The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


    Called on Judge Tolman, and were entertained by his estimable lady, who was kind enough to chaperone us through the medical bath-rooms, where waters from the caloric springs in the vicinity flow into the cisterns in quantity sufficient for the convalescence of all the afflicted of this region. Of a tepid temperature, the water is just right for baths; their medical properties have been proved and acknowledged. The Judge would confer a favor by throwing them open for public use, or renting them out to some professional Teuton, who is entrusted with the ropes d'eau seltzer.
    To be on the safe side, we drink a few quarts of this water to wet down the dust and counteract the effect of the sirocco blasts of yesterday.
    After seeing the points of the Judge's beautiful farm (which, by the way, is quite a little principality, well appointed, furnished and governed, and he is a whole-souled monarch--long may he reign and survey!) we unroll the calico transports from their moorings, near the residence of the "contraband" aforesaid, and get under way again.
"Rough Sketches of a Few Days in the Mountains," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 10, 1861, page 2

    ROADS.--The citizens of Table Rock valley have constructed a good substantial wagon road from Chavner's free bridge to Sams Creek. Those wishing to visit the White Sulphur Springs in that vicinity will now find it a pleasant drive.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 28, 1863, page 2

    SALT SPRING.--We are informed that Mr. W. W. Brown has discovered a salt spring on the northeast fork of Evans Creek. Mr. Brown has had, in the eastern states, considerable practice in the manufacture of salt. He tested the water of the spring, and found it so strongly impregnated that it required but comparatively little labor to make several hundred pounds of superior salt. We understand that Mr. Brown intends to put such works as will enable him to manufacture all the salt required for this part of Oregon. The success of such an enterprise will save thousands of dollars in Southern Oregon.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 5, 1863, page 7

    UNION SALT WORKS.--The Union will soon be saved, if salt will do any good. Messrs. Fuller & Co. have established salt works at a salt spring upon Evans Creek in this county, and are rapidly making (for the number of kettles they have) a very fine article of salt. A sack may be seen at the store of Fisher & Bro. We are glad to chronicle such evidences of the valuable resources of our county. Let the country be more thoroughly prospected every year, and untold riches will be brought to light.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 26, 1864, page 7

    By advertisement in today's paper it will be seen that a Fourth of July ball will be given at Soda Springs, in the upper part of the valley.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 10, 1865, page 2

    HOME PRODUCTS.--We examined an article of salt, the past week, from the "Evans Creek Salt Works," in this county, and as far as we are able to judge, it is as nice as any shipped from below. It is very white and fine. Love & Bilger are agents for the company, and all who desire to examine the article can do so by calling at their store.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 22, 1865, page 2

    [At the state fair] Next to those was a sack of Oregon-made salt by Brown & Fuller, of the Jackson Salt Works. We presumed the Jackson works are located at Jacksonville, but the card attached gave me no information, and I could find neither Brown, Fuller or the superintendent of whom to seek enlightenment.
"Our Salem Letter," Morning Oregonian, Portland, October 20, 1866, page 2

    SODA SPRINGS.--These springs are distant from Jacksonville about twenty-five miles, in a southeastern direction. Dr. Colwell has located at this point, and erected a hotel building which makes no pretensions to grandeur or magnificence, but when finished will be neat, commodious and comfortable. The Doctor and his lady set a good table and render every courtesy and attention to guests.
    The springs are becoming quite a place of resort in the summer season. Pleasure parties to this locality are frequent, but a still greater number of humanity's ailing ones visit the springs for the benefits derived from drinking the mineral waters, which are in a manner similar to the celebrated springs of Seltzer, Spa and Pyrmont in Europe--containing the carbonates of lime, magnesia and iron. We believe, however, that the salutary effects of a sojourn at this spot are as much due to the pure invigorating atmosphere, the cool breezes that are ever whispering among the treetops, and the general feeling of quiet and serenity that pervades it, as to the use of the mineral waters. It is well up in the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains, off the main line of travel, and away from the bustle of business and toiling crowds, where the nerves may steady down and gain a more healthful tone--the pulse is not stirred so wickedly by the fashions and foibles of conventionality and the worry and vexations of business.
    Soda Springs is not an extraordinarily romantic or grand locality; in good truth there are many places in this county that can boast more enchantments as regards attractive scenery, but after all, one who feels worried down like a spent hound would find health and pleasure in drinking the soda water, loitering idly over the smooth, rolling slopes of the hills and among the gray, grim crags, or trouting in the waters of Emigrant Creek that lie in pools and eddies or bubble and foam swift over the stones and among the tangled roots, or in lying hour by hour under the trees, building air castles and dreaming out long vagaries, and returning always with a sharpened appetite.
    The road leading from the Jacksonville and Yreka road is poor enough at the best, but is made unnecessarily worse along up Emigrant Creek, by the encroachments of some settlers who have recently squatted upon the bench land along the creek, fenced up the road as it formerly ran and crowded it down to the edge of the channel, among the ruts and stones. This is a legalized county road, and the county survey calls for sixty feet in width along the middle of the flat, and to which the settlers above, and those generally who travel the road, are entitled and could claim if they chose to be obstinate. The settlers should of their own accord have grace of God and public spirit enough to leave at least twenty-five feet on the margin of the flat, next the creek, over which a good, safe road could be made at a much less outlay of labor by that road district, and which would be serviceable at all seasons of the year. Soda Springs is in a measure becoming a county institution, and it is due to the people generally that the road thereto be made as safe as possible, and not unnecessarily obstructed.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1867, page 2

    Speaking of the manufacture of salt in this state, the correspondent of the San Francisco Bulletin gives the following statement. He might have added that there are salt springs in Jackson County from which about ten thousand pounds of a very superior article of salt is produced annually.
"Oregon Salt," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 1, 1867, page 1

    WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS.--From Mr. John Love, who visited them last week, we learn something of the White Sulphur Springs, the mere existence of which we had heard of before. This spring gushes out of the mountain to the west of Sams Valley, about eight miles from Rock Point and twenty from Jacksonville. The spring comes out of the mountainside but a short distance from the base, and affords a stream of water which Mr. L. thinks would fill about a ½-inch pipe.
    The hill is beautifully terraced and the surrounding scenery is magnificent. The water is very strongly impregnated with sulphur yet very pleasant to drink. This property is not owned by anyone yet, it being on government land. To one with a small capital, who would improve the place, a fine opportunity is offered for making money, as it could not fail of becoming a place of fashionable resort.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 6, 1867, page 2

    BOILING SPRINGS.--On the quarter section located by Dr. Greenman, in Goose Lake Valley, there are springs so hot that they will boil an egg in three minutes. The Dr. says they are strongly impregnated with sulfur.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 20, 1869, page 2

    PIC-NIC.--We are credibly informed that one of the greatest successes of last week was a social picnic at a soda spring on Carter Creek, at the upper end of the valley. A party of young ladies and gentlemen from Ashland, who delight in healthy and pleasant recreation, were the participants. During the ramblings of the party amid the green valleys of the Siskiyous, they had a near and interesting view of Pilot Rock.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 5, 1869, page 2  Italicizing "Pilot Rock" suggests an in-joke--it sounds like the Sentinel's Ashland correspondent by that name had been surprised au naturel.

    The average Ashland hoodlum amuses himself by lying in ambush for the deer that daily come to the warm springs to drink the sulfur water, of which they are very fond. A great many are yearly slaughtered there during the warm weather.
"Oregon," Oregonian, Portland, July 17, 1876, page 3

    ANOTHER FINE MINERAL SPRING.--On the south fork of Evans Creek, in this county, near J. B. Thomas' sawmill, is one of the finest soda or mineral springs. Many invalids have for the past few years been using the water of this spring, and in every instance have received much benefit and in some cases complete relief. It is considered by persons who are acquainted with both, that this spring is similar to and contains equally as beneficial medicinal properties as the celebrated Bartlett Springs, in California. The spring is free to all who may desire to try its waters.
"Local Brevities," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 10, 1876, page 3

JACKSONVILLE, Aug. 20, 1877.
    Anyone who will travel forty miles southwest from Jacksonville in the summer season can find the original Garden of Eden and the spring which Ponce de Leon sought for so long a time, and which has the power to restore youth and vigor. This Garden of Eden is situated four or five thousand feet above the level of the sea in the Siskiyou Mountains at the cinnabar mine on Beaver Creek, and resembles the other one of old in the salubrity of its climate, the beauty of its scenery and the luxuriance of its vegetation. Whether it is an improvement on the original garden or not depends upon the temperament of the visitor. It has the serpent (with nine or ten rattles), but the Eve and the apple and the fig leaf are wanting. The reason why you must go in summer is because if you wait until winter you will have to walk on snowshoes. There is a trail leading to the mine from Jacksonville up Little Applegate Creek a few miles, then on by Little Beaver and on up by Squaw Creek, and still "Excelsior" by Chappel's spring and the Silver Fork (you see what camp furniture we have in the mountains) of Elliott's Creek to a low gap in the Siskiyous, from which Elliott Creek runs north into Oregon and Beaver Creek runs south into California, and from which you can see far down south and gaze upon Mt. Shasta from base to summit. You descend three miles and amidst gigantic sugar pines and tamarack and grass belly deep to your animal and you are on the enchanted ground.
    The cinnabar deposit is on a point running down from the "divide" spoken of above, and is between the Lick fork and the west fork of Beaver Creek. From underneath this hill or mountain, and on the side of the Lick fork bubble out the most delightful springs of soda and iron, two of soda at a distance of a mile or so apart, and one of iron. There is still another spring not quite so delightful, being strongly impregnated with sulfur, and going to show that the opposition establishment to our paradise may not be far off. It is impossible to imagine or describe the delights of drinking from these soda springs. The water bubbles continually, and it is just sufficiently pungent to make it pleasant, and it is so light that one can drink almost any quantity of it. Indeed, in drinking it "the appetite seems to grow by what it feeds upon." I was informed by an old hunter who camps in the neighborhood every summer that the deer come from a distance of twenty-five or thirty miles to drink this water, and any morning between daylight and sunrise you can see, by secreting yourself near the soda lick, from twenty to forty or fifty deer absolutely guzzling the nectar. They will wade the creek without drinking to get at it, and they drink till their little stomachs are swelled out like frogs. The tastes of your humble contributor may not be known, but I am fond of champagne in a goblet, and yet I would rather at any time have a quart or two of this soda water than a tumbler of Charles Heidsieck or Veuve Clicquot with ice. Whilst exploring for springs one was found which was nearly dry, not containing more than a cup full of water. Then it was that one of those wretches who infest society, an old joker, a sort of intellectual Bashi-bazouk, unimpressed by the grandeur that was about him, sillily and in bland accents remarks that he had often heard "that one swallow did not make a spring, but there was a case where one swallow would destroy a spring." The mountain men of the party looked at the perpetrator as if he had let his rifle go off by accident, and they moved on in contemptuous silence.
    The iron spring not at all unpalatable, and one can almost feel as he drinks it its life-giving and life-renewing qualities. This is the spring which has the most reputation medically, and indeed the cures which it has worked in some chronic cases are astonishing. It may perhaps be somewhat impregnated with mercury, as it comes right out from under the cinnabar. The whole of this cinnabar discovery is somewhat peculiar. Some years ago a tradition was floating around that the Indians had encamped somewhere and kindled a fire on some loose rocks, and that shortly afterward they lost their hair (without being scalped) and all their teeth. The story reached the ears of one of our most enterprising and persistent prospectors and miners, Mr. Henry Klippel. He did not like to acknowledge that he had been set in motion by such an airy nothing as this report until success had crowned his efforts. He succeeded in getting an Indian who would not go near the place for fear of the evil spirit that had so quickly "lifted the hair" of his brethren, but he described the locality. An examination of Beaver Creek showed float cinnabar, and for six years the search has been continued until at last the deposit has been found, and is of surpassing richness and in great abundance. A well-known miner came to grief in the claim as well as the Indians. He was a great smoker and carried his tobacco loose in his trousers pocket. When sinking a shaft some crumbs of ore must have got into his pocket and mingled in the tobacco, and when he lighted his pipe the mercury became volatilized by the heat, and he lost every tooth in his head.
    Some time since, 2,800 pounds of ore was shipped to Oakland in this state, where it was reduced in a large retort, and over 1,400 pounds of quicksilver was returned to the shippers. That was over 50 percent, and the ore is better now than it was then. A retort weighing 2,000 pounds is now on the ground and will be ready to go to work in two weeks. From the appearance of the ore on the dump and in the mine we predict a good return for the patience, time, labor and money which have been used in its development.
Oregonian, Portland, August 27, 1877, page 3

    SODA SPRINGS.--There is not in the whole [of] Southern Oregon a more delightful place of summer resort than the soda springs of Mr. Courtney above Ashland. The water is most beneficial to invalids, and has effected many cures. The water is strongly impregnated with soda and iron, is delightful to the taste and exceedingly appetizing. Ample provision is made for the accommodation of guests, and a visit there will be sure to be repeated, as the charges are very moderate.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 4, 1879, page 3

    Soda Springs, on the road from Ashland to Linkville, is now a stage station, which is a great convenience to travelers. The host and hostess, Mr. and Mrs. Shannon, know how to make guests comfortable and set the best table in the country, making the "Springs" the most popular summer resort in this section.

"Local Items,"
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 23, 1880, page 3

    A PLACE FOR PLEASURE SEEKERS.--One of the best soda springs in Oregon is found near the ranch of M. Hanley on Little Butte Creek. The water is superior, the surrounding scenery grand, and fish and game plentiful, making the spot a desirable one for pleasure parties. The only drawback is the absence of a wagon road for a few miles; but an excellent trail leads directly to the spring. It is destined to become a prominent summer resort in time.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 13, 1880, page 3

    There are a great many visitors at the McCallister Soda Springs. Two hundred and eighty-eight have visited it this summer. Mr. McCallister has been offered $6,000 (in property) for his claim on the spring, but refuses to take it. He asks $10,000 for it.
"From Brownsboro," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 16, 1881, page 4

    The Soda Springs House above Ashland, now kept by L. B. Tucker, is already crowded with guests although the weather has been such that summer resorts have hardly been thought of. It is a pleasant place for families to go during the hot spell.

