two counties have produced over $40,000,000 worth of placer gold, and yet the source of that wealth is comparatively untouched. If this ground were located in South Africa or up around the North Pole, where hardship or expense was incident, people would flock in there by the thousands, but because it can be reached by a Pullman car it is looked upon with suspicion. I know of 20,000 acres of ground in these two counties that will prospect and pay from $1,000 to $10,000 per acre, with water on it. And the beauty of the thing is that the water is there in abundance. All it requires is capital to develop it. In proof of the assertion I make that Southern Oregon is the best placer mining region in the world, I need only refer to the fact that C. W. Ayres of Siskiyou County, California, who is the mining commissioner from Oregon at the Midwinter Fair, is securing his gravel for exhibition mining purposes from Southern Oregon to work under a California banner. This is the old story of placing Oregon products under a California label. His mine is in California, but his pay dirt is in Oregon. Southern Oregon, in addition to having unlimited 'pay dirt,' has a debris outlet in the Rogue River which will never be hampered by legislation, such as the California miner has to contend with. One thing that has retarded mining development in Southern Oregon more than any other is its accessibility and the hospitality of its people. It has been possible for the modern 'Jim Crow' mining expert to get in and out of the country and air his opinions without protest. We have had too many of these so-called experts already. What we want in that country is men of capital and brains, men who would manage a mine as they would any mercantile enterprise, and to such men success is as certain as it would be in a bank. I am confident that the time will come, in a few years at most, when single mines in Southern Oregon will employ more men than any other single industry in the state. Every mine in Southern Oregon today that is being worked under intelligent and honest direction is paying handsome returns on the outlay. Among those who have made a success of mining I might mention James and Vincent Cook, who clean up from $10,000 to $30,000 a season; Captain Sturgis, with $20,000; John C. Lewis, cleaning up from $1,500 to $3,000 per week, with a two-stamp mill; Penumbra Kelly's mine, which has averaged $6,000 a month for more than a year; the Wimer Bros.' mine, near Grants Pass, from $20,000 to $100,000 per season; Simmons & Co. of the same place, about $25,000; Ennis & Cameron, on Rogue River, from $20,000 to $35,000 a season; Hull & Beck of Grants Pass, from $6,000 to $10,000 a season; William Bybee, from $5,000 up, and many others of lesser note. These mines are all paying well, simply because they are well managed. Besides those already mentioned there are several large enterprises under way. John C. Lewis of Portland has 250 men at work on a ditch in Josephine County. Captain J. A. Brown of this city has another nearly as large, while a Chicago company has just completed the largest pumping outfit in the world for the same purpose."
Oregonian, Portland, January 10, 1894, page 8
From Medford to Applegate.Editor Medford Mail. Dear Sir.--Our first day out from Medford we found the road in a fearful condition, it seems to one from the East, and especially to one who for years has been in the habit of traveling good roads, and in a country where the cost of good roads must be double, as it seems at least, to what the cost might be in your beautiful Rogue River Valley. Not saying that I presume to know, however, all about your financial situation, but with a bird's-eye view of the surrounding mountains covered with fir, pine, madrona, ash, oak and various other kinds of timber, which seems so accessible to, and yet your roads are in a deplorable condition. It does seem to one just out from the East, and whose lot may, in the near future, be cast with you, that your business men of the valley should take some interest in this direction, surrounded as you are by so many gold mines, and the opportunity of working them, that if there was nothing else to attract the attention of capitalist and immigration, this mining industry alone should--or ought to at least--create a desire for good roads.
