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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Springs


    Called on Judge Tolman, and were entertained by his estimable lady, who was kind enough to chaperone us through the medical bath-rooms, where waters from the caloric springs in the vicinity flow into the cisterns in quantity sufficient for the convalescence of all the afflicted of this region. Of a tepid temperature, the water is just right for baths; their medical properties have been proved and acknowledged. The Judge would confer a favor by throwing them open for public use, or renting them out to some professional Teuton, who is entrusted with the ropes d'eau seltzer.
    To be on the safe side, we drink a few quarts of this water to wet down the dust and counteract the effect of the sirocco blasts of yesterday.
    After seeing the points of the Judge's beautiful farm (which, by the way, is quite a little principality, well appointed, furnished and governed, and he is a whole-souled monarch--long may he reign and survey!) we unroll the calico transports from their moorings, near the residence of the "contraband" aforesaid, and get under way again.
"Rough Sketches of a Few Days in the Mountains," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 10, 1861, page 2


    SODA SPRINGS.--These springs are distant from Jacksonville about twenty-five miles, in a southeastern direction. Dr. Colwell has located at this point, and erected a hotel building which makes no pretensions to grandeur or magnificence, but when finished will be neat, commodious and comfortable. The Doctor and his lady set a good table and render every courtesy and attention to guests.
    The springs are becoming quite a place of resort in the summer season. Pleasure parties to this locality are frequent, but a still greater number of humanity's ailing ones visit the springs for the benefits derived from drinking the mineral waters, which are in a manner similar to the celebrated springs of Seltzer, Spa and Pyrmont in Europe--containing the carbonates of lime, magnesia and iron. We believe, however, that the salutary effects of a sojourn at this spot are as much due to the pure invigorating atmosphere, the cool breezes that are ever whispering among the treetops, and the general feeling of quiet and serenity that pervades it, as to the use of the mineral waters. It is well up in the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains, off the main line of travel, and away from the bustle of business and toiling crowds, where the nerves may steady down and gain a more healthful tone--the pulse is not stirred so wickedly by the fashions and foibles of conventionality and the worry and vexations of business.
    Soda Springs is not an extraordinarily romantic or grand locality; in good truth there are many places in this county that can boast more enchantments as regards attractive scenery, but after all, one who feels worried down like a spent hound would find health and pleasure in drinking the soda water, loitering idly over the smooth, rolling slopes of the hills and among the gray, grim crags, or trouting in the waters of Emigrant Creek that lie in pools and eddies or bubble and foam swift over the stones and among the tangled roots, or in lying hour by hour under the trees, building air castles and dreaming out long vagaries, and returning always with a sharpened appetite.
    The road leading from the Jacksonville and Yreka road is poor enough at the best, but is made unnecessarily worse along up Emigrant Creek, by the encroachments of some settlers who have recently squatted upon the bench land along the creek, fenced up the road as it formerly ran and crowded it down to the edge of the channel, among the ruts and stones. This is a legalized county road, and the county survey calls for sixty feet in width along the middle of the flat, and to which the settlers above, and those generally who travel the road, are entitled and could claim if they chose to be obstinate. The settlers should of their own accord have grace of God and public spirit enough to leave at least twenty-five feet on the margin of the flat, next the creek, over which a good, safe road could be made at a much less outlay of labor by that road district, and which would be serviceable at all seasons of the year. Soda Springs is in a measure becoming a county institution, and it is due to the people generally that the road thereto be made as safe as possible, and not unnecessarily obstructed.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1867, page 2


    SODA SPRINGS.--There is not in the whole [of] Southern Oregon a more delightful place of summer resort than the soda springs of Mr. Courtney above Ashland. The water is most beneficial to invalids, and has effected many cures. The water is strongly impregnated with soda and iron, is delightful to the taste and exceedingly appetizing. Ample provision is made for the accommodation of guests, and a visit there will be sure to be repeated, as the charges are very moderate.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 4, 1879, page 3


    Soda Springs, on the road from Ashland to Linkville, is now a stage station, which is a great convenience to travelers. The host and hostess, Mr. and Mrs. Shannon, know how to make guests comfortable and set the best table in the country, making the "Springs" the most poular summer resort in this section.

"Local Items,"
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 23, 1880, page 3


    There are a great many visitors at the McCallister Soda Springs. Two hundred and eighty-eight have visited it this summer. Mr. McCallister has been offered $6,000 (in property) for his claim on the spring, but refuses to take it. He asks $10,000 for it.
"From Brownsboro," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 16, 1881, page 4



    BUTTE CREEK SODA SPRINGS.--Attention is called to the advertisement, in another column, of S. McCallister, proprietor of these famous springs. Their health-restoring properties are said to be wonderful. As they are easy of access and accommodations are furnished at low rates, invalids or others looking for recreation should give the Butte Creek springs a trial.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 25, 1884, page 3


HEALTH-GIVING WATERS.
McCallister's Soda Springs,

Situated on the North Fork of Butte Creek, 32 miles from Jacksonville, in a cool canyon near Mt. McLoughlin, are a delightful resort
FOR INVALIDS.
    These waters are highly medicinal, curing in a short time
Dyspepsia and All Stomach Complaints,
As well as many
CHRONIC DISEASES.
    The Springs are easy of access, and good Board and Lodging is furnished at low rates by the proprietor. Also a few cabins for rent on the premises.
S. McCALLISTER, Prop.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 25, 1884, page 2


Soda Springs.
    [The first sentence illegible due to paper loss.] The springs are situated on a small stream at the southeastern extremity of the valley, near the base of the Siskiyous and about twenty-seven miles from Jacksonville. The base of this spring is not soda as commonly supposed, but iron, and it is therefore a natural tonic, pleasant to the taste and most healthful and invigorating. The hotel kept in connection with the springs by Louie B. Tucker is one of the best, if not THE best in Southern Oregon. The house has recently been enlarged and very materially improved in appearance and neatly and comfortably fitted up throughout, and the table, presided over by Mrs. Tucker in person, is uniformly spread with the choicest the country affords and is second to none in the state. Those who go there during the heated term for rest and quiet and to test the virtue of the springs, the medicinal properties of which are now undoubted, can rest assured that every attention will be given them and no pains spared to render their stay both pleasant and profitable. Those who have sojourned there this summer speak in the highest terms of the benefits derived from the use of the water, and all agree that as a tonic and appetizer it is unsurpassed. The proprietors propose making it a general article of commerce so soon as arrangements can be perfected for shipping it. They think by the use of the modern soda bottle it can be shipped to Portland and intermediate points with little or no loss of its medical virtues and that the general public can thus have access to the water without the necessary expense of visiting the springs. If this should prove a success a new and important industry will be developed in Southern Oregon which will give employment to quite a number of hands besides being no inconsiderable source of revenue. We hope the proprietors will be successful in their venture.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 9, 1884, page 3