"Local Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 28, 1884, page 3

    BUTTE CREEK SODA SPRINGS.--Attention is called to the advertisement, in another column, of S. McCallister, proprietor of these famous springs. Their health-restoring properties are said to be wonderful. As they are easy of access and accommodations are furnished at low rates, invalids or others looking for recreation should give the Butte Creek springs a trial.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 25, 1884, page 3

McCallister's Soda Springs,

Situated on the North Fork of Butte Creek, 32 miles from Jacksonville, in a cool canyon near Mt. McLoughlin, are a delightful resort
These waters are highly medicinal, curing in a short time
Dyspepsia and All Stomach Complaints,
As well as many
    The Springs are easy of access, and good Board and Lodging is furnished at low rates by the proprietor. Also a few cabins for rent on the premises.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 25, 1884, page 2

Soda Springs.
    [The first sentence illegible due to paper loss.] The springs are situated on a small stream at the southeastern extremity of the valley, near the base of the Siskiyous and about twenty-seven miles from Jacksonville. The base of this spring is not soda as commonly supposed, but iron, and it is therefore a natural tonic, pleasant to the taste and most healthful and invigorating. The hotel kept in connection with the springs by Louie B. Tucker is one of the best, if not THE best in Southern Oregon. The house has recently been enlarged and very materially improved in appearance and neatly and comfortably fitted up throughout, and the table, presided over by Mrs. Tucker in person, is uniformly spread with the choicest the country affords and is second to none in the state. Those who go there during the heated term for rest and quiet and to test the virtue of the springs, the medicinal properties of which are now undoubted, can rest assured that every attention will be given them and no pains spared to render their stay both pleasant and profitable. Those who have sojourned there this summer speak in the highest terms of the benefits derived from the use of the water, and all agree that as a tonic and appetizer it is unsurpassed. The proprietors propose making it a general article of commerce so soon as arrangements can be perfected for shipping it. They think by the use of the modern soda bottle it can be shipped to Portland and intermediate points with little or no loss of its medical virtues and that the general public can thus have access to the water without the necessary expense of visiting the springs. If this should prove a success a new and important industry will be developed in Southern Oregon which will give employment to quite a number of hands besides being no inconsiderable source of revenue. We hope the proprietors will be successful in their venture.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 9, 1884, page 3

    Mr. Geo. H. Tyler of this place [Medford] has purchased the famous "Dead Indian" springs in the Cascades and proposes to make of it a summer resort.
"Through Southern Oregon," Roseburg Review, September 18, 1885, page 3

    Besides running the Soda Springs Hotel Jacob Wagner will also engage in stock raising. He purchased a band of cattle from Holman Peters of Grants Pass this week.
"Local Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 14, 1885, page 3

    Mr. J. E. Houston reports business good at the White Sulfur Springs Hotel, and says more strangers are visiting Southern Oregon than is generally supposed. Mr. Houston keeps a good house, and is not afraid to advertise and reach out for business. He deserves a good patronage.

"Brevities," Ashland Tidings, November 27, 1885, page 3

    Jacob Wagner, who has purchased the famous Soda Springs property, is going to make great improvements there this summer. He proposes to build a nice, commodious two-story house over the spring, and will build several neat cottages to rent and will also greatly enlarge and improve the Soda Springs hotel, which will continue under the popular management of Mr. and Mrs. L. B. Tucker, who have so successfully conducted it for the past year. Mr. Wagner is a man of enterprise, and his proposed improvements will add greatly to the comfort of health and pleasure seekers who resort there every season.
"Local Items,"
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 6, 1885, page 3

    Wm. Bybee proposes making a fine summer resort at his sulfur springs on Evans Creek and is making preparations to build a house there. Gus Delpey and wife are in charge at present, having purchased a complete outfit here last week.
"Local Items," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, July 11, 1885, page 3

Sulfur Springs.
Bybeeville, Jackson County,
    August 4th 1885.
    I take this opportunity to write you a few lines, as it has been four weeks today since I arrived here and am as fat and saucy as a native of the woods with plenty of venison, grouse and squirrels, with now and then a little bacon to season the good things with, and spuds to thicken the soup. My wife is enjoying herself and the little children are happy wading the creek, climbing trees, digging for gophers, fishing for mud turtles and killing rattlesnakes! They expand their lungs also by giving vent to war whoops that would do credit to a band of Comanches.
    Woodville is the starting point for these springs, and the distance is about fifteen miles over a good road which can be traveled in three hours. There are about fifty-five people here and more coming every day. There are some from almost every state in the Union, there being four direct from town come in last night, and a party of Congressmen are expected shortly from Washington. Mr. Wm. Bybee, the proprietor will have a fine hotel when it is finished.
    There are two springs here, white and black sulfur, and I think they are excellent.
    Give my best love to all inquiring friends, as I cannot write to all. I will visit Ashland before returning to Roseburg.
G. A. Beath.
Roseburg Review, August 7, 1885, page 3

    Mr. Geo. H. Tyler of this place [Medford] has purchased the famous "Dead Indian" springs in the Cascades and proposes to make of it a summer resort.
"Through Southern Oregon," Roseburg Review, September 18, 1885, page 3

    Jacob Wagner and family moved up to the Soda Springs last Monday, to take charge of the hotel at that place. They have resided in Ashland for more than twenty years, and their friends and neighbors regret to see them leave, even though they go so short a distance, and for a short time. They will likely return to their Ashland residence before winter.

"Personal," Ashland Tidings, April 2, 1886, page 3

    Among the most noted attractions is the White Sulfur Springs House, kept near the depot by Mr. T. W. Price. We would respectfully refer the invalid to this house, where they will find a most pleasant place, very reasonable charges and no doubt benefits to their health.
"Up the Valley," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, June 18, 1886, page 2

    Following is from a sketch of the Rogue River Valley by E. A. Swope in the Portland World:
    A ride of two hours or less from Ashland brings us to the Soda Springs, situated on the Linkville road about 10 miles from Ashland.
    The Soda Springs House is a most delightful abode, on the banks of Emigrant Creek, nestled in a remote valley surrounded by the Siskiyou and Cascade mountains, thirty-two hundred feet above the level of the sea. The air is pure mountain, perfumed with the fragrance of the variegated wildflowers and shrubs and grow in such voluptuous profusion on the mountainsides. The spring is about 40 yards from the house, around which resound the songs of the myriads of sweet-tuned birds that frequent these southern vales of Oregon, and which delight to drink of the health-giving waters of nature.
    There is a most fascinating charm about the spot. The gush of brawling waters crowding down the stream in limpid measure, the sublime view of Ashland Butte to the northwest, rearing its snow-crowned head from its
"Palace where nature thrones
Sublimity in icy halls"
to the ethereal dome of heaven, the perfect seclusion of the place, surrounded as it is by lofty mountains on all sides, where no harsher sound is heard than the coo of the turtledove or the musical shrill of the lark piping its lulling notes to the bleating flocks that browse upon the mountainsides or rest under the shade of some ancient and expansive live oak tree--all render the springs a most delightful retreat to those in search of rest and recreation, or the recuperative powers of the water so palatable to the taste and invigorating and health-giving to the system.
    The house is owned and operated by Mr. Wagner, one of the pioneers of the Rogue River Valley and erstwhile proprietor of the Ashland Mills. For comfort, cleanliness, good table and accommodations, the place is not excelled in Oregon. Mr. Wagner has only been in possession of the hotel for about four or five months, and already the improvement and change wrought under his and his wife's superior management are very marked. In one or two seasons, these soda springs will, without doubt, be a much frequented and favorite resort with the people of the state and abroad. The medicinal properties of the water are very highly commented upon by those who have received benefit from them, and their curative powers eulogized by those who have sought the healing skill of physicians in vain. For Bright's and other diseases peculiar to the kidneys, the waters of the soda springs possesses positive curative powers.
    The region is particularly rich in soda and sulfur springs, both cold and thermal, and is fast becoming a resort for invalids, tourists and those in search of the healing waters of nature. The opening of through railroad communication will, in the near future, bring thousands from abroad to these fountains of life.
    [illegible line of type] tunnel through the Siskiyou Mountains south of Ashland, which remains in the incomplete state that the bursting railroad boom left it, revealed a perfect botanic paradise to the lover of flowers. The camas, with its star-shaped flower and lavender hue, the orange blossom, larkspur, the Oregon lily, the field lily, the wild lily of the valley, the helianthus or sunflower, wild cucumber and honeysuckle, cleanthus, wild heliotrope and roses permeate the air with their aromatic fragrance.
Ashland Tidings, July 2, 1886, page 1

    Mr. S. McCallister, proprietor of the McCallister Soda Springs, situated on the north fork of Butte Creek, was in town this week. From him we learn that quite a number of families are camped at this place enjoying the healthy influences of this valuable spring. He has our thanks for a half dozen bottles of this health-giving beverage.
"Local and Personal," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, September 3, 1886, page 3

    O. Ganiard of this place has purchased the "White Sulfur Springs House" in Ashland, and will soon take charge of his purchase and engage in the hotel business. We dislike to think of losing Mr. G. and estimable wife, but our loss is somewhat recompensed with the assurance of great gain to the appreciable community to which they are going.

"Sams Valley Notes," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, September 10, 1886, page 2

    Simeon McAllister informs us that he will soon commence the manufacture of about 2800 brooms for Mr. Hulbert of this valley. Mr. Hulbert has two tons of the best of broom corn.
"Local and Personal," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, December 24, 1886, page 3

    Mr. O. Ganiard of the White Sulfur Springs House was in Gold Hill Monday. He is doing a rushing business at his hotel.
"Local and Personal," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, May 27, 1887, page 3

"A Sure Cure for Rheumatism."
    A short distance above Soda Springs, almost in the bed of Emigrant Creek, there is a mineral spring of some sort which the Indians from different parts of the country have long been accustomed to patronize whenever they have been afflicted with any of the ailments to which human flesh is heir to, and particularly in the case of rheumatic troubles, and the water of which spring, if Indian sayings could be believed, is poisonous to white men or anybody but Indians. The presence of a half-dozen or more bucks and squaws, who have been doctoring their rheumatism there during the past week, has revived some of the notice formerly taken of this spring of alleged wonderful mineral properties. Anyone who has wandered around in that "neck o' the woods" where the spring is "planted," may have noticed a short distance up the bank of the creek a hole in the ground about 5 or 6 feet in diameter and 3 feet deep, and the bottom covered with fir boughs, while a covering of boughs serves for a roof, too. The spring is located very near this "sweat house." A person who the other day watched the modus operandi at this aboriginal health resort, says that after drinking of the water of the spring, the sick Indians, in meager clothing go into the "sweat house" where a course of exercise is gone through with until the effects of the water are shown, then the patients are so weakened by the water that, climbing out of the hole with difficulty, they fall prostrate upon the ground. This weakness is only temporary, of course, and the recovery from the prostration brings with it restored health and vigor. On being asked how they had known the whereabouts of this spring, the Indians there lately, who came from the Klamath River, said that their fathers had told them of it, and that in earlier times Indians in great numbers from all parts of the country came to this place to go through regulation treatment for whatever disease might be troubling them. Although most people will doubt this story of the Indians, to the effect that the water of the spring is poisonous to any but people of their own kind, the people around say that the fact of the Indians always going away cured shows that there is something more than fiction in the reported curative properties of this "poisonous" spring. However, there are so many mineral springs along the banks of Emigrant Creek that it may be only the superstition of the Indians which makes this spring so peculiarly different from the others.
Ashland Tidings, June 15, 1888, page 2

The Helman Baths.
    Grant Helman is preparing to make many improvements in his swimming rink and bathing sanitarium for the coming season's run. An addition as large as the present building will be put in, also three additional bath rooms and two copper tanks to hold hot and cold water with a capacity of 500 and 300 gallons. D. N. Smith and Chas. Stacy will do the work for the contractor, H. C. Myer. Besides this the whole works will be completely renovated, and during the summer months a free bus will be run to the place for the accommodation of the patrons.
Valley Record, Ashland, March 14, 1889, page 3

    After eating a hasty meal we start for Soda Springs where we spend the Sabbath. We find the travel today worse and worse, up and down hill all day, and the last is downhill for 6 miles with a very rocky road; it finally got so steep and rough that we all got out and walked. At 8 p.m. we arrive at the Wagner Soda Springs all tired out with our ride. Wagner Soda Springs is situated or located on the bank of Bear Creek, at the foot of the mountains. It bubbles up through the solid rock; its water is very cool and pleasant to the taste. There is a hotel located here and we are told it is full of visitors the most of the summer, and this spring is becoming quite a summer resort. We spent the Sabbath lying in the shade and drinking soda water. Monday morning finds us on our roundup or last day's travel. We pass through Ashland at the head of Bear Creek Valley, stop there for dinner and take a bath at the noted White Sulfur Springs, which are nicely fitted up for bathing, either in swimming, rink or regular bath rooms.
J. H. Faris, "A Trip to Wonderland,"
The Aurora Sun, Aurora, Nebraska, August 3, 1889, page 4