To us who have just been out skirmishing throughout the county, especially the mineral belt, we are somewhat surprised at the vastness of your gold mines. Our first introduction after leaving Medford, on the 8th inst., was the celebrated placer mine, owned and operated by Mr. Sturgis, who has had forty-five years experience in mining. This gentleman informed your humble servant that he refused seventy-five thousand dollars for his mining property this spring. After leaving Mr. Sturgis' mine, we were next ushered to the home of Mr. Dunlap. Here we enjoyed a pleasant afternoon--Mrs. D. guessed our capacity for delicious edibles and prepared dinner accordingly. Long after our appetites were appeased, our eyes still gloated after the refreshments that were left. Mrs. D. understands how to prepare a meal for a lot of hungry miners. After dinner we took in the mines owned by Mr. D. This mine is not worked successfully on account of scarcity of water. One of our number asked Mr. D. what he would take for his mine. His reply was, "This mine is not for sale, for this is what gives us our bread and butter." The mine is situated on Poor Man's Creek about eight miles south of Jacksonville, one and a half miles south of east, and in sight of the famous Sturgis mine. At half past 4 p.m. we started on our journey down the Applegate. Here the mining scenery was lost sight of, and another industry, more generally indulged in, preyed upon our vision. Here and there along this beautiful river is dotted with farms, with orchards, and vineyards that defies the Pacific Coast to excel. At 6:30 o'clock p.m. we found ourselves at the beautiful farm residence of Mr. Benedict, an old timer of Jackson and Josephine counties. After partaking of a sumptuous supper, and talking of commonplace things, Mr. E. T. Johnson made his presence known. After the usual course of introductions, and how is everybody in Medford? and Mr. York has surely brought a better half back with him, etc., we repaired to the parlor and enjoyed a musical entertainment for a couple of hours. Mr. Johnson sang several fine solos, Mr. Simmons, the gentleman who keeps the second-hand store in Medford. proved his musical skill by playing a violin--with three strings--Mr. Morris talked on the silver question. Mr. Phillips was nodding and dreaming of home and loved ones, and I slid off to bed--thus ends our first day's journey out from Medford.
J. R. Hardin, Medford Mail, April 20, 1894, page 4
From Medford to Applegate.Our second day out finds us still at Mr. Benedict's. Leaving our team and wagon we started out on foot, headed by Mr Johnson, who led us across Applegate over the bridge, and up Thompson Creek about one mile, then across the creek to the south, thence up a narrow trail which meandered through the brush, till at last we ran square into the mouth of a tunnel. Here, Mr. Johnson informed us, was his mine. We unloaded our packs and explored the excavation made with picks and shovels. Mr. Johnson and his partner, Mr. Cramer, have performed [a] considerable amount of labor. They have another ledge one mile from this one that assays far better than the one they are now working, and a much larger vein. We leave these men at work on their ledge, and start out to hunt pockets and grouse. Three quarters of a mile of climbing and clinging, to keep our equilibrium, we made a halt to pan out some dust, which we thought looked favorable for gold. One color we found in our pan; this gave us encouragement to continue prospecting, so we climbed up the side of the mountain, only to stop at intervals to catch breath and examine the formation--the forenoon was spent thus--just before lunch however, mine host, Mr. Phillips, stumbled onto a ledge of quartz, which proved, after a careful assay, to contain 25 percent hard luck and 75 per cent sulphurate of perspiration and toil, then we adjourned for lunch. While refreshing, Mr. Morris gave us a lecture on the Queen's palace in England, and wound up on the silver question. After dinner we separated; Mr. Morris and Mr. Simmons started off together to prospect for trout, and we, Mr. Phillips and I, kept on prospecting. For three quarters of an hour we climbed up and up, slipping, to find ourselves crawling on our hands and knees, perspiring and puffing, until finally we reached the summit of the mountain. Stopping to rest and survey the general surroundings, we finally espied, square in front of us, to the eastward. across a fearful chasm, on the side of the mountain, two tunnels. Mr. P. looked at his watch and then at the sun, to see if the regulation was right, and concluding we would have plenty of time to make the journey, we gathered up our tools and made off. One hour found us at these tunnels, which proved to be the place where Mr. Wells took out a pocket about a year ago. This was no small pocket, by any means. Just now a similar one would make us smile all over. Mr. Wells found one slug in this pocket that weighed over seventeen hundred dollars. We found his son and another man digging among the manzanita, searching for pockets. By this