    Jacob Wagner, who has purchased the famous Soda Springs property, is going to make great improvements there this summer. He proposes to build a nice, commodious two-story house over the spring, and will build several neat cottages to rent and will also greatly enlarge and improve the Soda Springs hotel, which will continue under the popular management of Mr. and Mrs. L. B. Tucker, who have so successfully conducted it for the past year. Mr. Wagner is a man of enterprise, and his proposed improvements will add greatly to the comfort of health and pleasure seekers who resort there every season.
"Local Items,"
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 6, 1885, page 3


Sulfur Springs.
Bybeeville, Jackson County,
    August 4th 1885.
EDITOR REVIEW:
    I take this opportunity to write you a few lines, as it has been four weeks today since I arrived here and am as fat and saucy as a native of the woods with plenty of venison, grouse and squirrels, with now and then a little bacon to season the good things with, and spuds to thicken the soup. My wife is enjoying herself and the little children are happy wading the creek, climbing trees, digging for gophers, fishing for mud turtles and killing rattlesnakes! They expand their lungs also by giving vent to war whoops that would do credit to a band of Comanches.
    Woodville is the starting point for these springs, and the distance is about fifteen miles over a good road which can be traveled in three hours. There are about fifty-five people here and more coming every day. There are some from almost every state in the Union, there being four direct from town come in last night, and a party of Congressmen are expected shortly from Washington. Mr. Wm. Bybee, the proprietor will have a fine hotel when it is finished.
    There are two springs here, white and black sulfur, and I think they are excellent.
    Give my best love to all inquiring friends, as I cannot write to all. I will visit Ashland before returning to Roseburg.
G. A. Beath.
Roseburg Review, August 7, 1885, page 3


    Mr. Geo. H. Tyler of this place [Medford] has purchased the famous "Dead Indian" springs in the Cascades and proposes to make of it a summer resort.
"Through Southern Oregon," Roseburg Review, September 18, 1885, page 3


    Jacob Wagner and family moved up to the Soda Springs last Monday, to take charge of the hotel at that place. They have resided in Ashland for more than twenty years, and their friends and neighbors regret to see them leave, even though they go so short a distance, and for a short time. They will likely return to their Ashland residence before winter.

"Personal," Ashland Tidings, April 2, 1886, page 3



ASHLAND SODA SPRINGS.
    Following is from a sketch of the Rogue River Valley by E. A. Swope in the Portland World:
    A ride of two hours or less from Ashland brings us to the Soda Springs, situated on the Linkville road about 10 miles from Ashland.
    The Soda Springs House is a most delightful abode, on the banks of Emigrant Creek, nestled in a remote valley surrounded by the Siskiyou and Cascade mountains, thirty-two hundred feet above the level of the sea. The air is pure mountain, perfumed with the fragrance of the variegated wildflowers and shrubs and grow in such voluptuous profusion on the mountainsides. The spring is about 40 yards from the house, around which resound the songs of the myriads of sweet-tuned birds that frequent these southern vales of Oregon, and which delight to drink of the health-giving waters of nature.
    There is a most fascinating charm about the spot. The gush of brawling waters crowding down the stream in limpid measure, the sublime view of Ashland Butte to the northwest, rearing its snow-crowned head from its
"Palace where nature thrones
Sublimity in icy halls"
to the ethereal dome of heaven, the perfect seclusion of the place, surrounded as it is by lofty mountains on all sides, where no harsher sound is heard than the coo of the turtledove or the musical shrill of the lark piping its lulling notes to the bleating flocks that browse upon the mountainsides or rest under the shade of some ancient and expansive live oak tree--all render the springs a most delightful retreat to those in search of rest and recreation, or the recuperative powers of the water so palatable to the taste and invigorating and health-giving to the system.
    The house is owned and operated by Mr. Wagner, one of the pioneers of the Rogue River Valley and erstwhile proprietor of the Ashland Mills. For comfort, cleanliness, good table and accommodations, the place is not excelled in Oregon. Mr. Wagner has only been in possession of the hotel for about four or five months, and already the improvement and change wrought under his and his wife's superior management are very marked. In one or two seasons, these soda springs will, without doubt, be a much frequented and favorite resort with the people of the state and abroad. The medicinal properties of the water are very highly commented upon by those who have received benefit from them, and their curative powers eulogized by those who have sought the healing skill of physicians in vain. For Bright's and other diseases peculiar to the kidneys, the waters of the soda springs possesses positive curative powers.
    The region is particularly rich in soda and sulfur springs, both cold and thermal, and is fast becoming a resort for invalids, tourists and those in search of the healing waters of nature. The opening of through railroad communication will, in the near future, bring thousands from abroad to these fountains of life.
    [illegible line of type] tunnel through the Siskiyou Mountains south of Ashland, which remains in the incomplete state that the bursting railroad boom left it, revealed a perfect botanic paradise to the lover of flowers. The camas, with its star-shaped flower and lavender hue, the orange blossom, larkspur, the Oregon lily, the field lily, the wild lily of the valley, the helianthus or sunflower, wild cucumber and honeysuckle, cleanthus, wild heliotrope and roses permeate the air with their aromatic fragrance.
Ashland Tidings, July 2, 1886, page 1


The Helman Baths.
    Grant Helman is preparing to make many improvements in his swimming rink and bathing sanitarium for the coming season's run. An addition as large as the present building will be put in, also three additional bath rooms and two copper tanks to hold hot and cold water with a capacity of 500 and 300 gallons. D. N. Smith and Chas. Stacy will do the work for the contractor, H. C. Myer. Besides this the whole works will be completely renovated, and during the summer months a free bus will be run to the place for the accommodation of the patrons.
Valley Record, Ashland, March 14, 1889, page 3


