The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Mining Notes 1906-1957
Refer also to the general news reports, and:
Mining Notes 1851-1870
Mining Notes 1871-1890

Mining Notes 1891-1897
Mining Notes 1898-1905

Jackson County.
    Electric power has been put in at the Homestake mine near Woodville. The electric current is to be supplied by the Condor company by a branch line from the Gold Ray-Grants Pass main line.
Josephine County.
    A. C. Hoofer states that at the Mt. Pitt mine on Jumpoff Joe, near Grants Pass, there is 1,100 ft. of tunnel on the property. A compressor and power drills are to be put in. The power will be had from a water wheel.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 13, 1906, page 31

Associated Press Dispatch by Special Wire

    Jacksonville, Ore., Jan 18.--Three men were blown to pieces by an explosion of giant powder last night in the Opp mine.
    The dead: William Broad, Bert Hoffman and Fred Johnson.
    The cause of the explosion has not been determined.
Every Evening, Wilmington Daily Commercial, Wilmington, Delaware, January 18, 1906, page 5

    The Buckeye Mining & Smelting Co. has begun development work on the Buckeye mine of the Slate Creek district, near Grants Pass. The company is building a wagon road to the mine. A compressor is being placed.
    Manager C. Hoofer of the Mt. Pitt mine on Jumpoff Joe, near Grants Pass, states that he will put in a compressor and power drills at the mine in February.… A 5-stamp mill is being placed on the Higgins mine in the Chetco district.… S. G. Adams, general manager of the Capital City Gold Mining Co. at Sacramento, Cal., which owns the Baby mine, eight miles north of Grants Pass, is at the mine arranging for additional development work.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 20, 1906, page 46

    It is reported that the Blue Ledge copper mine on Elliott Creek, in the Siskiyou Range, on the California-Oregon line, has been sold to Robert S. Towne, of New York. F. W. Carnahan has been appointed superintendent. The new owners may build a railroad 30 miles long to Medford.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 27, 1906, page 63

    All the main tunnels and drifts at the Opp mine, near Jacksonville, are now lighted by electricity. The company has put in an air compressor and power drills. It also plans to increase the capacity of the mill from 10 to 20 stamps early in the spring. Two shifts are taking out ore and putting in the bins for reserve.
    The Opp mill, near Jacksonville, has been rebuilt and new concentrators put in.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 3, 1906, page 78

Jackson County.
    The Bill Nye mine, near Gold Hill, has been wired for electricity.
Josephine County.
    J. L. Pennington is on Josephine Creek, superintending the development of the Gold King quartz mine, near Kerby.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 10, 1906, page 96

On Saving Platinum.
Written for the Mining and Scientific Press by
Dennis H. Stovall.
    During the past two years the discovery has been made that the old-channel placer deposits of the Pacific Coast contain much platinum as well as gold. This important truth was further demonstrated by Dr. David T. Day, of the United States Geological Survey, in the experiments conducted at the Lewis & Clark Fair this year. But previous to these experiments a few managers of the larger hydraulic mines of Southern Oregon and Northern California were at work saving the precious sands from the mass of debris scooped from the sluice-floors at cleanup time. One mine, the Deep Gravel, in the Waldo district, Southern Oregon, saved nearly 20 oz. of platinum during 1905. Considering the fact that but 110 oz. of platinum were reported as mined in the United States during 1904, this showing of one mine is exceptional.
    The method of saving the platinum adopted by the hydraulic miners is simplicity itself. The method was first hit upon by manager Wimer of the Deep Gravel mines, and it will be used this season by nearly all of the placer mines of the coast, the diggings of which comprise old river channels. Mr. Wimer found that cleaning the gold with a shovel, by scooping it directly from the sluices, and washing it in running water, as has been the custom since the early days of placer mining, meant a loss of all the platinum except the very heaviest particles. Only one-fourth of an ounce was saved where an ounce and three-quarters are saved now.
    Miners have long known that the black sand, to which the placer gold closely adheres, contains platinum, and many methods of saving the rare metal have been tried. An attempt to save it by panning in the running water of the sluice resulted in as great waste as cleaning up by shovel. Another method was to save the platinum sand by a system of undercurrents attached to the sluices; this was the method introduced by representatives of the Welsbach Gas Mantle Company, which uses platinum in the manufacture of its articles. The company supplied drawings of plans to all miners who desired them, that the saving of the rare metal might be encouraged. The same method was followed by the Waratah Minerals Company. But the undercurrent never became popular with hydraulic miners, because it was not successful. Undercurrents require close attention, and the cleaning of them is tedious, too tedious for the average placer miner, whose whole inclination is toward getting gold; moreover, the required undercurrents were different from those used for saving flour gold.
    So, after many experiments and repeated trials of various methods, the only feasible plan is found to be the old-time and simple way of panning in still water. The platinum occurs in thin, flat flakes. Though it is a heavy metal, its atomic weight being 195.2, and its specific gravity 21.5, the thin flakes float easily on running water, and will not settle with the gold. It is therefore impossible to save it by scooping up black sand and gold together, and washing the amalgam free of foreign particles in the sluice.
    As stated, the only paying method is by panning the entire mass in still water. A big tub, made for the purpose, is employed. The black sand and gold are scooped from the sluice-floor, after the riffles are lifted and rinsed, with a sharp shovel, and carefully panned over the tub. The amalgam is then freed of the black sand. A part of the platinum spills over the pan during the panning process, but it drops and settles into the tub, instead of being washed away, as would occur were the panning done in the running water of the sluice. By careful work, a great portion is saved during the first panning; that which falls into the tub is panned out later. The residue, which consists of platinum and gold particles, held as an amalgam, is then put in a blow pan and dried, after which the gold and platinum fall apart and are easily separated. The two metals are then put in separate flasks, and are ready for the refinery. Old-channel platinum has the appearance of black powder, with the exception that the flakes have a greater metallic luster than powder grains.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 17, 1906, page 109

    The Briggs Gold Bar Mining Co., owning property on the California line, near Grants Pass, have purchased machinery for a 20-ton mill. A sawmill is en route to the mine. The principal tunnel of the mine is in 200 ft. and drifts are being run.… L. B. Wickersham, superintendent of the Granite Hill mines, at Grants Pass, reports that the conversion of the machinery from a steam to an electrically operated plant has been completed.
    Contracts have been let for the further extension of the lower tunnel, at the Mountain Lion mine, at Davidson.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 17, 1906, page 115

Coos County.
    T. C. Archer states that ho will build a 100-ton smelting plant, to cost $50,000, on Coos Bay, near North Bend.
Curry County.
    E. H. Russell, of the Gold Bar Mining Co., of Illahe, says that the company will operate two giants on its placer ground this spring. About 3,200 ft. of pipeline is being laid to carry water from the penstock to the mine. Electric power and light will be supplied to the property.
Josephine County.
    Robert O. Towns, the new owner of the Blue Ledge mine, 40 miles from Grants Pass, states that extensive additions will be made to the plant and that the mine will be worked on a larger scale.
Jackson County.
    The Homestake Enterprise Mining Co., of Woodville, has completed its connections with the Condor Water & Power Co. and is now operating a five-stamp mill by electricity.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 17, 1906, pages 132-133

Douglas County.
        Arrangements are being made by the North Fairview Mining Co. for a mill near Bohemia.
Jackson County.
    A. H. Gunnell states that the foundation for the 10 additional stamps at the Opp mine, near Jacksonville, is completed, making 20 stamps, which it is intended to increase to 40 by the end of the year.
Josephine County.
    Frank Fowler, general manager of the Gold Pick mine, on Boland Creek, eight miles from Holland, has completed the installation of a stamp mill and a concentrator.
    The Southern Pacific Gold Co. took possession of the Grouse Mtn. mine, four miles east of Grants Pass, last week, and preparations are now under way for the installation of a cyanide plant and electric hoist.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 3, 1906, page 151

Douglas County.
    The owners of the Levens Ledge mine, near Canyonville, have begun driving a tunnel.
    The Crystal Consolidated Mining Co. will resume operations at Bohemia. The stockholders of the Sterling Mining Co. have decided to put in another 10-stamp mill at its mine, near Roseburg.

Jackson County.
    A 60-h.p. gasoline air compressor and power drills have been installed at the Blue Ledge copper mines at Applegate, and a series of new tunnels has been begun to cut the deposit at a lower level. The new owners have filed claims on 8,500 in. of water.
Josephine County.
    The Golden Drift Mining Co. has temporarily shut down its mine near Grants Pass. Machinery has been ordered for a new steam dredge and for two 400-h.p. turbines. The latter will be installed immediately and another complete unit pump will be added early in the summer. Electric power has been attached to the Granite Hill 20-stamp mill and hoisting plant at Granite Hill. The mine of the Michigan Mining & Milling Co. at Murphy will be started up soon. A. C. Hoofer, manager of the Mount Pitt Hydraulic-Quartz Mining & Milling Co., has purchased air-compressor drills and a stamp mill in San Francisco for the company's mine near Merlin.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 10, 1906, page 170

Coos County.
    The placer properties owned by the Commander Mining Co. are now equipped and two giants were operated last week.
Jackson County.
    The Siskiyou Copper Co. has begun driving a 25-ft. tunnel at its mine in the Blue Ledge district, near Ashland.… Superintendent J. D. Heard has been working two giants at the Sterling mine, near Ashland.… A new compressor has been set up at the Blue Ledge mine at Joe Bar, near Ashland. Four winzes are being sunk.… T. W. Hill and others have purchased 40 acres of mining ground adjoining the Shorty-Hope mine, near Ashland. Mr. Hill is opening up other ore bodies in that vicinity, preparatory to the installation of a reduction plant.… L. B. Chase will resume development at the Palmer mine.… It is reported that a cyanide plant will be installed on the Shorty-Hope mine, 3 miles west of Ashland.… A. reduction plant is to he installed on the Wild Goose mines, five miles west of Ashland.… The Cyanide Gold Mining Co. is having plans drawn for a reduction plant to be installed on its property, near Ashland.… An air compressor has been installed at the Bill Nye mine, near Medford.… E. C. Faucett and associates are preparing to open up the Wright-Eckelson claims on Elliott Creek, near Medford. They will put in a complete hydraulic plant, including giants and other machinery.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 17, 1906, page 190

By Dennis H. Stovall
    The Granite Hill mine, located near Grants Pass, and owned and operated by the American Gold Fields Company of Chicago, is now equipped with one of the biggest and finest milling and concentrating plants in Oregon. The new electric equipment, recently placed, is in full operation, and the electric fluid is proving a far more positive and more economical power than steam. Operations will be followed on a bigger scale, both in and out of the mine. Much has been done during the past two years in the matter of placing equipment on this property; the end is not yet, for manager W. J. Morphy announces that his company will immediately begin the installation of 20 more stamps. With such an addition the new mill will have a total battery of 40, and will be second to none on any Oregon mine. The concentrating plant of the property is complete, consisting primarily of six Frue vanners. Another series of six will be added when the 20 additional stamps are placed.
    All expensive features of mining and milling have been overcome in the Granite Hill, and the system now employed is not only complete in every detail but is economical, which is fully attested [to] by the fact of the ability of the company to mine and concentrate the ore of the Granite Hill for $1.50 a ton. This is a splendid showing, made as it is in a mine where heavy pumping is required from the deep levels and in which every pound of ore must be removed by hoist.
    The Granite Hill has been under development by the American Gold Fields Company since the latter part of 1902. Since then the growth of the mine, which was formerly but a mere prospect, has been phenomenal. The company has expended nearly $200,000 for development and equipment, but every dollar has been well expended. There are now over 11,000 feet, or more than two miles, of underground workings, of tunnels, shafts, upraises and drifts, in the Granite Hill mine. This, aside from the several thousand feet of development work done on the Red Jacket, Ida and Golden Terry claims, all of which are well-developed mines, and form an important part of the Granite Hill holdings. The Red Jacket is equipped with hoisting machinery, and ore from it is being removed and hauled to the Granite Hill mill, a quarter mile below. The vein of the Red Jacket is making a splendid showing, and a strike recently made is now yielding ore of $100 a ton value.
    At a mass meeting of mining men and others at Grants Pass this week, the proposition of building a railroad from this city to the Waldo copper mines was definitely decided. The road will be built by the California & Oregon Coast Railway Company, a San Francisco corporation, at the head of which is J. O'B. Gunn. Colonel T. W. M. Draper is the chief engineer for the new railway. These people have accepted the proposition of local promoters, by which subscriptions for stock to the amount of $20,000 will be made by local capital, such stock to be turned over as a bonus. The company intends to begin construction work within the next sixty days. The main desire of those locally interested is to get a railroad into the Waldo copper district, that the smelter now built at Takilma, and others that must subsequently follow in the event of the new road being completed, may operate continually. The Takilma smelter can only operate during the summer at the present time because of the impassable condition of the wagon roads, making it impossible to haul matte and coke. The new road will cross Rogue River at Grants Pass, and Applegate River six miles from this city. It will then cross the mountain divide of the Coast Range mountains, passing through one of the finest belts of fir and pine timber in Oregon, as well as the richest copper belt, dropping down into the Illinois Valley, and crossing Illinois River at the old mining town of Kerby. The California & Oregon Coast Railway Company already has a line fully surveyed over this route, and has secured right of way and terminal grounds.
    The heaviest snow of the season, in truth, for several years, fell this past week in Southern Oregon. In all the mountain districts there is from two to 20 feet of snow, the greatest depth known for many years. The deep snow insures plenty of water for hydraulic mining till very late, Some of the larger properties are now calculating on all-summer runs of the giants.

Mineral Wealth, Redding, California, April 1, 1906, page 6

    The Wolverine & Western Development Co. was organized at Laurium, Michigan, last week, the promoters being Calumet and Laurium people. The incorporators are J. T. Fisher, F. J. Kohlhaas and J. Vivian, Jr. The company is organized under the laws of Arizona. The property is on the boundary between Douglas and Coos County, and consists of eight full claims. The calculation is that six months will be required to determine the exact conditions and outline a future policy for the undertaking. The property is opened by a tunnel penetrating two veins 60 ft. below the outcrop.
"Coos County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 7, 1906, page 249

Hydraulic Mining by Pumping.
Written for the Mining and Scientific Press by
Dennis H. Stovall.

    Until one year ago hydraulic mining by pumping or forced power was something of an experiment. It had been tried in various mining districts without much success, the main reasons being lack of cheap natural power, inadequate pumping equipment, and deficient working ground.
    It remained for the Golden Drift Mining Company, operating in the Dry Diggings district of Southern Oregon, to successfully solve the problem of hydraulic mining by pumping. This company has amply demonstrated that where proper facilities exist, placer mining can be done by forced power, thus overcoming the embarrassment of long seasons of idleness through the summer months, of light rains and slack water supply for ditches and reservoirs.
    In the property of the Golden Drift Mining Company are included 800 acres of ground locally called "dry diggings," because the very best seasons afford but 60 or 90 days' run for the giants. Rogue River, a wild, turbulent stream, at no time flowing less than half a million miner's inches of water, flows along the eastern border of this tract; M. C. Ament, the manager, believed that the Rogue River could be harnessed, and its power utilized for hydraulic mining. He was supported in this belief by his father, C. G. Ament, and other officials of the company. Liberal financial backing was given, and the dam was begun. It was a tremendous task, and two years were required to complete it. Over 4,000,000 ft. of lumber were used, and over 3,000,000 tons of rock were filled into the monster cribs, which were first pinned to the bedrock by 40-ft. piling. The dam has a length on the crest of 265 ft.; it is 120 ft. thick on the bed of the river, and is eight feet wide on deck. It has an 80-ft. abutment, 80 ft. wide. The penstock is 120 ft. wide, and has twelve 10-ft. gates by which the water is admitted to the turbines. During the year the plant has been operated, the tailing from the flumes has been dumped into the river above the dam, and this has made a solid rock filling, which has practically raised the bed of the river up to the level of the deck, a level that is maintained for a quarter mile upstream.
    The fall of water over the crest of the dam is 20 ft., and this develops 6,000 h.p. At present, four turbines are operated, developing 1,200 h.p., all of which is delivered to the one pump. Two additional turbines are being installed, the power of which will also be delivered to the one pump, that it may operate to its full capacity. This summer ten additional wheels will be installed, and two more pumps added, by which three giants can be operated instead of two, besides affording abundant bank or bywater.
    The pump, which is the heart of the plant, is of the five-step centrifugal type. It was built by the Byron Jackson Machine Works, of San Francisco, and is said to be the biggest high-head pump in the world. Its weight is 35 tons, and its tested maximum pressure is 250 lb., the operating pressure being 185 lb. per sq. in. Its capacity is 13,000,000 gal. per 24 hr., or 9,000 gal. per min. This great volume is delivered through 1,500 feet of 22-in. steel piping, and is lifted to a height of 170 ft. before dropping into the diggings, and forking to the 11-in. giant pipes.
    The highest pressure attainable with the 1,200 h.p. now developed is 145 lb. per sq. in., or 40 lb. less than the pump's normal capacity. Mr. Ament believes that the addition of the two turbines now being placed will raise the pump to its full efficiency, and give greater cutting power to the giants. The monitors have three-inch nozzles, and throw a stream 460 ft. Mining is done, however, from a distance of 100 or 150 ft. The banks are from 40 to 65 ft. high, and are easily cut by the jets. The gravel lies in strata of brown and blue, with red clay capping. The coarse gold and nuggets are found in the lower layers. The finer or average gold occurs in the pipe clays occupying the layers in the center of the banks, and the flour gold is found in the clay capping.
    The system by which the pumping battery is operated is simple, the main purpose being to keep the giants always pointed to the gravel. Night and day they are operated, with only a 20-min. stop each evening to oil up. Two systems of sluices are employed, with block and strap iron riffles; while one riffle system is in use, the other is being cleaned up, thus obviating the necessity for a complete shutdown. When the big pump is closed down each evening, it releases the herculean force from behind 26,000 gal. of water, the volume required to fill the long pipeline. To prevent the 170-ft. head from hurling this great weight of water back upon the pump, a check valve is placed at the base of the pipeline; and the work of starting the pump against this great volume of water is made simple by first releasing the water through a sidepipe into the race, and slowly closing it, thus switching the pump to the main line by degrees, until it attains its normal working pressure. Both the speed and the pressure of the pump are registered by gauge in the power house.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 12, 1906, page 309  Click on the link for photos.

    The Eureka mine, on Soldier Creek, is reported sold to Pittsburgh parties, the first cash payment being $30,000. Much tunnel work had been done, and $250,000 worth of ore has been blocked out. The mine was discovered ten years ago by William H. Miller who took out $15,000, which he mortared out.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 19, 1906, page 334

    C. W. Evans has been investigating the possible production of siliceous ore in the mining district adjacent to Ashland; this material is required as flux for the copper ore being treated by the smelter of the Mammoth Copper Co. from their own mine. The transportation rates from Ashland to the Kennett smelter on that class of ore is $2.40 per ton in carload lots. The smelter makes no charge for treating this siliceous ore and pays 75% of all the values contained, and cash is paid for the ore within forty-eight hours after it arrives at the smelter. Shipments as small as 10-ton lots are received. The cost of mining is from 50¢ to $2 per ton. according to the hardness of the material and the facilities for mining. The cost of hauling a distance of five miles to the railroad is $1 per ton. This makes it possible to realize a fair profit on low-grade ore. The Kennett smelter is owned and operated by the Mammoth Copper Mining Co., and has a capacity of 1,000 tons per day and the plant is being enlarged to double that capacity.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 16, 1906, page 305

By Dennis H. Stovall, Grants Pass, Ore.
    The hot weather of June brought an end to all hydraulic placer operations in Southern Oregon. Nearly all of the mines have made their final cleanup, and the greater part of the virgin gold has been shipped to the mint or passed over local banking counters for exchange. The output this season of placer gold from Southern Oregon districts falls short of $800,000, which is considerably below the average output. The decrease is due to the light rains of winter, and to the tardy start, as very few mines were able to start their giants before January, fully two months behind time. About 50 ounces of platinum are reported saved from the various placers. Most of the rare metal comes from the Deep Gravel mines of Waldo, and the Royal Group of mines of Galice district.
    A very rich strike was made on an upraise from the 400-foot level of the Granite Hill mine this month. The body of ore uncovered was a. high-grade galena, carrying values in free gold and concentrates. Simultaneously with the strike, a heavier flow of water was encountered. Though the flow was conveyed safely to the sump where the new electric pump was operated, and though the pump has a capacity of 2000 gallons per minute, it was not able to keep up with the water, and the lower level was soon flooded. The men were driven out. and the skip set to work on the underground lake. Superintendent Wickersham hopes to have the mine cleared again soon, and the pump started up. In the meantime the 20-stamp mill is kept pounding on the ore from the upper levels. Manager W. J. Morphy, of the American Gold Fields Company, of Chicago, owner of the Granite Hill. has been here for several weeks making an inspection of the property and laying plans for future work.
    A large hydraulic property is being developed and equipped on lower Rogue River, 50 miles below Grants Pass, by the Euchre Creek Mining Company of Los Angeles, of which Chas. W. Mills is president. Mr. Mills has a number of California mining men associated with him. They made a tour of the remote and isolated lower Rogue district this past winter, and were struck with the richness of the bars and channels along the river, many of which have never been mined or prospected. Several rich claims were taken up on Euchre Creek, and it is these that are now being equipped by the Euchre Creek Mining Company. Hydraulic machinery, piping and giant, has been ordered and will be placed as soon as it arrives. Ditches are under construction to bring water from Euchre Creek, and the new mine will be ready to begin work this winter. Associated with Mr. Mills in the Euchre Creek enterprise are Harry E. Mills, E. L. Weaver, C. P. Moodie, J. D. Buckwalter, R. N. Bulls. H. F. Despars, E. J. Kennedy, E. A. Klein and C. W. Murray, all of Los Angeles.
    The 200-ton smelter at Takilma, on the Waldo copper mines, was blown in for the summer. The smelter will be operated as long as the conditions of the 45 miles of mountain roads between Grants Pass and Takilma will allow the freighting of matte and coke. A train of 150 horses and mules is employed hauling matte from the smelter to Grants Pass, and returning with the coke. Manager Walter, of the Takilma company, expects a good season's run from the splendid body of ore uncovered this past winter in the Queen of Bronze, one of the properties of the Takilma company, and which supplies the the bulk of the ore for the smelter. The Waldo Smelting & Mining Company also has a number of copper properties, deeply developed and in operation near the smelter. The California & Oregon Coast Railroad, which has its final surveys made and right of way secured, and which purposes to build a railroad from Grants Pass to the smelter and copper mines, states that it will, this summer, build about 15 miles of the line. With railroad facilities, the smelter and all the copper mines of Waldo would be operated continually.
    The old Blackwell Hill mines, of Gold Hill district, were sold recently to Colonel Pennington and associates of Fort Worth, Texas, for a large consideration. Colonel Pennington was formerly interested in the Gold King mine, on Josephine Creek, and still holds interests in that section. But he will devote all of his time in the future toward the development and equipment of the Blackwell Hill. These properties comprise 400 acres of patented ground, highly mineralized, with considerable development work done. The new owner has placed a crew, and will shape the mines for operation on a large scale.