time we concluded to go and hunt our two partners. At the crossing of Thompson Creek we found their coats, which apparently had become a burden to their owners while they fished in the sparkling brook. I remained nearby, but Mr. Phillips skinned out for camp. After waiting some little time Mr. Morris made his appearance, disgusted with the results of his afternoon's experience. Well he might be, for later on he informed us that a large mountain trout took his hook, and in his excitement he fell into the stream. From his own remarks, I suppose it would have been hard to discriminate between the two--which end of the line the fish was on. On our way back to the home of Mr. Benedict, we stopped at the residence--or bachelor hall--of Mr. E. T. Johnson, and rested our weary feet for a short time. Three hundred yards brought us to our lodging house, where a bountiful supper awaited us. This morning finds us all fresh and ready to start up the Applegate. Eight or nine miles brings us to Uniontown, situated at the mouth of Little Applegate. We crossed the Little Applegate and followed up the Big Applegate to Mr. Swain's place of abode. This gentleman is the owner of a farm of two hundred acres of land; about seventy-five acres are in cultivation, ten acres are set out to fruit trees. Mr. Swain showed us some very fine specimens of gold that was panned out of the dirt which came out of the bottom of his well, at a depth of twenty feet. Mr. Morris asked his ownership, what would be the least amount of money, cash down, without grumbling, that he would take for his 200 acres. Mr. Swain informed him that nothing short of eight thousand dollars could touch it. He said it was not worth that price for farming purposes, but for placer mining. We bid the kind gentleman a pleasant afternoon and retraced our steps back to the Little Applegate, thence up this stream to the mouth of Sterling Creek. Here we stopped at a farm house for dinner. Here a young damsel, a beautiful mountain maid, fresh as the breeze of a mountain, fair as the bright, sparkling dew, and as pure as the spray of a fountain, and her little brother, were all alone, but that little mountain angel prepared a nice dinner, served on short notice, that would have done credit to a king's dining palace. The boy soon had our mules unhitched from the vehicle and provided for their wants. After dinner we again started out for the celebrated Sterling placer mine, which is carried on quite extensively. We made a short halt at the mine, asked a few questions, and again started on our way rejoicing, headed for Medford, following up Sterling Creek to summit of mountain, thence down Poor Man's Creek to junction, thence across over a divide to Griffin Creek, thence down said creek to valley. Here we got stuck in the mud, and had to tear fences down and get inside of some man's ranch in order to get through; the lane was impassable. Suffice it to say we got back to Medford, but not to stay; we will soon start out again for the mines.
(Continued from last week.)
J. R. HARDIN.Medford Mail, April 27, 1894, page 4
FROM THE PACIFIC SLOPE.ASHLAND, Oregon, Nov. 7, 1894. . . . The stranger here is struck with the number of people who spend large a part of their time in wagons. At this time of year and earlier they are making their way south. The old time canvas-covered lumber wagon, drawn by anywhere from two to six horses, and followed by as many more, containing a dirty woman or two, and and few or many dirty children, the same, more or less, of dirty men, is the sight many times a day. Some of them have cattle ranges in the mountains where they spend the summer and drive in for the winter, others work a farm in California for a season where they conclude it is too dry and so go up into Oregon to spend a year, and by that time they conclude it is too wet there and in the fall start back for California to winter and get a ranch for the next season. At night they camp by the roadside and sleep in their wagons. Many ride on horseback here and it is a common sight to see a farmer and his wife or daughter jogging into town on their horses. The horses are all broke to gallop, and when the boy gets on they "git."
Another Entertaining Oregon Letter from the Pen of R. L. Andrus.
Chrysanthemums are just nicely in bloom here now and neatly every place is decorated with them. A chrysanthemum show was held here last evening by the young, people of the Epworth League. The decorations, all of these flowers, were superior to anything I have ever seen in extent, beauty and variety. We noticed a bouquet, arranged in a large basket containing sixty-seven varieties of them. The hall, a good-sized one, was a literal bank of flowers, arranged in figures and wreaths. Representations of fans, bicycles, pillows, anchors, harps, "the gates ajar," new moon, etc., were among some of those we can remember.
The season of roses has just passed and some may be seen in the yards yet, but they are about gone. The people take [pride] in their flower gardens and in the fact that they can raise them in such profusion and beauty.