THE COLESTEIN SPRINGS.
JACKSON COUNTY, August 5, 1889.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE OREGONIAN:
    The Colestein [Colestin] springs, in Southern Oregon, are becoming very popular, and this season the accommodations are all taken and, besides, over 100 campers are on the grounds. The springs are situated twenty miles beyond Ashland, directly on the Oregon & California Railroad, two miles south of the Siskiyou tunnel, 4100 feet long. We are high up in the mountains here, some 4000 feet, yet there are magnificent ridges towering close at hand all about us, so that the springs are in a wonderfully cool and pleasant place. The sugar pine and other varieties, the fir and cedar, are here in their full growth. Neither forest fires or the ravages of the woodsman have yet marred the works of nature in these mountains. Byron Cole is the fortunate owner of 1100 acres, together with the springs. The guest house accommodates only twenty-five people, but his plan is to build cottages and keep this as the dining room, or house for cooking and eating. Families with children can live by themselves, and persons who are sickly or who cough at nights can then enjoy the freedom of being at home. The water has considerable iron in it and is heavily charged with carbonic acid. The people who stop here are mostly eastern people who in taking the Mount Shasta route remain here from a day or two to a week. They say the water is like the Congress water at Saratoga, and take great delight in drinking it freely in the morning before breakfast, drinking it all day and at night and then take pitchers of the water with them to their rooms or tents. Boys sell it on the trains, and trainmen and workers on the road fill their demijohns and are happy. Perhaps this explains what Leland Stanford said when he and his wife were here not long ago. When drinking the mineral water, he said it was so refreshing that he believed it was slightly intoxicating. These mineral waters only a few hundred steps from the Colestein station are destined to be famous far and near. The water flows strong and steady, and the fact that these springs have been known for forty years is a guarantee of their permanence. The deer at night come down to the springs and drink, and Mr. Cole does not allow the shooting of deer on his grounds. The air here is balmy from these forests, and its bracing influence, with the help of these Congress waters of Oregon, would start anew many an invalid as they do the few here now.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 15, 1889, page 1


Tolman Springs Sold.
    T. E. Hull, of southwestern Minnesota, has purchased the Tolman sulfur springs property, near Ashland, from Dr. A. C. Helm. It is 103½ acres, and the consideration was $10,000. Mr. Hill is a wealthy man and will put the property in elegant shape. He will arrive with his family in the spring.
Valley Record, Ashland, February 12, 1891, page 3


    The new buildings which Gen. Tolman has had erected at his vapor baths and mineral springs on Emigrant Creek above the Wagner Soda Springs were completed last week, and the baths are now ready for the use of anyone who desires to try them. They are located where a volume of gases issues from the ground--supposed to be not only carbonic acid gas but also sulfurous--and as far back as the traditions of the Indians go, the place has been a cure-all for them--[Tidings.
"Here and There," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 3, 1891, page 3


New Use for Indians.
    Tolman's magic mud springs above Ashland are becoming quite popular among those who are afflicted with rheumatism and kindred ailments. He is having new baths constructed all around the original springs, and with each excavation a newer and nastier variety of mineral water has been discovered. The General has brought over several antique squaws from the Klamath agency to instruct him in the art of using the water. Of course, the wily general understands the ordinary saponaceous uses of the ordinary fluid, but the thing seems to be to combine the least cleansing properties of the viler mineral compounds with as liberal an application of mud as possible, and the squaws are supposed to be experts in the art. It seems passing strange that, with as many mudslingers as have graduated with high honors at Ashland in local politics, it should have been necessary to have called in the services of the aborigines. However, the springs are proving all that was ever claimed for them, and the General is happy.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 4, 1891, page 3


TOLMAN'S.
The New Health and Summer Resort in the Siskiyous--The Wonderful Curative Powers of the Vapor Baths, Medicated Mud and Mineral Springs.

    This property, partially opened last summer by the owner, Judge J. C. Tolman, is located 13 miles from Ashland, from which place it is reached by a drive through a continuation of farms and orchards at the foothills of the Siskiyous while going through the upper Bear Creek Valley and its tributaries until within three miles of the famous landmark, Pilot Rock, which sits on the summit of the Siskiyous and acts as the dividing line between California and Oregon.
    Here is where the God of nature secreted in mother earth curative properties that have, in their work of healing the sick, astonished the natives and mystified the intelligent. From Kittie Ward, an intelligent Klamath Indian who has the clearest understanding of the history and tradition of the Indian tribes that were once the masters and rulers of this whole land, it is learned that this vapor spring has been the medicine headquarters for the Indians of the Pacific Coast as far back as 200 years. In her time she has known it to cure the worst kind of diseases, the most remarkable of which was that of the chief of the McAdams Creek tribe, who was completely cured after being brought there in the last stages of consumption. During the smallpox in Jacksonville many years ago a prominent Indian of that section fell a victim to that disease and was taken to the vapor springs and cured.
    Since the science of medicine has developed that diseases are microbes and the celebrated Dr. Koch among others of the world's brightest minds are struggling for a remedy for the cure of the various microbes, this discovery of the vapor springs and their peculiar curative abilities shows that the wonderful mechanism of nature has already supplied that which is just dawning on man, in his infinite variety of learning and skill.
    The writer of this has never heard of this vapor being analyzed, but knows of many cases of cures effected within the past eighteen months, some of which have been rank cases. The vapor comes up from earth, and while everything else about the place is cool, it soon begins its work of warming up the system until the patient is in a perspiration. There is a mystery about the thing that makes one believe that somewhere underneath is located one of the main flues to the stovepipes of hell. At any rate the vapor has the "get there" point all right and gets right at the diseased portion of a man the first thing, and stays there until the disease has gone hence.
Valley Record, Ashland, July 14, 1892, page 3


Smith's Springs.
    The number of people who are camped at Smith's Springs, on Carter Creek, is increasing daily. They are situated 12 miles south of Ashland and 1¼ miles from Steinman, a station on the S.P.R.R. The altitude is 2400 feet, away above the malaria of the lower valley and in a cool, delightful locality. The scenery is grand, and there is an abundance of fish and game not far away. Besides the superior medicinal qualities of the springs, the vapor baths must be taken prominently into consideration, as they often prove a cure for rheumatism and the many kindred diseases that humanity is heir to. A visit to Smith's Springs may prove beneficial.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 12, 1892, page 3


Smith's Mineral Springs
-- AND --
V A P O R   B A T H S
Will be offered at
Public Sale
-- ON --
Monday, September 25th, 1893.
    This valuable property contains 160 acres situated within 1¼ miles of Steinman on the S.P.R.R. and 12 miles southeast of Ashland. The elevation is 2,460 feet above sea level. It contains valuable mineral springs and the now celebrated Vapor Baths over the Gas Springs which are proving so efficacious in curing Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Catarrh, Asthma, Dyspepsia and Liver and Kidney Disease. The property is partly improved as a summer resort and has done a good business for several years, considering the accommodations. It can be made a fine paying investment.
    For further particulars call at the Springs or address
C. E. SMITH,
Steinman, Jackson County, Oregon.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 25, 1893, page 2