Mineral Wealth, Redding, California, July 15, 1906, page 6

By Dennis H. Stovall
Photographs by the Author

    The story of the discovery of gold in Oregon is nearly parallel to that of the mad rush to California in '49. The first nugget that betrayed the presence of the royal metal was uncovered on Josephine Creek, Southern Oregon, May 2, 1851. The discovery was made by a party of wandering miners from California who had crossed the Siskiyou Range and were trying their luck in the Oregon country. Gold was next found on Canyon Creek, near Josephine [Creek]. The third discovery was made at Waldo, of the same district, which was called Sailor Diggings. This name was given the camp because of its discovery by a band of sailors, who had heard of the rich gold fields in Oregon, and deserted their ship while at anchor near Crescent City.
    Early in 1852, less than one year from the time of the original discovery, gold seekers swarmed every gulch and creek in Southern Oregon. Busy camps sprang up in a night at Kerbyville, Althouse, Waldo, Galice and Jacksonville. With rocker and pan millions were cradled from the auriferous gravel bars. Following the era of rocker, shovel and sluice, the. placer bars and channels of Southern Oregon were in due time equipped with hydraulic mining apparatus. The first giant thundered its shaft of white on Jack Layton's mine, Applegate River, 1862. Others soon followed and in a few years this region contained the largest number of hydraulic mines of any section of similar area in America, and this distinction is still the proud boast of the surface miners of the most productive mining district.
    Southern Oregon is peculiarly adapted to hydraulic placer mining. Every stream and gulch contains gold. Even in the valleys, where the soil is rich, there is gold, and the farmer and the miner work side by side. Owing to the abundance of the auriferous gold deposits, the many streams, the mild winters, the heavy rains, the non-restricting mining laws, the placer miner has many advantages in this section that are denied him elsewhere. Beds of ancient channels are found along the rivers and streams. The gravel of these old diggings comprise the diggings of the placer mines. These channels lie on bedrock to a depth of from eight to two hundred feet. On the bottom, next the bedrock, are the boulders, the nuggets and coarse gold. Above this is the finer gravel and pipe clays, lying in strata of blue and gray. Still above this is the layer, or capping, of red clay, which carries its values in fine or flour gold.
    To build and develop each of the scores of big hydraulic mines that operate in Southern Oregon, no little capital, skill and labor was required. Several hundred miles of ditches and flumes were constructed, to bring the water down from the nearest streams. Some of the mines go ten, twenty and even thirty miles for their water, in order to get it in the greatest possible quantity. It is stored in huge reservoirs or bulkheads three hundred or four hundred feet above the diggings, on a mountainside or prominence. Huge pipes, like so many steam boilers riveted end to end, lead down to the diggings from the reservoir, and forking,
branch off in smaller pipes to the giants.
    As the amount of mining done is dependent upon the water supply--other things being equal--that miner who has the best supply for the longest season, is owner of the best property. The hydraulic placer season is covered only by the wet or winter months, beginning in November and closing in April or May. A few of the larger properties operate through June and July. The dry season is utilized in making the annual cleanup, and in overhauling and repairing the ditches, flumes and pipelines. Once started, the giants never cease their roar from the beginning to the end of the season. Night and day they hurl their avalanche, ceasing only when the north wind puffs warm, and the snows disappear from the peaks of the Cascades.
    One giant washes down more gravel in an hour than the pioneer, with his shovel and rocker, could do
in weeks. It costs from one and one-half to five cents a cubic yard to mine a mountain by the hydraulic method in Southern Oregon--after, the first cost of equipping the property. It is usually considered that a giant mines $100 in gold each day it is operated. This is a very conservative estimate, as there are a number of mines that uncover $200 every day with each giant. A crew of only fifteen men is sufficient for both the day and night shifts of the largest properties. The mines produce from $6,000 to $60,000 each for a season, the size of the cleanup depending upon the number of giants employed, and upon the general capacity of the property, as well as upon the value of the ground. But on an average, the placer channels of Southern Oregon carry from ten to thirty cents a cubic yard, thus leaving a good margin of profit. Placer mining, like any business, must be conducted on business principles to be successful, and in Southern Oregon the operator has everything in his favor.
    But all Southern Oregon's gold comes not alone from placer channels. And while this section of the state has some of the richest quartz mines of the West, ledge mining is in its infancy here. Because of the great amount of gold on the surface, the genuine prospector was long in coming. At present there are over one hundred and fifty quartz mines being operated or developed here and more than thrice that number of claims and prospects. Where there is such vast acreage of placer ground and surface diggings, there must also be deep-setting ledges whence the gold of the wash channels came. So the development and operation of recent years has demonstrated that Southern Oregon has vast bodies of free-milling and base ore in its mineralized mountains.
    There are some twenty-five mines equipped with mills and reduction plants in Southern Oregon. These mills represent a total of two hundred stamps. Many of them increased their batteries this season, because of the excellent showing of the ore bodies. The Greenback, with its two mills, one of ten and the other forty stamps, is the largest Southern Oregon quartz property. Three hundred and fifty people, supported entirely by the mine, live in the town of Greenback, on Grave Creek. Granite Hill mine and camp, with its population of two hundred, is another of the larger mines of this district, and is located near Grants Pass. Other camps and flourishing mining centers are Gold Hill, Takilma, Galice and Jacksonville.
    One of the big advantages in quartz development and mining in this section is its cheap natural power. This has been secured by harnessing Rogue River, a wild, turbulent stream, which flows across the southern end of the state. This power is already distributed, by electric wire, to all the principal mines and camps. It is used, not alone in mining, but for every conceivable purpose. The biggest power plant yet built on Rogue River is that of the Condor Water and Power Company at Gold Ray. A concrete dam has here been built across the Rogue, lifting the water twenty feet, and developing ten thousand horsepower. At Dry Diggings, the Golden Drift Mining Company has built a similar dam and has utilized the power to drive a monster set of pumps with which the hydraulic giants are operated day and night the entire season.
    The Greenback, Granite Hill, Opp, Braden, Homestake and Bill Nye mines all use electric power, generated by the power dams on Rogue River. There are already more than three hundred miles of electric wire power line in Southern Oregon, and more lines are being strung. Electricity is not only more convenient, but is a far more economical power
than steam. It is more regular, is no trouble to generate, is always ready, and can be conveyed to the deepest levels of a mine without loss, or without causing the great discomfort of extreme and smothering heat. This proves a decided advantage in all properties that require much pumping from the lower levels, to prevent flooding. The use of electricity for power also saves the fine timber on the mining claims, leaving it to a better purpose than that of being cut into short lengths for cordwood.
    Thousands of acres of rich dredging ground on the Applegate, Illinois and Rogue rivers have been bonded by the Oroville and other prominent dredging companies of the West for development and operation. On Foots Creek, a tributary to the Rogue, the dredger of Champlin & Co. has been successfully operating for the past three years. This dredger is operated by electricity, and is one of the largest and best of all the great fleet of gold ships of the Pacific Coast. It has a capacity of two thousand yards daily, and has ground enough to keep busy, day and night, for twenty years. This dredger makes a weekly cleanup of from $1,500 to $3,000.
    Southern Oregon has a rich and extensive copper belt, located at the lower end of Josephine County in the Waldo district. The great Iron Mountain and Siskiyou copper sections of Northern California, only a few miles further south, are a part of this same belt. This copper area is twenty-five miles wide by sixty miles long, and embraces a half score well-developed properties. At Takilma, near Waldo, is located the Takilma smelter, Oregon's only copper reduction plant. It was built and is operated by the Takilma Smelting Company of Colorado, and the Waldo Smelting and Mining Company of California, both companies owning properties in the district. The smelter has a capacity of two hundred tons daily. During the summer season, the Takilma Company employs a freight train of one hundred
and twenty-five horses and mules to haul over the forty-five miles of mountain road from the smelter to Grants Pass, and to carry out coke for the operation of the plant. Large crews are employed in the Queen of Bronze, Cowboy and
Lyttle mines, the properties that supply the smelter with ore. After the present summer, the method of hauling matte and coke by wagon will be a thing past, as a railroad is being built, connecting the smelter with the Southern Pacific at Grants Pass.
Sunset magazine, August 1906, pages 139-144

    At the Blue Ledge copper mine, near Grants Pass, 150 men are employed on development work. The compressor has been operated by steam, but electric power is to be installed. The Blue Ledge Co. lately bought the large holdings of the Seattle Mining Co. on Applegate River, near the mouth of Elliott Creek, an ideal site for a smelter, and with it is a ditch giving a head of 150 ft., which will afford all the power needed at both the smelter and the mines. The company now has a force repairing the ditch, and putting up a building for the electric plant. It is expected to have it in operation in 60 days, and wires strung to the mines to supply power for compressors and for light. The Blue Ledge mines are in the foothills of the Siskiyou Mountains and six miles from the smelter-site. The mines are just over the line in California, but the smelter will be in Oregon.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 18, 1906, page 192

    One of the richest strikes of the season for Southern Oregon was made a few days ago on the Blackwell Hill mines. A pay chute was opened on this property with ore that runs as high as $12 a pound, or $24,000 a ton. The richer quartz is on the hanging wall, but the entire vein is remarkably rich. The Blackwell Hill properties are located near Gold Hill, and were bought only a short time ago by Col. A. S. Pennington and associates, of Fort Worth, Texas. Among the men interested in the property is S. C. Roe, a brother of E. P. Roe, the novelist. These gentlemen, besides being interested in the Blackwell Hill, also own the Gold King mine, near Kerby, on Josephine Creek, and efforts [sic] on the Blackwell Hill. Since taking possession they have had day and night crews at work on the mine, and it has been well developed. The showing is excellent, and the owners will place a mill and reduction plant before another season. The Blackwell Hill mines are old properties. They have been regular producers for the past half century, but until the recent owners took hold of them have only been worked in a desultory way.
    Billy Frakes and Ben Batty, two Grants Pass prospectors, returned a few days ago from a prospecting trip into the Siskiyou Mountain country, bringing with them samples of rich tellurium or sylvanite ore and a flask of gold mortared from a strike they made up on Elliott Creek, a tributary of Applegate River. The samples of tellurium or sylvanite brought in by them are exceptionally rich. They were removed from a three-foot ledge, all ore of high grade, with six inches on the hanging wall that runs up into the hundreds per ton. The prospectors also uncovered several rich stringers of free gold, from which they picked and mortared a quantity of the pure metal. They are highly elated over their discovery, as it gives every prospect of becoming a good thing. They are gathering supplies to return and develop the claim. They report that there is an army of gold hunters up on the Siskiyou divide this summer, and that a number of good strikes have been made.
    To cope with the great inflow of water that recently flooded the lower levels of the Granite Hill mine, the American Gold Fields Company has installed a large Worthington pump, of the compound type, with a capacity of over 30,000 gallons an hour. This pump is rapidly lowering the water, and superintendent Wickersham believes that normal conditions will be restored at the property in a short time. This pump, together with the big one on the lower level, now submerged, will easily keep down the water in the future, once the mine is cleared. The management has the greater part of the crew employed in the company's sawmill and in the timber of the claims, cutting lumber for new buildings and for shaft timbers. Operations will be resumed with increased vigor when the flood is lowered. Just before the water came in, a massive body of the richest ore yet encountered in the mine was struck on the lower level, and the management is anxious to continue the mining of this. Despite the recent trouble, which has been principally a matter of delay, the prospects for the Granite Hill are very bright.
    The Little Chieftain mine, of Myrtle Creek district, which has been under development for the past two years, is now making regular shipments of ore to the Kenner smelter. Returns on this ore are very satisfactory, and shipments will be continued all this winter.
    A new hydraulic mine is being developed and equipped on Myrtle Creek by the Old Channel Mining Company, of which John D. Platts, an experienced mining engineer, is general manager and superintendent. Mr. Platts has a crew at work running a ditch to bring water to the diggings from the main fork of Myrtle Creek. The claims of this mine are located on the richest of the Myrtle Creek bars. Mammoth nuggets have been found on them. One piece containing over $900 was picked up there a short time ago. The Old Channel is the first company to take up hydraulic mining on an extensive scale in the Myrtle [Creek] district.
    The Lee's Creek Mining Company, under the management of J. C. Lee, are doing a vast amount development work on their placer claims of the Myrtle Creek district. One of the big undertakings of this company is the driving of a 700-foot tunnel through Lee's Mountain, completing a 30-mile ditch the company has constructed to supply water for the mines. The ditch is ready for the water with the exception of that part of it that will run through Lee's Mountain, and as soon as this part is completed, three giants will be started up and kept in continuous operation.

Northwest Mining Journal, September 1906, page 49

    An important mineral find has been made almost within the limits of the city of Grants Pass, the discovery consisting of an eight-foot vein of molybdenite. Development will be immediately commenced.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 20, 1906, pages 468-469

(Staff Correspondence.)

    A box containing 120 pounds of ore, and carrying $7,000 in gold, was brought into Grants Pass a few days ago by C. L. Mangum, president of the Grants Pass Miners' Association, and put on display at the mineral exhibit room of the association. The gold attracted much attention, because of its coming from a new mine and a new district. It was undoubtedly the richest display of quartz ever exhibited here. Many of the chunks were half gold, and all of it was peppered with yellow metal. In some of the pieces the gold occurred in slabs the thickness of a man's hand. The gold shown is but a small part of the fortune taken from a rich strike in Siskiyou County, California, near the Oregon line.
    The property has been under development for the past year, and the owner has removed over $100,000 of such stuff as was shown here. At the time Mr. Mangum visited the claim, the owner had $70,000 worth of ore under the bunk in his cabin. Very little is given out concerning the fabulous mine, other than it is located in Siskiyou County, near the state line, and that it was recently sold to an Eastern syndicate for $400,000. This proves that the "good things" have not all been located on the Siskiyou divide.
    The Blue Ledge mine and camp continues to grow, and the outlook of that part of Siskiyou County gets better and brighter every day. That it will become the leading copper camp of the Pacific Coast is fully conceded with all competent mining men acquainted with conditions. The road from Medford, Oregon, is continually lined with men, afoot and horseback, with rigs of every sort, freight wagon and teams. Two stages go out daily. The Blue Ledge Company now employs 350 men on and around its mines. The company's monthly payroll for labor alone is $15,000. Underground development. has been pushed with all possible speed, and ore worth several millions of dollars has been blocked out. Not only copper, but gold is also carried. This past week a chunk of quartz was taken from the main drift that was almost half gold. One monster piece shipped out contained $7,000. It is now a certainty that. a smelter will be built on the Blue Ledge this next summer, and that a railroad will be built connecting the mine with some point on the main line of the Southern Pacific. A boulevard has been built from Joe's Bar, the townsite and camp, to the mine, a distance of five miles. Over this boulevard a 90-ton boiler and much other ponderous equipment has been hauled.
    The Granite Hill mine and camp, near Grants Pass, has returned to its old-time activity, all of the water having been removed from the lower levels, and mining is now being done in the stopes and drifts. The mill has been started up again, and the 20-stamps are pounding continually. The rich body of ore, struck a short time before the flood came in, is being worked. This ore carries splendid values, and with an increased crew the property will make good the time lost during the summer while the levels were flooded. The water is easily held under control by the big electrically driven centrifugal pump, and the management has no fear of a repetition of the former trouble. John Ross, Jr., the well-known Sutter Creek miner and consulting engineer for the company, will direct operations at the Granite Hill in the future. Mr. Ross has great faith in the property and is confident it will become a big producer. W. J. Morphy, who recently visited and inspected the mines as manager for the American Gold Fields Company, has returned to Chicago. His son, Charley Morphy, will have nominal charge of the property. The outlook for the Granite Hill was never brighter than at present.
    The old Braden mine, near Gold Hill, which was purchased a few months ago by J. W. Opp, the former owner and manager of the Opp mine, near Jacksonville. has been completely overhauled, more deeply developed and equipped with a modern milling and concentrating plant. The new mill was built during the summer, and the recent test was highly satisfactory. Owing to the scarcity of water the mill is operated during one shift only, but will pound day and night as soon as the water supply is adequate. Two shifts are employed in the workings, and a mammoth ore reserve is blocked out. The mill has a ten-stamp battery, with a set of Johnson concentrators for each set of stamps. The mill and entire plant is operated by electricity derived over the power line of the Condor Company.
    Heavy rains have been falling over Southern Oregon for the past two weeks, with considerable snow on the mountains. This gives assurance of an early beginning of placer operations.
    The Seattle people who own and are developing the old Hammersley mine, on Jumpoff Joe, are installing a 25-ton cyanide plant to assist the five-stamp mill.

Northwest Mining Journal, November 1906, page 75

By Dennis H. Stovall, Grants Pass, Ore.
    The hydraulic placer miners have completed their regular summer's work of overhauling and repairing, and have their properties ready to begin work. If the rains are heavy this winter, the output of virgin gold will be exceptionally large from this section.
    The Golden Drift Mining Company is again operating its giants after being closed down for several months to allow repairs and additions to be made to the power plant. Two giants are operated by the five-step centrifugal pump. Fifteen hundred horsepower is necessary to operate this pump. W. C. Ament, president of the company, is here from Chicago, inspecting the company's properties. The giants will be operated continuously in the future.
    The hydraulic mines of the Galice Consolidated Mining Company will not be operated this winter because of unfortunate litigation. Manager Counsin has suspended work and will retain only such men as will be necessary to guard the properties. This company was the defendant in a lawsuit, damages being asked by the owner of a neighboring mine because of a break in the big ditch of the Galice Consolidated Company, which overflowed the rival diggings. The case is now pending in the supreme courts.
    Superintendent Kremer continues to meet good success in lowering the water that recently flooded the Granite Hill mine. The water is below the 300-foot level and will reach the 400-foot within the next few days, when the big electrically operated pump will be cleared and started up. With both pumps operating, no further difficulty will be encountered by the flood. The stopes and drifts have been cleared on the 200- and 300-foot levels, and mining is now being done. The mill will be started up this week.
    The Oregon Gold Fields Company, of which Samuel Bowden is general manager, has placed a crew on the Ada mine, of Foots Creek district, which it recently purchased, and is deeply developing the property. The ledge on this mine is from three to four feet wide, and carries good values in free gold. The mine has shipped considerable ore, and is opened up to a depth of 300 feet. A long tunnel, driven in below the old workings, will tap the ore body at great depth.
    The Green Brothers mine on Galice Creek, which has been under development for several years by Dan and George Green, has been bonded by Dr. J. F. Reddy. Dr. Reddy selected this property over several others inspected, and is confident it will develop into a very productive mine. He has placed a. crew and will open it up and shape it for business. The vein has a width of eight feet, and carries free-milling ore at the rate of $14 a ton. Some of the values run as high as $50.
    The busiest mining camp in Southern Oregon at the present time is Takilma, the site of the Takilma smelter, in the heart of the Waldo copper district. The smelter is operating day and night and is treating from 150 to 200 tons of ore daily. About four carloads of matte are being shipped from the smelter each week, and about the same amount of coke is' being consumed. The bulk of ore for the smelter comes from the Queen of Bronze mine. This is the property of the Takilma Smelting Company, owner of the smelter. The company also owns and is developing the Lyttle mine, of the same district. The Waldo Smelting & Mining Company owns several properties in the district and has men at work developing them.
    The Euchre Creek Mining Company, composed principally of Los Angeles mining men, has its lower Rogue River hydraulic placers almost in shape to begin operations. This company purchased a large tract of rich diggings on Half Moon and Black Bear bars, 50 miles below Grants Pass. Charles W. Mills, of Los Angeles, president and general manager of the company, has been here all summer superintending the work of development. The bars are very rich, carrying values in coarse gold, and the ground is all virgin. Ditches and flumes have been constructed bringing water from Tom East Creek. The supply will be sufficient to keep the giants in operation for a season of eight or nine months each year. The Euchre Creek mines are located in the most remote and the most isolated district of Oregon, which accounts for the ground having never been worked. As the Rogue is not navigable, and as there are no roads into the district, the task of carrying in the heavy machinery and equipment has been a strenuous one. All of the ponderous pieces of steel and iron, the giants, piping, and even a sawmill, have been packed in over the mountain trail from the West Fork on ponies and mules. The sawmill has been at work for several weeks cutting lumber from the fine timber on the claims with which to construct flumes and erect mine buildings. The company expects to have its properties in shape to begin work by January 1st.