JACKSON COUNTY, August 5, 1889.
    The Colestein [Colestin] springs, in Southern Oregon, are becoming very popular, and this season the accommodations are all taken and, besides, over 100 campers are on the grounds. The springs are situated twenty miles beyond Ashland, directly on the Oregon & California Railroad, two miles south of the Siskiyou tunnel, 4100 feet long. We are high up in the mountains here, some 4000 feet, yet there are magnificent ridges towering close at hand all about us, so that the springs are in a wonderfully cool and pleasant place. The sugar pine and other varieties, the fir and cedar, are here in their full growth. Neither forest fires or the ravages of the woodsman have yet marred the works of nature in these mountains. Byron Cole is the fortunate owner of 1100 acres, together with the springs. The guest house accommodates only twenty-five people, but his plan is to build cottages and keep this as the dining room, or house for cooking and eating. Families with children can live by themselves, and persons who are sickly or who cough at nights can then enjoy the freedom of being at home. The water has considerable iron in it and is heavily charged with carbonic acid. The people who stop here are mostly eastern people who in taking the Mount Shasta route remain here from a day or two to a week. They say the water is like the Congress water at Saratoga, and take great delight in drinking it freely in the morning before breakfast, drinking it all day and at night and then take pitchers of the water with them to their rooms or tents. Boys sell it on the trains, and trainmen and workers on the road fill their demijohns and are happy. Perhaps this explains what Leland Stanford said when he and his wife were here not long ago. When drinking the mineral water, he said it was so refreshing that he believed it was slightly intoxicating. These mineral waters only a few hundred steps from the Colestein station are destined to be famous far and near. The water flows strong and steady, and the fact that these springs have been known for forty years is a guarantee of their permanence. The deer at night come down to the springs and drink, and Mr. Cole does not allow the shooting of deer on his grounds. The air here is balmy from these forests, and its bracing influence, with the help of these Congress waters of Oregon, would start anew many an invalid as they do the few here now.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 15, 1889, page 1

Making an Attractive Place.
    C. R. Van Aelstyr, the lessee of the  Helman warm sulfur springs property, has begun improvements which will make the spring a much more popular resort than it has ever been. Besides his greenhouses, which are in themselves an attraction, with their wealth of beautiful plants and flowers, he will have large beds of flowers, arbors of vines for summer shade, a swing, etc. and intends to keep summer refreshments--ice cream, soda water, lemonade--in season. A waiting room has been added to the front of the bath house building, and there are more bath rooms than formerly. The enclosed swimming tank is to be improved also. A fine bus with glass windows is now being made and will arrive soon, to be run regularly between the spring and the town. This will be something that many bathers have felt the need of in returning from a warm bath when a breeze happens to be blowing. The bus may be entirely closed, and this disposes of whatever danger there has been of catching cold in riding up from the spring immediately after the relaxation of a bath in the warm sulfur water. Look out for a very pleasant place at the sulfur springs the coming summer.
Ashland Tidings, March 21, 1890, page 3

Tolman Springs Sold.
    T. E. Hull, of southwestern Minnesota, has purchased the Tolman sulfur springs property, near Ashland, from Dr. A. C. Helm. It is 103½ acres, and the consideration was $10,000. Mr. Hill is a wealthy man and will put the property in elegant shape. He will arrive with his family in the spring.
Valley Record, Ashland, February 12, 1891, page 3

    The new buildings which Gen. Tolman has had erected at his vapor baths and mineral springs on Emigrant Creek above the Wagner Soda Springs were completed last week, and the baths are now ready for the use of anyone who desires to try them. They are located where a volume of gases issues from the ground--supposed to be not only carbonic acid gas but also sulfurous--and as far back as the traditions of the Indians go, the place has been a cure-all for them--[Tidings.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 3, 1891, page 3

New Use for Indians.
    Tolman's magic mud springs above Ashland are becoming quite popular among those who are afflicted with rheumatism and kindred ailments. He is having new baths constructed all around the original springs, and with each excavation a newer and nastier variety of mineral water has been discovered. The General has brought over several antique squaws from the Klamath agency to instruct him in the art of using the water. Of course, the wily general understands the ordinary saponaceous uses of the ordinary fluid, but the thing seems to be to combine the least cleansing properties of the viler mineral compounds with as liberal an application of mud as possible, and the squaws are supposed to be experts in the art. It seems passing strange that, with as many mudslingers as have graduated with high honors at Ashland in local politics, it should have been necessary to have called in the services of the aborigines. However, the springs are proving all that was ever claimed for them, and the General is happy.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 4, 1891, page 3

The New Health and Summer Resort in the Siskiyous--The Wonderful Curative Powers of the Vapor Baths, Medicated Mud and Mineral Springs.

    This property, partially opened last summer by the owner, Judge J. C. Tolman, is located 13 miles from Ashland, from which place it is reached by a drive through a continuation of farms and orchards at the foothills of the Siskiyous while going through the upper Bear Creek Valley and its tributaries until within three miles of the famous landmark, Pilot Rock, which sits on the summit of the Siskiyous and acts as the dividing line between California and Oregon.
    Here is where the God of nature secreted in mother earth curative properties that have, in their work of healing the sick, astonished the natives and mystified the intelligent. From Kittie Ward, an intelligent Klamath Indian who has the clearest understanding of the history and tradition of the Indian tribes that were once the masters and rulers of this whole land, it is learned that this vapor spring has been the medicine headquarters for the Indians of the Pacific Coast as far back as 200 years. In her time she has known it to cure the worst kind of diseases, the most remarkable of which was that of the chief of the McAdams Creek tribe, who was completely cured after being brought there in the last stages of consumption. During the smallpox in Jacksonville many years ago a prominent Indian of that section fell a victim to that disease and was taken to the vapor springs and cured.
    Since the science of medicine has developed that diseases are microbes and the celebrated Dr. Koch among others of the world's brightest minds are struggling for a remedy for the cure of the various microbes, this discovery of the vapor springs and their peculiar curative abilities shows that the wonderful mechanism of nature has already supplied that which is just dawning on man, in his infinite variety of learning and skill.
    The writer of this has never heard of this vapor being analyzed, but knows of many cases of cures effected within the past eighteen months, some of which have been rank cases. The vapor comes up from earth, and while everything else about the place is cool, it soon begins its work of warming up the system until the patient is in a perspiration. There is a mystery about the thing that makes one believe that somewhere underneath is located one of the main flues to the stovepipes of hell. At any rate the vapor has the "get there" point all right and gets right at the diseased portion of a man the first thing, and stays there until the disease has gone hence.
Valley Record, Ashland, July 14, 1892, page 3

Smith's Springs.
    The number of people who are camped at Smith's Springs, on Carter Creek, is increasing daily. They are situated 12 miles south of Ashland and 1¼ miles from Steinman, a station on the S.P.R.R. The altitude is 2400 feet, away above the malaria of the lower valley and in a cool, delightful locality. The scenery is grand, and there is an abundance of fish and game not far away. Besides the superior medicinal qualities of the springs, the vapor baths must be taken prominently into consideration, as they often prove a cure for rheumatism and the many kindred diseases that humanity is heir to. A visit to Smith's Springs may prove beneficial.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 12, 1892, page 3

At Smith's Soda Springs.
    The following Medford people were at the above springs August 14: T. F. West, Mrs. E. M. Denison, Miss May Crain, T. McAndrew, Geo. L. Davis, wife and Hazel; C. I. Hutchison, wife and Fern; W. L. Grinnell, Ida Galloway. The springs are pleasantly situated near the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains. The beneficial effects of the spring water and vapor baths are effecting wonderful cures, as scores can testify. The grounds have been greatly improved, two new bath houses and several cottages having been erected lately.
Southern Oregon Mail, Medford, August 19, 1892, page 3

Smith's Mineral Springs
-- AND --
V A P O R   B A T H S
Will be offered at
Public Sale
-- ON --
Monday, September 25th, 1893.
    This valuable property contains 160 acres situated within 1¼ miles of Steinman on the S.P.R.R. and 12 miles southeast of Ashland. The elevation is 2,460 feet above sea level. It contains valuable mineral springs and the now celebrated Vapor Baths over the Gas Springs which are proving so efficacious in curing Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Catarrh, Asthma, Dyspepsia and Liver and Kidney Disease. The property is partly improved as a summer resort and has done a good business for several years, considering the accommodations. It can be made a fine paying investment.
    For further particulars call at the Springs or address
Steinman, Jackson County, Oregon.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 25, 1893, page 2

A Visit to Soda Springs.
    On July 31st Charles Turpin and family, accompanied by your humble writer and better half, arrived at the Soda Springs on the north fork of the Little Butte, about 2 o'clock. Found Postmaster Grieve and family holding undisputed possession, but they generously donated us one-half interest. On Tuesday Wm. Massoll and family joined our party to partake of the benefits of supping soda water. On Wednesday Mr. Mims and party, of Eagle Point, passed the springs bound for Fish Lake, on a sightseeing tour. On Thursday Charles Marlow and company, of Salt Creek, passed the springs, also bound for Fish Lake. M. Hanley passed up the creek the same day driving a band of cattle in the direction of Willow Creek. On Monday, Aug. 7, Wm. Daley and James Culverson were pleasant callers at the springs. On the 8th, M. Bellinger and I. Merriman and families, of Medford, arrived at the springs in pursuit of health and recreation. Many other families from the valley are expected to visit this beautiful resort during the present month. The only incident happening during our ten days' sojourn happened while Mr. Grieve and myself were returning from an extended hunt. Mr. Grieve lost his footing and came down with such violence among the craggy rocks and boulders as to cause us serious alarm. We thought sure one-half of the bones in his body were fractured, and we did not feel able to pack him into camp, but we were greatly relieved, on examination, finding the only injuries received were a few bruises and a genuine shaking up.
Medford Mail, August 25, 1893, page 1

    C. E. Smith. of the Carter Creek soda springs, was down from the Siskiyous Saturday attending central committee meeting. He reports his club as well satisfied with the ticket and that it has the unqualified support of every populist. This is interesting, as nearly every voter in that district is a populist.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, April 19, 1894, page 4

    Mrs. Nettie Harris and daughter were down this week from Tolman's Springs, the popular medical springs and summer resort in the Siskiyous, which is being conducted this summer by Mrs. Angle. The hotel has been fitted up and renovated and is a very enticing resort for summer tourists.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, June 7, 1894, page 3

    Mrs. A. W. Angle, proprietress of the Tolman mineral springs hotel, and L. E. Bender were down from the Siskiyous last week on business. Everybody here is pleased to know that Mrs. Angle is making a success in running this resort in such a first-class manner.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, July 12, 1894, page 4

    Mrs. Chas. Strang and Mrs. M. W. Skeel have gone to Tolman Springs for a vacation.
    Mrs. Geo. Davis and Mrs. Pottenger are camping at Tolman's Springs in the Siskiyous.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, July 26, 1894, page 3

    Mrs. A. W. Angle has given up the Tolman Springs and returned to Medford to live this week.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, August 23, 1894, page 3

Nature's Dispensary--Bubbling Fountains
That Knit Up the Raveled Sleeve of Health.

    The Cinnabar Springs are located on the west branch of Beaver Creek, in Siskiyou County, Calif., and about ten miles south of the state line between Oregon and Calif. These springs were discovered some fifteen years ago, by a hunter, and have gained some notoriety by the remarkable cures effected. Mineral springs are so common in Southern Oregon and Northern Calif. that nothing more than a passing notice is given to anything in that line. The most direct route from the railway is from Cole's, which is about twenty miles distant. Many prefer the "overland" trip and take passage in the stage from Jacksonville to Watkins, thence by saddle to Cinnabar.
    In traveling from Watkins to Cinnabar--about a day's ride--one encounters a diversity of scenery that prevents the journey from becoming monotonous. Here a hill and there a glade. Here a valley clothed in a luxuriant growth of pasturage breast deep, and there a mountain, about whose base daisies bloom perpetually, while its snow-capped peak kisses the clouds in the home of the blizzard and the hurricane. Here a quiet little rill, winding like a serpent through the glen and there a noisy, turbulent stream that has broken away from the frozen clasp of the glacier and comes tearing down the mountainside like a runaway horse. The journey across a range of mountains, high or low, will become irksome and you'll be tempted to inquire the distance to your destination but, gentle reader, don't do it, for none of the mountain denizens have any tangible idea of distances.
    Books might be written in regard to these mysterious little fountains that bubble up from the bowels of the earth so thoroughly charged with health-giving properties that a new lease of life is ensured to those who drink of the waters. Until recently the vicinity of the springs has been a deep tangled wildwood. Four years ago, however, Job Garrison, a pioneer of Northern Calif., saw the wonderful possibilities of this location and began to hew a pathway through the dense forest. Today, as a result of several years' toil and the expenditure of thousands of dollars, Mr. Garrison can offer to the public the comforts of a metropolitan hotel. Mr. Garrison is in personal appearance as old-fashioned as an ox yoke and just as plain, but he does nothing by halves, and has ample means, which he proposes expending with a lavish hand to make this a popular, all the year around resort. To chronicle the story of the wonderful cures effected here would be to cover page after page with instances that savor of the days of miracles. Suffice to say that chronic diseases, when under treatment here, vanish like a dream. A party from Jacksonville, Or. came here a few weeks ago, consisting of "Cap." Caton, S. A. D. Higgins, Bill Kinney and others. The general health of the party was good, but no place offered better opportunities for an outing, hence this locality was selected. Bill Kinney was in looks hale and stout enough to eat an ox, but looks are sometimes deceiving, and this was no exception. William has for a long time been troubled with enlarging on the truth about the peculiar and particular virtues of a quaint, crooked-legged, copper-colored hound pup. To hear him tell it, "That dog would not leave camp even in case of fire; would not touch anything unless specially invited; leave out mathematics and he knew more than any ten-year-old boy, etc., etc."
    Thrown off my guard by such ravishing tales of kennel virtue, I left my camp unprotected one day and in twenty-nine brief minutes this model pup had devoured my stock of bacon and had tried to "taper off" on a loaf of camp-made bread, but it was too much for him and ere the sun set behind the western hills poor "Fido" had winged his solitary way to "angel land." It is needless to add that William will return to his native heath a sadder but a wiser man, and thoroughly cured of a grievous trouble.
Medford Mail, August 31, 1894, page 4  "Douglas" is likely S. A. D. Higgins--Stephen A. Douglas Higgins. T. K. Roberts is known to have reported on mines under the name of Douglas. See the Medford Mail February 1, 1895, page 5, column 5.