A Visit to Soda Springs.
    On July 31st Charles Turpin and family, accompanied by your humble writer and better half, arrived at the Soda Springs on the north fork of the Little Butte, about 2 o'clock. Found Postmaster Grieves and family holding undisputed possession, but they generously donated us one-half interest. On Tuesday Wm. Massoll and family joined our party to partake of the benefits of supping soda water. On Wednesday Mr. Mims and party, of Eagle Point, passed the springs bound for Fish Lake, on a sightseeing tour. On Thursday Charles Marlow and company, of Salt Creek, passed the springs, also bound for Fish Lake. M. Hanley passed up the creek the same day driving a band of cattle in the direction of Willow Creek. On Monday, Aug. 7, Wm. Daley and James Culverson were pleasant callers at the springs. On the 8th, M. Bellinger and I. Merriman and families, of Medford, arrived at the springs in pursuit of health and recreation. Many other families from the valley are expected to visit this beautiful resort during the present month. The only incident happening during our ten days' sojourn happened while Mr. Grieves and myself were returning from an extended hunt. Mr. Grieves lost his footing and came down with such violence among the craggy rocks and boulders as to cause us serious alarm. We thought sure one-half of the bones in his body were fractured, and we did not feel able to pack him into camp, but we were greatly relieved, on examination, finding the only injuries received were a few bruises and a genuine shaking up.
ZIP.
Medford Mail, August 25, 1893, page 1


    C. E. Smith. of the Carter Creek soda springs, was down from the Siskiyous Saturday attending central committee meeting. He reports his club as well satisfied with the ticket and that it has the unqualified support of every populist. This is interesting, as nearly every voter in that district is a populist.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, April 19, 1894, page 4


    Mrs. Nettie Harris and daughter were down this week from Tolman's Springs, the popular medical springs and summer resort in the Siskiyous, which is being conducted this summer by Mrs. Angle. The hotel has been fitted up and renovated and is a very enticing resort for summer tourists.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, June 7, 1894, page 3


    Mrs. A. W. Angle, proprietress of the Tolman mineral springs hotel, and L. E. Bender were down from the Siskiyous last week on business. Everybody here is pleased to know that Mrs. Angle is making a success in running this resort in such a first-class manner.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, July 12, 1894, page 4


    Mrs. Chas. Strang and Mrs. M. W. Skeel have gone to Tolman Springs for a vacation.
    Mrs. Geo. Davis and Mrs. Pottenger are camping at Tolman's Springs in the Siskiyous.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, July 26, 1894, page 3


    Mrs. A. W. Angle has given up the Tolman Springs and returned to Medford to live this week.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, August 23, 1894, page 3


THE CINNABAR SPRINGS.
Nature's Dispensary--Bubbling Fountains
That Knit Up the Raveled Sleeve of Health.

    The Cinnabar Springs are located on the west branch of Beaver Creek, in Siskiyou County, Calif., and about ten miles south of the state line between Oregon and Calif. These springs were discovered some fifteen years ago, by a hunter, and have gained some notoriety by the remarkable cures effected. Mineral springs are so common in Southern Oregon and Northern Calif. that nothing more than a passing notice is given to anything in that line. The most direct route from the railway is from Cole's, which is about twenty miles distant. Many prefer the "overland" trip and take passage in the stage from Jacksonville to Watkins, thence by saddle to Cinnabar.
    In traveling from Watkins to Cinnabar--about a day's ride--one encounters a diversity of scenery that prevents the journey from becoming monotonous. Here a hill and there a glade. Here a valley clothed in a luxuriant growth of pasturage breast deep, and there a mountain, about whose base daisies bloom perpetually, while its snow-capped peak kisses the clouds in the home of the blizzard and the hurricane. Here a quiet little rill, winding like a serpent through the glen and there a noisy, turbulent stream that has broken away from the frozen clasp of the glacier and comes tearing down the mountainside like a runaway horse. The journey across a range of mountains, high or low, will become irksome and you'll be tempted to inquire the distance to your destination but, gentle reader, don't do it, for none of the mountain denizens have any tangible idea of distances.
    Books might be written in regard to these mysterious little fountains that bubble up from the bowels of the earth so thoroughly charged with health-giving properties that a new lease of life is ensured to those who drink of the waters. Until recently the vicinity of the springs has been a deep tangled wildwood. Four years ago, however, Job Garrison, a pioneer of Northern Calif., saw the wonderful possibilities of this location and began to hew a pathway through the dense forest. Today, as a result of several years' toil and the expenditure of thousands of dollars, Mr. Garrison can offer to the public the comforts of a metropolitan hotel. Mr. Garrison is in personal appearance as old-fashioned as an ox yoke and just as plain, but he does nothing by halves, and has ample means, which he proposes expending with a lavish hand to make this a popular, all the year around resort. To chronicle the story of the wonderful cures effected here would be to cover page after page with instances that savor of the days of miracles. Suffice to say that chronic diseases, when under treatment here, vanish like a dream. A party from Jacksonville, Or. came here a few weeks ago, consisting of "Cap." Caton, S. A. D. Higgins, Bill Kinney and others. The general health of the party was good, but no place offered better opportunities for an outing, hence this locality was selected. Bill Kinney was in looks hale and stout enough to eat an ox, but looks are sometimes deceiving, and this was no exception. William has for a long time been troubled with enlarging on the truth about the peculiar and particular virtues of a quaint, crooked-legged, copper-colored hound pup. To hear him tell it, "That dog would not leave camp even in case of fire; would not touch anything unless specially invited; leave out mathematics and he knew more than any ten-year-old boy, etc., etc."
    Thrown off my guard by such ravishing tales of kennel virtue, I left my camp unprotected one day and in twenty-nine brief minutes this model pup had devoured my stock of bacon and had tried to "taper off" on a loaf of camp-made bread, but it was too much for him and ere the sun set behind the western hills poor "Fido" had winged his solitary way to "angel land." It is needless to add that William will return to his native heath a sadder but a wiser man, and thoroughly cured of a grievous trouble.
DOUGLAS.
Medford Mail, August 31, 1894, page 4  "Douglas" is likely S. A. D. Higgins--Stephen A. Douglas Higgins.