Mineral Wealth, Redding, California, November 1, 1906, page 7

By Dennis H. Stovall, Grants Pass, Ore.
    A box containing 120 pounds of ore and carrying $7,000 in gold was brought into Grants Pass a few days ago by C. L. Mangum, president of the Grants Pass Miners' Association, and put on display at the mineral exhibit room of the association. The gold attracted much attention. because of its coming from a new mine and a new district. It was undoubtedly the richest display of quartz ever exhibited here. Many of the chunks were half gold, and all of it was peppered with the yellow metal. In some of the places the gold occurred in slabs the thickness of a man's hand. The gold shown is but a small part of the fortune taken from a rich strike in Siskiyou County, California, near the Oregon line.
    The property has been under development for the past year, and it is reported that the owner has removed over $100,000 of such stuff as was shown here. At the time Mr. Mangum visited the claim, the owner had $70,000 worth of ore under the bunk in his cabin according to the estimate made. Very little is given out concerning the new mine, other than it is located in Siskiyou County, near the state line, and that it was recently sold to an eastern syndicate for a large sum. This proves that the "good things" in the Siskiyous have not all been located.
    The Granite Hill mine and camp, near Grants Pass, has returned to its old-time activity, all of the water having been removed from the lower levels, and mining is now being done in the stopes and drifts. The mill has been started up again, and the 20 stamps are pounding continually. The rich body of ore, struck a short time before the flood came in, is being worked. The ore carries splendid values, and with an increased crew the property will make good the time lost during the summer while the levels were flooded. The water is easily held under control by the big electrically driven centrifugal pump, and the management has no fear of a repetition of the former trouble. John Ross, Jr., the well-known Sutter Creek miner and consulting engineer of the company, will direct operations at. the Granite Hill in the future. Mr. Ross has great faith in the property and is confident it will become a big producer. W. J. Morphy, who recently visited and inspected the mines as manager for the American Gold Fields Company, has returned to Chicago. His son, Charley Morphy, will have nominal charge of the property. The outlook for the Granite Hill was never brighter than at present.
    The old Braden mine, near Gold Hill, which was purchased a few months ago by J. W. Opp, the former owner and manager of the Opp mine, near Jacksonville, has been equipped with a modern milling and concentrating plant. The new mill was built during the summer, and the recent test was highly satisfactory. Owing to the scarcity of water the mill is operated during one shift only, but will pound day and night as soon as the water supply is adequate. Two shifts are employed in the workings, and a large ore reserve is blocked out. The mill has a ten-stamp battery, with a set of Johnson concentrators for each set of stamps. The mill and entire plant is operated by electricity derived over the power line of the Condor company.
    Heavy rains have been falling over Southern Oregon for the past two weeks, with considerable snow on the mountains. This gives assurance of an early beginning of placer operations. 
    The Seattle people who owned and are developing the old Hammersley mine, on Jumpoff Joe, are installing a 25-ton cyanide plant. A five-stamp mill is in operation.

Mineral Wealth, Redding, California, November 15, 1906, page 9

    Development work is being pushed in the Briggs mine, at the head of Sucker Creek, near Grants Pass, and up to date aggregates about 1,200 ft. of sinking and driving. Three separate lodes are exposed, running nearly parallel. The first of these is the one on which the rich strike was made in 1904, and is about eight inches wide, giving phenomenal returns in places. The second vein is large, about 20 ft. wide, giving an average assay of $8 per ton in free gold, besides concentrate. The third vein was discovered in crosscutting what was thought to be the lode-walls. This cut has been driven 70 ft. and is still in ore, assaying about $20 per ton, mostly in sulphides. A projected wagon road will facilitate development and equipment of this property, as the remoteness of the place and difficulty of transportation impede progress. In winter it is impractical under present conditions to bring in supplies for more than a small force of men. With the completion of the road, machinery will be installed for the erection of a stamp mill of large capacity.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 22, 1906, page 741

The Year's Mining Progress in Southern Oregon
By Dennis H. Stovall
    It is a very natural thing for a writer to begin a resume of this sort with the time-honored sentence, "the past year has witnessed the greatest strides forward, the greatest development and the most monumental progress the district has ever known, etc., etc." It is far better to be optimistic than pessimistic. The one is a builder, while the other is a destroyer.
    So the writer of this, who has always tried to look upon things with an optimistic eye, must look back over the year that has passed much as the traveler gazes back upon the road that has led him upward and onward. There have been other years when greater heights have been scaled, when greater distances have been covered, but this one has, after ail, been one of progression. There are not quite as many stamps dropping now as were pounding a year ago, but they were stamps that would better have been hung up from the beginning; there are not quite as many mining men here now as there were a year ago, but those who have remained are the ones who are doing the camp the greatest good; the "knocker," too, is much less in evidence than he was this time last year, which is a matter of heartfelt thanksgiving, rather than regret.
    As to the number of stamps now dropping in Southern Oregon mines: There are some 22 or 23 properties equipped with mills, dropping, all told, about 200 stamps. These are the Greenback, Graves Creek district, 40 stamps; Granite Hill, Louse Creek district, 20 stamps; Oro Fino, Jumpoff Joe district, 50-ton cyanide equivalent to 15 stamps; Baby, Jumpoff Joe district, 5 stamps; Lucky Queen, Jumpoff Joe district, 10 stamps; Hammersley, Jumpoff Joe district, 25-ton cyanide plant and 5-stamp mill, equivalent to 15 stamps; Yellow Horn, Placer district, 5 stamps; Vulcan, Placer district, 5 stamps; Kremer, Mount Reuben district, 5 stamps; Ajax, Mount Reuben district, 5 stamps; Golden Wedge, Galice district, 5 stamps; Eureka, Soldier Creek district, 10 stamps; Bone of Contention, Williams district, 8 stamps; Mountain Lion, Applegate district, 10 stamps; Homestake, Evans Creek district, 10 stamps; Braden, Gold Hill district, 10 stamps; Bill Nye,  Gold Hill district, 10 stamps; Gold Standard, Jacksonville district, 5 stamps; Opp, Jacksonville district, 10 stamps; Oregon Belle, Forest Creek district, 10 stamps; Shorty-Hope, Ashland district, 10 stamps.
    The greater number of these mills are in operation. and are in the center of thriving mining camps. Some have been closed down for two or three months during the past summer on account of litigation, but these are coming out of legal entanglement and will soon be busy again. Others have been hung up to allow of an overhauling and general improving of the mill and mine; those that have closed through any fault of the ore body are few in number, and even these have not been given up altogether, and with continued persistence on the part of the managements will again pick up the pay and join the list of busy ones.
    The Greenback mine. now beginning its eighth season, has been leased to M. McLean, and will be operated under his management in the future. The property remains under the ownership of the Greenback Mining Company, of which W. H. Brevoort of New York is general manager. R. N. Bishop, the former superintendent, has retired. Mr. McLean is opening up the deep levels of the property, and very recently uncovered another of the marvelous and rich bodies of free gold ore that have made this mine famous. This strike was made on the 1500-foot level, and proves that the Greenback is yet far from being a "pinched out" proposition. From all indications the Greenback will remain a busy camp for many years to come.
    The Martha mine, located near the Greenback, and which has been treating its ore in the Greenback mill, conveying it down the gulch over an aerial tram, has also changed managements, having been leased by the Martha Mining Company to Blalock & Howe. These gentlemen will continue the deep development of the property, and operate it on an extensive scale.
    The Granite Hill mine was flooded during the greater part of the summer. Early in July a subterranean cavity, or vast underground lake, was tapped, and a gigantic flood rushed in on the miners, giving them barely time to make their escape, Within a few hours, despite the heroic efforts of the miners, and the hard work of the pumps, the lower levels were flooded. The submerging of the big electrically operated pump on the lower level made it necessary to install skips, and these were operated day and night. 'The mine was emptied in September, and is again in operation. The Granite Hill remains the property of the American Gold Fields Company of Chicago. L. Y. Wickersham. the former superintendent, has resigned, and Charley Morphy, son of manager W. J. Morphy, has local charge of the property.
    Notable among the progressive events of the past year in Southern Oregon's mining industry has been the distribution to all of the larger mines and important mining districts [of] power by electricity. The Bill Nye mine on Blackwell Hill, some two miles from Rogue River, has installed its own power plant, by building a dam across the river by which immense power is developed and conveyed to the mine by wire. The mill and entire plant is operated by electric energy.
    The Condor Water & Power Company, with its immense plant at Gold Ray, is distributing the greatest amount of electric energy. This company now has about 600 miles of line strung. About half of this was put up this past year. The lines reach all the way from the Opp mine, near Jacksonville, to the Greenback, of northern Josephine County. The Greenback, Granite Hill, Homestake, Braden and Opp mines all operate their plants by electric power from the Condor enterprise.
    The Champlin dredger on Foots Creek is also operated by electric power. The Greenback has been using 200 horsepower. The line to this mine, which touches at several points on the way, is aluminum wire, carrying 20,000 volts and suspended to 8-inch insulators. This line not only supplies the Greenback, but the towns of Grants Pass and Gold Hill, and the Homestake, Granite Hill and other mines. It is one of the best constructed power lines on the Pacific Coast.
    Electricity in Southern Oregon, as in other sections of the West, is proving not only more convenient, but also more economical than steam. It is more regular, no trouble to generate, is always ready, and can be conveyed to or without causing the great uncomfort of extreme and smothering heat. This proves of great advantage in all properties that are required to do much pumping from the lower levels, as it is the case with nearly all Southern Oregon mines. The use of' electricity for this purpose also saves the fine timber on the mining claims for the better purpose of camp buildings and stulls. as well as shaft and tunnel timber.
    Considerable copper mining development was done in Southern Oregon this year, especially in the Waldo district, which is the principal "copper belt" of this part of Oregon. This Southern Oregon "copper belt" is really a part of the Northern California copper district, only the imaginary state line dividing the two. The Takilma smelter at Takilma was operated two months during the summer. The short run was not only due to the bad condition of the 45 miles of mountain road over which coke and matte must be hauled, but also to the inability of the Takilma Smelting Company to secure teams. During the season of operation the Takilma smelter employs a freight train of 125 horses and mules, and these are continually on the road between Grants Pass and Takilma, hauling out the matte for shipment to the refinery, and carrying in coke to the smelter. Manager Charles Tutt had personal charge of the smelter during the summer.
    An average of 100 tons of ore were treated daily. Though the smelter was obliged to close early, the Takilma smelter has retained a number of men to continue the development of the Queen of Bronze, Lyttle and other of their properties near the smelter. The Waldo Smelting & Mining Company is also continuing the development of its properties in the Waldo district.
    Southern Oregon is so widely and favorably known as a placer mining district that it seems a waste of good space and time to go to much length regarding this feature. Last season was short on rain, and the run of the monitors was cut short as a consequence. This year the rains have started early; there is already much snow on the mountains, and the placers have opened up for business a full month ahead of time, with a splendid outlook for a good season's work. During the summer many of the older and larger properties were overhauled and re-equipped, and are in shape to move a greater amount of gravel this winter than ever before. The improvements to hydraulic properties have been general. Many hundred tons of steel piping, giants and placer mining machinery arrived here during the summer, and was subsequently installed on surrounding diggings. The Deep Gravel mines of Waldo have been re-equipped entire. This mine placed over twenty tons of new piping, besides much other equipment of modern type.
    On lower Rogue River, 50 miles below Grants Pass, three hydraulic properties have been developed on Paradise and Half Moon bars. Los Angeles mining men and capitalists are behind each of these enterprises. The ground is all virgin and very rich. The district is remote, and difficult to reach, which accounts for its so long being overlooked. Over 200 tons of hydraulic mining equipment and machinery was taken in by pack pony over the narrow trail from West Fork to these lower Rogue River diggings this summer. The new mines will begin work with the new year.
    On lower Grave Creek a big hydraulic property was also developed and equipped this summer by the Mines Development Company, an eastern syndicate, of which Colonel Blaisdell is manager. Several miles of ditch and flumes were constructed, giving ample water supply for seven or eight months' run. The diggings are on Harris Flat, and carry excellent values. This mine will also begin business with the new year.
    The Golden Drift Mining Company's pumping hydraulic plant, in the Dry Diggings district, and on Rogue River near Grants Pass, was closed down during a great part of the past year to allow of the addition of more machinery and a general overhauling of the enterprise. This company has amply demonstrated that placer mining can be done by pumping, and solves the problem of embarrassing delays and annoyances caused by light rainfall and slack water supply. The two giants of the enterprise are operated by a five-step centrifugal pump, throwing 13,000,000 gallons every 24 hours, under pressure of 140 pounds to the square inch. Power is developed from a 20-foot dam across Rogue River.
    Considerable dredging development was done this year in Southern Oregon, but active operations have been confined to the big machine of Champlin & Company on Foots Creek. This dredger is one of the finest and best equipped on the Coast. The company has several hundred acres of good dredging ground on Foots Creek, all of which will bring excellent returns. The dredger has been making a weekly cleanup of from $1500 to $2500.

Mineral Wealth, Redding, California, January 1, 1907, page 5

    The Lakeview Co. has made a new strike in the Coyote Hills. The lode, as opened, assays one ounce per ton.… The Briggs mine, together with the Forest and Blossom groups of claims, situated some 30 miles northwest of Ashland, has been taken over by a syndicate of Amsterdam.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 2, 1907, page 143

    (Special Correspondence).--The Opp mine, at Jacksonville, has been operated intermittently since 1867. It is now owned by the Opp Consolidated Mines Co., of which H. E. Foster is superintendent. The ore chutes, which pitch to the east, are in a fissure vein that cuts through slate and diorite. The ore bodies are developed by five crosscuts, the vertical distance between the highest and lowest being 700 ft. The ore is taken out through the lowest crosscut, which is on a level with the crusher floor of the mill. The ore carries free gold, iron pyrite, and petzite, in a quartz gangue. About 40% of the gold is recovered by amalgamation. The mill is equipped with 20 stamps, tables, and vanners; 20 additional stamps are being installed. With this method serious losses have occurred, in that much of the telluride would float away in the slime. To stop these losses, a roasting furnace of the Stedtefeldt type has been built, in which the entire product of the mine will be roasted before milling, the object being to volatilize the selenides and tellurides. The experiments made prior to the erection of the roaster convinced the management that this type of furnace, which affords a thorough oxidizing roast, would put the ore in shape--to save the values by amalgamation and concentration. Wood is to be used as fuel in the furnace, which will consume six cords of wood for 20 tons of ore, at a cost of 40¢ per ton. The new roaster will be in use in a few weeks.
Jacksonville, Feb. 2.
    (Special Correspondence).--C. W. Evans, the manager for the Cyanide Gold Mining Co., of Ashland, reports the property fairly well developed, with gold-bearing quartz in one vein and ore containing cinnabar in the other. A cyanide plant will be erected to treat the gold ore and an equipment will be provided to retort the cinnabar.… The Harms Mining Co., having offices in Ashland and New York, is developing the Briggs property in Josephine County, having 2,000 ft. of work done. The same company is opening a property on Forest Creek, near Jacksonville, and one on Sardine Creek, near Gold Hill. A car of ore shipped from the latter ran $60 per ton. It Is announced by E. T. Staples, the superintendent, that a mill will be erected this spring at each of the properties at Gold Hill and Jacksonville.… The Shorty-Hope M.&M. Co., having a property three miles from Ashland, is managed by C. T. Sanford. Considerable development has been done and there is ore in the stones. It is a gold ore, partially free-milling, but the greater part is carried in the sulphides. Experiments are being made to determine the best method of extraction, and the company may adopt roasting and cyanidation.
Ashland, Feb. 6.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 16, 1907, page 201

Loss of Gold in Placer Mining.
Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By Dennis H. Stovall.

    In the placer fields of Northern California and Southern Oregon every effort is made to make mining methods efficient. Iron and wood has been replaced by steel, ditches have been widened and deepened, reservoirs enlarged and set on higher ground, and the head of water employed has been raised from 200 or 250 ft. (which was the heaviest possible with an old-time equipment) to 450 and even 520 ft. A giant working under such tremendous pressure as this maintains a cutting power at a distance of 400 ft. from the foot of the gravel bank. In the Royal Group hydraulic mine in Southern Oregon, two giants operating under a head of 510 ft. hurl their streams 500 ft., biting off the gravel in slabs of a thousand tons. But the manager of the Royal Group, like other placer managers on the Pacific Coast, is discovering the important truth that the entire attention of the placer miner must not be confined to moving of the gravel, to the neglect of gold saving.
    The sluices and riffles are not catching the gold, and in a great majority of the mines they are saving none of the platinum. Since the bedrock race affords the best possible riffle for catching and saving the gold, the placer miner will find it to his advantage to make this race as long as possible, or at least of ample length, before discharging the water and flowing gravel into the sluices. The sluices must be provided with more efficient riffles.
    Sluice boxes, in their general arrangement, are but little different today from what they were fifty years ago, except that now a sort of standard is adopted. A sluice box, in placer mining parlance, means a 12-ft. section of the entire sluice. These sections are interchangeable, each box being an independent piece and made to fit, end to end, with its neighbor.
This not only facilitates cleaning up, but the sluiceways can be more readily and easily shifted about, especially where the dumping ground is not deep, and a new dump must be made at intervals during the season.
    So, after all, the sluice box itself is not a gold-saver, it is merely the receptacle that holds the riffle, and through which the auriferous stuff flows. And the problem therefore is to make the present riffle more efficient, or replace it with a better one. Experienced placer miners state that the "non-boiling" riffle is the best for saving gold. The old idea that a riffle must offer "resistance" to the gold is not sound. Repeated practical tests and actual experience has taught a few, and will teach others in the course of time, that the riffle that saves the greatest percentage is the riffle that offers the least resistance, but which allows the gold and the platinum sand ample chance to settle.
    The common block riffle, which is generally used, possibly because it is the most convenient to make, is a "boiling" riffle of the worst kind. It consists of five- or six-inch blocks sawed, squared, and set in pairs on the sluice floor. The blocks are cut and set with the lower side higher than the upper, to increase agitation and "resistance," and a crevice two inches wide and the depth of the block is the receptacle in which the gold and black sand lodge. About one-half the gold and all the platinum, kept constantly on the surface of the current by the agitation of the water, fails to settle and flows over the dump. Only the heavier nuggets and pieces drop into the crevices between the blocks.
    Pole riffles are made of four-inch poles laid side by side the whole length of the sluice floor, which can be lifted out at cleanup, just as is done with block riffles. Pole riffles have been found to be more efficient than blocks, simply because they are laid lengthwise and do not "boil" the water.
    A durable and efficient riffle that is used by some of the bigger mines of Oregon and California is made of railroad rails, placed bottom side up, tilted just a little, and set an inch or more apart on the sluice floor. The sluice current flows smoothly over this riffle, giving the gold ample opportunity to settle into the crevices between the rails. While such riffles will practically wear for all time, they are a difficult thing to secure, and are heavy to handle.
    A riffle that has the efficiency of the railroad iron, but is cheaper and more easily handled, is made by setting 2 by 4 in. scantlings edgewise on the sluice floor, and two inches apart. Slightly bevel the top edge and bolt strap iron on it, the straps being a half inch wider than the scantling. This riffle does not produce agitation, and the gold and platinum sand settle in the crevices between the scantling. Riffles of this sort, cleated together, and made of a width and length to fit each sluice section, can be readily set into the boxes, and as readily lifted and rinsed when the time comes to clean up.
    The fine "flour" gold, as the miners call it, is elusive stuff, and most difficult to save. At the Royal Group mines, undercurrents are used to catch and save this "flour gold." Near the end of the sluiceway, and as close to the dump as possible, about one-fourth or one-third of the water is drawn down through an open grizzly on the sluice floor. This water is nearest the bottom and in it are nearly all the fine particles of "flour" gold. It is spread out over a set of broad riffle tables where the fine gold and sand settle. These riffle tables are covered with burlap or some such material, to arrest the gold; they are easily lifted and rinsed in vats of water, where the values settle and are later saved by scooping up and carefully panning over still water.
    The more careful placer miners are learning that much fine gold and platinum are lost by the time-honored custom of cleaning up and panning in the running water of the sluice. When cleanup time arrives, the riffles are lifted and carefully rinsed. The sand, containing gold and platinum, is scooped up and panned over vats of still water, instead of allowing a steady stream to flow through the sluice for this purpose. The first panning is for the gold, letting the black sand and platinum particles, which are lighter, boil over and settle in the vat. This sand is taken up later and panned separately. While this method is more tedious than the old way, it results in a far greater saving.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 23, 1907, pages 249-250

    (Special Correspondence).--Tunneling and crosscutting continues at the Shorty-Hope mine. Development work continues on the Golden Spike tunnel, which is in 1,243 ft. The ore at this point has changed in character, showing more free gold. The rich ore chutes encountered in driving have opened some good ore. The face of the drift is now approaching the south shaft, which is down to the upper level. A raise will be run at that point for better air circulation.
Ashland, March 10.
    (Special Correspondence) .--T. W. Hill has been developing a claim in Wagner Creek Cañon, four miles west of Ashland, and reports having encountered the lode this week. The work has been done in extending a crosscut tunnel to tap the vein on the hanging-wall side. The vein was found 140 ft. from the mouth of the tunnel. The same vein had been prospected by a shaft sunk on the dip, on the opposite side of the hill from the tunnel. The shaft is 780 ft. from the end of the tunnel, and a drift is being run on the vein, from the inner end of the tunnel, to reach the bottom of the shaft. This drift along the vein will reach a vertical depth of 800 ft. below the surface, and will give a depth of 1,200 ft. on the dip of the vein. The trend of the vein is north and south, and it will average 20 ft. in width between well-defined walls. A chute of high-grade gold ore, similar to that found in the old Ashland mine, is known to exist between the shaft and the crosscut tunnel. This property is a short distance southwest of the Ashland mine, and is on the same vein. The Ashland mine, which was in operation several years ago, was worked to a depth of 1,000 ft. on the incline, and yielded over $1,000,000 in gold, under a costly method of mining. A quantity of the ore contained gold as high as $6,000 per ton. The Ashland mine has been closed down for a number of years, but it would yet be a good paying mine if operated under proper management and with modern machinery.… The Ashland Peak group of gold quartz claims, situated four miles south of Ashland, on the mountain shoulder of Ashland Peak, is being developed by a tunnel run on the vein. The vein averages eight feet in width between well-defined walls. It is uncovered by surface prospect holes and shafts for three miles along its apex. The quartz is partly decomposed, and contains free gold and sulphides. A 10-in. stratum of the vein on each of the walls contains $60 gold per ton. The balance of the vein will average $2.50 gold per ton, and continues to increase in value as depth is attained. The property can be readily worked by tunnel to the depth of 1,500 feet.
Ashland, March 2.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 16, 1907, pages 325-326

    The Wounded Buck, in Josephine County, and the Forest Creek, Blossom, and No Name mines of Jackson County have all been merged into a new company, capitalized at $2,000,000.… The Harms company has recently purchased several properties which will be worked under E. T. Staples, the superintendent. New York and Cincinnati parties are interested.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 23, 1907, page 359