    Postmaster Howard has gone to Ashland to indulge in the sulfur baths there and the medical qualities of Tolman's Springs.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, September 20, 1894, page 3

    Simon McAllister, after whom the celebrated soda springs on the north fork of Little Butte were named, has returned to the Butte Creek country and settled on the Gano place.
A. C. Howlett, "Butte Creek News," Valley Record, Ashland, November 1, 1894, page 3   Cartographers are divided over how to spell the springs' name, but the 1860 and 1870 Censuses spell Simon's last name McCallister; the 1880 Census McAllister. Son John G.'s headstone is spelled McCallister.

    Isaac Merriman and family, accompanied by friends, made a call in town Tuesday. They are on a trip to the McAllister soda springs. The water of these springs is quite noted for medical purposes, bringing health and strength to the weary invalids. It is also surrounded by rugged and beautiful mountain scenery and with its other natural facilities makes it a favorite resort also for pleasure seekers.
"Brownsboro Items," Medford Mail, July 19, 1895, page 2

    There were 50 people camped at Colestin the forepart of this week, nearly all of whom are Medfordites.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, July 25, 1895, page 3

    John Williscroft returned from the Dead Indian Soda Springs about the middle of the past week and reports about 150 persons at the springs, and Russ Moore reports that they are having a lively time there as they have a doctor to attend to their physical maladies and a minister to look after their spiritual wants. They have preaching every Sunday at 11 a.m., Sabbath school at 3 p.m., and song service at 8 p.m. Russ says that they have one of the finest choirs he ever heard.
A. C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets," Medford Mail, August 7, 1896, page 5

    Judge Willard Crawford of this city has bought out the lessee of the Tolman Soda Springs above Ashland. The Judge has also made arrangements with Judge Tolman that when the lease expires he will continue to hold possession. These springs are situated about 10 miles above Ashland, are 280 feet above sea level, above the smoke and fog of the valley. Judge Crawford informs us that he will immediately spend a considerable sum of money adding improvements to the place so as to make it a winter resort as well as a resort for the summer.

"The Week's Jottings," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, August 12, 1897, page 3

Helman's Natatorium Opened.
    Grant Helman has opened his new natatorium and baths at the white sulfur springs in Helman's field, the waters of which have a wide and popular reputation as affording the finest and cleanest bath of any waters on earth. The new building covering the swimming rink is 40x95 feet; running around on the side are 30 neat dressing rooms, and a lunch room 16x24 feet. The rink is 30 feet wide
    Judge Willard Crawford of this city has bought out the lessee of the Tolman Soda Springs above Ashland. The Judge has also made arrangements with Judge Tolman that when the lease expires he will continue to hold possession. These springs are situated about 10 miles above Ashland, are 280 feet above sea level, above the smoke and fog of the valley. Judge Crawford informs us that he will immediately spend a considerable sum of money adding improvements to the place so as to make it a winter resort as well as a resort for the summer.

"The Week's Jottings," Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, August 12, 1897, page 3and 80 feet long and the depth of the water runs from two feet steadily to seven feet. The rink is all made of gray sandstone from A. D. Ferguson's quarry and the work, which is first-class, was done by him. The rink is fitted with the necessary equipment and a five-foot stone walk runs all round the water pond. Connecting with this part of the building is a reception room 20x20 and six bath rooms 20x24, above which are five sleeping rooms. The boiler room, suit counter, etc., occupies 14x20 feet. The bathing suits are black knit jersey cloth.
    The handsome grounds of shrubbery and flowers look well with the new buildings and rink and the whole makes a very creditable showing for Ashland in its new era of development and progress.
Valley Record, Ashland, June 28, 1900, page 1

    There never has been any sort of convenience up at McAllister Springs for the accommodation of the people who drink of the waters of the springs. Several people down this way have fixed things--handier by several degrees. Uncle Jerry True, out on Griffin Creek, donated a very large, flat stone and hauled it to Medford to lay over the spring, and the good people of Medford, some of them, chipped in and hired Charley Pheister to cut a hole in the center of the rock, where the mountain water can bubble all it wants to bubble. He also made a basin in the rock from which water can be dipped with a cup or small pail. Upon the rock is inscribed the following: "Presented by the city of Medford, 1900." Mayor Howser is looking after the matter at this end of the line, and Mr. McAllister is coming in this week after the rock and will put it in its place over the spring.
"City Happenings,"
Medford Mail, June 29, 1900, page 7

    Mrs. Jas. Mills tells us she was present at the laying of the rock over the McAllister springs on July 22nd. Quite a large crowd assembled, and after a short speech by D. Roberts, of Medford, and some other ceremonies, the rock was laid. The rock was marked U.S. property.
Medford Mail, August 31, 1900, page 5

The Great Health Resort.
    The Bybee Springs on Evans Creek are coming to be recognized as one of the best health and pleasure resorts of Southern Oregon. A new and commodious hotel was built during the past year and accommodations for visitors are now first-class. If you are contemplating a visit to some mineral springs health resort why not try the Bybee Springs this year where so many others have found both health and pleasure. The following people have been stopping at this delightful resort already this spring:
    Mrs. Turner, Cathlamette.
    Mr. Carter, Woodville.
    Mr. Butler, Ashland.
    Mr. and Mrs. Thompson, Ashland.
    Mr. Cummings, Grants Pass.
    Mr. Jackson, Grants Pass.
    Mr. Brown, Grants Pass.
    Mr. Daniel Slitz, Williams Co., Penn.
    Geo. Hoult, Rockland, Mich.
    J. P. Hoult
, Rockland, Mich.
    John Vera
, Rockland, Mich.
    E. J. Stripe
, Rockland, Mich.
    W. H. Hunt
, Rockland, Mich.
    W. F. Emmons
, Rockland, Mich.
    P. H. Daily, Jacksonville.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 15, 1901, page 1

Carter Creek Springs.
    1½ miles from Steinman station or 12 miles south of Ashland. Pleasant accommodations for campers, fine mineral water and vapor baths. Rates--50 cents per person per week for camping, including use of vapor baths. Special rates for families.
        Siskiyou, Oregon.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 15, 1901, page 7

McCallister's Soda Springs
As a Summer Resort, is one of the best in the country. Parties desiring to camp at the spring can secure good pasturage and hay for their stock; also a stock of groceries will be kept at the springs for the accommodation of visitors. Camping grounds free.
Medford Mail, August 16, 1901, page 2

New Trail to Fish Lake.
    A new government trail has been laid out from McAllister Springs to Fish Lake, and work will be commenced upon it early in the spring. Forest Supervisor S. C. Bartrum was up from Roseburg last week and personally superintended the laying out and surveying of the new route.
    The old trail wound about on the ridges and was very rough and steep. The new route will be at least one-third shorter and have a better grade; in fact the grade will be better than that of the upper portion of the wagon road to McAllister Springs. Three miles of this trail is as straight as a section line, not a curve in it.
    The trail when completed will be eight feet wide and will, in connection with other trails, form the shortest and easiest route to Klamath County.
    It is the intention of the government to fence a pasture at Fish Lake for the accommodation of the rangers' horses, as has already been done at other stations. This pasture will also be large enough to permit its use by campers also.
    Mr. Bartrum is making a good record for himself as a forest officer. Besides being an energetic and competent official, he is a very pleasant man to meet, and is always courteous and obliging to those with whom he is brought in contact in the discharge of his duty.
Medford Mail, November 10, 1905, page 1

Portland Man Has Leased Property and Will Improve Fine Sulfur Springs.

    R. C. Wilson, a gentleman who became interested in the thermal mineral springs on D. H. Jackson's place through an acquaintance made with Mr. Jackson at the Lewis and Clark Exposition, has effected a lease of the springs and will erect a bath house and small hotel there this winter. Mr. Wilson is now engaged in prospecting the springs, of which there are a series, with the object of utilizing the largest and warmest spring at the normal temperature at which the water issues from its subterranean depths. By the diversion of a colder spring he thinks he can raise the temperature of the water nearest the road, which now registers 105º Fahrenheit, to 110º. The spring, which has been devoted to private use in a small way for many years, has a temperature of 95º. The plans of Mr. Wilson contemplate a larger exploitation of these springs at a later date with a view to turning their well-known therapeutic properties to maintaining a commercial project of some magnitude. These springs and the Helman Springs, inside the city, are the most noted of this region, which has been so bounteously favored with mineral springs within a radius of fifteen miles from Ashland. The fine potable waters of the so-called soda springs of the upper valley have become quite well known, but the healing virtues of others have already given the country considerable repute as a resort for persons seeking relief from rheumatism and gout ailments.
    Only yesterday a gentleman passing through to California made inquiries at the exhibit building [at the Ashland railroad depot] as to the accommodations to be had at the Tolman Springs, stating that he had been there once and that the mud baths and the waters there possessed wonderful curative properties for rheumatic troubles with which he had been afflicted.
    Someday Ashland's mineral springs will become as widely known as the famous hot springs of Arkansas.

Ashland Tidings, November 23, 1905, page 3

    R. C. Wilson, a gentleman who became interested in the thermal mineral springs on D. H. Jackson's place, near Ashland, through an acquaintance made with Mr. Jackson at the Lewis and Clark exposition, has effected a lease of the springs and will erect a bath house and small hotel there this winter. Mr. Wilson is now engaged in prospecting the springs, of which there are a series, with the object of utilizing the largest and warmest spring at the normal temperature at which the water issues from its subterranean depths. By the diversion of a colder spring he thinks he can raise the temperature of the water nearest the road, which now registers 105 degrees Fahrenheit to 110 degrees. The spring, which has been devoted to private use in a small way for many years, has a temperature of 95 degrees. The plans of Mr. Wilson contemplate a larger exploitation of these springs at a later date with a view to turning their well-known therapeutic properties to maintaining a commercial value.

"Jackson County," Medford Mail, December 1, 1905, page 1

    The government trail from McAllister Springs to Fish Lake is now finished. The trail is built on a wagon road grade, is eight feet wide and could easily be converted into a good road. Indeed, it is passable right now for a mountain buckboard and a light load. This is the easiest and most direct route to Klamath County. A good road could be constructed at very little expense to Pelican, and with the boats now being constructed for traffic on the lake, a direct line to Klamath Falls could be established.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, July 13, 1906, page 5

    Fred Luy and family had all kinds of trouble on the first start of their camping trip last week. The wagon carrying their bedding, etc., passed too close to the engine running the county road roller and a spark set the bedding on fire, and it took some lively work on the part of the driver and young Fred Luy to extinguish the flames. Then the baggage wagon took the road to Dead Indian Springs instead of that to McAllister Springs, and as a consequence the Luy party had to borrow "sleeping tools" from the other campers until the lost wagon could be located. Then about the time the party had settled down to rest a messenger came to announce the death of Fred Luy, Sr., at Jacksonville, causing Fred to repeat the thirty-mile ride he had just finished.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, July 20, 1906, page 5

    ASHLAND, Or., Feb. 14--Considerable interest has recently been manifested by several persons in the exploitation of some of the mineral springs about Ashland. The city is surrounded on three sides by some of the finest natural soda water springs that exist in any part of the West.
    The famous Wagner soda springs, whose waters have been in popular use since the earliest pioneers came into the country, have brought back the vigor of health to many people, and this may be said also of the Tolman mineral springs, ten miles southeast of Ashland. The Wagner Springs are eight miles southeast of Ashland, Kingsbury Springs seven miles and Murphy Springs only five miles from the city.
    The Ashland lithia spring is regarded as possessing therapeutic qualities in a high degree. This spring was recently discovered, and a government analysis lately made shows it to possess a greater amount of lithia than any of the other springs. There are also numerous sulfur springs, all of which have great medicinal value.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 14, 1908, page 1

    T. E. Pottenger and G. P. Lindley came in last evening from Dead Indian Springs. They report that there are about 60 or 70 people from this locality camped there, and that all are enjoying themselves in great shape. They have not had much experience in mountain outings, so failed to supply themselves with a requisite quantity of provisions, hence the necessity of this trip in. They will stock up today and again hike out for the cool shade and mineral waters of that region, where they expect to remain several weeks yet.
Medford Mail, August 7, 1908, page 5

Nature's Medicine Chest Always Open and Free to Everybody.