    Postmaster Howard has gone to Ashland to indulge in the sulfur baths there and the medical qualities of Tolman's Springs.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, September 20, 1894, page 3


    Simon McAllister, after whom the celebrated soda springs on the north fork of Little Butte were named, has returned to the Butte Creek country and settled on the Gano place.
A. C. Howlett, "Butte Creek News," Valley Record, Ashland, November 1, 1894, page 3   Cartographers are divided over how to spell the springs' name, but the 1860 and 1870 Censuses spell Simon's last name McCallister; the 1880 Census McAlister. Son John G.'s headstone is spelled McCallister.


    Isaac Merriman and family, accompanied by friends, made a call in town Tuesday. They are on a trip to the McAllister soda springs. The water of these springs is quite noted for medical purposes, bringing health and strength to the weary invalids. It is also surrounded by rugged and beautiful mountain scenery and with its other natural facilities makes it a favorite resort also for pleasure seekers.
"Brownsboro Items," Medford Mail, July 19, 1895, page 2



    There were 50 people camped at Colestin the forepart of this week, nearly all of whom are Medfordites.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, July 25, 1895, page 3


    Dr. E. Kirchgessner has bought out Geo. H. Tyler's interest in the famous Dead Indian soda springs and he has filed upon the same and is putting in some improvements as well as protecting the property from destruction as a camping place.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, August 20, 1916, page 3



Helman's Natatorium Opened.
    Grant Helman has opened his new natatorium and baths at the white sulfur springs in Helman's field, the waters of which have a wide and popular reputation as affording the finest and cleanest bath of any waters on earth. The new building covering the swimming rink is 40x95 feet; running around on the side are 30 neat dressing rooms, and a lunch room 16x24 feet. The rink is 30 feet wide and 80 feet long and the depth of the water runs from two feet steadily to seven feet. The rink is all made of gray sandstone from A. D. Ferguson's quarry and the work, which is first-class, was done by him. The rink is fitted with the necessary equipment and a five-foot stone walk runs all round the water pond. Connecting with this part of the building is a reception room 20x20 and six bath rooms 20x24, above which are five sleeping rooms. The boiler room, suit counter, etc., occupies 14x20 feet. The bathing suits are black knit jersey cloth.
    The handsome grounds of shrubbery and flowers look well with the new buildings and rink and the whole makes a very creditable showing for Ashland in its new era of development and progress.
Valley Record, Ashland, June 28, 1900, page 1


    There never has been any sort of convenience up at McAllister Springs for the accommodation of the people who drink of the waters of the springs. Several people down this way have fixed things--handier by several degrees. Uncle Jerry True, out on Griffin Creek, donated a very large, flat stone and hauled it to Medford to lay over the spring, and the good people of Medford, some of them, chipped in and hired Charley Pheister to cut a hole in the center of the rock, where the mountain water can bubble all it wants to bubble. He also made a basin in the rock from which water can be dipped with a cup or small pail. Upon the rock is inscribed the following: "Presented by the city of Medford, 1900." Mayor Howser is looking after the matter at this end of the line, and Mr. McAllister is coming in this week after the rock and will put it in its place over the spring.
"City Happenings,"
Medford Mail, June 29, 1900, page 7


    Mrs. Jas. Mills tells us she was present at the laying of the rock over the McAllister springs on July 22nd. Quite a large crowd assembled, and after a short speech by D. Roberts, of Medford, and some other ceremonies, the rock was laid. The rock was marked U.S. property.
Medford Mail, August 31, 1900, page 5


TO DEVELOP THE JACKSON SPRINGS.
Portland Man Has Leased Property and Will Improve Fine Sulfur Springs.

    R. C. Wilson, a gentleman who became interested in the thermal mineral springs on D. H. Jackson's place through an acquaintance made with Mr. Jackson at the Lewis and Clark Exposition, has effected a lease of the springs and will erect a bath house and small hotel there this winter. Mr. Wilson is now engaged in prospecting the springs, of which there are a series, with the object of utilizing the largest and warmest spring at the normal temperature at which the water issues from its subterranean depths. By the diversion of a colder spring he thinks he can raise the temperature of the water nearest the road, which now registers 105º Fahrenheit, to 110º. The spring, which has been devoted to private use in a small way for many years, has a temperature of 95º. The plans of Mr. Wilson contemplate a larger exploitation of these springs at a later date with a view to turning their well-known therapeutic properties to maintaining a commercial project of some magnitude. These springs and the Helman Springs, inside the city, are the most noted of this region, which has been so bounteously favored with mineral springs within a radius of fifteen miles from Ashland. The fine potable waters of the so-called soda springs of the upper valley have become quite well known, but the healing virtues of others have already given the country considerable repute as a resort for persons seeking relief from rheumatism and gout ailments.
    Only yesterday a gentleman passing through to California made inquiries at the exhibit building [at the Ashland railroad depot] as to the accommodations to be had at the Tolman Springs, stating that he had been there once and that the mud baths and the waters there possessed wonderful curative properties for rheumatic troubles with which he had been afflicted.
    Someday Ashland's mineral springs will become as widely known as the famous hot springs of Arkansas.

Ashland Tidings, November 23, 1905, page 3


    The government trail from McAllister Springs to Fish Lake is now finished. The trail is built on a wagon road grade, is eight feet wide and could easily be converted into a good road. Indeed, it is passable right now for a mountain buckboard and a light load. This is the easiest and most direct route to Klamath County. A good road could be constructed at very little expense to Pelican, and with the boats now being constructed for traffic on the lake, a direct line to Klamath Falls could be established.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, July 13, 1906, page 5


    Fred Luy and family had all kinds of trouble on the first start of their camping trip last week. The wagon carrying their bedding, etc., passed too close to the engine running the county road roller and a spark set the bedding on fire, and it took some lively work on the part of the driver and young Fred Luy to extinguish the flames. Then the baggage wagon took the road to Dead Indian Springs instead of that to McAllister Springs, and as a consequence the Luy party had to borrow "sleeping tools" from the other campers until the lost wagon could be located. Then about the time the party had settled down to rest a messenger came to announce the death of Fred Luy, Sr., at Jacksonville, causing Fred to repeat the thirty-mile ride he had just finished.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, July 20, 1906, page 5



ASHLAND TO EXPLOIT MINERAL WATER SPRINGS
    ASHLAND, Or., Feb. 14--Considerable interest has recently been manifested by several persons in the exploitation of some of the mineral springs about Ashland. The city is surrounded on three sides by some of the finest natural soda water springs that exist in any part of the West.
    The famous Wagner soda springs, whose waters have been in popular use since the earliest pioneers came into the country, have brought back the vigor of health to many people, and this may be said also of the Tolman mineral springs, ten miles southeast of Ashland. The Wagner Springs are eight miles southeast of Ashland, Kingsbury Springs seven miles and Murphy Springs only five miles from the city.
    The Ashland lithia spring is regarded as possessing therapeutic qualities in a high degree. This spring was recently discovered, and a government analysis lately made shows it to possess a greater amount of lithia than any of the other springs. There are also numerous sulfur springs, all of which have great medicinal value.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 14, 1908, page 1