By D. H. Stovall.
    The copper mines of the Blue Ledge district, though located in Siskiyou County, California, five miles south of the state line, are tributary to Medford, the only means of reaching them being by wagon road from this city, a distance of 35 miles. Though the camp is a busy one, containing more than 1000 men, it is but a prospect of what it will be in the future. The deposits of copper in the district have been exploited and developed sufficiently to prove them beyond any possible question the greatest bodies of copper in the West, not even excepting the famous Iron Mountain mines farther north.
    The Blue Ledge district as a whole comprises an area of some 1500 square miles, occupying the upper range of the Siskiyous, with an altitude of from 3000 to 5000 feet. More than 300 claims have been located in the district, the great majority of which are under development, and not a few of them presenting ledges of great magnitude and richness.
    The principal lode of the district that which first attracted the attention of mining men, and from which the camp derives its name, is the Blue Ledge. This ledge was first located in 1898, and it is now owned and under development by the Blue Ledge Mining Company of New York. This company is sparing no expense or effort to fully develop the property, and intends to ultimately equip it with smelter and reduction works of a capacity commensurate with the immensity of the ore body. The company is employing a crew of 250 men and is increasing the number as development proceeds. The placing of a smelter on the Blue Ridge [sic] will necessitate the construction of a railroad connecting the camp with the main line of the Southern Pacific at Medford. The present method of reaching the camp is by wagon road from Medford by way of Jacksonville, whence the route follows a water grade up Applegate River 28 miles, to Watkins, the post office, four miles from the main camp.
    The Blue Ledge and adjacent properties of the district are being opened up by thousands of feet of underground work, and the quantity of ore now blocked out is almost beyond calculation.
    The veins of the Blue Ledge district all have a north and south course and stand nearly vertical, with a slight dip to the west. The Blue Ledge vein has a width of from 100 to 300 feet, and the formation of this, like that of most of the veins of the district, consists of chalcopyrite, azurite, iron pyrites and free gold ore. The quartz is a  fine smelting product, and not only carries high values in copper but considerable gold and silver. Assays made prove values of from 18 to 37 percent copper, and from $2.50 to $5 a ton in gold.
    The properties of the district are located on Joe Creek and Elliott Creek, tributaries of the Applegate, both of which head on the summit of the Siskiyou Mountains. Joe Creek carries 25 miners' inches of water at low stage, and Elliott Creek 200 miners' inches, the two creeks, together with other streams in the district, affording an abundance of water for power and mining purposes. The whole region is covered with a magnificent forest of sugar pine and yellow fir, giving all needed material for building and mine timbers.
Medford Coal Mines.
    An immense body of coal has been uncovered. and is under development by the Blue Ledge Mining Company within five miles of Medford. The coal is being removed in quantity and is proving an excellent fuel product, being widely distributed for this purpose. While the coal will prove of great value for general distribution, its greatest local value will be that of meeting the demands of the Blue Ledge copper mines in the matter of smelter fuel. The immensity and worth of the coal mines practically ensures the building of a spur connecting the properties with the main line of the Southern Pacific at Medford. The main coal vein of the deposit is from six to ten feet in thickness, and is nearly free from silica and sulphur. It is a lignite of good quality, showing the following analysis: 
    Volatile matter, 41 to 50 percent, average, 44.46.
    Fixed carbon, 32.4 to 44.91 percent, average, 36.43.
    Moisture, 4.05 to 17.27 percent, average, 9.45.
    Ash. 3 to 12.81 percent, average, 7.08.
    Slight trace of sulphur.
Building and Monumental Granite.
    The hills west and south of Medford contain limitless quantities of granite. Analysis and tests have not only proved the immense granite ledges to be a first-grade building stone, unequalled by any other on the coast, but they contain a class of granite peculiarly valuable for monumental purposes. This latter class occurs in all desirable shades and tints, susceptible of the very finest polish and finish; also, it is of a toughness and texture that ensures its standing the weather through extremes of heat and cold for all time. An opportunity for investment is presented here for the equipping of immense quarries and stone cutting plants on these deposits. The building era upon which the entire Pacific Coast is now entering will create an enormous demand for building material, especially for such a product as these gigantic deposits contain.
Other Minerals and Metals.
    The variety and extent of the metal and mineral deposits in the territory tributary to Medford is no less wonderful or remarkable than  the diversity and output of the soil products. Extensive ledges of cinnabar, carrying a high percentage of mercury, are under development by Medford mining men in the Meadows district of upper Rogue River. Three groups of cinnabar claims are being developed in this district, and all are making a fine showing.
    The rare metal platinum is also found here, occurring principally with the black sand of the placer diggings. In 1905 nearly one-fourth the entire platinum output for America, as shown by the report of the United States Geological Survey, came from the Rogue River district.
    Cobalt, nickel, zinc, arsenic, graphite, clays, calcite or limestone all are found here, the first four mentioned in this list being associated with other metals and minerals in quartz formation.

Northwest Mining Journal, April 1907, page 55

By Dennis H. Stovall, Grants Pass, Ore.
(Regular Correspondent.)
    With the arrival of summer weather and good roads, there is a rush of gold seekers into the new Windy Hollow and Pine Creek districts of southeastern Oregon, near Lakeview. The several rich strikes made there last fall, and the splendid returns since derived by development, are responsible for the rush to this field, and it is believed that there will be 1,000 men in Windy Hollow before the middle of summer. Work is being rushed on many of the claims, notably on the Jumbo, owned by Loftus Brothers, and on the properties of the Lakeview Mining & Milling Company. Very little work was done on the claims during the winter, on account of the operators being unable to get in supplies or mining machinery; but the roads are now open, and the camp is well supplied with everything needed for development and prospecting operations. This district is located fully 150 miles from the railroad, and is reached by stage and steamer from Thrall, northern California, from which point a branch railroad extends as far as Pokegama, a lumber camp in the Siskiyou Mountains.
    More than 20 ounces of pure flake platinum were recently sorted and saved from the gold amalgam during the cleanup of the Deep Gravel hydraulic mines, of Waldo district. These mines, under the management of W. J. Wimer, are becoming famous as producers of platinum, notwithstanding their being among the very oldest placer gold properties in Oregon, having been operated for a half century. Mr. Wimer discovered a few years ago that the black sands of his diggings were rich in platinum, and he set about devising some means of saving these very elusive values during the regular work of mining for gold. Undercurrents, special sluices and other methods were tried, also the settling vat system, and panning the residue over tubs and vessels of still water. By giving the problem much study and attention, he has improved the methods and hit upon a means whereby nearly all of the platinum values of the diggings can be saved without interfering with the placer gold operations. For this purpose the Deep Gravel Mining Company is now having installed one of the largest and most complete platinum mining and saving plants ever built on any American property. The plant consists of many special appliances and is being set up by an expert from the Joshua Hendy Machine Works, of San Francisco, which company manufactured it. As platinum is now worth $34 an ounce, placer miners find it highly profitable to devote a little of their time and attention toward saving it.
    The April cleanup for the old Sterling hydraulic placer, near Jacksonville, amounted to $3,500. This old placer will clean up about $30,000 this season. Though the Sterling has been operated for nearly 50 years, it is still one of the richest and best placer properties on the Pacific Coast, and has ground enough to keep its giants busy for another 50 years. The water supply is derived through a 25-mile ditch and is sufficient to keep the mine in operation for eight or nine months each year.
    The copper mines of Waldo district are being overhauled and shaped for summer operations. The smelter located on these properties will be operated all summer; teams are now being secured to haul matte and coke. The Takilma Smelting & Mining Company, which owns the smelter and several of the mines, will endeavor to run the smelter for a much longer season this year than ever before. It will employ 100 men, and will require 125 horses and mules.
    The Mount Pitt Hydraulic & Quartz Mining Company has just closed a very successful season on its mines of Jumpoff Joe district. During the year the company has deeply developed the property, installed a 10-stamp mill, and paid dividends from the output of the rich ore. The company is comprised principally of Portland, Oregon, men. The officers recently elected for the coming year are the same as last year with the exception of secretary A. R. Brooks being elected to this position instead of R. B. Fisher. Captain D. F. Tozier, superintendent of the Life Saving Service for Oregon, was re-elected president of the company.

Northwest Mining Journal, May 1907, page 69

    (Special Correspondence).--A vein is reported on the property of the Chetco Company, of which A. E. Imbler is the superintendent. A crosscut has been run 50 ft., into some good peacock-copper ore. This property is in Curry County, within 18 miles of the coast.
Ashland, April 8.
    (Special Correspondence).--The Ashland antimony property, which was discovered last summer 11 miles south of Ashland, and on the southern slope of Ashland Peak, has been leased and bonded to the Chapman Smelting Co. of Oakland, which makes a specialty of treating base ores. This property contains stibnite ore, running 60% antimony. Operations will be commenced on this property at once, and the ore will be shipped to Oakland for treatment.
Ashland, April 8.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 13, 1907, page 452

Sluices and Riffles in Dredging.
Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By Dennis H. Stovall.
    The best sluices ever tried on the Oregon dredging field are given a separate barge on which to float, and besides the 120 ft. of flume outside the dredge, a double system of grizzlies is employed inside. It is easier and less expensive to save 90% of the gold in the gravel by ample sluices, riffles, and flumes, than to provide more powerful equipment with which to dig or scoop out twice as much ground but save only 45 percent.
    By mounting the outer flume and riffles on a separate barge, it can be swung from point to point and thus allow ample dump room and obviate choking. The outer flume has a width of four feet, with a drop from end to end of seven feet. It is mounted to the barge by trestle, and is perfectly balanced, so that it is easily swung by cable from the pilot house of the dredge. This flume or sluice is provided with Hungarian riffles.
    In working cemented ground, such as is found in Southern Oregon and in other Pacific Coast districts, much agitation and an abundance of water is necessary; otherwise a great part of the gold will be lost. It is on ground of this character that ample sluices and riffles prove effective, and, in fact, a dredge thus provided is the only machine that has proved a success.
    In a dredge of this type, the gravel is dropped from the buckets into a hopper on the deck. This sheer drop of from 10 to 15 ft. in itself proves effective in breaking up the cemented gravel. From the hopper it is conveyed to a revolving grizzly, with perforations five or six inches in diameter. This grizzly operates much on the principle of the "riddles"' of a threshing machine, shaking over all the coarse stuff, and dropping the smaller and lighter through the holes. The interior of this grizzly is supplied with a number of jets, by which a fresh and additional supply of water is thrown upon the gravel. The large boulders are separated from the small, and slide over the grizzlies to the side of the boat, where they are dumped, the remainder of the material passing through a funnel-shaped conduit to a settling tank. It is in this settling tank, which is provided with Hungarian and strap riffles, that a great portion of the gold finds lodgment. From the settling tank the remainder of the water and gravel is carried or elevated to the upper end of the long sluiceway outside.
    As already hinted, a system of sluices and riffles of this sort requires an abundance of water, and to supply this water there must be pumps of ample capacity. In the dredge using this particular system, centrifugal pumps are employed. These are two in number, the first being a six-inch pump to give water for the upper or double set of grizzlies. Water is first admitted at the hopper where the gravel is dumped from the buckets. This water assists in melting the cemented or compact ground, and also flows down and aids the grizzlies in their work of disintegration.
    After the sand and gravel have left the well or settling tank, which is the second step in separation, it is lifted or conveyed by a 12-in. centrifugal pump to a height of 16 ft., or to the head of the outer pontoon sluice. The riffles can be easily lifted and rinsed, and are effective in saving the gold. As is proved by the gold in the settling tank, the best method of gold-saving is one that obviates boiling as much as possible. The grizzlies and flume are given a fall of one inch in five. All are provided with replaceable linings by which the finest gold is caught.
    On a machine of this character, where cemented ground is handled, ample provision must not only be made for thoroughly breaking up the gravel and separating the metallic particles, but it must be built to withstand twice the strain to which a dredge is subject on average ground. The barge of the machine, as illustrated herewith, is iron-strapped and bolted, and the stud timbers, 112 ft. long, are 8 by 3 ft., and cut from whole trees of Columbia River yellow fir, a wood that has great elasticity and strength. The digging beam for this dredge is 80 ft. long, and serves the purpose also of a frame for the chain, the latter carrying 45 buckets of eight cubic feet capacity each. The alternating links are of the slug or telescope pattern, with multiple-connecting projections, and is one feature of the dredge that gives it great strength. The lifting force of the machine is 80,000 lbs., and this force is exerted principally on the digging frame, and conveyed through the machine by the stud timbers, none of the strain coming on the shell or hull of the barge, thus obviating leaks and breaks.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 4, 1907, pages 574-575

    The coal mine on the Furry property, seven miles northwest of Ashland, has resumed operations. This mine is to be operated in connection with the Blue Ledge copper mine for Robert S. Towne, of New York. A new tunnel is being driven to drain the workings. It is in 100 ft. and will be driven 375 ft. farther.… Work on the coal property at Asbestos has been started. The vein is 14 ft. wide, with eight feet of good coal. The product will be hauled to Gold Hill.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 18, 1907, page 616

    Work is progressing at the Alta Consolidated property, near the state line. Frank Morrin is in charge. There are six claims in the group, a shaft is down 250 ft., and several hundred feet of work has been done. A 30-ton Huntington mill and cyanide plant are in operation. Frank Blevins is mine foreman.… James Milner of Los Angeles is in Ashland, looking for black sand propositions.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 14, 1907, page 323

The Hydraulic Equipment of the Old Channel Mines.
Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By John M. Nicol.

    The Old Channel mines were first discovered in 1865. This enormous deposit of auriferous gravel may be traced for about 15 miles, having a general north and south direction.
    The bedrock consists of black shale and reddish-colored mica schist. The schist is much contorted and the stratification is on edge. The level of bedrock averages about 500 ft. above the Rogue River, with an elevation of about 1,100 ft. above sea level, so that the mines have magnificent facilities for dumping the tailing.
    The gravel banks vary from 50 up to 250 ft. in thickness, and are from 200 to 600 yd. wide. The gravel is fairly even, and although in some places a few coarse pebbles and large boulders have been found, nearly all of the material can be put through the sluice boxes.
    There are seven large gulches that cut through the formation at right angles, and it was in these gulches that gold was first discovered, and the early work of placer mining carried on. The gulches have been excavated clear through the gravel and through the slate bedrock, and offer a number of different points at which to commence mining and in which to dump the tailing.
    A good idea can be formed of the size and depth to which these gulches have been excavated by the action of running water, on referring to the photograph showing the dump at the end of the sluice box, and which gives a good idea of the age of the deposit.
    These mines have been worked continuously for 30 years, and are at present owned by the Old Channel Mining Co., and leased by John R. Harvey, of Grants Pass, Oregon. Mr. Harvey has been working the mines on a large scale for the last three years, and some information regarding his plant and the methods of working may be of interest
    The present plant consists of a ditch 12 miles long, measuring 8½ ft. wide on top, 5 ft. wide on the bottom, and with a minimum depth of 3½ ft., and a grade of half an inch per rod. The water is taken from Galice and Mill creeks, and the average flow for nine months in the year is from 4,000 to 5,000 miner's inches. There is also an extra flume, which brings in the water from Rocky Gulch, and during the early winter rains, and while the snows are melting, this gives an additional flow of 1,500 miner's inches, enough to run one giant.
    The ditch delivers to a small reservoir, and this in turn empties into a lower reservoir, from which the water is taken by means of two pressure boxes and delivered to two separate pipelines. The value of the additional water supply from Rocky Gulch, and the reserve of water in the two reservoirs can scarcely be exaggerated, for it will often happen during dry spells that the main ditch does not supply sufficient water to run all three giants and maintain the pipes full, in which case trouble would probably result, whereas the slight additional amount is sufficient to tide over the shortage of the main supply during the dry season.
    The main pipeline is 24 in. diam., and has an intake of 48 in. diam., and a total length of 2,600 ft. This supplies water under a head of 510 ft. to three No. 4 Hendy giants, using 6-in. nozzles.
    Mr. Harvey informs me that when work is running full b
last, they are able to break down and put through the sluice boxes from 6,000 to 7,000  yd. of gravel per 24 hours, and the average cost of working the gravel from grass roots to bedrock, allowing for expenditures of all kinds for a season's run, does not exceed 3¢ per cu. yd., and averages 2½¢. I am also informed by Mr. Harvey that the company owns about 900 acres of patented land in heavy gravel and about the same amount in minor claims, and as they own the most valuable water rights available in the neighborhood, it may be roughly stated that their holdings cover the facilities for working between 3,000 and 4,000 acres in this neighborhood, which probably could not be worked by any other means, as pumping from the Rogue River to the height necessary to supply water under pressure for mining these gravels would be a serious undertaking and one involving a large outlay of capital.
    Until about 15 months ago the methods in use for saving the gold were identical with those used on hydraulic mines from the earliest times, and consisted of a bedrock race which discharged into a sluice box 5 ft. wide, 3 ft. deep, and having a total length of 1,200 ft. The first 90 ft. had a grade of eight inches in 12 ft., and the remainder a grade of seven inches in 12 ft. This sluice box, in turn, discharged into a bedrock race.
    There is a drop of 10 ft. at the end of the sluice box that serves to break up any blocks of cemented gravel and to more effectually wash and free the material. After passing through 120 ft. of race, the gravel goes into a second line of sluices, having an average grade of twelve inches in 12 ft., a width of 5 ft., and a depth of 3 ft. The gold-saving device consisted of block riffles, 10 in. thick and spaced about 3½ in. Quicksilver was used and cleanups were made at the usual intervals. This arrangement was up to the usual standard of efficiency and was considered first-class in every respect. The average hydraulic miner would certainly have stated that if any gold was being lost, it was of such a nature that it could not be saved at all.
    The successful working of the black sand plant eventually installed has shown the matter up in a different light. This description covers the most important points of 
interest with regard to the equipment of the mine.
    The actual operation of mining is carried on much as usual, with the difference that Mr. Harvey makes the rather exceptional practice of mining "left and right" of the nozzle and keeps a sloping nose of gravel immediately in front of the giant, thus being able to keep the giant right up to within 60 ft. of the high bank, without undue risk of a cave-in front of the work. This method also allows an efficient side-cutting action to be used with the stream when undercutting.
    Before giving a description of the black sand plant, I think that a few remarks on the subject may tend to give a clearer understanding of the problems to be faced, as much prominence has recently been given to the black sand question, on the one hand by careful scientific work by capable and reliable men, such as Dr. Day, and on the other hand by a lot of cheap newspaper rhetoric, written by men who have no real knowledge of the subject, and which has aroused adverse, and no doubt in some cases just, criticism.
    First and foremost, the general argument put forth by all old-time miners is that, if you do not catch any gold in the tail end of your sluice boxes or in your undercurrents, you are not likely to catch it by any other means that you may devise. This has always seemed to me to be an argument representative of ignorance and prejudice. Gold of all sizes and in particles of nearly every conceivable shape is found disseminated through the gravels of a placer mine. In some cases it is almost perfectly pure, has a clean surface, and will readily amalgamate. In other cases, it is so coated and foul that you may shake it in a bottle of amalgam and again separate it almost untouched. Some of the gold is flat and flaky, and if caught on its edge will travel for a considerable distance in a swiftly flowing current of water before getting a chance to settle, and I have noticed, in actual hydraulic mining and in experiments which I purposely carried out to determine the question that gold is transported for greater distances before settling, if the water is foul and muddy, than if the water is clean. I made the experiments by taking a known amount of fine gold grains and throwing them into sluice boxes carrying both clean and muddy water, making a cleanup a few minutes afterward. Using foul water, heavily charged with clay, I found that in nearly every case a considerable amount of the fine gold was carried away, although in some of the tests this gold had been caught in the same sluice boxes, using the same riffles and grade.
    It appears to me that the research work which Dr. Day has carried on is not really of much value to the average hydraulic miner. Dr. Day merely carried out a series of thorough tests to see if certain samples of black sands submitted to him carried valuable metals, and principally to find out if they carried any platinum. I think it is generally accepted that black sands are nearly always associated with gold, though I could show anybody who wished to see it great quantities of black sand which can be panned out from streams in which I have never been able to find the slightest trace of gold, even by an assay. The gold, platinum, and black sands are commonly associated with each other merely by virtue of their specific gravity, and I do not think that any experiments or tests have so far proved or even pretended to prove that the gold is in direct combination with the black sand, but have merely gone to show that if you wish to save the fine particles of gold and platinum it is necessary to save all the associated minerals having a high specific gravity, and subsequently to separate the gold and platinum from the less valuable iron grains.
    Dr. Day's work has been mostly along this line, but what the hydraulic miner chiefly requires to know is, not so much how to separate the valuable materials from the black sand (that being an after consideration and within the province of a metallurgist) as to know how to save the black sand itself with its associated gold and platinum, and separate the same from the enormous bulk of sand, clay, and gravel.
    The hydraulic miner's pan and sluice box are, after all, nothing more nor less than a crude wet-concentrating device, in which no attempt has been made at classification before concentration. It is the experience in nearly all concentration plants that have been erected for the successful treatment of pulp from mills, that the question of sizing is an important one, and that if the grains or particles vary by even 3 or 4 diameters it will lessen the efficiency of the concentration. How much more then must we expect this effect where quartz boulders 12 inches in diameter are bumped through a sluice box in a stream of water having a velocity of 15 ft. per second or more, and attempt, at the same time, to throw down and catch a grain of gold which can be passed through a 100-mesh screen. Furthermore, the miner's sluice box is a concentrator in which the products accumulate and are only removed at stated intervals, that is to say, the process is not continuous, and the black sand (which in some cases amounts to 30 or 40 lb. per cu. yd.) has a tendency to rapidly cover the surface of the quicksilver in the riffles, to choke the bed of the riffles, and allow the fine gold to be washed over them, and in consequence, to run to waste.
    At the beginning of last season's run, Sanders & Hadley in conjunction with Mr. Harvey designed a plant for experimental purposes, which has been so successful as to pay for itself and leave a considerable net profit. Sanders & Hadley certainly deserve credit for the plucky way in which they have handled this problem, and the plant, although lacking in some details, has undoubtedly solved some of the most vexing questions of the problem. The accompanying photograph will give some idea of the general arrangement of the plant. Near the lower end of the main sluice box, an undercurrent was inserted, having a grizzly built up in four sections, the first of which was a ⅜-in. stamped steel plate, the second consisting of bars placed ½ in. apart, and the third and fourth consisting of grizzlies having ½-in. slots and V-shaped bars. All of the fine product from the gravel does not pass through this grizzly, but the amount to be handled approximates, as nearly as we could estimate, 2,000 cu. yd. of material, varying from flat pieces of slate ¼ in. thick and 1 in. long, down to the finest mud. This would represent from 3,000 to 4,000 tons of material to be treated per 24 hours, and considering the low value of the product, probably not more than a few cents per cubic yard, it requires some careful and ingenious planning to handle this material at a low figure and without an undue initial expenditure, and this is the largest plant of its kind in existence for the successful concentration of low-grade material on a large scale.
    The product as received from the undercurrent grizzly is transported in a flume to a distributing box placed at right angles to the flume, and which forms the head of the whole plant. This distributing box serves to regulate the flow of sand to a number of different sieves, consisting of flat steel plates punched with round holes. The first lot are punched with ¼-in. holes, and the oversize passes directly to a series of tables covered with cocoa matting and expanded metal. The tailing from these tables goes directly to waste and the product cleaned up is washed down a launder to a settling tank, shown about the lower half of the photograph. All the sand and coarser material that passes through the 
¼-in. screen is taken directly to a second series of screens having circular holes 3/16 in. diam., the oversize from which passes to another series of tables as before. The fine material going through is then passed through two sets of tables placed in tandem, and at a less grade than those for handling the coarser material. These are also provided with cocoa matting and expanded metal.
    At the commencement of operations, these tables were only cleaned up about once every 24 hours, but subsequent experience proved that to do so more frequently was advisable, and they were eventually cleaned up every 2
½ hours. The entire product resulting from these various cleanups was passed by launders to settling tanks, and as these became overcharged, the water was run off, and the material dug out and stacked on the side. This material might be described as semi-concentrated, and here is where I see the greatest fault in the design of the plant. There appears to be a lack of continuity in the sizing process and also in the general plan of treatment. The whole of the material saved from these settling tanks was passed over one single homemade concentrating table, the middling from which was reconcentrated and the fine run to waste.
    The product from the concentrating table consisted principally of black sand. This was stacked in a settling tank and dried from time to time on flat trays, the trays being placed over a roughly built furnace. The dry product was then passed through a homemade magnetic separator, which appeared to work efficiently and satisfactorily. This removed practically all the magnetic iron, or more correctly speaking, the magnetizable iron sand, which has been stacked in a tailing dump immediately below the shed, and, judging from a rough estimate I made, there is over 100 tons of this product. The rest of the material which was delivered by the moving canvas belt consisted of the usual byproducts as shown by Dr. Day's experiments, and I am told that some of this material ran as high as $1,000 per ton. When we consider that this product, which can be shipped and easily treated, has been concentrated down from sands and clays which were originally considered as tailing and allowed to go to waste, we must certainly give Sanders & Hadley and Mr. Harvey credit for furnishing such a useful example to other hydraulic miners.
    The criticisms which I have to offer and the suggestions which I would like to make are as follows: First, owing to the natural topography of the country at Mr. Harvey's mine, they were fortunate in obtaining a convenient site for the plant with almost unlimited grade for the dump, and water for power and other purposes, and it must be remembered that at every mine such facilities are not to be found.  
    Secondly, that while I think that they had the right idea when they attempted to size the product, it appears to me that they should have gone a step further and made the classification more complete and thorough. The cocoa-matting tables could then have been eliminated and the whole of the fine product less than ⅛ in. could have been treated by the table concentrators, or it could have been first passed to hydraulic classifiers, using clean water, the coarse product being sent to table concentrators and the fine to belt machines or canvas tables. The details of arrangement for different mines would have to be modified by experiment, to prove the proportions of valuable materials in the fine or medium-fine products. I think also that the table area with which they attempted to concentrate the product from the cocoa matting was inadequate for the task, and too crude and elementary in design.
    An attempt was made with a shaking amalgamating table but it was abandoned, as it was found that a great part of the heavy grains of gold were so coated that they refused to amalgamate, that the table was to a great extent choked by a sheet of black sand, and that there was a considerable percentage of tin, copper, and other base metals which entirely ruined the surface of the table. It therefore appears to me that if amalgamation is to be introduced for the purpose of saving gold in any part of a general process in which concentration enters, it should be applied in three separate and distinct methods, all subsequent to concentration:
    1. If the gold is coarse and heavy enough to be caught by concentration, this is a more economical and rapid process than amalgamation. If the gold is so light and flaky that it readily passes over the surface and is not caught by the riffles, it is self-evident that it will be easier to amalgamate the light gold by some independent amalgamating device after the heavy concentrate has been removed. I would therefore insert an amalgamating device to treat the tailing of the concentrator, in preference to treating the pulp before concentration.
    2. The coarse particles of gangue and other middling commonly to be found in the tailing of a concentrator generally carry some fine gold actually embedded, and as a general rule this fine gold is free and is not associated with base metals. While its weight, when associated with the enclosing gangue, is not sufficient to cause it to be caught by concentration, its weight, when liberated by regrinding these particles of gangue, is sufficient to enable it to be caught in any good amalgamating device, and as a rule the gold liberated by regrinding will freely amalgamate and cause no further trouble with the copper plates. I therefore recommend that the tailing from the concentrating tables be separated by hydraulic classifiers and the coarse particles, which make a small bulk, may then be conveniently reground and passed to some amalgamating device.
    3. The concentrate may be treated by pan amalgamation after the removal of the black sand by means of magnetic separators, provided there is not an excessive quantity of platinum or other valuable byproducts, which may preferably be removed by other means.
    The above are merely suggestions, based upon the results of observation and experiment, and by such means we should be enabled to make a positive saving by amalgamation that could not be carried on as economically, simply, or efficiently by other means. I am referring more especially to the treatment of the products of a placer mine.
    As I am following up this question of saving gold from hydraulic mining operations, I hope soon to be able to present some further data relative to this subject, and I shall be glad to receive criticisms on the foregoing observations, and to hear of the results and experiments of other men in the same field.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 14, 1907, pages 333-336