    Among the various resources near Medford are the mineral springs near the source of Little Butte Creek. A recent visit to this noted place calls forth an expression of interest from the tourist.
    First, these springs are in sanitary surroundings; second, the waters issue from a crevice in lime rock, free from contamination of soil; third, the medicinal properties have been assayed by government chemists and contain the salts of lime, soda, potassium, iron, magnesium and traces of lithium and free acid. We note the free acid as it escapes from the sparkling waters issuing from the stone fountain.
    I met about 75 tourists at the beautiful camping grounds. All were happy, especially the merry children.
    A new name was proposed for this beautiful nature scene. The Indian is forgotten. His campfires have long ago died out on the mountains and the wild love song of the dusky-hued maiden is hushed in the valley. Let the school children of Medford give an appropriate name through the columns of the Morning Mail, one which will show due respect to Oregon and the pioneers.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 27, 1908, page 5

    A. J. Daley and wife returned from the Cinnabar Springs last Sunday, where they had been for their health. Mr. Daley reports that Mrs. Wamsley, who is in a very critical condition, was to have started from there last Saturday, but would be several days on the road, as she is unable to travel far at a time. S. H. Harnish also returned from there last Friday night. He says that it is the most wonderful place he ever saw--down in a canyon five miles from the summit of the hill, and the mud that the patients use is dug out of a tunnel in the side of the mountain, about 20 feet deep. But he speaks well for the place as a resort
A..C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets,"
Medford Mail, August 28, 1908, page 7

(Special Dispatch to the Journal)

    Ashland, Or., Oct. 30.--Two thousand sight and pleasure seekers visited the Ashland Mineral Springs natatorium this evening, the occasion being the formal opening of what is said to be the largest plunge bath establishment north of San Francisco.
    Jordan's orchestra furnished the music for the evening and the large dance pavilion was crowded, as was the two mineral swimming pools. The pools are supplied with white sulfur water from springs that bubble up directly under the natatorium, and the utilizing of these famous waters as a source of profit and pleasure on such an extensive scale is an indication that capital is at last taking cognizance of some of Ashland's remarkable natural resources.
Oregon Journal, Portland, October 31, 1909, page 19

    Jackson County Springs: In general, it may be said that Jackson County is the Southern Oregon springs region. At Tolman Springs there are mud baths, vapor baths, hot and cold mineral baths, an excellent hotel, fine fishing, beautiful scenery and mountain air. These springs, on Emigrant Creek, are reached by a ten-mile drive from Ashland. Murphy Springs, Lithia Springs, Carter Springs, Wagner Springs are all on Emigrant Creek; White Sulfur Springs, Jackson Springs, Helman's Hot Springs and Natatorium, all immediately in Ashland; Dead Indian Springs, McAllister Springs, most readily reached from Medford; Cinnabar Springs, in the Siskiyou Mountains (the equal of Hot Springs of Arkansas for rheumatic relief); Soda Springs, with a good hotel.
Outings in Oregon, OWR&N Co. and Southern Pacific, 1911, page 53

Many Go to Colestin
    A large number of local people took advantage of the Elks' excursion Sunday to make the trip to the Colestin Springs up in the Siskiyou Mountains and spent a very pleasant day at that popular resort, imbibing in the mineral waters of the springs and enjoying the beautiful scenery of the hills and timber. A train of twelve coaches was not sufficient to accommodate comfortably all who purchased tickets from the different points along the route from Grants Pass to Ashland, and many found it necessary to stand while making the trip up the hill while the excursion train was somewhat behind its schedule time in making the trip occasioned in picking up the passengers and the large assortment of paraphernalia which the Elks took from Medford. Two large engines pulled the excursionists up the mountain and deposited them at their destination at just about the dinner hour. Some dissatisfaction was felt over the necessary wait for refreshments, as most everyone was ready for lunch upon arrival and a majority of the visitors had brought no refreshments with them. However, this difficulty was soon overcome and the guests served. Different forms of amusements were offered by the Elks to interest the visitors during the hours spent at the springs but by far the best attraction of the trip was the excellent spring of mineral water and the grandeur of the rugged mountain scenery with its pure, bracing breezes which is well worth a trip and a day spent there. The excursion tickets were accepted on the local trains which reached this city about six o'clock and some of the picnickers took advantage of the opportunity to get home in time for dinner but the majority stuck for their money's worth and waited for the special which left the springs promptly at 8:00 and arrived here at 10:30 p.m. The Medford band accompanied the excursion as far as Ashland on the trip up but at that point they disorganized for the day. The Elks' "Whang-doodle band'' was on the job, however, and an orchestra furnished music most of the afternoon. Altogether it was a most pleasant excursion and carried out with credit to the Elks and the Espee company and officials in charge. Sixty-three tickets were sold from the local station.
Central Point Herald, July 24, 1913, page 1

Mineral Springs Organization
Plans Inaugurated by the Commercial Club and
Backed by Loyal Individuals with Cash.

(By Bert R. Greer.)
    For more than sixty years the presence of mineral springs in the vicinity of Ashland was known. There had been from time to time indifferent attempts at cheap development. The old lithia spring, located on Emigrant Creek, about four miles from Ashland, was uncovered by a tremendous freshet which occurred about forty years ago. After that for years the spring bubbled forth from the bottom of the creek so intermixed with surface waters that its contents were unknown. It was called the Salt spring. Some seven years ago the creek channel was diverted and the spring slightly developed. It was encased in cement and was found to produce large volumes of both water and carbon dioxide gas. Analyses of the water disclosed its splendid mineral contents, at that time the second highest in lithia contents in America. Nearby a little spring called the Murphy soda was uncovered. Farther up the same creek the Shepherd soda, the Siskiyou mineral and the Tolman gas springs had been somewhat developed, while in the city limits the Helman yellow sulfur and the Natatorium white sulfur springs had been harnessed and converted into splendid bathing pools. One and a half miles below Ashland the Jackson hot sulfur spring produced a large volume, but was left undeveloped in a cattle pasture. The waters of Cinnabar spring had been tested out and found par excellent in the treatment of scrofulous diseases. From time to time remarkable cures of rheumatism were reported by the Helman, the Natatorium and Jackson hot sulfur. Many had found relief in the Siskiyou water for kidney troubles and the old Lithia water was being used with splendid results in the treatment of stomach and kidney troubles. The old Tolman gas spring was equipped with tub for gas baths and heart trouble, and skin diseases were being successfully treated.
    But no systematic effort had ever been put forth to exploit the region as a watering resort. The oldest inhabitants had the greatest faith in the curative powers of the waters. They had seen it tried. Some of them had been cured of kidney infection by the use of the waters, others of chronic stomach trouble, and others of rheumatism. The virtues of the waters had gone abroad to the extent of attracting some from afar to try their curative powers. And in every case the waters proved beneficial.
    In the summer of 1913 an agitation arose for the effective development of these mineral springs, and the Commercial Club began to think on plans for its accomplishment. It was finally determined to try and secure the title to the main springs and develop them as a municipal enterprise. This proved futile, however, for the already proven value of the waters had put the cost of the springs above the power of the city. Alone to develop them and transform Ashland into a suitable watering resort would tax the financial and bonding ability of the city, and unless the original springs could be secured at a low cost the plan would not prove feasible. It was found that to purchase the old springs required for the enterprise would cost about $100,000. This was out of the question, but the Commercial Club was not dismayed. Ashland's mineral waters were her big asset, worth more, if properly utilized, than all the crops of Southern Oregon, so it was determined to raise a fund for the work and enter upon an attempt to develop springs which should be the property of the city. A committee of the club was appointed to solicit funds for the preliminary development work. In a week's time more than five thousand dollars had been subscribed for the purpose, and a committee composed of J. P. Dodge, R. A. Minkler and Bert R. Greer was selected to take charge of the work. Contracts were secured from land owners of ground in the mineral springs district whereby the city should develop the waters and have an interest in them if discovered in sufficient quantities for the enterprise.
    The springs development work commenced on December 23, 1913, the first work being done on the Cunningham place, where a carbon dioxide spring of great volume was uncovered at a depth of 22 feet. The next development work was in the neighborhood of the old lithia spring and on February 14, 1914, was uncovered a tremendous flow of lithia water which proved to be the second highest in lithia contents in the world, besides being heavily charged with carbon dioxide gas. This spring is called the new lithia, the analyses of which will be found on page [omission] and flows about twenty gallons per minute.
    As soon as the lithia spring was finished work was begun on the Berkley place, where an old warm sulfur spring had been known before the white settlement of the valley. Development here proved successful and hot sulfur, 100 degrees thermal and flowing 70 gallons per minute, was encountered at a depth of 15 feet, flowing out of an aperture in the solid rock.
    From this work was begun drilling for artesian mineral water on the Dodge place, and at a depth of 130 feet a strong vein of water, sodium and lithia, heavily charged with gas, was encountered.
    The Shepherd spring, analyzing strong in magnesium, iron and sodium, was brought forth, and in March samples of water from all of the newly developed springs were taken for analyses. These analyses, by comparison with other mineral waters, were found to outrank all other American springs in curative power and to equal the famous European springs such as Carlsbad, Bad Nauheim and Kissingen, resembling them much in mineral content and more especially in carbon dioxide gases.
    These waters the Commercial Club determined to have mobilized in the Ashland Canyon park, one of the most delightful and picturesque spots on the coast, starting in the business heart of the city and stretching away into the mountain solitudes. Preliminary plans for the enterprise were put in the hands of Smith, Emery & Co. of San Francisco, chemical engineers, and in May they reported a physical plant to cost about $100,000. Seventy-five thousand dollars was estimated for fountains and park development, and on June 9, 1914, the people of Ashland voted a bond issue of $175,000 for the purpose by a majority of four to one.
    Mention is due the Southern Pacific Company in this connection. From the start that company has evinced a profound interest in the enterprise, at all times lending the committee every aid and assistance from the use of the engineering department for consultation and checking to the influence of its head officials and the free use of its entire advertising system for exploiting Ashland as a watering resort. On June 4 a number of S.P. officials appeared before a largely attended mass meeting of citizens and expressed their confidence in the enterprise. The moral and advertising influence of the Southern Pacific Company is behind the project.
    On June 21, 1914, an election was held at which a springs water commission was created and elected, composed of J. P. Dodge, R. A. Minkler and Bert R. Greer, who are now engaged in carrying out the development plans.
    The resort will be organized along the plan employed at Carlsbad, Austria, and the project will eventually be made self-supporting.
    Tourist hotels, apartment houses and a water cure sanatorium under scientific medical direction are being planned and will be constructed during this year.
    Plans are being drawn for the finest water temple in America--a work of art and beauty--and the park is being worked out for the entertainment of the great crowds.
    It is hoped to have the resort ready for visitors on or before July 1, 1915.
Ashland Tidings, December 31, 1914, page 6

Jackson Hot Sulfur Springs
    These springs are situated in the well-known springs region of Southern Oregon, directly on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railway, about midway between San Francisco and Portland, Ore. About one mile north of the city limits of Ashland, on the northern slope of the Siskiyou Mountains, at an altitude of 1,700 feet, the immediate surrounding mountain peaks rising to a height of 7,000 feet, where snowbanks feed the mountain streams throughout the year, in the midst of the everchanging coloring of the hills, these springs send forth their vapor in summer and winter with unvarying persistency.
    The temperature of these waters will range in the different springs from 75 to 102 degrees Fahrenheit, from which they will not vary during the warmer or colder months of the year. The combined flow from all the springs will exceed seventy gallons per minute, and this does not vary to an appreciable extent during the longest periods of wet or dry weather, the quantity and temperature of the water remaining unchanged since their discovery, gives ample proof of their reliability.
    In their mineral ingredients are combined sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, potassium chloride, iron and magnesium salts, are pleasant to drink at their natural heat at the springs, and are highly medicinal in their use, in the peculiar action whereby the purification of and the changes in the blood condition is affected. The combined use of these waters for drinking and bathing is of the utmost importance in a large number of cases, and when properly placed at the command of the tourist public, with drink halls, baths, hotel facilities, walks, drives, golf links, pleasure grounds and every convenience attending such conditions, these springs will rival those of any land. The only springs of this nature on the Southern Pacific Railway in Oregon, located in a region where climatic conditions are similar to those at Cairo, Italy and Southern France, and conducive to long sojourns in the vicinity by those seeking the curative qualities of the spring waters, where outdoor life may be enjoyed at its uttermost, combined with the influence of the altitude and favorable surroundings, these springs are destined to become widely and favorably known and will add materially to the future of Ashland as a health resort, when the many advantages of the locality are condensed to one slogan, Develop the mineral spring resources.
    Nature never furnished any spot with more abundance of raw material, needing but the molding to supply the world in a proper manner; located in the famous Rogue River Valley, where the air and soil drainage give almost perfect healthy climatic conditions; at the gateway to Crater Lake, a scenic wonder of the world; nearby the growing famous Marble Halls of Oregon, of Josephine County; accessible to the finest trout and salmon fishing grounds of any region; on the Pacific Highway, which in a few short years will carry a continuous stream of automobile life, the Jackson hot sulfur springs, together with the other fine springs of this vicinity, will make a large and permanent foundation for a health resort and watering place, rarely equaled, not easily excelled.
Ashland Tidings, December 31, 1914, page 6