DEAD INDIAN SPRINGS.
    T. E. Pottenger and G. P. Lindley came in last evening from Dead Indian Springs. They report that there are about 60 or 70 people from this locality camped there, and that all are enjoying themselves in great shape. They have not had much experience in mountain outings, so failed to supply themselves with a requisite quantity of provisions, hence the necessity of this trip in. They will stock up today and again hike out for the cool shade and mineral waters of that region, where they expect to remain several weeks yet.
Medford Mail, August 7, 1908, page 5


DEAD INDIAN SPRINGS.
Nature's Medicine Chest Always Open and Free to Everybody.

    Among the various resources near Medford are the mineral springs near the source of Little Butte Creek. A recent visit to this noted place calls forth an expression of interest from the tourist.
    First, these springs are in sanitary surroundings; second, the waters issue from a crevice in lime rock, free from contamination of soil; third, the medicinal properties have been assayed by government chemists and contain the salts of lime, soda, potassium, iron, magnesium and traces of lithium and free acid. We note the free acid as it escapes from the sparkling waters issuing from the stone fountain.
    I met about 75 tourists at the beautiful camping grounds. All were happy, especially the merry children.
    A new name was proposed for this beautiful nature scene. The Indian is forgotten. His campfires have long ago died out on the mountains and the wild love song of the dusky-hued maiden is hushed in the valley. Let the school children of Medford give an appropriate name through the columns of the Morning Mail, one which will show due respect to Oregon and the pioneers.
DR. A. B. SWEET.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 27, 1908, page 5


    A. J. Daley and wife returned from the Cinnabar Springs last Sunday, where they had been for their health. Mr. Daley reports that Mrs. Wamsley, who is in a very critical condition, was to have started from there last Saturday, but would be several days on the road, as she is unable to travel far at a time. S. H. Harnish also returned from there last Friday night. He says that it is the most wonderful place he ever saw--down in a canyon five miles from the summit of the hill, and the mud that the patients use is dug out of a tunnel in the side of the mountain, about 20 feet deep. But he speaks well for the place as a resort
A..C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets,"
Medford Mail, August 28, 1908, page 7


The Indian Legends of the Springs
By C. B. Watson, Ashland
    Long before white men came to this country, so long ago, in fact, that Indian tradition does not fix the date, that wonderful collection of mineral springs, that promises to make Ashland famous, was known and valued by the aborigines for their medicinal properties.
    I first visited these springs forty-four years ago, and more than forty years ago published a prophecy that sometime a great health and watering resort would be built up here.
    I had then only recently arrived from my home in the prairies of Illinois, and everything I saw was new to me and wonderfully interesting. The mountains, forests, game and Indians were a source of delightful study for me. I went among the Indians east and west of the Cascade Mountains and learned many things not published in newspapers nor books. When I came Jackson County embraced all that area known now as Jackson, Klamath and Lake counties, and did not contain as many white people by one-third as the city of Ashland now has.
    The country now comprising Klamath and Lake counties was known as the "Lake country" and by the Indians as the "Land of Many Lakes." It was inhabited mainly by the Klamath and Modoc Indians, two powerful and warlike tribes, often engaged in war with each other, but sometimes by treaty combining to fight with the tribes west of the Cascades, also a warlike people, later known as the Rogue River Indians. These last were, however, so depleted by the wars with the whites in 1855 and '56 that they ceased to be a menace to the Lake tribes.
    When I first came, there were stories told of the aboriginals' use of the mineral springs, especially those known as the Tolman Springs, now owned by Mr. Lawrence and known as "Buckhorn Lodge," the escaping gases of which were prized by the redskins as "hyas skookum medicine." I visited them and verified some of the stories told. There were the places hollowed out on the banks of the stream where the gases escaped through fractures in the underlying rocks excavated by the Indians and in which they treated their patients. Dead birds, squirrels, snakes, rats and other small animals and reptiles lying in these pits told of the deadly quality of this carbonic acid gas [i.e., carbon dioxide] when not used with caution. In fact, the same thing may still be seen about these gas vents. From these facts the early settlers called them poison springs. The Indians, however, had learned how to use them and to value them accordingly.
    Their method was to find a spot where this gas escaped, hollow out a sufficient space, spread fir boughs in it for comfort and place the patient on the boughs, where he remained under watchful care until unconscious. He was then taken into a "wikiup" or tent made of skins and boughs and there put through a course of manipulation and teas until he recovered consciousness. Then would follow a day or two of sweating and incantations by a medicine man. This treatment was repeated until the patient was declared to be cured, or incurable. All this time they drank the water from the springs and used it for vapor baths in their sweat house.
    The Modocs and Klamaths were very skillful in the manufacture of baskets. Many of them were made for cooking in and holding water. These watertight baskets were filled and hot stones put into them, filling the sweat house with steam almost to the point of suffocation. The treatment was heroic, but the Indians insisted that it seldom failed to cure the most obstinate case of rheumatism, asthma, kidney disease and stomach trouble. It was not unusual for patients to be strapped onto ponies and brought from distant parts of the "Land of Many Lakes" to be treated.
    Forty years ago the old warriors, those that possessed the most wisdom, could seldom be induced to talk on such matters, but I became acquainted with Frank Riddle, who came among these Indians nearly seventy years go, took a wife among them and remained until he died a few years ago. Riddle was a man of much intelligence and grew to be a man of great influence among them. During the Modoc War of 1872 and 1873 he and his wife Toby did great service for the government troops, acting as interpreters and messengers of mediation. Riddle wanted me to write his history, and I agreed to do it if he would prepare the data for me. This he promised to do but never did. Our acquaintance ran through twenty years, and he often related his experiences and adventures to me. It goes without saying that his tales were thrilling. I asked him how long the Modocs and Klamaths had used the mineral springs of the Upper Rogue River Valley [i.e., the Upper Bear Creek Valley]. He said he did not know and that the oldest men of the tribes when he first came among them did not know. They were in use then and appeared to have been for ages. The people had a superstition about them and attributed them and their virtues to the "Great Spirit." The escaping gas was the breath of the "Great Spirit," and was a guarantee of sure cure if the patient had led a worthy life, but sure death if he had not. The place where the "Great Spirit" chose to administer the benefits of his healing breath was considered sacred and for ages was supervised by a great medicine man. Even when the tribes of the "Land of Many Lakes" were at war with the tribes in whose territory these springs were situated, if pilgrims from east of the mountains succeeded in reaching the springs for medical treatment, they were not molested while there, but if they could intercept them before they had passed the great forest they were driven back or killed. In this connection he told me a beautiful romance of two lovers of the dim past. They sought the springs in hope that the maiden might be cured of a malady that threatened her life. This story would be too long for this article, and I may give it at another time.
    I asked my friend why the people of the Land of Many Lakes always stopped at this one cluster of springs, why they did not go to the others where there were so many farther down in the valley; where the grass was better and no rugged canyon to hedge them in. He said that in the early time, of which, in their superstition, they spoked with bated breath, this one cluster of springs had by treaty been granted for their use and they were prohibited from visiting any other.
    The Wagner Soda Spring was taken up more than fifty years ago by an old hunter who took a fancy to the water as an antidote for some ailment he had. Another man by the name of Samuel Whitmore, who doubtless he remembered as one of the early school teachers of Ashland, visited this spring, and being himself afflicted got permission from the old hunter to stop with him and try the water. After a time the hunter got restless and sold his interests to Whitmore, who afterwards sold to a Dr. Caldwell. The doctor occupied the place when I first saw it in 1871. He had a comfortable house and other improvements and furnished accommodations to travelers crossing the mountains and entertainment for those who visited the springs for health and pleasure. Even at that time this spring was quite a resort, considering the dearth of population then in the valley. Even then it was not infrequent to have visitors from Portland, Salem and other places outside of the valley. The old doctor conducted a sanitarium on a modest scale, and the therapeutical value of these waters was then recognized and discussed. Splendid meals were set, and from that time to the present the Wagner Soda Spring has grown in popularity.
Ashland Tidings, December 31, 1914, page 10