    The Rogue River M.&D. Co. is preparing to put in a long flume for the winter's run on its placer property on the Rogue River, at Blossom Bar, Paradise Bar, and Little Tommie East creeks. Edwin J. Porteous is the superintendent.… A good winter's run is expected at the placer property of the Swastika Mining Co., of which A. C. Howland is the manager.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 12, 1907, page 449

    (Special Correspondence).--At present the Galice Creek district, in the western part of Josephine County, Oregon, is attracting considerable attention. For many years this district was famed for large placer mining operations; its hydraulic mines are still producing much gold. But recently large and in some cases high-grade veins of quartz have been discovered and are being developed. Until about a year ago, except in a few isolated cases, no attempt had been made to open up the extensive veins known to exist; the "pocket hunters," who roam the hills in search of surface bonanzas, would not "waste" time on low-grade veins. One of the exceptions was the well-known Sugar Pine mine, which has produced considerable high-grade ore, but which is now closed because of the quantity of water found in the lower levels. Two well-defined mineral belts cross the district in a general north and south direction. On the eastern border lies the Big Yank, a lode, or rather a mineral zone, approximately 300 ft. wide that can be traced nearly 12 miles. The ore chutes in it now developed carry gold, silver, and copper. The Alameda mine, on this belt, is now shipping copper ore to the Tacoma smelter for treatment and the company contemplates the early erection of a smelting plant to handle the output of their mine. On the western border of the district lies the Chieftain belt, which passes south into California. At the Strenuous Teddy mine the West Fork of Galice Creek has cut this great belt to a depth of 2,500 ft. Here this mineral zone has a total width of nearly 900 ft. with porphyry on its hanging wall and serpentine on its footwall. In this width are several veins of ribbon quartz, sulphide, and telluride from 2 to 44 ft. wide. Recently C. H. Smith, of Gold Hill, took samples from 12 veins on the Strenuous Teddy; these samples gave returns ranging from $2.65 to $328 per ton. This mine, which was discovered last year, is now owned by James B. Nesbit of Galice, C. H. Farmer of Gold Hill, Josephus Kester of Jackson County, and E. C. Clanton of Grants Pass. The three gentlemen first named also own a number of adjoining claims, covering the outcrop of the Chieftain belt in that vicinity. This belt both to the north and the south has been generally staked because of the reputation that the Strenuous Teddy mine is giving it.… A blanket vein, which leaves the Chieftain belt where the latter crosses Galice Creek, can be followed in an easterly direction for a mile. In places this vein has a width of 16 ft. and carries good values in gold; considerable development has been done on it at the Gold Plated mine.… The three miles of country rock between the Big Yank and the Chieftain belts is more or less intersected with veins, some of which are producing shipping ore. Among these are the Golden Wedge, the Sanders, and the Oriole mines, at which a large amount of work has been done during the past year. The Black Bear mine, owned by the Green Bros., and the Robertson group of free-gold properties on Rich Gulch, also have good ore bodies opened up. An extension of the Oriole, now under bond to Mr. Doan of Los Angeles, is being developed and a vein of high-grade ore has recently been struck. Between the west and south forks of Galice Creek the Cold Spring group, owned by John Reeves and now under bond to the Alameda company, is being developed. A wide vein carrying gold and copper has recently been discovered in this group.… Most of the gold-bearing ores of the Galice district are base, but some free-milling ore extends to considerable depth. In the Strenuous Teddy, Oriole, and Sugar Pine mines the richest ores are tellurides; calaverite and petzite occur in the Strenuous Teddy and sylvanite in the other two. Tungsten, molybdenum, and the platinum group of metals are also found in the district.
Gold Hill, Oct. 11.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 26, 1907, page 512

(Our Regular Correspondent.)

    According to the report of the United States Geological Survey, the counties of Southern Oregon are the only districts in the state that do not show a falling off in gold output for the past year. Josephine and Jackson counties show an increase in placer gold. Southern Oregon, like Eastern Oregon, suffered a general decrease through the closing down temporarily of several of the leading quartz mines. Principally all the copper mining for Oregon was done in the Waldo district. The ore treated at Waldo averaged 4.75 per ton.
    An unofficial report of the production of platinum from the placer mines of Southern Oregon for the past year places the figures at 50 ounces. This may seem small, yet it is about one-third the total output of platinum from the mines of America, as reported by the United States Geological Survey. But with platinum, as with all rare metals, there is much produced that is not credited in the report of the United States Geological Survey, as the miners sell the product direct to the manufacturers. Most of the platinum from Southern Oregon is bought by one Philadelphia company, which uses it in the manufacture of gas mantles. Most of the platinum from Southern Oregon this season, as for several seasons past, came from the diggings of the Deep Gravel hydraulic mines, of Waldo district. The black sands of these diggings, like the sands of Galice, Grave Creek and other districts of Southern Oregon, carry considerable platinum. Various mechanical contrivances and machines have been tried in the separation of the platinum particles from the black sand, with an attempt to accomplish a disintegration during the regular process of gold placer mining. But all of these methods have failed, and the system of successful platinum saving reduces itself to the simple matter of panning. By this method manager Wimer of the Deep Gravel mines saves from 18 to 25 ounces of pure platinum every season.
    Despite the heavy fall of snow on the Siskiyous, many owners have stayed by their claims up there through the winter, notably in the Upper Applegate and Sucker Creek districts. As the snow lies from 15 to 25 feet deep, the only means of getting in and out is by snowshoes. The owners of the original Wounded Buck or Briggs claims of upper Sucker Creek have a crew continuing the development of this famous property. The ledge has widened with depth, and the ore carries constant and dependable values. This ledge is directly on a contact of granite and porphyry, and is typical of the veins and general formation of the Siskiyou districts. On most all the ledges the hanging wall is porphyry--and the foot wall granite. The lodes lie almost vertical. About 20 claims and mines are being developed in the Briggs district of upper Sucker Creek. Most are on the lode contact of porphyry and granite, which extends north and south. Some are on the south slope of the Siskiyous in California, others are on the north slope in Oregon.
    The twelve or more claims located as extensions on the original Wounded Buck are now owned and controlled by the Harms Mining Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the leading properties are being developed by these people. The company is expending considerable money getting the camp in better shape for development; better roads and better trails are being opened into the district.
    Several gold districts of Siskiyou County, California, are attracting considerable attention of late on the part of mining men in Southern Oregon, across the line from Josephine and Jackson counties, of Oregon, from which side the districts are cached. Ben Neal, who located a claim on the head of Salmon Creek last spring, recently sold the claim for $5,000, and in the meantime located an extension of the same claim, for which he has refused an offer of 60,000. He has specimens from this last claim that are almost half gold, and though the snow is now too deep to allow development work, he expects to open it up in the spring. Several other rich ledges have been uncovered in this district. F. H. Osgood, a wealthy Seattle railroad and mining man, who has extensive mining interests in Southern Oregon, is also interested in Siskiyou County properties. His French Gulch property was the scene of several rich strikes this past summer.

Northwest Mining Journal, January 1908, page 35

    A notable increase in equipment has been made at the Simmons, Cameron & Logan placer mine in order to handle the deep gravel deposits on the property.… At the Baby mine, near Jumpoff Joe Creek, a small force of men is working; a 5-stamp mill is in operation.… At the Lucky Bart mine J. E. Kirk and son are preparing to make another mill run.… J. H. Beeman is doing development work on the Alice mine.… At the Hinkle mine Bart Carter and Fritz Hammersley are preparing for a test run of ore at the Bart mill.… The stamp mill at the Tin Pan mine has been completed.… At the Buzzard group of mines a contract has been let for a 100-stamp mill, which is to be completed within six months.… A Kent crushing mill of 100 tons daily capacity and a cyanide plant of the new Rankin type are to be installed at the Elk Creek gold mine.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 11, 1908, page 55

By Dennis H. Stovall.

    There is unusual interest among mining men in southern Oregon this winter in copper properties. The preparations for the construction of a large smelter on the Big Yank and Almeda properties of Galice district is largely responsible for this, together with the excellent returns that have been derived during the past four years from the operation of the Waldo copper mines and the Takilma smelter in that district. The Almeda Mining Company has closed a contract with a Portland manufacturing concern for the placing of a 10-ton smelter on the Almeda mines. The plant will be placed and in operation by midsummer. This company has been busily at work for the past seven years in the development of the Big Yank and Almeda mines. Several miles of underground workings have been driven on the two properties, and an enormous tonnage of copper-gold ore is blocked out. The smelter will be of the standard, water-jacket type, and to begin with, will have a capacity of 100 tons daily. It will be constructed in units or series, so that additional units can be added as development proceeds and necessity requires.
    The site of the new plant is a shelf or bench directly on Rogue River below the adit tunnel of the Almeda. All ore, both from the Almeda claim and other of the claims of the property will be removed by gravity to the bins. The company has its own sawmill in operation cutting timber from the claims into lumber for the building of the smelter house and other structures. A wagon road has been built connecting with the main wagon road from Merlin to Galice. A bridge will be placed across the river at the mine ultimately, but an aerial tram will transport ore from the Big Yank claim across the river to the smelter.
    Manager John Wykham, of the Almeda, has a number of men employed, both in and out of the mine, and will increase the crew when spring opens. He states there will be plenty of ore to keep the new plant busy from the start. The plant will consist both of smelting and concentrating machinery, together with crushers for reducing the ore. The values of the Almeda ore are carried both in gold and copper. They range from $2 to $4 a ton in gold, and from six to ten percent copper. The ledge is immense in size, being not less than 60 feet, and proving a width at many points of over 100 feet.
    The American Gold Fields Company is making preparations to unwater the Granite Hills mines. Superintendent Morphy has a crew employed getting things in readiness to begin skipping out the water. Over 200 cords of wood have been delivered at the mill, and the entire property overhauled and repaired. The company expects to have the water removed from the lower levels, the timbers replaced, and the property in shape for operating again within four months from the time skipping begins.
    From all indications the amount of gold produced from the placer mines of southern Oregon this season will be a record-breaker. The hydraulic placer properties have not enjoyed a better season for many years. All are operating day and night, and have an assurance of a continued water supply for several months yet. It is believed that over a million dollars in virgin gold will be produced from the surface mines of Josephine and Jackson counties this season. Several hundred thousand have already been exchanged over the banking counters and shipped to the mint.
    There is considerable interest in southern Oregon this winter, as a result of last summer's developments in coal properties. There are several good coal mines in Jackson County, one group near Ashland and another near Medford. The Medford mines have produced a large quantity of coal, which is used for fuel in southern Oregon towns, but the bad condition of the wagon roads in winter makes it almost impossible to get the product out after the rainy weather begins. To overcome this obstacle, and place the Medford coal mines on a paying and heavy producing basis. a railroad will be built from Medford to the mines. a distance of six miles. R. E. Doan and associates, of Los Angeles, who own the Medford mines, have made all the preliminary preparations for the building of this road. Mr. Doan intends to have the road in operation by the first of June, by which time the mine can produce 100 tons or more of coal per day. The ledges are from six to eight feet wide, carrying a lignite of good quality, and though it is a soft coal, it is good for fuel purposes.
    The Ashland Coal Company has made all arrangements and laid plans for the extensive development and operation of the coal properties near Ashland. Two shafts have been sunk on these coal veins, proving the existence of an immense body of lignite, similar in character to that of the Medford properties. Work will begin at once upon a shaft to connect the tunnel at the lower entrance with the main shaft, a distance of 100 feet. This will drain the water from the upper workings and enable further work to be carried on to advantage. The coal will be marketed as it is removed in the development [of] the vein system.

Northwest Mining Journal, March 1908, page 54

Southern Oregon.
Dennis H. Stovall.
    GRANTS PASS, Ore.--The most important mining deal consummated here for some time was that of a few days ago by which a syndicate of capitalists of Ohio and Michigan have become the owners of the big Almeda group of mines, located on the Big Yank ledge, of Galice district. The consideration involved in the deal is $500,000. These mines have been operated for several years by the Almeda Consolidated Mines Company, of which O. M. Crouch is president. The new owners will at once install a 100-ton smelter on the property and otherwise shape the mines for extensive operation. Among the prominent men in the syndicate that has bought the Almeda are ex-Congressman J. H. Southard, of Ohio: ex-Congressman Jackson, of Ohio; ex-Congressman Bacon, of Michigan, and C. C. Aler, of Columbus, Ohio. The headquarters of the company will be at Toledo, Ohio.
    "We took several days in looking over the Almeda before purchasing," said one of the purchasers, "and we fully satisfied ourselves of its worth and importance. We were astonished at the bidden wealth of gold, silver and copper in these mines. We fully expect to have a 100-ton smelter in operation by the first of June. There is enough ore uncovered on the mine to operate a smelter steadily; in truth, our expert has been figuring up and has found that there is enough ore on the lode to operate a 500-ton plant every day for 50 years. That is certainly showing enough to suit the most skeptical. The high-grade streak of ore is 20 feet wide, and the low-grade streak is more than 200 feet wide. The main body is opened up by nine tunnels and crosscuts. The property, while far beyond the prospecting stage, has not been developed to any great extent. In the eight years since the mine was opened something like $250,000 has been expended in development."
    That the new cyanide plant installed recently on the Mount Pitt Mine is a success is evidenced by the returns that have been received since the plant began operation. Manager Hoofer brought in a 20-pound brick from the mine this past week, the result of the first monthly cleanup. There is an abundance of cyaniding ore on this property. and the new plant will be kept busy. Day and night crews are employed, and the number of men at work will be increased as fast as the development allows. The Mount Pitt is one of the newer properties of Southern Oregon, but has jumped at once to the top of the list. The management has in view a number of improvements, which will be made during the summer, and which will add to the milling and mining capacity of the property.
    George Haff, who represents the Harms Mining Company's interests in Southern Oregon, has placed a crew on the Blossom Mine, on Sardine Creek, of Gold Hill District. Besides the work on this property, the Harms Company is operating the Tin Pan and other mines of the Gold Hill District. This company is now beginning the preliminary work upon several new properties it has recently purchased, most of which are located on Sardine Creek and neighboring districts.
    A great deal of interest has been created of late by the uncovering of a huge mass of free milling quartz on Slate Creek, 12 miles from Grants Pass. The big ledge is on the property of the Queen Mining Company, of which W. H. Ramsey, a Southern Oregon miner, who has been operating in the district for several years, is president. The company has had a crew employed on the big lode for over a year, believing it was a base proposition. It was only a short time ago that it was found that the entire body of the mammoth vein is free milling in character, and is one of the very largest free-milling ledges ever uncovered in this state. The whole width of the lode is 200 feet, but there is a rich pay streak of 40 feet carrying especially high values. This streak carries average values of $7 per ton. Some of it runs as high as $40 and $50 a ton. But it is not the values so much as the immense size of the ledge and the free-milling character of the ore that causes the owners to feel jubilant over their discovery. Two shifts of men have been kept at work on the property all winter, and the owners intend to push development with the arrival of summer.
    Charles L. Tutt, manager of the Takilma Smelting & Mining Co., of Colorado Springs, has been here for several days inspecting the properties of the company at Takilma, of Waldo District. This company is interested in a large group of copper properties at Waldo. A large crew has been employed all winter, and a mammoth body of ore has been uncovered. Owing to the long haul and the bad condition of the roads between Grants Pass and Takilma, the 100-ton smelter operated on the mines is employed only during the summer. The smelter will be blown in as soon as the roads will allow heavy hauling.
    Considerable excitement has been occasioned by the discovery of a rich ledge near Yoncalla, Southern Oregon, in a section that has never been prospected for gold. The vein uncovered is yielding about 75 cents per pound, being thickly shot with pure gold. It is not a wide vein, but its richness leads to the belief that there is an Eldorado near the sleepy old country town of Yoncalla. A number of prospectors are now in the district, and it will be thoroughly prospected before another week.