This is a beautiful valley lying at the foot of the Siskiyou Mountains, about forty miles long and five or six miles wide. It is in about the same latitude of Bolivar, and about sixty miles from the Pacific Coast. The climate is like that of California, dry in summer with rains through the winter. There is usually a few weeks in the winter of snow but it does not freeze, enough to make sleighing. Peaches, apricots, prunes, almonds, and all kinds of berries grow abundantly, and it is a natural apple country. The people at present are greatly discouraged over the pests that trouble the fruit, scale, moth, etc., but are investigating and trying all known methods to destroy them. They have also the discouragement of having to pay four cents a mile railroad fare and freight rates to correspond. Monopoly seems to curse this country in more than one respect. The millers of this valley buy the wheat of the farmers but refuse to grind it for them, and then charge them fifty percent, profit on the flour. They pay less than a cent a pound for wheat and sell the flour and graham for about twice that amount. If a dealer attempts to import flour they drop the price until he has to quit the business, and then put it to the former price. But the farmers are getting waked up to business, and that state of things cannot exist long. They have already a mill of their own in the lower part of the valley, but where relief will come from on transportation is a problem, for railroads cannot be built through these mountains, except with a great amount of capital.
Gold-bearing quartz is found here in the mountains, but the uncertainty attending the development of a prospect and the expense of reducing it keeps men of ordinary means out of the business. A stamp mill is owned and operated here running night and day every day in the week. Ten horses haul the quartz to the mill and about thirty men find employment. The amount of ore produced is not published, so the profit is unknown.
R. L. ANDRUS.Bolivar Breeze, Bolivar, New York, November 30, 1894, page 2
The Garden Spot of Southern Oregon--Important Fruitgrowing Section.
The valley of the Rogue River vies with the famous Willamette valley in extent, and it is second to no other part of the Pacific Northwest in its productive powers and its attractive surroundings. It is situated in that part of Southern Oregon lying between the Cascade and Coast ranges of mountains. The verdure of this valley is always green, and is in sharp contrast with the parched appearance of the soils of northern California, just across the Siskiyou Mountains to the south. The soil of the Rogue River Valley is of such depth and so heavy in the deposits of centuries of decayed vegetation that it never dries out during periods of even the most protracted drought, and in its productive capacity it is the husbandman's paradise.HAMILTON & PALM.
The Rogue River Valley is about 40 miles in length, with an average width of 20 miles. It is watered by the river of the same name, which flows through it. The valley extends through the counties of Josephine and Jackson. Its soil is disintegrated basaltic rock washed down from the adjacent foothills, alluvial deposits and decomposed vegetation. Its fertility is remarkable, especially in its adaptability for diversified production. In color this soil varies from a black loam, shading to a brown on the hillsides, to a reddish, almost brick color in certain parts of the valley. This soil is of great depth, and, from the experience gained by more than 20 years of farming here, cannot be worked out. Basaltic rock is the base of the best soils of the Pacific Northwest, and where the disintegrated rock is found in such quantities as it exists in the soil of the Rogue River Valley it is the opinion of the scientific agriculturist that a century of constant cultivation will not lessen its productive capacity.
In the high elevations of the mountain ranges encompassing the Rogue River Valley, snow lies on the ground throughout the winter months. Although these snow-capped mountains are in plain view of the residents of the Rogue River Valley, a snowfall in the valley itself is nearly as much a phenomenon as it would be in the streets of San Francisco. The soil is easily cultivated, and it is the ideal fruit growing section of the state. While fruit culture is the principal pursuit of the agriculturist of this section, the lands of the valley are especially adapted to diversified farming. Wheat grows as well here as it does in the famed Willamette Valley, and all the grains, hay and garden truck are raised in prodigious quantities. Corn does especially well here, owing to the richness of the soil and the warm, dry temperature of the summer and early fall months. Timothy, clover, bluegrass and alfalfa yield crops which impose on the credulity of Eastern visitors. Alfalfa in the Rogue River Valley has yielded four abundant crops during a single season. in the vicinity of Grants Pass, Woodville, Phoenix and the Applegate country, all situated within the valley, hop culture has received special attention, and the quality of the hops grown here is equal to that of the hops of the Puyallup Valley of Washington, and the yield in all cases is large.