ASHLAND STARTS IMPROVEMENT OF JACK. HOT SPRINGS
    ASHLAND, July 25.--The nude in nature is being eliminated at Jackson Hot Springs, near town, by the erection of a bath house on the premises, which it is hoped is the precursor of [omission?] that vicinity. The springs, located directly on the line of the Pacific Highway, constitute an asset well worth developing on a scale commensurate with their importance. The banks of Bear Creek nearby afford shady camping spots for tourists who would be eager to avail themselves of privileges which the springs afford, providing they were developed on a commercial basis, and this implies bathing and sanitarium facilities. Tolman and other springs are practically in the discard, due to their being off the main lines of travel. Jackson Springs, however, are ideally located, and moreover are self-advertised. All that they lack are accommodations for the army of tourists who pass to and fro daily. Ashland has a surfeit of spring/resorts, coupled with the natatoriums and plunges, consequently no attention has been paid to developing the Jackson project, except recently and that on a minor scale. Heretofore the pond has been monopolized by a lot of kids, minus bathing suits, whose attitude is that of the quiet, peaceful and undisturbed in nature, unless a touring car happens to pass that way, when there is a mad scramble for the breakers and the high dive is in order. If the Jackson Spring was located as near Medford as it is Ashland, permanent development would follow to an extent meriting the opportunities so readily available. At Kingsbury Springs, east of Ashland, Ad Helms is installing improvements on a big scale. A large, substantial building is being erected of pavilion proportions, which will include a dance hall and guest rooms. Light refreshments and the more substantial supplies will be available, in fact it will be a service station on a generous scale. This commodious resort center at Kingsbury's is also located directly on the Pacific Highway.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 25, 1921, page 8


    In Jackson County, permits have been issued to G. C. McAllister, of Central Point, covering the appropriation of water from McAllister Spring for domestic use and for irrigation of a ten-acre tract, at an estimated cost of construction amounting to $500.00.
"Gets Water from McAllister Springs," Medford Mail Tribune, April 6, 1922, page 8


MEDFORD MAN TO BUILD PAVILION AT HOT SPRINGS
    J. C. Ottinger of Medford has leased the Jackson Hot Springs this side of Ashland on the Pacific Highway, and work will start at once on the construction of a swimming pool, a dance pavilion, a bathhouse and an auto camp ground.
    Work has already started on the construction of a concrete wall around the spring so that the water will rise to a level high enough to allow it to flow across the Pacific Highway to the land on the east side of the road, where all of the buildings and the pool will be situated.
    The swimming pool is to be an open air pool for this summer and will most likely be housed by next year. It is to be 45 by 90 feet and will be built of concrete. If housed it will be kept open all winter, as the water is exceedingly warm and will be comfortable at all times of the year. The house surrounding the pool will have removable sections to allow free circulation of air in the summer season.
    The bathhouse will be equipped with sulfur water showers, the water for which will be piped from the four small springs on the hillside west of the large spring.
    The dancing pavilion will be 60 by 100 feet and will be arranged so that open air dancing in the summer season may be enjoyed. It will also be capable of being closed on the sides in the winter season to exclude the cold and moisture.
    This new resort promises to enjoy much popularity, and if the present outlook is verified a baseball diamond, good tennis courts and a golf course may be installed at a future date.
Medford Mail Tribune,
May 11, 1922, page 5


JACKSON HOT SPRINGS PAVILION OPENING
    The Jackson Hot Springs open air pavilion, two miles north of Ashland, the largest open air pavilion in Southern Oregon, will be formally opened Saturday evening, July 1st, with a big dance beginning at 9 a.m.
    Work on the new structure is being pushed to completion, a splendid floor for dancing has been put in and excellent music will be furnished.
    There will be dancing Monday and Tuesday evenings beginning at 6 p.m.
    The company hopes to have their bathing pool ready by August 1 or before and will have plenty of fresh sulfur water for the same.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 30, 1922, page 7