The Indian Legends of the Springs
By C. B. Watson, Ashland
    Long before white men came to this country, so long ago, in fact, that Indian tradition does not fix the date, that wonderful collection of mineral springs, that promises to make Ashland famous, was known and valued by the aborigines for their medicinal properties.
    I first visited these springs forty-four years ago, and more than forty years ago published a prophecy that sometime a great health and watering resort would be built up here.
    I had then only recently arrived from my home in the prairies of Illinois, and everything I saw was new to me and wonderfully interesting. The mountains, forests, game and Indians were a source of delightful study for me. I went among the Indians east and west of the Cascade Mountains and learned many things not published in newspapers nor books. When I came Jackson County embraced all that area known now as Jackson, Klamath and Lake counties, and did not contain as many white people by one-third as the city of Ashland now has.
    The country now comprising Klamath and Lake counties was known as the "Lake country" and by the Indians as the "Land of Many Lakes." It was inhabited mainly by the Klamath and Modoc Indians, two powerful and warlike tribes, often engaged in war with each other, but sometimes by treaty combining to fight with the tribes west of the Cascades, also a warlike people, later known as the Rogue River Indians. These last were, however, so depleted by the wars with the whites in 1855 and '56 that they ceased to be a menace to the Lake tribes.
    When I first came, there were stories told of the aboriginals' use of the mineral springs, especially those known as the Tolman Springs, now owned by Mr. Lawrence and known as "Buckhorn Lodge," the escaping gases of which were prized by the redskins as "hyas skookum [very powerful] medicine." I visited them and verified some of the stories told. There were the places hollowed out on the banks of the stream where the gases escaped through fractures in the underlying rocks excavated by the Indians and in which they treated their patients. Dead birds, squirrels, snakes, rats and other small animals and reptiles lying in these pits told of the deadly quality of this carbonic acid gas [i.e., carbon dioxide] when not used with caution. In fact, the same thing may still be seen about these gas vents. From these facts the early settlers called them poison springs. The Indians, however, had learned how to use them and to value them accordingly.
    Their method was to find a spot where this gas escaped, hollow out a sufficient space, spread fir boughs in it for comfort and place the patient on the boughs, where he remained under watchful care until unconscious. He was then taken into a "wickiup" or tent made of skins and boughs and there put through a course of manipulation and teas until he recovered consciousness. Then would follow a day or two of sweating and incantations by a medicine man. This treatment was repeated until the patient was declared to be cured, or incurable. All this time they drank the water from the springs and used it for vapor baths in their sweat house.
    The Modocs and Klamaths were very skillful in the manufacture of baskets. Many of them were made for cooking in and holding water. These watertight baskets were filled and hot stones put into them, filling the sweat house with steam almost to the point of suffocation. The treatment was heroic, but the Indians insisted that it seldom failed to cure the most obstinate case of rheumatism, asthma, kidney disease and stomach trouble. It was not unusual for patients to be strapped onto ponies and brought from distant parts of the "Land of Many Lakes" to be treated.
    Forty years ago the old warriors, those that possessed the most wisdom, could seldom be induced to talk on such matters, but I became acquainted with Frank Riddle, who came among these Indians nearly seventy years go, took a wife among them and remained until he died a few years ago. Riddle was a man of much intelligence and grew to be a man of great influence among them. During the Modoc War of 1872 and 1873 he and his wife Toby did great service for the government troops, acting as interpreters and messengers of mediation. Riddle wanted me to write his history, and I agreed to do it if he would prepare the data for me. This he promised to do but never did. Our acquaintance ran through twenty years, and he often related his experiences and adventures to me. It goes without saying that his tales were thrilling. I asked him how long the Modocs and Klamaths had used the mineral springs of the Upper Rogue River Valley [i.e., the Upper Bear Creek Valley]. He said he did not know and that the oldest men of the tribes when he first came among them did not know. They were in use then and appeared to have been for ages. The people had a superstition about them and attributed them and their virtues to the "Great Spirit." The escaping gas was the breath of the "Great Spirit," and was a guarantee of sure cure if the patient had led a worthy life, but sure death if he had not. The place where the "Great Spirit" chose to administer the benefits of his healing breath was considered sacred and for ages was supervised by a great medicine man. Even when the tribes of the "Land of Many Lakes" were at war with the tribes in whose territory these springs were situated, if pilgrims from east of the mountains succeeded in reaching the springs for medical treatment, they were not molested while there, but if they could intercept them before they had passed the great forest they were driven back or killed. In this connection he told me a beautiful romance of two lovers of the dim past. They sought the springs in hope that the maiden might be cured of a malady that threatened her life. This story would be too long for this article, and I may give it at another time.
    I asked my friend why the people of the Land of Many Lakes always stopped at this one cluster of springs, why they did not go to the others where there were so many farther down in the valley; where the grass was better and no rugged canyon to hedge them in. He said that in the early time, of which, in their superstition, they spoked with bated breath, this one cluster of springs had by treaty been granted for their use and they were prohibited from visiting any other.
    The Wagner Soda Spring was taken up more than fifty years ago by an old hunter who took a fancy to the water as an antidote for some ailment he had. Another man by the name of Samuel Whitmore, who doubtless he remembered as one of the early school teachers of Ashland, visited this spring, and being himself afflicted got permission from the old hunter to stop with him and try the water. After a time the hunter got restless and sold his interests to Whitmore, who afterwards sold to a Dr. Caldwell. The doctor occupied the place when I first saw it in 1871. He had a comfortable house and other improvements and furnished accommodations to travelers crossing the mountains and entertainment for those who visited the springs for health and pleasure. Even at that time this spring was quite a resort, considering the dearth of population then in the valley. Even then it was not infrequent to have visitors from Portland, Salem and other places outside of the valley. The old doctor conducted a sanitarium on a modest scale, and the therapeutical value of these waters was then recognized and discussed. Splendid meals were set, and from that time to the present the Wagner Soda Spring has grown in popularity.
Ashland Tidings, December 31, 1914, page 10

Historic Spring Home of Oldest Resort in Southern Oregon.

    Twenty or thirty years ago the mention of "soda springs" immediately suggested to the average resident of Jackson County and Southern Oregon the place now known as Wagner's Springs, where "Siskiyou Natural Mineral Water" comes from, located ten miles southeast of Ashland on the Ashland-Klamath Falls route across the Cascades. But its history dates far back of that. and it can be modestly claimed for this spring that it is the historic mineral spring of this section of Oregon. For more than sixty years people have traveled to it and drunk of its sparkling waters. Before the days of commercial bottling of this water hundreds of people from Southern Oregon and other sections of Oregon and California made their annual summer pilgrimages to these springs, took a few weeks' course of treatment and returned to their homes as well satisfied with the results obtained in rejuvenated stomachs and kidneys as if they had made a trip to Carlsbad.
    Tradition tells us that these springs were first discovered, as far as white men are concerned, along in  the forties by one of the Applegate parties engaged in an exploration trip through Southern Oregon and Northern California, the party, it is related, camping overnight at the springs. With the first real settlement of Rogue River Valley and the southern end of it in the vicinity of Ashland in the early fifties, the fame of the waters of these springs grew. There are several Oregon pioneers now residing in Ashland who recall the springs and partaking of the waters as early as 1853. At that early date settlers were yet few and far between throughout the entire Rogue River Valley, but the "soda springs above Ashland" were well known, and indeed practically the only known mineral springs in this section.
    The United States patent to the land on which the Wagner Springs are located was issued in the name of Samuel D. Whitmore, who had located upon the property as a homestead presumably in 1859. The patent was dated in 1864, but in 1862 Whitmore had given a quitclaim deed to Matthew Caldwell, according to the records, and Caldwell located additional lands adjoining. Caldwell was a practicing physician at Phoenix, of first-class professional reputation. He removed to the springs, built the first hotel, and practiced medicine successfully, with the aid of the mineral waters, in which he had much faith. He lived at the place for a number of years, conducting a hotel and in a way a sanitarium, with a more or less widespread reputation. Later Dr. Caldwell died. His widow became Mrs. Courtney and removed back to Phoenix. The property reverted to his daughter, Mrs. Lillie Caldwell Blackwood, now living at Phoenix, who with her husband, the late R. T. Blackwood, resided upon the place, which now embraced some fifteen hundred acres or more of land. However, they leased the hotel and springs portion and for three years, beginning with 1875, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Russell (the latter of whom is now a resident of Ashland, Mrs. A. H. Russell), and their family conducted the resort, and the place held a high reputation for the culinary excellence of the hotel under their regime as well as for the mineral springs. They were followed by L. B. Tucker and family, and during their term the stage traffic across the mountains between Ashland and Klamath Falls was an important factor, Soda Springs being a station for both man and beast traversing the route.
    In 1885 the Blackwoods sold the Soda Springs property to the late Jacob Wagner, who, retiring from a long term of service in the milling business in Ashland in impaired health, was attracted by the health-giving possibilities of the waters and always attributed a new lease of life in his own case to their liberal use. He made extensive improvements upon the hotel and the ranch in general, charge of which was after a short time assumed by J. M. Wagner, his son, who has ever since been the managing owner of the property.
    Since early days visitors to the springs had carried away its waters in jugs and bottles to their homes, but it was under J. M. Wagner's direction that the commercial bottling of the water began. With up-to-date equipment and under the suggestive name he gave it, the fame of "Siskiyou Natural Mineral Water" became widespread, and demands for it extended from Portland on the north to San Francisco on the south. He has recently been developing and has demonstrated successfully within a few weeks a new process of bottling the water without in the slightest impairing its medicinal or pleasant, potable qualities, that now promises to revolutionize the demand and sale for it.
Ashland Tidings, December 31, 1914, page 16

All Parts of State Rich in Springs of Various Kinds Soon to Be Better Known.
The Automobile Has Brought These Refreshing Places Closer to the People;
Popularity Increases.
By Fred Lockley.

    An automobile is the magic key that unlocks the treasure chest of Oregon's scenic wonders. During the last few years it has been my good fortune to visit most of Oregon's beauty spots, and I have been struck with one of our assets about which little is said, and that is our wealth of mineral springs.
    There is no need for the Oregonian to go to Carlsbad or even to Hot Springs, Ark., to secure the curative effects of those famous springs. We have right here in Oregon springs equally as good, though not equally well known. In Eastern Oregon you will find excellent springs at Wright's mineral springs, McDuffey's springs, Radium springs at Haines, Wenaha springs, or Bingham springs, as they were called by oldtimers, Hot lake, Lehman springs and Hidawny springs on Camas Prairie in southern Umatilla County.
    At Lakeview and at Klamath Falls there are hot mineral springs of ample flow and of curative power. There are many other mineral springs east of the mountains, but these are probably best known.
Springs Abound on West Slope.
    On the coast side of the Cascades we have a large number of springs that deserve to be better known than they now are. Shipperd's springs is easily accessible and is well patronized by Portlanders. Wolfer's springs, near Hubbard, is a spring that someday will be taken hold of by some capitalist or by the railroad and develop Wilholt springs, 20 miles distant from Portland, is another attractive nearby resort. Carey's hot springs, above Estacada, will someday be better known and better appreciated. Fairdale springs, 12 miles from North Yamhill, is within easy automobile distance of Portland.
    From Albany one can go to Breitenbush hot springs near the foot of Mount Jefferson and get health, fish and venison all on the same trip. From Lebanon it is but a short distance to Sodaville and Waterloo springs, and farther up in the mountains you come to Cascadia springs, a beauty spot in the foothills of the Cascades.
    Calapooia springs, or London springs, are only 12 miles from Cottage Grove, and nature has done much to make the vicinity attractive. From Eugene an excellent road leads eastward to Belknap springs and Foley springs. Foley springs has some remarkable cures to its credit, and, being in the heart of the famous McKenzie River country, you can have plenty of sport with the redsides and the Dolly Vardens.
Ashland Appreciates Her Springs.
    Ashland is the one city in Oregon that has the vision to realize the importance of the springs at her very door. Within a hundred yards of the heart of the business district can be seen the green lawns and the playing fountains of her city park. Ashland Creek is a joy and a delight. It is spanned by numerous artistic rustic bridges, and for miles--in fact, as far as the Hanging Rocks--it is a succession of beauty spots. It is shaded by rugged old trees which are kept free from underbrush. Springs have been opened out and rocked up in artistic manner. Camping grounds have been arranged so that automobile tourists can camp in comfort and safety without charge. To B. R. Greer of Oklahoma is given the credit of initiating the work of making Ashland beautiful. B. R. Greer, Chester Stevenson and J. B. Dodge are the committee that has given Ashland a new vision. M. J. Duryea has been employed as director of publicity and D. D. Norris, the secretary of the Commercial Club, is always on the job to make the stranger welcome.
    In company with M. J. Duryea and Chester Stevenson I recently took an automobile trip around the Skyline Boulevard. We visited the Berkley sulfur spring, recently acquired by the city from the money raised by its bond issue to purchase, improve and utilize their mineral springs.
Many Springs Visited.
    We next went to the Dodge well, also owned by the city, and from which the city will secure its supply of soda water for its bubbling fountains. We next visited the Cunningham spring, from which the city will secure a supply of gas to charge the water with natural gas. We stopped at the Kingsbury soda spring and drank all we could hold of the bubbling and refreshing soda water. We next went to the Gillette spring, where for dozens of yards the water seethes and bubbles like the witches' cauldron. We went to the Silver spring and from there to the Murphy lithia spring, controlled by the spring water commission for the city. Ashland has seven acres in Chautauqua Park and 51 acres in Lithia Park.
Oregon Journal, Portland, August 29, 1915, page 20

    Dr. E. Kirchgessner has bought out Geo. H. Tyler's interest in the famous Dead Indian soda springs and he has filed upon the same and is putting in some improvements as well as protecting the property from destruction as a camping place.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, August 20, 1916, page 3

    Some day, and not distant, either, Ashland is going to be one of the greatest watering places in America. There are 40--counted 'em--lithia and soda springs in and around the picturesque place. There's hot and warm sulfur water. If I wrote all I learned about mineral springs right here, it would sound like a page out of a chemistry book. This I must tell, however. The lithia springs and the mineral springs in Ashland have the largest lithia contents of any known springs in the world. The lithia and soda waters are heavily charged with carbon dioxide gas, which makes them extremely palatable. They sparkle like champagne used to do.
    There's two splendid natatoriums in Ashland, fed by living springs of sulfur water, and if you don't want to drink the water you can bathe in it. Or you can do both. It's a sure cure for whatever ails you.
Leone Cass Baker, "Southern Oregon, Rich in Nature's Bounties, Moves Visitor to Sound Praises Abroad," Oregonian, Portland, March 4, 1917, page C11

Eastern Syndicate Purchases Municipally Owned Springs and Hotel Austin--Will Put Up Big Sanitarium and Conduct $250,000 Advertising Campaign--Vining Engineers
    ASHLAND, Ore., May 26.--Announcement was made here last night of the closing of a contract between the city of Ashland and a syndicate headed by Mr. Jessie Winburn, New York millionaire and head of the Car Advertising Company of New York, whereby the surplus lithia, sulfur and soda waters and carbon dioxide gas from the municipally owned springs are made available to the syndicate for sanitarium and marketing purposes. The contract calls for the expenditure of at least two hundred thousand dollars in sanitarium and allied development. The syndicate has purchased the Hotel Austin, which will be practically rebuilt as a modern hotel with mineral water bath establishment in connection.
    The easterners have taken options on the Siskiyou mineral springs owned by J. M. Wagner, the mineral springs owned by J. J. Murphy and various other properties in and near the city and contemplate resort development on an immense scale. Plans are being considered which will involve the immediate expenditure of at least a half million with later development involving millions.
    A national advertising campaign is included in the plans with a quarter of a million-dollar budget for this purpose. The various lithia, soda and other waters will be advertised and marketed throughout the country and the resort advantages of Ashland widely heralded.
    Prof. Irving Vining, Ashland lecturer whose winters are spent in and around New York where he is much in demand, is responsible for the interesting of the New Yorkers who are behind the new development.
    Ashland in the municipal park and springs development laid the foundation for a real mineral water resort, and the caliber of the men behind the hotel and mineral water projects now contemplated assure the development of the leading mineral water resort of the coast in the Rogue River Valley.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 26, 1920, page 1