It is as a fruitgrowing section that the Rogue River Valley has claimed the most attention from visitors during the past few years. There is no fruit of the semitropical variety that does not do well on these lands. Peaches grown here are not excelled on the coast, while grapes, apricots and melons are of the same rich flavor as is noted in the best productions of southern California. The Rogue River Valley peach is the pride of the Portland markets, and Eastern visitors say that none of the primest varieties of the Delaware peach belt surpass it in quality. Melons from the Rogue River Valley are annually shipped to Portland and all the Willamette valley points in carload lots. The Portland markets are practically supplied with melons from this source alone. These melons are giants in size, and they possess the sweetness only found in melons raised on soils especially adapted to growing this fruit to its greatest perfection. Among the other varieties of fruits grown here are apples, pears, cherries, prunes, berries of all kinds, nectarines and grapes. The Oregon Bartlett pear brings a higher price in the markets of the coast than the California product, it being especially noted for its size, its abundance of juice and its remarkably rich flavor.
Next to the peach, grapes have long been the most staple product of the rich soils of the Rogue River Valley. Experts pronounce the grapes of some of the Jackson County vineyards superior in quality to the finest grapes of California or even of the renowned vineyards of France. Time and experience alone are required to make the Rogue River Valley one of the greatest wine-producing sections of the coast. There is even today considerable wine made in this part of the state, but it is principally handled in a desultory way, and the output is not yet sufficient in quantity to insure the proper attention to storing it which alone will produce the
quality of wine demanded by the best markets of the coast.
The productive capacity of the soils of the Rogue River Valley can be appreciated from the statement that figs, almonds, and even walnuts, are successfully grown here. While the cultivation of these products is not carried on to any extent, for the reason that other branches of fruit culture and agriculture have promised more profitable returns here, it may be well to note that a country which can successfully produce the diversified crops mentioned above approaches as closely to the limit of an ideal agricultural section as is reached by any of the most favored spots of the United States.
The shipments of fruit from the Rogue River Valley today are heavy. These shipments are made principally in carload lots, and they find a ready market in nearly all parts of the Northwest. It is the quantity produced for shipment that is often the determining quantity in the success of the fruitgrower. A section that produces sufficient fruit to enable shipments to be made in trainloads will usually command a better price for its output than the community that is only able to offer sufficient fruit for shipment to fill a single car. Fruitgrowing will always be the principal industry of the Rogue River Valley, and, with the great demand that exists for fruit of the quality raised here, the returns from the industry will always be profitable.
A demand exists at the present time in the valley for encouragement of fruit drying as a leading industry. Certain varieties of fruit can be sold more profitably in their dried state than they can in a fresh condition. Dried fruits are as staple as sugar or coffee in all the markets of the world. Fruit drying affords a profitable field for the investment of capital in the Rogue River Valley, and it is an industry that is certain to be largely developed in this section within the next few years.
Southwestern Oregon is not a treeless waste. The hills surrounding the Rogue River Valley are covered with a dense growth of fine merchantable timber. Many varieties of timber are found in the counties of Josephine, Jackson and Curry. The most valuable wood of this section, however, is the sugar pine. Forests of this wood are found in large belts, principally in Josephine County. As a finishing wood it is unsurpassed. A large factory for the manufacture of doors, sash, moldings and blinds has long been established at Grants Pass, and during the last year a branch factory has been established at Medford.
The Rogue River Valley is worthy of the attention of immigrants who are in search of a rich farming belt where a mild climate predominates. Even California is not more favored in the matter of climate than is that part of Oregon embraced within the limits of the valley, and the remarkable growth this section has made during the past few years correctly forecasts what is in store for the community within the next decade.
For full information concerning town property in Medford, or choice improved farms and orchards in the Rogue River Valley, communications should be addressed to Messrs. Hamilton &. Palm, at Medford. These gentlemen have for sale fine fruit orchards within easy distance of the town at low valuations, and these are offered for sale on the remarkably easy terms of $1.25 a week installments. The profits from these orchards accruing to the purchasers during the period that the installments must be paid will not only meet the purchase price, but will insure the purchaser a fair living at the same time.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, January 1, 1895, page 15
Last revised January 26, 2020