Dead Indian Soda Springs Is Suggested for Delightful Sunday Drive
PICNIC GROUNDS POPULAR; WATERS ARE BENEFICIAL
Modern Accommodations for Visitors--History of Area Is Outlined
By Karl Janouch
    Dead Indian Soda Springs is a recreational area in the Rogue River national forest which combines many of the attractions that are sought by the lover of the out-of-doors. Visitors marvel at its beauty. Picnickers prefer this area because of its beauty, facilities for camping, scenic foot and auto trips, good fishing, mineral springs, and the solitude of the great out-of-doors. Many health seekers make extended visits to the resort where a store, dining room, sleeping and housekeeping cabins, and an artificial swimming pool are maintained. The Dead Indian Soda Springs recreation area is different from those areas usually found in Southwestern Oregon and Medford's Rogue Wonderland.
    Start east from Riverside on Main Street and follow the Crater Lake Highway from Medford to Eagle Point, 10.7 miles. Here a turn to the right onto the Lake Creek Highway takes you through the town of Eagle Point. Keep straight ahead on the main road. Beyond Eagle Point the highway parallels Little Butte Creek and winds up this beautiful valley where there is an endless chain of farms which contribute to the wealth of the community through the production of dairy produce and beef cattle.
    In a short time the Brownsboro store and post office are reached, but continue straight ahead. Here you are traveling almost directly east toward majestic Mt. McLoughlin, which is seen rising high above the horizon in the distance.
    Notice the low foothills, which are covered with scattered oak trees and which extend to the valley floor. This may appear to be waste land, but actually it is not. It provides spring feed for range cattle from the time they leave winter feed lots until they go onto the national forest summer range sometime in June, and is needed to round out the cattleman's operation.
    Later the Fish Lake Road junction is reached, and here turn right, cross the Little Butte Creek bridge and pass through the small town of Lake Creek. Just a short distance above this point, Little Butte Creek forks, and from here on follow up the south fork of this creek, keeping the main traveled road to Dead Indian Soda Springs.
    At 35 miles you arrive at the rustic recreational area sign, turn right across the bridge, immediately across the bridge turn left and you are in the Dead Indian Soda Springs campground. Here there are a number of individual camp spots with stoves, tables, and sanitation facilities which were constructed by the Forest Service, and which are free to any who may wish to use them.
    Continuing on through the campground, cross a small bridge over Dead Indian Creek and enter the Forest Service picnic area. Here there is a community kitchen and numerous rustic tables, conveniently arranged so that ideal accommodations are presented either for individual parties or picnic groups. Plenty of parking space is available.
    For those who do not wish to camp out, just beyond the picnic area is the Dead Indian Soda Springs resort, which features home-cooked meals, cabins, and swimming facilities. The resort owners make this their home all year, and are perfect hosts and a veritable information bureau on subjects pertaining to local fishing, hiking, and saddle horse trips, as well as wildlife.
    The beauty of this entire recreational center is unique and has an individuality all its own. The timber cover of Douglas fir, incense cedar, broadleaf maple, alder, and hazel offers an interesting mixture of green colors, and provides a shady retreat that is cool even during the hottest summer days. A green blanket of grass almost completely covers the ground. The two beautiful small streams--Dead Indian Creek and the South Fork of Little Butte, which flow through the area--contribute their charm to make a perfect setting for the camper or vacationist.
    A good trail leads to the spring which has made this spot famous. From the resort this path winds up the east bank of Dead Indian Creek, 2,400 feet to the mineral spring, which is known far and near for the medicinal properties of its water. The Forest Service has constructed a bridge across the creek, which makes the spring easily accessible. The mineral water bubbles up through a fissure in a solid rock bed. Many people take containers and carry water from the spring back to their homes.
    It is not known who discovered the spring, but it was visited as long ago as 1871 by J. H. Tyrrell, father of the present owner of the resort. Why was it named Dead Indian? This is an interesting chapter in Southern Oregon history and involves some prominent pioneer families of the Rogue River valley. Here's the story as it is related:
    In 1854, the first wheat crop of any moment was grown in the valley. As settlers were short of funds necessary for financing the preparation and marketing of the crop thus was taken over by Henry Ammerman, early day financier. The wheat was ground into flour in Ashland, the mill having been located under a large oak tree near the present entrance to Lithia Park. Three wagons and eighteen oxen were secured to transport the flour to Yreka, the nearest market. Harvey Oatman--(father of the late Elmer Oatman--for many years Jackson County fruit inspector and grandfather of Mrs. R. O. Stephenson, who now lives on the Jacksonville highway) was put in charge of the train and drove the lead wagon. The other two wagons were driven by Daniel P. Brittain, who later lived for many years on Wagner Creek, and a Mr. Livingston. [The incident was in 1855; Livingston is unknown to history. The flour was ground in Phoenix.]
    The wagons were heavy, and as there were no roads through the Siskiyous it was a laborious task, even though six heavy oxen were hitched to each load. It is not known exactly the route taken over the Siskiyous, but it is probable that the train followed approximately the route afterward known as the Dollarhide Toll Road. Somewhere near the summit of the mountains they were attacked by a party of renegade Indians from the Klamath country. Oatman escaped and went on to Yreka where he sold his load of flour. Brittain escaped with his life, but his wagon and that of Livingston were burned after the Indians had emptied the flour from the sacks, the latter being apparently the only article of value to the tribesmen. [They were unprepared to haul away several tons of flour.]
    Upon the return of Oatman and Brittain to the valley the attack was reported and a force immediately recruited by Wm. Rockfellow, one of the leading men of the Wagner Creek community, to track down the marauders. Not only after they had picked up the trail they found three of the renegades dead--apparently victims of another Indian band. The spot where these Indians were found was known thereafter as Dead Indian. Later the name "Dead Indian" was applied to the creek on the headwaters of which the Indians were found and still later to the soda spring which is located on the creek.
    An interesting side trip may be taken by car from this recreation area to the Forest Service fire lookout station on Poole Hill, three miles distant, by following the road which goes directly through the resort area. Here on Poole Hill all through the fire season you will find a lookout man on duty who welcomes visitors and who will gladly acquaint you with the features of the surrounding country, explain how a fire lookout actually functions, and tell you of the importance of protecting these timbered slopes from fire.
    Because of the exceedingly dry summer weather, a very dangerous fire season usually exists. In this area there are some glaring examples of the damage that fire can do to timber, recreational and other resources. It is an established fact that many tourists do not come to Oregon during forest fires because they were afraid of these fires while burning. Most of these disastrous fires have been man caused and could have been prevented. Whenever a fire rages through the forest it represents a loss of dollars to the community either directly or indirectly. Everyone should help prevent fires by being careful and cautioning others of the danger.
    Mention must also be made of the wildlife which is plentiful in this area. Usually one may see blacktail deer feeding unafraid on the hillsides near the resort. The gracefulness of these creatures is always inspiring and goes far toward completing the forest picture. This locality is noted as a favorite winter feeding ground for deer, and it is not at all uncommon to see 15 or 20 even more in a band during the late fall and winter months.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 4, 1940, page 10
    
    
   
       

Last revised July 19, 2021