Northwest Mining Journal, April 1908, page 62

By Dennis H. Stovall.
Grants Pass, Ore.
    The annual spring harvest of placer gold is now being garnered in Southern Oregon. From all indications the output of virgin metal will be unusually large this year. The winter season was one of continual rains and warm snows, thus giving an abundance of water for the operation of the hydraulic giants. Many of the hydraulic properties have been operating day and night since the latter part of November. Several of the larger mines will not clean up till June or July, but the greater number are now scraping the sluices and lifting the riffles. This past week several thousand dollars in nuggets and dust were brought in for exchange at the banks or for shipment to the mint. The total output of placer gold from the several Southern Oregon districts will amount to $750,000 or more. The Sterling, Deep Gravel, Royal Group. Columbia, Sturgis, Simmons & Cameron. and Jumpoff Joe mines will each yield from $30,000 to $60,000. Besides its big output of gold, the Deep Gravel mines, of Waldo district, will also have considerable platinum.
    The quartz mines of the Grants Pass districts are being more extensively developed and equipped this spring than for several seasons. Several carloads of machinery have arrived of late, and are now being installed on surrounding properties. The Mount Pitt has placed a new cyanide and concentrating plant in connection with its mill, and is getting excellent returns from the base ore of this property. The Lucky Queen, near the Mount Pitt, has also placed a cyanide plant. The Braden mine, near Gold Hill, is now operating its new stamp mill and concentrating plant with excellent results. The Tin Pan mine, of Sardine Creek District, has a new mill in operation, and is giving good returns to the owners. A new mill has been placed on the St. Peters mine, near the old Greenback of Grave Creek. The Almeda Mining Company, Consolidated, owner of the Almeda and Big Yank group of gold-copper mines, of Galice District, is placing a 200-ton smelter, and will have the plant ready for operation by the middle of summer. Eastern people are now backing this enterprise, which is one of the very largest in the state of Oregon. The owners of the Oriole, of  Galice District, continue to ship $400 ore from this famous property. A new mill will be placed on this mine before the close of summer.
    Ten stamps of the Greenback mine are now being operated. The old camp is being revived, the equipment overhauled and put in repair, the mine itself cleaned out, and everything made ready for the resumption of operations. It is reported that the entire battery of 40 stamps will soon be thundering again. When the mine closed down over a year ago, it was reported by the management that the hanging up of the stamps was due to no fault of the property itself. It is the belief of  those in close touch with the owners that all disagreements have been  adjusted, and that the camp will soon be as lively as ever. The mine remains the property of the Greenback Mining Company, of New York, of which W. H. Brevoort, of New York, is general manager. This company is also heavily interested in several northern California properties. The main body of workable ore on the Greenback lies between the 200- and 1,500-foot levels. The ledge is as wide and rich on the deep levels as it was on the surface, and carries almost as much free gold.
    A work that will be of great benefit to the mining industry of Oregon in a general way, and to the mining men of Southern Oregon in particular, is that now under way by the United States Geological Survey. This is the surveying of a large area of unsurveyed mineral territory in the vicinity of Grants Pass. Congress has made an appropriation for the purpose, and the work will be completed. The particular section to be surveyed is that known as the Grants Pass Quadrangle, lying to the south and west of Grants Pass, on Applegate River. The topographical map of this quadrangle has already been completed, the engraving of which has been submitted by the engineers to the government surveyors. The completed survey will show in detail not only the exact topographical condition of this almost unknown territory, but will give in detail the amount of timber, water supply, ravines, canyons and various formations of the several districts.
    The Harms Mining Company is making preparations to install a full complement of machinery on its properties in the Gold Hill district. The holdings of the company consist of the Blossom, No-Name, Our Dick, Little Don, Jolly and Pedro. In addition to these claims in the Gold Hill District, the company also owns and is developing the Wounded Buck and Pay Streak claims of the Briggs district, on which Ray Briggs made the famous strike of three years ago. In the Blossom mine there was recently cut at a depth of 180 feet a vein which gives promise of becoming one of the richest pay streaks in Southern Oregon. This ledge has a width of from 12 to 14 feet, and the ore carries average values of $10 a ton. Manager Harms will arrive here from the East during May to make a personal inspection of the properties of his company, and to lay plans for the summer's work. The management is preparing to place a vast amount of equipment. It has already equipped one of its mines, and has this mine in constant operation. It expects to have four or five other mines fully equipped and operating before the close of summer.

Northwest Mining Journal, May 1908, page 87

    Harrison Bros. have discovered some rich pockets of virgin gold on Williams Creek. It is reported that they have cleaned up $30,000 in the last two weeks, and have more in sight. A 10-stamp mill is to be built at the American Girl and Leroy mines, near Leland.… The Jewett, the principal property in the Mt. Baldy district, will, it is reported, soon be opened.… Work at the Opp mine has been suspended and the 20-stamp mill closed. A cyanide plant is to be installed to treat the tailing.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 23, 1908, page 688

    The Ashland mine, at Ashland, which has been closed for the last seven years, is to be opened again by a company of Los Angeles men. The mine is flooded below the 500-ft. level. New hoisting and pumping machinery will be installed and a mill erected near the main shaft. The Ashland was a great producer 12 years ago, and has, it is estimated, produced more than a million dollars in gold.… A wagon road is under construction from the Vesuvius mill, in the Bohemia district, to some mines owned by F. J. Hard. After its completion ores from these mines will be treated at the Vesuvius mill.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 6, 1908, page 761

Dennis H. Stovall.
    GRANTS PASS, Ore.--Excitement continues over the remarkably rich strike made by Harrison brothers, prospectors on Williams Creek, 16 miles from Grants Pass. This is proving to be the richest find made in Southern Oregon for several years. Bob Harrison, one of the brothers, states that the two have taken out over $30,000 during the past three weeks, and have $75,000 more in sight. They took out $7,000 in one day. One pan of dirt yielded $1,300. The veins are from nine to 100 inches wide. The ore chute is opened for a distance of 100 feet. The rich strike has started a rush to Williams Creek. It is one of the very oldest districts in the state, and has been scratched and mined over for the past 50 years. The strike was made within a few yards of an abandoned mine. A score or more of prospectors are now at work on adjoining claims. Some of these have made good finds. One man, Henry Cooper, a Colorado miner, has struck a rich vein, from which he took out $1,200 in one day. C. C. Jones, another prospector, has struck a good ledge, from which he has already removed several hundred dollars in pure gold. The scene of the strike is only two hours' ride by automobile from Grants Pass.
    The Amalgamated Metal & Exploration Co., which has headquarters at Urbana, Ill., and of which J. Monroe Layman is president and general manager, is preparing to install development equipment on its Southern Oregon properties, which are located near Grants Pass, and consist of the Jeter and the Comstock. Over 1,200 feet of work has been done on these claims, and the vein system is proving a large one, with unvarying values in both free gold and sulphurets. A steam power plant, hoist, compressor and machine drills will be placed on the claims. As the mine is located but a short distance from Grants Pass, the richest of the ore will be shipped till a reduction plant is installed. Mr. Layman, the manager of the company, is an experienced Southern Oregon miner, as he was identified for several years with the tellurium mines of Canyon Creek district.
    A bunch of claims under development on Canyon Creek near the old mining camp of Kerby, gives promise of big things in the near future. The ore is telluride, similar in character and composition to that of the famous Cripple Creek district of Colorado. Assays made on recent samples taken from these claims prove values of from $2,000 to $8,000 a ton. The samples were taken at random from the several properties of the district. They are all comparatively new properties, and until recently very little work was done on any of them. The veins range from one to three feet in width, the tellurium appearing in all portions of the ore.
    The quartz mines of Galice district are very active this spring. The Almeda Mining Company is placing a smelter, and has a large crew continually employed. This company has also built a new road connecting with the main highway at Galice. These mines will be producing heavily before the close of summer. The Oriole Mine, of this district, continues to produce exceptionally rich ore from the strike made on the main ledge several weeks ago. Much of this ore is giving returns of $400 a ton. Manager Mattison is making regular shipments to the smelter, the ore being hauled out by wagon to Merlin, the near railway point. Near the Oriole are several rich quartz mines under development, and all are making a good showing.
    R. E. Dean and associates of Los Angeles are spending a large sum of money in the development of the several claims they have taken over in the Gold Hill and Lower Rogue River districts. These consist of both quartz and placer, and also coal fields. The mines of the Gold Hill district, particularly in quartz, are unusually active this spring. The cleanups from the Lucky Bart, Tin Pan, Braden and Hammersley for the past month were reported better than usual. Considerable machinery and equipment have arrived at Gold Hill for installation on the properties of the district. The Braden, which is now operated by J. W. Opp, has its new mill and concentrating plant at work. The levels have been deepened, and the ore bodies better developed. There is ore enough in sight to keep the plant steadily at work.
    The Rogue River Electric Dredging Company is moving its ponderous dredging equipment from the railway station at Central Point to the Centennial Mine of the Gold Hill district. As the machinery weighs over 22 tons, its transportation over rough roads is necessarily slow, and only one mile is covered in a day.
    Almost every bridge has to be retimbered to allow the safe passage of the great bulk of steel and iron. Two powerful traction engines supply the motive power. The dredge is of the dry gravel type, and will be employed in working the rich gravel deposits of the company on Rogue River.
Jackson County.
    The Harth & Ryan group of the Consolidated Mines Co., according to the company's report, got 9.12 oz. gold from a mine run test of thirteen and a half tons. The report recommended the building of a three-stamp mill.
Northwest Mining Journal, July 1908, page 102

    The Takilma smelter, which has been idle for the last nine months, was started last week. The company will do its own teaming this season.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 4, 1908, page 9

    The Portland Gold Hill Mining Co. has been incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000, to operate the Standard, better known as the Kubli, mine.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 11, 1908, page 38

    Three carloads of machinery for the Alameda mine were unloaded at Merlin last week, and it is now being put in place. The new plant will have a capacity of 100 tons per day.… The ore car and track for the electric gold dredge, on Kane Creek, arrived from the foundry recently, and is now being placed in position. As soon as this work is completed the machine will be put in operation. Much interest is manifested in the operations of the machine, as it success or failure will determine the future of the Southern Oregon gold fields as a dredging proposition.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 25, 1908, page 110

Grants Pass.
By Dennis H. Stovall.
    The Windy Hollow mining district, which has been idle for some time, is again a scene of great activity. The most important mining claims have been purchased by Nevada mining men and will be developed by them, These men have ample capital behind them, and will give the claims adequate and extensive development. J. J. Reily [sic] came into Windy Hollow several months ago from Nevada. He prospected the district thoroughly, and sampled the ores of the Jumbo, Butte and other claims of the Loftus group. He liked these claims so well that he took a working bond upon them. This past week he and his associates purchased the claims. The consideration is not given to the public, but it is known that the properties were held at $200,000.00. Associated with Mr. Reiley [sic] are several other Nevada mining men, also T. H. Oliver of Spokane, M. R. Jennings of Buffalo and Marcus Gilliam of New York. Their sinking on the Butte is highly satisfactory. The ledge is a wide one, ranging from twenty to fifty feet. The ore is nearly all milling. Besides the main ledge, several narrower and richer veins have been struck. A few days ago a strike of this character was made, uncovering very rich gold ore.
    The Windy Hollow mining district is one of the most remote in the state of Oregon. It is located near Lakeview, southeastern Oregon. The first discovery in the district was made by Loftus brothers, cattlemen, two years ago. They took out a small fortune from the surface prospects within a few weeks. They later deeply developed the claims. The strike on the Jumbo caused a considerable rush to the district, and a number of claims were located. Subsequent development proved several of these to be splendid properties. The quartz ledges of this district are different in character from the usual run of lode veins in Southern Oregon. The ore resembles the Nevada quartz; in fact, the district is not very far away from the corner post that marks the dividing line between Oregon, Nevada and California. The men who recently purchased the Jumbo and Butte groups state emphatically that the Windy Hollow ore is as good, all things considered, as the ledges of Rawhide and other famous Nevada districts. It is evident that a number of good mines will be developed in Windy Hollow.
    The big bedrock mining machine, which is being built by the Gilman Mining Co., is fast nearing completion, and will be placed on Rogue River by the middle of July. The barge for the machine is being built in Grants Pass, but the main portion of the machinery and equipment is being built at Sacramento. This machine is a patent of L. F. Gilman president and manager of the company, and will introduce a new phase of mining in Southern Oregon. It is a well-known fact that the bed of Rogue River is rich in gold, but there has been no available method of obtaining it. The gold could not be dredged in the ordinary way, owing to the bedrock bottom of the river. This machine merely dries a portion of the river bed, thus exposing it for mining. There is a portable cofferdam, made of steel slides working in grooves. There is also a double dome arrangement, one working inside and independent of the other, so that it will adapt itself to all irregularities on the bottom of the river. The machine will work between two ponderous barges eighteen feet wide by eighty feet long, being hung to an overhead framework in such a way that the domes can be readily lifted from the bottom of the river and shifted from one point to another. The first operations of the company will be on a rich stretch of the river, forty miles below Grants Pass.
    The hydraulic placer mines of Southern Oregon have nearly all completed their annual spring cleanup. There has already been brought in for exchange at the banks, or direct shipment to the mint, almost $750,000.00. It is believed that the total output of the placer mines of Southern Oregon, for this season, will be close to $1,000,000.00. Several of the bigger properties of the district, notably the Sterling, Deep Gravel, Columbia, Royal Group, Simmons & Logan and Sturgis, will clean up from $20,000.00 to $60,000.00 each. There is also considerable platinum being cleaned up with the placer gold in Southern Oregon; in fact, three-fourths of the total output of platinum for the United States comes from Southern Oregon placer mines. The platinum is caught in the sluices with the gold, and is secured by careful panning in vats and tubs of still water. As the hydraulic placer mines of Southern Oregon are never-failing in their returns, the yield from these forms a most important source of revenue for the mining industry of this district. As it is pure gold, and passes the same as coin, it goes immediately into the channels of trade and ensures good times for this section of the state, irrespective of the financial condition of the country at large.

Northwest Mining Journal, August 1908, page 15

(By Dennis H. Stovall.)
    GRANTS PASS, Ore.--An evidence of prosperity and the resumption of good times in Southern Oregon mining circles is the beginning of operations again on the big Blue Ledge mines, of the Upper Applegate District. The properties are located on the Oregon-California line, and are owned by New York people, C. S. Towne being manager. A considerable crew has been placed on the property, continuing the development began two years ago, and men will be added as fast as places can be made for them. The company intends to have the mine well developed by next spring, at which time a large smelter will be installed. Since the present company acquired the Blue Ledge, there has been about $600,000 expended in general prospecting work, sinking shafts and driving tunnels and drifts. In addition to this, the company has installed a modern water system, which supplies plenty of mountain water for the camp, both for domestic and fire protection purposes. A number of elegant offices and residences have been built in the camp, and as it is located at an altitude of almost 5,000 feet, and but a short distance from the snow line, it has become a popular resort, as well as a mining camp. Daily stages reach Blue Ledge from Medford, carrying passengers and mail. The company is planning to place a smelting plant that will cost $1,000,000. It will be located on Joe Bar, or near Joe Bar, about two miles below the main camp, to which the ore will be conveyed by gravity tram. Besides the building of a smelter, the company is also contemplating the construction of a railroad connecting the camp with the main Southern Pacific line, either at Medford or Grants Pass, the exact route not being determined as yet.
    The big Black Butte quicksilver mines, of the Calapooia mountain district, are now in operation, and are shipping mercury. The first carload left the mines this past week, and other shipments will be made regularly. Both the new reduction plant and the mines are proving highly satisfactory. The Black Butte properties are the deepest developed and best equipped cinnabar mines on the Pacific Coast. They have been under constant development for the past ten years, and under one management all the while. W. B. Dennis, an expert metallurgist and mining engineer, has had personal charge of the properties. Over five miles of tunnels, upraises, shafts and winzes have been driven. Hundreds of thousands of tons of ore are blocked out. The great smelter is completed and in operation day and night. The camp is one of the neatest, most sanitary and well-kept in Oregon. Black Butte Mountain, on which the mines are located, rises to an altitude of almost 3,000 feet. The whole mountain is practically one huge mass of cinnabar. The main vein is 400 feet wide. and has been opened for a depth of two miles into the heart of the mountain. The development of the property and its equipment with a reduction plant suited to the particular requirements of the ore has cost hundreds of thousands of dollars, but the company persisted, and has won out. There is no doubt but that it will soon take rank among the very largest quicksilver producing mines in the world. The reduction plant differs from all other cinnabar reducing plants in that it uses wood instead of coal for fuel. It has a capacity of 100 tons daily, but will soon be increased to 400 tons daily.
    Longwell & Son, Southern Oregon prospectors, after patient and persistent work in the Applegate District near Provolt, twelve miles south of Grants Pass, have uncovered a five-foot ledge that carries values of from $50 to $200 a ton. Some of the ore is thickly shot with gold, and runs up into the thousands. It is one of the richest strikes made in Southern Oregon this season. The ledge has been traced for a long distance on the surface, and though it has been opened by shallow tunnels only, the general character of the quartz and the contact prove it to be a permanent proposition. Several claims have been located, and the property will be deeply developed. The discovery is made but a short distance from Williams Creek, where Harris brothers made their rich strike last March. The Harris claims are under development and are proving very rich. Both strikes are made on old districts, and on ground that has been prospected for placer diggings since 1855.
    A tract of 600 acres of mineral land. located near the railroad in Douglas County, has been purchased by a Minnesota company, of which W. H. Miller and P. A. Eva are managers. The company will begin the development and equipment of the property at once. The land is desired for its placer gold and sandstone. The latter will be quarried in great quantity. Right of way for a spur track from the quarry to the main line of the Southern Pacific has already been secured. and the sandstone will be removed by the trainload. Considerable quantity of this stone has already been used for building purposes; several large structures in Portland have been constructed of the material.

Northwest Mining Journal, September 1908, page 32

(By Dennis H. Stovall.)
    GRANTS PASS, Ore.--The extensive copper-gold deposits of the Pickett Creek District. on Rogue River, some 14 miles below Grants Pass, are to be fully developed and shaped for extensive smelting operations by the United Copper Gold Mines Company. Though the officers of this company are principally South Oregon mining men, the bulk of the capital will be supplied by Seattle capitalists. The Pickett Creek copper mines have been under development for several years, but the men who have had them in charge were not able to give them the attention their size and richness warranted. The new company will begin at once in driving the tunnels deeper, and opening up the ore body, both for shipping and smelting. Considerable ore has already been shipped from these mines, and the returns are sufficient to prove the ledges of exceptional value. O. S. Blanchard, of this city, is president of the new company; O. A. Thomas, who has had charge of the mines for the past three years, is secretary and manager.
    Assays made on the ore from the Pickett Creek mines give returns of $30 to $100 in gold, and from 6 to 8 percent copper. The ledges are from five to ten feet in width. The ore is of about the same character as that of the Waldo mines, where the Takilma Smelter is located. Pickett Creek has been mined for years for its placer gold, some of the richest surface diggings of Southern Oregon being located there. It has been known for several years that there were the rich ledges in the bills, but not until recently was any effort made to develop the quartz veins. There is much activity in the district this summer, and a number of claims have been located and are under development. C. B. Glover and G. L. Smith, who are developing a group of claims adjoining the properties of the United Copper-Gold Company, have uncovered a rich body of ore, with values running from $25 to $200 a ton in gold, besides the copper.
    The big hydraulic placer mines, on Paradise and Half Moon bars, of lower Rogue River, which have been under development for the past year, are now fully equipped and ready for operation. As soon as the fall rains bring the water of Mule Creek and supplying streams to a sufficient level the giants will be turned on and operations begin. Two placer mines were developed and equipped in this district last year, and the results from the past season's mining were highly satisfactory. It was largely the success of the first ventures that led to the recent mines being opened up down there. Los Angeles capital is behind the several enterprises, and fully $500,000 is invested in the development and equipment of the four mines. Equipping these properties was an expensive procedure, as all of the piping, giants and machinery had to be carried in by pack pony over the mountain trail from West Fork. An attempt was made by one company to float the machinery by barge down the Rogue River, but the experiment proved a failure. As the diggings are very rich, the placers will give full returns for the heavy outlay after two seasons' work.
    From all indications the old Greenback Mine, of Grave Creek District, will resume operations again in the near future. Five of the forty stamps have been operated of late, and it is reported that the. remainder of the battery will begin dropping before long. W. H. Vrevoort, the New York capitalist who owns the Greenback, was here recently looking over the property, and laid plans for its future operations. A few men are employed. and operations have begun in a small way, but this is but a beginning to the real work that will follow. The Greenback's suspension almost three years ago came about through no fault of the mine itself. The property was producing heavily when work stopped, and the forty stamps had been pounding day and night on good ore. Internal troubles were responsible for the shutdown. The main ledge was opened up to a depth of 1,500 feet, but the bulk of the ore came from the levels down to 900 feet. Most of the ore between the 900 and 1,500 foot levels is yet to be removed, and it is this that will supply the rock for future operations. The Greenback lode is remarkable in that it sustains its free-milling values on the deep levels. Some of the richest quartz found in the mine came from a depth of 1,000 feet.
    The American Gold Fields Company, of which W. J. Morphy is manager and which owns the Granite Hill Mines, of Louse Creek District, near Grants Pass, was unable to resume operations on the property this summer. The inability of the company to resume was due to lack of funds, caused by the tightening of finances in the East, and particularly among the stockholders of the company. The company, however, has cleared up all its obligations, and has a clear and clean title to the property. It has also kept everything in splendid shape on the mine, the mill being in splendid condition, and all of the machinery and equipment is ready to begin operation on a day's notice. Superintendent Charley Morphy has remained on the mine, and has employed a few men. Several hundred cords of wood has been out, new boilers installed, and the pumps set for clearing the mine of its surplus water. The company now hopes to begin work this fall, and is getting everything in readiness to begin pumping the water from the mine.
    Considerable interest is being manifested this summer by outside capital in the coal fields of Southern Oregon. The deposits near Medford are being fully developed, as are several of the claims on Evans Creek. near Grants Pass. Though all of these deposits are lignite, the coal is valuable for fuel and is already being used for this purpose. The coal beds of N. D. McDowell, near Eagle Point, have been leased by a California syndicate, whose headquarters are at Pasadena. The company has already brought in its equipment and will begin work at once in the development of the property. The price paid for the lease was $100 an acre. There are 200 acres in the tract, and the experts who reported upon it are of the opinion that a wealth of coal underlies the land.

Northwest Mining Journal, September 1908, page 32

Southern Oregon
Dennis H. Stovall.