    ASHLAND, July 25.--The nude in nature is being eliminated at Jackson Hot Springs, near town, by the erection of a bath house on the premises, which it is hoped is the precursor of [omission?] that vicinity. The springs, located directly on the line of the Pacific Highway, constitute an asset well worth developing on a scale commensurate with their importance. The banks of Bear Creek nearby afford shady camping spots for tourists who would be eager to avail themselves of privileges which the springs afford, providing they were developed on a commercial basis, and this implies bathing and sanitarium facilities. Tolman and other springs are practically in the discard, due to their being off the main lines of travel. Jackson Springs, however, are ideally located, and moreover are self-advertised. All that they lack are accommodations for the army of tourists who pass to and fro daily. Ashland has a surfeit of spring/resorts, coupled with the natatoriums and plunges, consequently no attention has been paid to developing the Jackson project, except recently and that on a minor scale. Heretofore the pond has been monopolized by a lot of kids, minus bathing suits, whose attitude is that of the quiet, peaceful and undisturbed in nature, unless a touring car happens to pass that way, when there is a mad scramble for the breakers and the high dive is in order. If the Jackson Spring was located as near Medford as it is Ashland, permanent development would follow to an extent meriting the opportunities so readily available. At Kingsbury Springs, east of Ashland, Ad Helms is installing improvements on a big scale. A large, substantial building is being erected of pavilion proportions, which will include a dance hall and guest rooms. Light refreshments and the more substantial supplies will be available, in fact it will be a service station on a generous scale. This commodious resort center at Kingsbury's is also located directly on the Pacific Highway.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 25, 1921, page 8

    In Jackson County, permits have been issued to G. C. McAllister, of Central Point, covering the appropriation of water from McAllister Spring for domestic use and for irrigation of a ten-acre tract, at an estimated cost of construction amounting to $500.00.
"Gets Water from McAllister Springs," Medford Mail Tribune, April 6, 1922, page 8

    Near Ashland is a lithia spring where the water is bottled. Then, 30 miles from Medford, is Dead Indian Soda Springs, where the water comes from the earth already carbonated, the great gas bubbles popping when it strikes the air and throwing foam for several feet. Right on the California state line in the watershed of the Klamath River is Cinnabar mineral springs, and in the Butte Creek district nearby are several soda springs and one poison spring. There are several poison springs in the Crater National Forest, and these are carefully marked and guarded.
DeWitt Harry, "Mineral Springs of Oregon Possess Curative Properties," Oregonian, Portland, April 16, 1922, page 6

    J. C. Ottinger of Medford has leased the Jackson Hot Springs this side of Ashland on the Pacific Highway, and work will start at once on the construction of a swimming pool, a dance pavilion, a bathhouse and an auto camp ground.
    Work has already started on the construction of a concrete wall around the spring so that the water will rise to a level high enough to allow it to flow across the Pacific Highway to the land on the east side of the road, where all of the buildings and the pool will be situated.
    The swimming pool is to be an open air pool for this summer and will most likely be housed by next year. It is to be 45 by 90 feet and will be built of concrete. If housed it will be kept open all winter, as the water is exceedingly warm and will be comfortable at all times of the year. The house surrounding the pool will have removable sections to allow free circulation of air in the summer season.
    The bathhouse will be equipped with sulfur water showers, the water for which will be piped from the four small springs on the hillside west of the large spring.
    The dancing pavilion will be 60 by 100 feet and will be arranged so that open air dancing in the summer season may be enjoyed. It will also be capable of being closed on the sides in the winter season to exclude the cold and moisture.
    This new resort promises to enjoy much popularity, and if the present outlook is verified a baseball diamond, good tennis courts and a golf course may be installed at a future date.
Medford Mail Tribune,
May 11, 1922, page 5

    Charley Wilkinson of Dead Indian Soda Springs passed through here Monday on his way home. He says that he has a concession from the U.S. government to keep a supply store at the springs and that it, the government, plans to make a good road through that country on to Lake of the Woods and that will be a near route to Klamath County.
A. C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets," Medford Mail Tribune, May 29, 1922, page 3

    The Jackson Hot Springs open air pavilion, two miles north of Ashland, the largest open air pavilion in Southern Oregon, will be formally opened Saturday evening, July 1st, with a big dance beginning at 9 a.m.
    Work on the new structure is being pushed to completion, a splendid floor for dancing has been put in and excellent music will be furnished.
    There will be dancing Monday and Tuesday evenings beginning at 6 p.m.
    The company hopes to have their bathing pool ready by August 1 or before and will have plenty of fresh sulfur water for the same.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 30, 1922, page 7

Dead Indian Soda Springs.
    Dead Indian soda springs, on the Crater national forest, is an increasingly popular recreation ground, reached over 30 miles of automobile road from Medford. The water at these springs is highly carbonated and agreeable to the taste. The cool, shady woods, the fishing, the deer hunting and the added attraction of the soda water make this one of the more important resorts tributary to the Rogue River Valley. A free forest camp is provided by the Forest Service, and summer homesite building lots have been surveyed for lease. For maps and information apply to the forest supervisor, Medford, Or.
"Crater Lake Area Enchanting Region," Oregonian, Portland, June 24, 1923, page 78

Dead Indian Springs As a Health Resort
    Mrs. C. E. Wilkinson, of the Dead Indian Soda Springs health resort, was in Medford Monday purchasing supplies for the resort.
    Mrs. Wilkinson says the recent rains made the roads quite rough but they will be in good shape the last of the week.
    The resort is located 35 miles from Medford at the forks of the Dead Indian and Butte creeks, near the famous soda and iron springs. With good fishing and hiking, it is an ideal place for a vacation. They have recently erected tent houses for rent, with or without board, and they also sell all kinds of campers' supplies. The post office is Lake Creek.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 9, 1923, page 2

    Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Wilkinson of Lake Creek were in Medford today. Mr. Wilkinson left for California for the winter. They are owners of the Dead Indian Soda Springs and report splendid business this season.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, November 13, 1923, page 2

    The carnival dance at Jackson Hot Springs Thursday night was well attended and the crowd enjoyed one of the biggest times of the year. Snack's 8-piece jazz orchestra furnished the music and everybody voted it the snappiest orchestra ever heard in Jackson County.
    There will be another dance Saturday night, December 15. Music by this orchestra, and the management announces that there will be one dance a week held here for the balance of the winter.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 14, 1923, page 14

Natural Carbonic Gas
    The natural carbonic gas wells are the third to be developed in the United States, the others being at Saratoga, N.Y., and Manitou, Colorado. The gas produced at Ashland wells uniformly holds up to 99.8 percent pure--a very high standard. The gas is compressed into liquid form under a pressure of from 800 to 1100 pounds and placed in steel cylinders for shipment which are tested to 3300 pounds per square inch.
    The geyser recently brought in by the Natural Carbonic Company flows heavily in natural lithia water and natural carbonic gas, and 24-hour continuous run resulted in the compressing and placing in cylinders ready for shipment of 6000 pounds of liquid gas. The gas is sold under a term contract to the Liquid Carbonic Company, Chicago, the largest concern of its kind in the United States, which distributes it over the entire Northwest, maintaining warehouses and distributing stations at Portland, Seattle, Spokane and Salt Lake. It is used in soda fountains, by bottlers for carbonating beverages, and in the manufacture of ice cream and butter, and its purity and uniformity make it much more desirable than the artificial gas.
Mineral Waters
    The mineral waters of the Ashland district are of a wide variety, including the soda waters, the cold and hot sulfur waters, the cinnabar waters, and the natural lithia waters, and while the development of the waters,
other than the natural lithia waters, must be for local purposes, the wide variety will eventually make Ashland the leading health resort of the western portion of the United States. The sulfur and cinnabar waters are now being used for bathing purposes at the Jackson Springs and the Cinnabar Springs.
    The natural lithia waters are in a class by themselves and are unique in that they are both a medicinal and a table water, unsurpassed by any mineral water in the world so far developed. These waters, bottled with their own natural carbonic gas, stand shipment anywhere, and the field for their sale is worldwide.
"Ashland's Mining District," Medford Mail Tribune, July 19, 1924, page 3

    Improvements completed this week in the handling of the natural carbonic gas and natural lithia water flows from the Silver geyser on the Pompadour Springs property near Ashland has resulted in doing away with all pumping of mineral water and gas, the natural flow of the geyser providing an ample supply of natural carbonic gas for the compressing plant, and abundant cold mineral water from a depth of 180 feet for bottling purposes and for cooling purposes in the compressing plant. These improvements not only effect a considerable saving, but also demonstrate the perfect control of the geyser, and it has also resulted in the Pompadour Chief spring being made available to the public at all times for drinking purposes.
    The management has extended an invitation to the public to visit the springs on weekdays during ordinary business hours, and on Sunday, Aug. 31st, at 4:15 p.m. especially, to witness the geyser spout.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 30, 1924, page 3

    ASHLAND, Oct. 7.--Jackson's Hot Springs will have an overhauling at the hands of the new owners, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Milton. The new owners plan to spend $10,000 in remodeling the place and will make it a popular health and recreation resort. Cottages will be built to take care of next year's tourist trade. The fine flow of sulfur water has been almost doubled by means of new pipe line and by clearing away of debris and vegetable growth in the spring. A substantial fence will be built and lawns and shrubbery will be planted. Such improvements have been impossible in the past as cars have been allowed to drive in at all points. The dance hall will be remodeled and a gasoline station will be erected on the property.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 8, 1925, page 12

    As Rogue River Valley's fame as a resort for tourists increases, her medical springs arouse more and more attention, and some of them may eventually become [as] famous as the celebrated springs of Europe. Among the most important, which are accessible, and the transportation question is settled for exporting the bottled water, are the Ashland lithia, soda, and sulfur springs. There are numerous soda springs in the Ashland district and this water has been an article of export since the coming of the railroad in the early eighties. There are numerous other soda springs just as important, such as the Jackson Hot Springs, just north of Medford, the Dead Indian and the McCallister springs resorts in the Cascade Range of mountains east of Medford. There are numerous hot sulfur, magnesia, saline, iron and cinnabar springs of great medical properties throughout the Siskiyou and Umpqua mountains, where resorts have sprung up and attract many local people who have come here for their health as well as tourists who come this way.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1928, page 73

Fountain of Dioxide Gas Near Medford
May Yield Riches by New Discovery

(By Paul Luy)

    Thar's gas in them hills!
    And it's gas that may soon turn to the proverbial gold that is usually associated with hills, too. Figuratively speaking, of course. But up at Buckhorn Lodge, in the mountains south of Ashland a short distance, the carbon dioxide gas is so plentiful that it oozes up through the ground and bubbles out of Emigrant Creek. It has been doing that as far back as anyone knows, but not until recently did it have so great a value as is now placed upon it.
    Recent scientific discoveries have brought forth a product known as "dry ice." It is being manufactured throughout the world in quantities far below the demand. The carbon dioxide gas which is so plentiful at Buckhorn Lodge is one of the chief elements used in manufacturing the product. Captain H. J. Thompson of New York, an authority upon the subject, recently visited the springs and told the owners, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. McGrew, that more than $2000 worth of the gas was escaping each day.
Pioneer Landmark.
    Buckhorn Lodge is one of the few remaining pioneer landmarks in this section of the country today. The lodge was built more than 50 years ago, and for many years was known far and wide as a resort and health center. When first established, it was known as Tolman Springs, deriving the name from Judge Tolman, who purchased the land upon which the mineral springs are located from the government.
    Judge Tolman, so pioneers tell us, learned of the place from the Indian tribes of Southern Oregon and Northern California. For many years before the coming
of white man to this section, the springs had been used by the Indians. It was neutral ground at all times as members of the several tribes came there to bathe in the mineral waters and mud when they were sick.
    Indians still come there each year, Mr. McGrew says, but in decreasing numbers. Mrs. Empter, only surviving member of the Shasta tribe, is a regular visitor. Mrs. Empter tells interesting tales handed down by her forefathers of how the Rogue River, Modoc, Klamath and other tribes came to the springs for the curative powers.
Four Mineral Springs.
    There are four different kinds of mineral waters on the grounds in addition to the gas springs. The waters are mostly soda in varying degrees, and are deemed of high medicinal value.
    The lodge ts located on the bank of Emigrant Creek in a beautiful grove of oak trees. A large fountain built of native rock gushes forth a cool stream of water which runs through the grounds. The picnic grove nearby has long been a favorite spot. The lodge is a low, rambling structure typical of pioneer dwellings and mountain inns. Shady porches surround it on almost all sides. Pioneer relics gathered throughout the years catch the eye of the visitor.
    The United States government, it is said, is becoming interested in the gas springs at Buckhorn. The spring is reported to be the largest of its kind in the country. The discovery of the dry ice is obviously the cause for the sudden interest.
    At present most of the ice is manufactured from dioxide gas derived from the burning of lime and coke in factories. Production of the product is largely dependent upon the output of these plants, for as yet no gas springs have been developed.
    Uses of the dry ice are many. Chief among these, of course, is that of refrigeration. Dry ice looks like ordinary water ice, but has a temperature of 110 degrees below zero, and has the great advantage over ordinary ice in that a much smaller quantity is needed and therefore requires less space; that it evaporates without leaving any moisture, and can be put directly in contact with any foodstuffs.
Would Aid Fruit.
    Dry ice would mean a great saving to fruit shipments. At present 520 boxes of pears are loaded into a refrigerator car. Both ends of the car must be used for ice and freight must be paid. of course, on the space, in addition to the charges made for icing the cars. In using dry ice, the Department of Commerce calculates a saving of 50 percent in refrigerating cost. Others have estimated it at about $100 per car. Plans are being made here to experiment with several carloads of fruit shipped with the dry ice.
    Meat packers in the East are now using it for shipping meat. For example, steaks are cut in the factory, thin sheets of dry ice are placed between them and they may be mailed to any destination. It is also being used in cooling and ventilating systems. And it is rapidly becoming valuable as a surgical aid. It in used in much the same way as radium for removing skin growths and such diseases.
    But its extremely low temperature is its most appealing factor on these warm days. How would you like to have a little piece to put in your home or office and lower the temperature about 20 degrees. That's possible, too!
Medford Mail Tribune, July 24, 1930, page 8

Dead Indian Soda Springs Is Suggested for Delightful Sunday Drive
Modern Accommodations for Visitors--History of Area Is Outlined
By Karl Janouch
    Dead Indian Soda Springs is a recreational area in the Rogue River national forest which combines many of the attractions that are sought by the lover of the out-of-doors. Visitors marvel at its beauty. Picnickers prefer this area because of its beauty, facilities for camping, scenic foot and auto trips, good fishing, mineral springs, and the solitude of the great out-of-doors. Many health seekers make extended visits to the resort where a store, dining room, sleeping and housekeeping cabins, and an artificial swimming pool are maintained. The Dead Indian Soda Springs recreation area is different from those areas usually found in Southwestern Oregon and Medford's Rogue Wonderland.
    Start east from Riverside on Main Street and follow the Crater Lake Highway from Medford to Eagle Point, 10.7 miles. Here a turn to the right onto the Lake Creek Highway takes you through the town of Eagle Point. Keep straight ahead on the main road. Beyond Eagle Point the highway parallels Little Butte Creek and winds up this beautiful valley where there is an endless chain of farms which contribute to the wealth of the community through the production of dairy produce and beef cattle.
    In a short time the Brownsboro store and post office are reached, but continue straight ahead. Here you are traveling almost directly east toward majestic Mt. McLoughlin, which is seen rising high above the horizon in the distance.
    Notice the low foothills, which are covered with scattered oak trees and which extend to the valley floor. This may appear to be waste land, but actually it is not. It provides spring feed for range cattle from the time they leave winter feed lots until they go onto the national forest summer range sometime in June, and is needed to round out the cattleman's operation.
    Later the Fish Lake Road junction is reached, and here turn right, cross the Little Butte Creek bridge and pass through the small town of Lake Creek. Just a short distance above this point, Little Butte Creek forks, and from here on follow up the south fork of this creek, keeping the main traveled road to Dead Indian Soda Springs.
    At 35 miles you arrive at the rustic recreational area sign, turn right across the bridge, immediately across the bridge turn left and you are in the Dead Indian Soda Springs campground. Here there are a number of individual camp spots with stoves, tables, and sanitation facilities which were constructed by the Forest Service, and which are free to any who may wish to use them.
    Continuing on through the campground, cross a small bridge over Dead Indian Creek and enter the Forest Service picnic area. Here there is a community kitchen and numerous rustic tables, conveniently arranged so that ideal accommodations are presented either for individual parties or picnic groups. Plenty of parking space is available.
    For those who do not wish to camp out, just beyond the picnic area is the Dead Indian Soda Springs resort, which features home-cooked meals, cabins, and swimming facilities. The resort owners make this their home all year, and are perfect hosts and a veritable information bureau on subjects pertaining to local fishing, hiking, and saddle horse trips, as well as wildlife.
    The beauty of this entire recreational center is unique and has an individuality all its own. The timber cover of Douglas fir, incense cedar, broadleaf maple, alder, and hazel offers an interesting mixture of green colors, and provides a shady retreat that is cool even during the hottest summer days. A green blanket of grass almost completely covers the ground. The two beautiful small streams--Dead Indian Creek and the South Fork of Little Butte, which flow through the area--contribute their charm to make a perfect setting for the camper or vacationist.
    A good trail leads to the spring which has made this spot famous. From the resort this path winds up the east bank of Dead Indian Creek, 2,400 feet to the mineral spring, which is known far and near for the medicinal properties of its water. The Forest Service has constructed a bridge across the creek, which makes the spring easily accessible. The mineral water bubbles up through a fissure in a solid rock bed. Many people take containers and carry water from the spring back to their homes.
    It is not known who discovered the spring, but it was visited as long ago as 1871 by J. H. Tyrrell, father of the present owner of the resort. Why was it named Dead Indian? This is an interesting chapter in Southern Oregon history and involves some prominent pioneer families of the Rogue River valley. Here's the story as it is related:
    In 1854, the first wheat crop of any moment was grown in the valley. As settlers were short of funds necessary for financing the preparation and marketing of the crop thus was taken over by Henry Ammerman, early day financier. The wheat was ground into flour in Ashland, the mill having been located under a large oak tree near the present entrance to Lithia Park. Three wagons and eighteen oxen were secured to transport the flour to Yreka, the nearest market. Harvey Oatman--(father of the late Elmer Oatman--for many years Jackson County fruit inspector and grandfather of Mrs. R. O. Stephenson, who now lives on the Jacksonville highway) was put in charge of the train and drove the lead wagon. The other two wagons were driven by Daniel P. Brittain, who later lived for many years on Wagner Creek, and a Mr. Livingston. [The incident was in 1855; Livingston is otherwise unknown to history. The flour was ground in Phoenix.]
    The wagons were heavy, and as there were no roads through the Siskiyous it was a laborious task, even though six heavy oxen were hitched to each load. It is not known exactly the route taken over the Siskiyous, but it is probable that the train followed approximately the route afterward known as the Dollarhide Toll Road. Somewhere near the summit of the mountains they were attacked by a party of renegade Indians from the Klamath country. Oatman escaped and went on to Yreka where he sold his load of flour. Brittain escaped with his life, but his wagon and that of Livingston were burned after the Indians had emptied the flour from the sacks, the latter being apparently the only article of value to the tribesmen. [They were unprepared to haul away several tons of flour.]
    Upon the return of Oatman and Brittain to the valley the attack was reported and a force immediately recruited by Wm. Rockfellow, one of the leading men of the Wagner Creek community, to track down the marauders. Not only after they had picked up the trail they found three of the renegades dead--apparently victims of another Indian band. The spot where these Indians were found was known thereafter as Dead Indian. Later the name "Dead Indian" was applied to the creek on the headwaters of which the Indians were found and still later to the soda spring which is located on the creek.
    An interesting side trip may be taken by car from this recreation area to the Forest Service fire lookout station on Poole Hill, three miles distant, by following the road which goes directly through the resort area. Here on Poole Hill all through the fire season you will find a lookout man on duty who welcomes visitors and who will gladly acquaint you with the features of the surrounding country, explain how a fire lookout actually functions, and tell you of the importance of protecting these timbered slopes from fire.
    Because of the exceedingly dry summer weather, a very dangerous fire season usually exists. In this area there are some glaring examples of the damage that fire can do to timber, recreational and other resources. It is an established fact that many tourists do not come to Oregon during forest fires because they were afraid of these fires while burning. Most of these disastrous fires have been man caused and could have been prevented. Whenever a fire rages through the forest it represents a loss of dollars to the community either directly or indirectly. Everyone should help prevent fires by being careful and cautioning others of the danger.
    Mention must also be made of the wildlife which is plentiful in this area. Usually one may see blacktail deer feeding unafraid on the hillsides near the resort. The gracefulness of these creatures is always inspiring and goes far toward completing the forest picture. This locality is noted as a favorite winter feeding ground for deer, and it is not at all uncommon to see 15 or 20 even more in a band during the late fall and winter months.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 4, 1940, page 10

Hiyu Skookum Medicine in Bear Valley
By Bertha M. Borden
    Chief Tipsu Tyee and his wandering Rogues, from their home in the nearby Siskiyous, may have sought the "medicine waters" along Emigrant Creek in Bear Valley.
    It is certain that the friendly Klamaths and their peace chief, Lalake, came from the shores of the great Klamath Lakes to partake of the "hiyu skookum medicine" of the springs.
    The rugged, mountainous terrain of their high country was no barrier to the Klamaths, who patiently trekked the long miles, over dangerous trails, to the numerous mineral springs at the foot of the Cascades in the southeastern corner of the Rogue River Valley.
    How they learned of the medicinal qualities of the water is not known. Who taught them the dangers and the uses of the seductive gases emanating from the rocky fissures along the creek is still a mystery.
    Perhaps by trial and error came the methods they employed to heal the sick. They built their flimsy wickiups of fir boughs over the rocky crannies and placed the patient in a comfortable position to inhale the gaseous vapors.
    When he became unconscious he was removed to a safe distance to regain consciousness. His circulation was restored by rubbing, and in a day or two the rite was repeated and thus continued until his malady subsided.
    "Poison Water," the first white settlers of the valley dubbed one of the springs. They saw dead reptiles, birds, insects and small animals around it. Later, by observing the Indians, they too, learned the secret of the spring.
    The water was good to drink, highly palatable and healthful. It was the carbon dioxide gas that caused death when inhaled too long.
    Some years later, in the early 1890s, James Clark Tolman, U.S. surveyor general of Oregon and a much-esteemed citizen of Ashland, purchased the spring and some of the surrounding area.
    The Tolman Springs became famous as a health resort, with a modest hotel and several cottages to accommodate its patrons. On the death of Tolman the place fell into decay, but the resort had acquired a wide reputation for beneficial qualities of its mineral waters.
    Through the years, the place has changed names and hands many times, but still continues to serve the people. At present it is named Buckhorn Springs.
    Before the Tolman Spring resort came into prominence, another mineral spring on the bank of Emigrant Creek was offering its benefits to the people who came from near and distant places to enjoy its excellent properties.
    In 1885 the famous Soda Springs ranch and hotel became the property of Jacob Wagner, Oregon state representative from Jackson County, and a pioneer of 1852. He was a resident of Ashland, and a progressive, public-spirited man.
    There was a pretentious 24-room hotel located directly opposite the Soda Springs. The elite from Ashland and vicinity made the place a social center as well as a health resort.
    In addition, a thriving bottling works was developed by Mr. Wagner. The effervescence of the water made it popular in mixing fancy beverages before carbonated water was obtainable.
    Those were the days before the coming of the railroad to Ashland, and the bottled water was sent out, north, south and east, in the picturesque freight wagons of that period.
    The only remainder of that heyday is a time-worn wooden pavilion, sun-silvered, its roof partly denuded of shingles, hovering over the once-famous spring.
    The shaky structure gives little hint of its past glory, but the water continues to flow and bubble from its subterranean channels, its medicinal qualities as potent as in the days of yore.
        Above the spring, on the worn plank platform, are wooden benches solidly carved with the initials of the patrons of the place. Coupled initials, with the inevitable heart outline carved around them, suggest that romance played a part there in that lovely spot in the shadow of the ancient Siskiyous.
    Not a vestige of the old hotel remains; the "bottling works" are but a memory, but the old rustic bridge, quaint and rickety, still spans the creek. A hand-printed sign warns the visitor of the hazards of a careless step.
    South of Ashland about four miles, with the basaltic peaks of the Cascades forming a picturesque backdrop, another cluster of mineral springs have come into more recent focus.
    In these springs, a larger percentage of lithium has been shown, by the analysis, than in almost any of the most famous springs in the country.
    Some years ago the water from these springs was piped into Ashland terminating in the lithia fountain in the Plaza block at the entrance of beautiful Lithia Park.
    An interesting development in connection with these springs is the Gas Ice Corporation plant, situated at their source.
    The plant was established two years ago, and produces a large block of dry ice every six minutes, and seven tons of ice every 24 hours. The carbon dioxide gas from the spring is converted into liquid, the liquid into snow, and by hydraulic pressure of 1200 pounds per square inch, the snow is pressed into ice.
    The ice will keep, in its heavy wrappings, for six days. Most of it is shipped to Oregon markets for the purpose of refrigeration, medical use and "to put the sparkle in soda pop."
    Not the least of the mineral springs are the white sulfur springs located almost in the heart of the business section of Ashland.
    One early writer states, "The white sulfur springs flow within the corporate limits of Ashland. It was noted that one of these springs increased its flow perhaps fiftyfold immediately following the earthquake in San Francisco, April of 1906, and continued so augmented for several days, but finally returned to normal."
    The normal flow is 61 gallons per minute. The water is stored in a reservoir of 300,000-gallon capacity; it supplies natural spring water for the two large swimming pools known as the Twin Plunges.
    Other white sulfur springs are situated on the outskirts of the city and are a part of the Helman donation land claim of 1858. "The Helman Hot Sulfur Baths and Swimming Pool" has been popular for the last 40 years.
    Two miles north of Ashland are the Jackson Hot Sulfur Springs, with a varying temperature of from 77 to 86 degrees. The flow is 3000 gallons per hour. The water is turned into the outdoor swimming pool of the resort which has a capacity of 170,000 gallons.
    Bear Valley is the southeastern arm of the Rogue River Valley. It is rich in beauty, its mineral springs and natural resources. The valley derives its name from Bear Creek, which flows from the granite heights of the Siskiyous.
    The creek moves in a northerly direction, through a mere canyon, to the wider stretches of the valley floor lying between the Siskiyous and the Cascades. Emigrant Creek flows westerly into the valley from its source in the Cascades, losing itself in Bear Creek near the Lithia Springs.
Oregon Journal, Portland, March 21, 1948, page 85.  Reprinted in the Mail Tribune of March 26, page 6.

Last revised September 16, 2022