    GRANTS PASS, Ore.--Another gold strike has been made near Grants Pass as a result of the intelligent and extensive prospecting being done in this section. The last strike was made in Fiddler's Gulch, near the old mining camp of Kerby, and only a short distance from the place where gold was first discovered in Oregon in 1852. The strike was made by John Neal and Bal Cannon. Assays made on the sacks of ore brought in give returns of from $5,000 to $13,000 a ton. Gold is visible in all parts of the rock, occurring in stringers, layers and wires.
    The character of the ore is telluride. A considerable quantity was brought in by pack animal to Grants Pass, and has been shipped to the smelter. Other shipments will be brought in soon, and the owners are deriving handsome returns in the working of the proposition by the crude method of shovel, pick and mortar. Returns are being regularly derived. The owners have driven in a tunnel to a depth of 40 feet, following the vein. This shows up well the whole length of the tunnel. The ledge has been traced on the surface for a distance of 1,000 feet. The strike has caused a general rush of prospectors toward Fiddler's Gulch and that section of the county. Though the district was mined over 50 years ago, the old-timers overlooked everything except placer, and so but little quartz prospecting was done until recently. Besides this strike several others of lesser importance have been made in the district. Nearly all are of the same character, the ore containing tellurides.
    The Gilman Bedrock Mining Company, whose bedrock gold mining operations have been watched with intense interest by mining men of this section for several months, now has all the machinery and equipment on the site of the dredging field, and will soon begin active work. The first work will be done on a rich section of Rogue River, just below the confluence of Galice with the larger stream. The two barges reached this point safely from Grants Pass, being set up and a camp established. The stage of water in the river is lower than it has been for several years, and the machine will go into operation under very favorable conditions. The machine will dry about 1,000 square yards of the river bed at a time, exposing it for placering by sluice. The enterprise is backed by California and Southern Oregon capital.
    The Wilson & Anderson hydraulic placer mines, of Waldo District, are being greatly improved for next season's work. Several hundred feet of 24-inch steel piping, new giants, gates and machinery are now being added. The ditches are being widened and deepened and the flumes rebuilt to increase the water supply. Four giants will be operated on this mine in the future, and to increase the night capacity an electric lighting system is being placed. The Wildon is one of the oldest placer mines in Southern Oregon. It has produced good returns for almost half a century, and still has a vast acreage of diggings.
    W. W. Hale and J. H. McDonough, Seattle mining men. who have been inspecting the Southern Oregon Mining District for several weeks, have taken over several very promising claims in the Josephine Creek District, near Kerby, of western Josephine County. The two men are highly pleased with the district, and will back their faith by hard cash and hard work. The claims taken over will be well developed and put in shape for active operation. The ledges on the group, like those of Fiddler's Gulch and nearby districts, carry their values in tellurium.
    Unprecedented activity is now manifest in the Santiam Mining District. Work is being done, both in the development of the individual mines and in bettering the condition of the camp. One splendid improvement is the building of a better wagon road into the district. A force of 60 men is now at work on the highway from Gates to Elkhorn. This new road will give the miners an open exit to the Corvallis & Eastern Railroad, and direct connection with be outside world. Its completion means the building of a smelter in the district at a very early date. Several of the operating companies of the camp have already united on a plan for the construction of a reduction plant. Four mines are operating on the Santiam--the Gold Creek, Freeland Consolidated, Electric and Black Eagle.
Northwest Mining Journal, October 1908, page 46

    (Special Correspondence).--The Pacific Coal Co., of which R. E. Doan, of Los Angeles, is the largest stockholder, has 3000 acres of coal land five miles east of Medford, on which 4000 ft. of development work has been done. The longest drift goes in 1000 ft. on the vein, the latter being 10 to 12 ft. thick. Mr. Doan states that 75% of the coal thus opened is a marketable commodity. The better quality of it contains 55% fixed carbon, 6% ash, 3% water, and the rest volatile combustibles; the average of fixed carbon is said to be 40%. The company has steel rails at Medford sufficient for five miles of railroad track and it is probable that a road will be built to the mine.… Champlin Bros. have been dredging four years on Foots Creek, near Gold Hill, and have worked out an area half a mile long 500 ft. wide and 35 ft. deep. The ground has yielded 30¢ to $1.25 per cubic yard. Their new dredge is of modern design, operated by electric power. The Brayden mine, near Gold Hill, operated by the Condor Water Co., has been active several years, and is opened by six levels from 300 to 1000 ft. long on the strike of the vein, which stands between schist walls. This company bought the mine some time ago and has paid for it from the proceeds of operations. The 10-stamp mill, with plates and tables, is running. Gold Hill, which originally yielded phenomenally rich pockets of free gold, the most of which was extracted from 1858 to 1860, is still being worked over on a small scale by individual miners. The Blackwell Hills, on the south side of Rogue River, covering an area of 2 by 6 miles, yielded rich ore in pockets in the early days and are still of interest to the old-time miner. The Millionaire mine, in these hills, has a hoist over a 400-ft. shaft. There is also a Nissen two-stamp mill, with plates and table, which will be run this winter. J. T. Davison is in charge. The Shamrock, managed by W. P. Chisholm, of Gold Hill, has a vein of chalcopyrite ore in a schist country, opened by 1500 ft. of work. The ore will average 3 to 4% copper. The Corporal G, on Sardine Creek, has ore that yields $50 to $70 per ton at the Lucky Bart mill. W. A. Pierson, superintendent of the Black Eagle, is developing and erecting a small mill. The property belongs to Portland people.
Gold Hill, October 10.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 31, 1908, page 589

    This is the pioneer mining district of Oregon. Gold was first discovered on Jackson Creek in 1851, bringing thousands of fortune hunters over the Siskiyou Mountains from California. For years Jacksonville, the first Oregon mining camp, located five miles from the present city of Medford, was one of the liveliest gold districts in the West. It is still a mining center.
    The vast acreage of old channels, gravel bars and auriferous placer depos
its, together with the abundant winter rains and numerous streams, combine to make this section one of the leading hydraulic placer districts in America. Placer mining has always been largely followed here. Fully $20,000,000 in virgin gold has been produced from the several diggings since the original discovery. Jackson Creek diggings alone have produced nearly $6,000,000. The hydraulic mines, a half hundred in number, are among the best equipped in America, with their miles of ditches and flumes, thousands of feet of iron and steel pipe, their batteries of giants and all necessary machinery for hydraulicking. The season of mining being long, the water supply and diggings abundant, the output from Jackson County's surface mines total a half million each year.
    There yet remains considerable unclaimed placer ground here, but the greatest opportunity along this line is in the investment of small and great capital by the purchase of undeveloped properties, giving them proper development, adequate equipment and intelligent management.
    Though this district has a number of producing quartz mines, this feature of the gold mining industry is in its infancy. Quartz mining has been followed here for almost as long a period as placer mining. Many notable discoveries have been made. The Gold Hill and Steamboat strikes each yielded more than $250,000.

    The copper mines of the Blue Ledge district, though located on the California-Oregon border line, are tributary to Medford, the only means of reaching them being by wagon road from this city, a distance of thirty-five miles. The deposits of copper in the district have been exploited and developed sufficiently to prove the district beyond any possible question one of the greatest bodies of copper in the West.
    The Blue Ledge district, as a whole, comprises an area of 2,000 square miles, occupying the upper range of the Siskiyous, with an altitude of from 3,500 to 6,100 feet. Fully 1,000 claims have been located in the district. There are ten parallel ledges, occupying a strip ten miles wide, and with claims located continuously upon them for a distance of twenty-five miles.
    The principal lode of the district, that which first attracted the attention of mining men, and from which the camp derives its name, is the Blue Ledge. This ledge was first located in 1898, and is now owned and under development by the Blue Ledge Mining Company of New York. This company is sparing no expense or effort to fully develop the property, and intends to ultimately equip it with a smelter and reduction works with a capacity of at least 500 tons daily, and which, with the mine workings, will give employment for several thousand men. Medford, being the supply point and the gateway to this district, is in a most enviable position, as this city will, in a large measure, derive the full benefit of the immense payroll, not only of the Blue Ledge property itself, but of the many other properties that are under development there and which will, in due course, install smelting and reduction plants.

    The hills west and south of Medford contain limitless quantities of granite. Analyses and tests have not only proved these gigantic granite ledges to be first grade building stone, unequaled by any on the Coast, but they contain also a class of granite peculiarly valuable for monumental purposes. This latter class occurs in all desirable shades and tints, taking a very fine polish and exquisite finish; also it is of a toughness and texture that ensures its weathering the extremes of heat and cold through countless centuries.
    Marble is to be one of the chief sources of wealth. One body covering 360 acres is exceptionally fine, similar in grain to that of Vermont. In color it is from pure white to jet black. The dark blue nearly identical to dark blue Rutland. The variegated and mottled being exceptionally beautiful blends. This vast bed is still in its natural state, very little development having been done. This marble offers good investment to quarry and for the manufacture of marble products.
    Sandstone for building purposes is found in several localities about Medford. One fine deposit at the edge of the city is being worked, furnishing Medford with excellent, yet cheap, building material.
    An opportunity for investment is presented here, in equipping these great natural quarries with stonecutting plants and machinery for removing the stone in quantity. The building era upon which the whole Pacific Coast is now entering will create an enormous demand for building material, especially for such excellent stone as these deposits contain.

    The variety and extent of the metal and mineral deposits in the territory tributary to Medford is no less wonderful or remarkable than the diversity and output of the soil products. Extensive ledges of cinnabar, carrying a high percentage of mercury, are under development by Medford people in the Meadows district of upper Rogue River.
    The rare metal, platinum, is also found here, occurring principally with the black sand of the placer diggings. In 1905 nearly one-fourth the entire platinum output for America, as shown by the
report of the United States Geological Survey, came from Southern Oregon.
    Cobalt, nickel, zinc, arsenic, graphite, clays, calcite or limestone, all are found here, the first four mentioned in this list being associated with other metals and minerals in quartz formation.
    Cement rock, clays, etc., necessary for the manufacture of cement, are in quantities here. Development of this industry is waiting the call of mine railways.
"Medford, Oregon: Rogue River Valley," booster booklet published by the Medford Commercial Club, Portland, 1909.

Dennis H. Stovall.

    GRANTS PASS, Ore.--An event of importance for Southern Oregon was the launching in Galice district this past week of the Bedrock gold mining machine or dredge by the Gilman Bedrock Mining Company. The launching "ceremony" was witnessed by all the miners of Galice Camp, and a number of interested visitors from the outside. Miss Ruth Harlow, daughter of a Galice mining man, christened the "gold ship," naming it the Maud G., in honor of the wife of President Gilman of the Bedrock Company. This machine is the first of its kind ever put in operation, and is the invention of Mr. Gilman. It is 38 feet long, 16 feet wide, and covers 250 square feet at one setting. It is built entirely of steel, and weighs 20 tons. It is carried between two 80-foot barges. These barges, besides supporting the machine, also carry the sluices, riffles and other mining equipment. The steel slides, which are provided on both the outer and inner domes of the machine, are jacked down to conform to the uneven surface of the river bed. Mr. Gilman has spent six years' hard work perfecting this machine, and has great confidence in its success. The preliminary tests prove it to be all that was expected of it, as it clears the river bed of water and allows the mining of the rich gravel so easily as could be done with an exposed bar. The company is now building similar machines to launch on other Pacific Coast streams and Alaska waters.
    Because of the extensive development being done in the camp, Galice continues to hold first place among all the growing districts of Southern Oregon. Many thousand dollars have been expended this past summer in the equipping and opening up of properties of this old district, particularly of the quartz mines, and the winter season will be the best the camp has ever known. The Almeda, Oriole, Golden Wedge, Sugar Pine, Cold Springs and other properties of the district are being deeply developed and equipped with reduction plants. Many of these will be in active operation before the close of this year. The Golden Wedge will soon have five stamps added to its equipment, and its concentrating and cyanide plant will be enlarged. Paul Bright is manager of this mine. The capital behind the enterprise is furnished by Eastern men, among them being W. J. Cleland, John Lantz and B. B. Tyler.
    The Almeda Consolidated Mines Company will place a smelter of 200 tons capacity as soon as the manufacturing company can deliver the machinery. Everything in the mine is in readiness for the reduction plant. So extensive has been the growth of the Almeda camp that a lively town has sprung up. Its location is on a broad shelf at the base of the mountains overlooking Rogue River. The mine and camp are on the south bank of the stream. The mines on the north bank will be connected to the town by a bridge, which is now under construction. The development work done on this mammoth mine is the most extensive on any Southern Oregon copper property. On the Almeda claim alone over 3,000 feet of underground workings--tunnels, crosscuts and drifts--have been driven. These workings have uncovered vast bodies of ore, carrying values in gold, silver and copper, running from $8 to $20 a ton. The richest ore in the mine is found in a vein that averages 20 feet in width, and which has been opened for a distance of 2,000 feet.
    Considerable mining activity is manifest in the Gold Hill district, near the town of Gold Hill. James Davis and Thomas Hagan, who recently acquired the old Bowden Mine of that district, and who have been industriously developing it, report an exceptionally rich strike on the property. On the 70-foot level they struck an entirely new body of ore. The ledge is two feet wide and carries values of from $40 to $50 a ton. They have been following this vein for two weeks, and it shows no signs of pinching. A five-stamp mill will be placed on the property before the close of the year. The Corporal G. is another Gold Hill mine that is making a good showing. L. A. Carter, manager of this mine, brought in a gold brick from the property a few days ago, the result of the regular monthly cleanup. During the run of the mill this past week, three tons of ore netted $140 as a test. The mine is more than paying for its development, and in the meantime is being shaped for operation on an extensive scale.

Northwest Mining Journal, January 1909, page 13

    Abe Lamb, manager of the Ashland Peak mine, situated three miles south of Ashland, states that the adit, which is being driven on the vein by machine drills, is now in 250 ft. The vein is 7 to 9 ft. wide, stands vertical, and is well-defined between clean-cut walls. After the ore bodies are well opened up a quartz mill will be installed at the mine.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 20, 1909, page 403

    The shipment of 17 tons of ore from the Oriole mine at Galice brought J. C. Mattison returns at the rate of $210 per ton. This ore has come from a vein 40 ft. wide which contains a narrow streak of high-grade in the middle. Mattison will at once put up a stamp mill and a cyanide plant of sufficient capacity to take care of the low-grade ore as fast as it is mined. As a preliminary, the construction of a wagon road from Galice to the mine, a distance of two miles, is to be begun immediately.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 27, 1909, page 437

Southern Oregon
By Dennis H. Stovall
Grants Pass, Oregon.

    "Cleanup time," the golden harvest of the southern Oregon hydraulic placer miner, is now on; the output is the best for many seasons. This past week about $75,000 was shipped out of Grants Pass alone, this all being virgin gold. and principally from one camp. It was consigned to the mint at San Francisco. Most of the local miners prefer to ship in this way, rather than disposing of their output to the banks.
    The Sterling, of Jacksonville district, will clean up $60,000; the Old Channel mines, of Galice district, will product a like amount; the Columbia, of Grave Creek district, $50,000; while scores of others will come in with from $5,000 to $10,000, and some will have from $20,000 to $30,000. As has already been told in these columns, the season for placer mining has been very favorable. This was due to the copious and continued rains, and the soft snows on the mountains; in truth there still remains much snow on the higher ranges, and some of the hydraulic properties will operate from two to three giants till the latter part of May or middle of June.
    In southern Oregon, cleanup always comes in the spring or early summer, though a few miners clean their sluices once a month through the running season. The bedrock race is first swept down, using a high-pressure nozzle, and every particle of precious yellow gathered up. The riffles are then lifted from the sluices, thoroughly rinsed and laid aside. Most southern Oregon miners use specially prepared riffles made of steel though some still remain faithful to the old-time but always reliable "block" and "pole" riffle. The latter are desired because of the ease with which they can be made, for the material needed is always ready at hand. After the riffles are taken out, and with a small stream of water flowing through, the mass of gold and dirt on the sluice floor is swept gently to and fro with a brush-broom and shovel. The dirt and refuse is lifted and carried off over the dump by the waste water, revealing the black sand and the gold nuggets. The larger pieces are picked up and bottled, while the smaller particles and "dust" are panned out more carefully over settling vats or tubs, into which the platinum sands are caught and saved by a second or third panning.
    The Greenback mine, of Grave Creek district, which was idle for over a year because of litigation, is operating again. It is being worked under lease, though the original Greenback Mining Company, of New York, of which W. H. Brevoort is general manager, remains owner of the property. Ten of the 30 stamps are dropping, but more will be operated later. The cyanide plant of the property is also being operated, the tailings of the dump being the base of supply, in addition to the slimes from the mill. Only a small crew, in comparison with the number of men formerly at work, are employed, but it is believed that within a few months old Greenback camp will be as lively as ever. A few years ago, and for several seasons, it was the largest and richest mine in southern Oregon. There were over 400 people in Greenback, all supported by the mine. The ledge was opened to a depth of 1,500 feet, though but little ore was removed from below the 1100-foot level. While the values are more base, they are just as stable on the deeper levels as they were nearer the surface, and there yet remains a vast body of workable quartz to mill.
    C. L. Mangum, who has been identified with southern Oregon mines for a number of years, and who has opened up some of the largest properties of the district, is preparing to fully develop the great "Silver Creek lode," as it is known. This is undoubtedly one of the largest propositions of its kind on the coast. Mr. Mangum will have associated with him other western mining men with the capital and energy necessary to develop and equip the gigantic property. Though immense in size, the big ledge stands revealed on both walls of Silver Creek canyon for a height of several hundred feet. In fact, there are countless tons of milling ore in sight. In this respect the proposition is unique, as the owners feel confident that it will only be necessary for them to install a reduction plant and begin work on at producing basis at once. The ore values are carried principally in gold, and are both free and base, but not held so stubbornly but that they can easily be reduced by milling and concentration. Besides the immense ledge itself, the several claims of the property include a vast acreage of splendid timber, unexcelled water rights and all other natural advantages for cheap mining on a huge scale. The remoteness of the district and property from the railroad is alone accountable for its remaining so long overlooked. Mr. Mangum has a crew at work, and expects to have the property fully under way before the close of the coming summer season.

Northwest Mining Journal, May 1909, page 12

    A valuable mineral find in Southern Oregon has been reported by G. W. Morris, an old-time prospector from California. It is a vein of copper ore carrying $17 gold per ton, and outcropping for a distance of 600 ft. It was found about eight miles south of Roseburg.
"Douglas County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 1, 1909, page 606

    Coal occurs at many localities in the Rogue River Valley of Southwestern Oregon, between the Cascade Mountains on the east and the Klamath Mountains, locally called the Siskiyou Mountains, on the west. A long narrow coal belt stretching to the south and southeast in the Rogue River Valley east of Medford and Ashland. Oregon, and continuing through the Siskiyou Mountain divide into California, a total distance of nearly 100 miles, has been described by J. S. Diller of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 8, 1909, page 661

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By Dennis H. Stovall.

    I know a mine superintendent who has made it a practice to question every miner he employs regarding his familiarity with blasting. Moreover, he gives them instruction when necessary in this important matter, and he maintains a uniform system. By exercising a little care he has had few accidents. This is a feature of practical mining to which every superintendent and manager should give attention.
    Few miners use any explosive other than dynamite, though some still cling to black powder, especially those working in soft ground. Some large companies still use black powder, believing it more economical and safer. Whether it be safer or not depends much upon the way in which it is used. It requires more tools and considerably more time to prepare a shot with black powder than with other common explosives, but the results are satisfactory if the powder be carefully set and well tamped. The tools needed are a pricker or needle, which is a slender tapering rod of copper or bronze, used for maintaining a hole in the tamping through which the charge can be fired; the tamping bar, which is a rod of iron, copper, or bronze, or of iron shod with copper, and used for ramming in dried clay or pounded slate, to hold the powder firmly; and a claying bar, used for lining wet holes with clay, to render them temporarily watertight.
    Where loose powder is used, the ordinary method is to set in the pricker, holding it upright in the center of the hole while a portion of the charge is poured in. Care is taken to draw out the needle as the tamping proceeds, so as to obviate too much exertion being required for its final withdrawal. The small hole left in this way serves for the insertion of the fuse, or of the quill or straw filled with powder, which is pushed down and connected with the fuse proper. The best and surest method, however, is to push the fuse itself well down into the hole. As the safety fuse burns slowly, not faster than two or three feet per minute, the miner has ample time for retreat by allowing sufficient length. It is usual to light the fuse by a candle end fixed under it by a piece of clay, considerable time being required for the candle to burn through the fuse.
    Most modern high explosives contain nitroglycerin in some form, the explosion being brought about through the action of a fulminating cap. Guncotton is employed extensively in western mines, and is prepared in various forms, the cotton fabric itself being always mixed with some nitrate or mixture of nitrates. Guncotton is more powerful than gunpowder, though less powerful than dynamite; it possesses an advantage over the latter, however, in that it does not have to be thawed in cold weather. It can be handled with greater safety than dynamite, but is just as dangerous when remnants are left in partly exploded charges. The miner should examine the bottoms of all holes after blasting, and destroy any remnants of powder by firing a detonator in a "socket" or missed hole which cannot with certainty be pronounced free from danger.
    The methods employed for firing guncotton, cotton powder, blasting gelatin, dynamite, and all explosives containing nitroglycerin, are practically the same. The explosion is induced by the detonation of a fulminating cap. This fulminating cap contains fulminate of mercury with chlorate of potash, and it is fastened into the safety fuse by squeezing with a pair of nippers. It is then inserted into a small cartridge, or primer, of the explosive, and placed above the charge proper. Some miners who use guncotton prefer to lightly tamp in a small charge of gunpowder above the cotton, firing it through this.
    The common stick dynamite has several advantages over other forms of explosives. It has greater power, may be used in wet holes or under water, is effective in ground which is full of cavities, and it requires no tamping. Being plastic, because of its mixture with wood pulp, it readily adjusts itself to completely fill a hole after it is placed. The greatest disadvantage of dynamite is that it must be thawed in cold weather, but where care is exercised this can be accomplished with comparatively little danger. There is also its freakishness, by which entire sticks fail to explode through the action of the fulminating cap, but may later ignite with fatal results when struck with a bar or drill. The danger is enhanced when remnants have been left in contact with water, as the liquid causes a separation of the nitroglycerin from the dope, so that even a blow upon the adjacent rock leads to an explosion. A small quantity of the nitroglycerin leaked into a crack is sufficient to cause death and destruction.
    Firing several holes simultaneously by electricity eliminates much danger. There has been placed upon the market an igniter by which a number of instantaneous fuses convey fire to as many separate holes. The charges are fired, either singly or simultaneously by electricity, the electric charge being obtained from a magneto dynamo or battery. The distinct advantage of this method of firing is its safety, as the miner can retire to a perfectly safe place, and all the miners can reach a place of safety before a single shot is exploded.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 15, 1909, page 699

    I. K. Evans, of Philadelphia, has purchased, on behalf of a syndicate, at a sheriff's sale all the holdings of the Galice Hydraulic Mining Co., St. Helens Hydraulic Mining Co., the Galice Consolidated mines, and the T. K. Anderson properties. These corporations became involved in litigation over the right to use the waters of Galice Creek. The Philadelphia syndicate will organize a corporation to be known as the Galice Placer Mines Co., and under this name the work of mining will be carried on.… Ore has been cut on the lowest level in the Alameda mine. This now exposes ore on four levels. E. R. Crouch is foreman.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 29, 1909, page 740

    A carload of oil-drilling machinery has arrived at Oakland, constituting the first lot of drilling apparatus that will soon be at work in this locality, under the direction of the Standard Oil Co., which will sink several wells near Oakland and in the Sutherlin Valley. Representatives of the company have been busy the past month in arranging details and getting the leases signed, and now have about 30,000 acres leased for from one to five years. For years this locality has shown prospects of oil, but not until now has it been possible to take up the development of them, owing to the opposition which the representatives have met with in gaining the concessions asked for. The first well will be sunk on the ranch of James Hunt, one mile east of Oakland.

"Douglas County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 12, 1909, page 810

    The Electrical Gold Dredging Co. has purchased the property of D. P. Blue on Kane Creek and have installed a 42-ton steam shovel. The company owns 160 acres of ground.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 19, 1909, page 842

    A new corporation has been organized in Grants Pass called the Old Glory Mining Co., with C. L. Mangum as president. The property is situated on Silver Creek, 20 miles west of Galice, in the vicinity of the recent rich discovery of Brazill and Robinson on the same creek, and consists of four lode and two placer claims. The Greenback mine, 20 miles north of Grants Pass, which was shut down a year ago, is soon to be put in operation again by its old superintendent. Gary W. Thompson, who has taken a bond and lease on the property, and will work it as soon as the mine can be retimbered and some dead work done. There is a 40-stamp mill on the property and a first-class cyanide plant. This mine has paid to the shareholders $1,200,000.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 26, 1909, page 874

    A water-power plant is being installed at the Oriole mine. J. C. Mattison is manager. A new mill is being erected at the Sugar Pine mine.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 3, 1909, page 9

    The Department of the Interior has just issued a bulletin relating to mining in Southern Oregon, in which the mines in Jackson County are described as the result of a geological survey. The bulletin is replete with valuable information, giving as it does a history of all mines in the neighborhood of Medford.
    The pamphlet first deals with the gold quartz mines, from the description of which the following is taken:
    "The most productive gold quartz mines which were in operation in this area during the summer of 1908 were the Braden and the Opp. The Granite Hill and Mountain Lion mines, although not now being worked, have also been fairly important producers within the last few years. There are many mines and prospects on which work is not now being done, some of which have never produced, some of which have produced values of a few hundred dollars, and a few of which have produced values of several thousand dollars. At present some development is in progress on new prospects and on mines which were until recently closed. The total gold production of the gold quartz mines of the area in 1907 was about $70,000.
    "Many of the veins and veinlets have never produced important bodies of ore, but only 'pockets,' some of which, although filling but small spaces, were remarkably rich, the gold usually having been coarse. In general, the main part of the gold in these pockets has been taken from depths less than 25 feet from the surface.
    "The veins and veinlets run in all directions. However, a comparison of the more persistent of them showed that more lie in an east-west direction than in a north-south direction. The dips of the veins vary greatly; most of them are nearly flat and some are vertical. The width of the veins is usually less than one foot; a great many are considerably less, and in some places they form an intricate network of stringers. On the other hand, there are veins with widths of more than 10 feet; in such veins either 'horses' are present, separating the vein into several parts, and there is a decided brecciation of the materials."
    Following this introduction is a description of the Braden, Granite Hill, Mountain Lion and other mines. In regard to the placer mines, the pamphlet says:
    "The placer mines of Jackson and Josephine counties produced in 1907 gold to the value of $229,575, of which $107.722 came from Jackson County and $121,853 from Josephine County. More than 75 percent of the production of Jackson County and more than 30 percent of that of Josephine County came from the area described in this report. The chief districts contributing to this production are the Gold Hill, the Foots Creek, the Applegate and the Jacksonville districts, in Jackson County; and the Althouse and Sucker Creek, the Williams Creek, the Waldo and the Kerby districts in Josephine County.
    "The gravel deposits that are being mined in these districts vary in thickness from a few feet to more than 50 feet. The average thickness of the gravels of all the important mines is more than 20 feet. The material of the deposits ranges from fine clay with but few boulders to gravels that contain boulders weighing several tons. The boulders are, as a rule, fairly well rounded where the gradients of the stream are steep, but where the gradients are flatter, they are subangular and even angular. The predominating boulders in the gravels are greenstones, but the kinds of boulders vary in the different streambeds in accordance with the various kinds of rock in which the valleys have been cut. In many of the deposits the coarsest material is at or near the bedrock, but in some the boulders are somewhat uniformly distributed throughout the section of the gravels.
    "The gold content of the gravels varies greatly. In some of the best mines the average value is from 20 to 40 cents a cubic yard. The best values have usually been found at or near the base of the deposit. Much of the gold is fine, but nuggets are frequently found.
    "Placer mining is carried on chiefly during the first half of the year, when the supply of water is most abundant. A few mines are so equipped that there is sufficient water to operate them for a greater part of the year. Only one mine, the Champlin, on Foots Creek, is equipped for dredging; the other important mines are equipped for hydraulicking. The ground sluicing method is used only in the small mines.
    "In many of the mines from three to five men are employed, but as many as fifteen are employed in some of the larger mines during the mining season."
    Among other mines described is the Champlin mine, on Foots Creek, about two miles from its junction with Rogue River. It is owned by the Champlin Dredging Company, of Chicago, which bought the property in 1903 from Mr. Lance, of Gold Hill. In the same year the company constructed a bucket dredge equipped with steam power. In November, 1905, electric power was installed, the cost of mining being thereby reduced about one-half. Thirty-six buckets are used, each of which holds 8 cubic feet of material.
    The average depth of pay gravel is about 33 feet, but deposits to depths of 46 feet have been mined without reaching bedrock. Much of the material is less than five inches in diameter, but boulders of large size are numerous. The best values are to be found in a bluish gravel, which is generally reached at a depth of about 12 feet. This gravel is from 8 to 18 inches in thickness. Below it is a fine plastic clay, which is difficult to handle, and which carries practically no gold. In the present workings this clay is not being mined. The property contains more than 1200 acres of placer ground, much of which has been thoroughly prospected and found to carry gold.
    The Sterling mine is also described, though since the pamphlet was prepared J. D. Heard has severed his connection with the company. It says:
    "The Sterling mine is on Sterling Creek, a branch of Little Applegate River, and is about eight miles from Jacksonville. It is owned by the Sterling Mining Company, of which J. D. Heard is manager. The property includes about 2000 acres, extending from a point below the mouth of Sterling Creek and over the divide to Griffin Creek. The gravel bank on the west side of the present workings is more than 40 feet in thickness, but on the east side it is only about 20 feet thick. The section consists of gravel and boulders, the latter being rather uniformly distributed throughout the section. Many of the boulders are small, but some are more than two feet in diameter and few exceed eight feet. They are mainly of greenstone.
    "Much mining has been done on Sterling Creek by the present company. The main stream was mined up from its mouth for more than three miles, then a channel to the east of this stream was followed for about half a mile. Here a channel, which is named Boulder Channel, was struck, and this has been followed for about a quarter of a mile to the present workings. The bedrock of these workings is a little higher than the present streambed and is about 100 yards east of it. The values are found across a width of nearly 200 feet. The gold is of medium coarseness and is usually well rounded, although angular nuggets are also present. The average thickness of the gravels in the Boulder Channel is about 40 feet. It is of interest to note that in these gravels the tusks and jaws of a mammoth, as well as other mammalian bones, have been found. The bedrock at the mine is greenstone, in which are patches of slaty tuffs. These rocks have been considerably sheared and veinlets of quartz are present. The strike of the slaty rocks is north eight degrees east; the dip about 60 degrees west. In the present workings is a dike running north 20 degrees east, containing cross veins which do not extend beyond the dike. The slope of the bedrock is about 2 feet in 100 feet. In 1908 mining was in progress from March until August, during which time about one acre was mined. The value of the gravels was about 40 cents to the cubic yard.
    "The mine is well equipped with giants, ditches and flumes. The longest ditch is about 27 miles in length. The water enters the ditch from Little Applegate River about 12 miles above the mouth of Sterling Creek. At the mine the head of the water is now only about 80 feet. A pipeline is being planned to carry water from Squaw Lake to the mine, a distance of 17 miles. The mine has been equipped for hydraulicking for about 30 years. The Sterling Mining Company was incorporated in 1872. There were issued only 40 shares of stock, which have been held by a very few shareholders. The total production of the mine is said to exceed $3,000,000."
Southern Oregonian, Medford, July 10, 1909, page 2

    At the Waldo copper mine 3000 tons of ore are stored on the dump. In the mine the work is confined to blocking out the ore in anticipation of the starting of the Takilma smelter which, with the Queen of Bronze mine, is at present closed by litigation.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 24, 1909, page 108

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By John M. Nicol.

    In the early days the camps of Waldo and Kerby were among the most famous of south Oregon, and apparently reliable estimates place the output of the Waldo district at eighteen million dollars. The only placers of importance which are still being worked are known as the Simmonds, owned by J. T. Logan, and the Weimers, owned by the Deep Gravel Mines. There is also a high bench or old river channel known as Al. Adams placer, which owing to lack of water is only worked to a limited extent. The district is one of numerous beautiful grassy glades, and little flat-bottomed valleys, which wind among a series of low rounded foothills, which are in turn flanked by mountains, snow-clad late into the summer months. These mountains form the boundary between California and Oregon, and are the source of water supply for the mines. In the spring, when the wild azaleas are in full bloom, the charm of the scenery is so great that the engineer, if not the miner, is apt to forget the problem in hand, and to regret that these beautiful green glades must be torn up and washed away to win a few pounds of precious metal. All the flat-bottomed valleys are placers, varying in depth, extent, and richness, but all carrying some gold and a considerable proportion of platinum. The problem in prospecting at Waldo is not to find a placer, or a rich streak, there being probably several million cubic yards of virgin gravel, which contain 20¢ per yard; the difficulties faced are in finding methods of working the known deposits economically and at a profit.
    The rocks which are most in evidence in the district are serpentine and slate, though there are some fairly large masses of porphyry and some intrusives. In working the low-lying placers, a so-called bedrock has been exposed at a number of places. It is a decomposed conglomerate, the remains of an underlying placer much older than those now worked. The original topography apparently consisted of wide, deep, and fairly level valleys, which as a result of some change in the drainage plane of the country gradually silted up. The thickness of the deposits varies from a few feet to 150, and the width from a hundred feet or so to several hundred yards. Practically all of the virgin gravels of the district are below the natural drainage plane, and would therefore have to be worked either by driving, by mechanical or hydraulic elevating, or by dredging. The gravel consists of boulders and pebbles from 10 in. diam. down to the finest sands and clays. A most interesting feature, and one worthy of note, is that nearly all of the coarse gravel, and in many places the so-called bedrock conglomerates, are completely decomposed and friable, so that they can be readily disintegrated with a hydraulic giant. The coarse gravel is very evenly distributed over all of the lower parts of the bedrock, and its thickness varies from a few feet up to 10 or 20. It carries the greater part of the gold and platinum. The overburden consists of finer gravels and some sand, though the bulk of the material is fine subangular grit and clay. Handling the large percentage of clay found throughout the deposit is one of the serious problems, both in mining and in gold saving.
    The upper and shallower part of the Weimer placer was worked to a considerable extent by a long race, which was excavated by giants, and which discharged into the west fork of Illinois River. Subsequently a considerable body of gravel was mined by Hendy hydraulic elevators until the depth of the gravel penetrated was greater than could be mined with the pressure available. J. T. Logan has taken advantage of two different ditch lines, with different heads to place two elevators in tandem, and by this means he is enabled to work the deeper gravels. One of the hydraulic elevators has a lift of 39 ft., and operating with a head of 330 ft., uses 11 cu. ft. of water per second, besides taking all the water from two No. 2 giants. The second elevator has a lift of 9 ft., a head of 125, and uses 18 cu. ft. of water per second, besides all the water from the first elevator. This makes the final discharge about 40 cu. ft. per second.
    The largest proportion of the gold found is fine and a great deal of it is coated with a film of what is stated to be palladium, and which effectually prevents amalgamation. When a cleanup of the sluice boxes is made a great quantity of rounded and subangular fragments of hematite are found in the riffles, varying from the size of a large pea down to the finest red mud. I collected samples of this, and after screening out the fine material below 40 mesh, and carefully hand-picking the grains to remove any small nuggets of gold, I had the residue assayed. The assays showed that all of this hematite contains considerable gold, platinum, and osmium-iridium. The samples from the small gulches and old benches were the richest. I found some that would assay from $200 to $500 per ton of included gold, platinum, and osmium-iridium. The average of several samples that I took from the sluices of the Deep Gravel Mines gave $40 per ton.
    Whether it would pay to save this product depends upon the proportion per cubic yard; no proper tests have been made to determine this. I made estimates from pan tests that the amount would be from 2 to 10 lb. per cubic yard of gravel. This from a placer yielding 500 yd. per day would give from ½ to 2½ tons of concentrate of hematite. These values would seem to warrant investigation as to the possibility of saving some of the concentrate.

Mining and Scientific Press,
San Francisco, July 24, 1909, pages 122-124

    The President has just signed a proclamation making a National Monument of the Oregon Caves or "Marble Halls" of Josephine County, which are situated about 30 miles south of Grants Pass. These caves were discovered in 1874 by Elija Davidson, and explored by F. M. Nickerson, of Kerby, in 1877. Five miles of openings are known to exist on the mountain and several levels have been opened. The Forest Service has rebuilt and improved the trails leading to the Caves, to make them more accessible.… The diamond-drill equipment for the National Copper Co. has arrived at Grants Pass and will be hauled to the mine at once. The drill is capable of drilling 400 ft. and is operated by a gasoline engine.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 31, 1909, page 140

    Work is to be resumed shortly on the Opp mine. near Jacksonville. Some 2000 ft. of drifts and crosscuts have been run, that opened five veins of low-grade ore. There is a 20-stamp mill on the property which is in excellent condition.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 7, 1909, page 173

    Some excellent ore is being opened at the Golden Wedge property in the Galice district. A lower adit is being driven to crosscut the vein on the Oriole mine.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 14, 1909, page 213

    At the mill of the Greenback mine 15 stamps have been put in operation, and it is the intention of the lessees to have all 40 dropping in a short time. J. P. Anderson is in charge of the work.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 21, 1909, page 243

    The United Copper-Gold Mining Co., of Salem, has completed the wagon road from Booth Ferry to its holdings on Pickett Creek, 14 miles from Grants Pass, and is hauling in machinery for its plant. The company has a compressor, machine drills, and power plant, and is planning a large amount of development work. A contract has been let to a Portland firm to erect a 50-ton smelter and if it proves successful, a larger plant will be erected. O. A. Thomas is manager.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 4, 1909, page 312

    There are 10 men working at the Braden mine which J. W. Dawson is operating under a lease.… At the Lucky Bart mine, in the Sardine Creek district, the owners are blocking out ore and repairing the wagon road.… The new machinery recently ordered for the Gray Eagle mine is expected to arrive any time.… The owners of the Blackhawk mine, at Drummond, are to commence operations shortly.… A 5-stamp mill will be erected at the Trustbuster mine, of W. R. Oxley. in the Sams Valley district within the next two months.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 2, 1909, page 444

    (Special Correspondence).--The Grey Eagle mine, belonging to the Oregon-Gold Hill Mining Co., of Portland, has installed a 10-stamp mill and cyanide plant, which is expected to be in operation by December 1. They have a steam power plant, but electricity will be installed later. The processes will consist of amalgamation, concentration, and cyanidation. They purpose cyaniding the concentrate as well as the table tailing. J. R. Wolfe is general superintendent. The mine is six miles north of Gold Hill.
Gold Hill, October 25.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 30, 1909, page 580

    The Oregon-California Consolidated Mines Co., with headquarters at Grants Pass, has installed hydraulic equipment at the former Briggs property near the Oregon-California state line, built living quarters for the men, and will work the placer ground of the group. The property has had a rather meteoric career, the outcrop of a rich vein being accidentally discovered by a hunter who sold the ground to local capitalists for $140,000, these in turn disposing of it to Eastern people, who a short time ago bonded the claims to the Oregon-California company. The company plans to erect a mill in the near future, as several adits which have been driven to cut the vein are all in good milling ore. The company has also secured properties near Gold Hill and Jacksonville. George W. Soranson will be in charge of the company's Western affairs.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 6, 1909, pages 637-638

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By Dennis H. Stovall.
    Some superintendents and managers say that a good piper is half a placer mine. To the initiated this statement will not seem far-fetched. Without a good piper, or at least without a piper who knows a few of the main tricks of handling a giant, an otherwise payable mine will fail. The piper is the fellow who "gets the stuff from the dirt," and it is "the stuff" that counts. On the Pacific Coast, where gigantic hydraulic mines are common, "piping" is an art. "Pipers" are "professional men," and proud they are of their "profession," as they have a right to be, for piping is not picked up in a day. Like prospecting, engineering, and other phases and branches of the mining business, piping is an art that requires years to give perfection, or that degree of ability that men call perfection. Pipers demand and receive excellent wages, and there are few of them but earn every dollar that their paycheck represents.
    To the expert placer piper the roaring, singing monitor, that yields to the deflector's slightest touch, is, as it were, a living, breathing thing. A hydraulic giant is to him as a tamed lion to its master--obedient and powerful. None know better than he how best to swerve the big nozzle, to drive an avalanche of boulders down the gulch ahead of the giant's stream, scattering them like a handful of bullets shot from a catapult; or to bring that long, deep growl from the monster as it gnaws at the base of the towering red clay bank, till a great slab of a thousand tons topples and falls with a mighty crash from the mountainside. Clad from hat to boots in rubber and wool, the piper is at his post every day of the mining season, no matter how swiftly the wind may blow or how icily it may bite, or whether the rains pour, or the snows pile the diggings under a mantle of white--he is always there, directing the giant's powerful stream.
    Other things being equal, the piper can remove the greatest amount of dirt in those diggings supplied with ample bywater, or "bywash," as he calls it. Without plenty of bywater to assist in driving the torn-down gravel to the sluices, the piper is greatly handicapped, for as much or more of his time must be used in "driving" as in "cutting," and all the time required for the former operation robs the bank of just that much time from the attention of the giant. Rather than operate a battery of three giants, it is best to operate only two, using the third for bywater, or to increase the supply of bywater already available, unless that supply be already amply sufficient.
    It is not always the biggest or most powerful giants that remove the greatest amount of gravel within a given time. Too frequently the big giants must gnaw at the base of towering banks--banks so high that it is dangerous for the piper to approach closer than 300 or 400 feet--and thus the "cutting power" of the stream is lost before the gravel is reached. The "cutting power" is the main thing in the work of tearing down stubborn or cemented gravel. The "cutting distance" of a stream varies, of course, with the size and pressure, but most pipers estimate it within the range of the "unbroken section." If one will observe a hydraulic stream for a moment, it will be noticed that for a certain distance it is an unbroken shaft of white, the water being held to a direct course with scarce a curvature or downward drop. To strike the stream within this limit is almost like striking a shaft of steel; to thrust the arm into it is to have the limb torn from its socket. Beyond this limit, however, the stream is broken, and has less cutting power. The piper attempts to keep his giant close enough to the bank to be within the cutting range of the giant's stream, moving the monitor as often as necessary.
    The efficiency of the grizzly elevator in removing boulders from diggings which have not adequate dumping facilities depends almost entirely upon the ability and adeptness of the piper. Even where grizzlies are not employed, the diggings are kept clean by the "driving" of the piper. It is in these mines that a good piper is an absolute necessity; for otherwise the diggings would soon become hopelessly choked with debris. Where a grizzly is employed, the lead race brings all of the gravel, bywater, dirt, and boulders from the diggings to the base of the elevator; the operation to this point is automatic, so to speak, but it is the duty of the piper to complete the performance. He dexterously separates the boulders from the finer stuff, and "juggles" them up the incline, driving them like sheep up an inclined corral. Rocks, stumps, roots, and logs alike find a common dumping ground beyond the stacker. The grizzlies, used by pipers in removing boulders and debris from flat diggings, are made from 10 to 15 ft. wide, and from 24 to 40 in length, with the sides boarded up to a height of 8 or 10 ft., and the whole setting at an angle of about 18 degrees. This raises the upper end from 25 to 30 ft. from the level of the bedrock, and gives ample dumping ground for the season, the elevator being moved to another part of the diggings for the succeeding season. The floor of the grizzly is arranged with parallel steel crevices, like pole riffles, running the long way of the elevator. While the boulders and coarse rock are being shoved up and over this by the water from the giant, the black sand and the gold drop down into the crevices and slide back to the base of the grizzly and into the sluice.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 13, 1909, pages 661-662

    Charles A. McKinnon, of Grants Pass, sold his group of claims in the Sucker Creek district to Max Kuhn for $10,000. There are a number of rich properties in this district though no extensive mining has been done since early days.… A Pelton water wheel and 3-drill compressor have been installed recently at the Oriole mine in the Galice district, and electric equipment will be added in the near future. Four drifts have been run on the vein and several shipments of the high-grade ore shipped to the Tacoma smelter.… I. J. Merrill, of Portland, has taken over the Big Four, formerly known as the Judson placer mine, on Pickett Creek. The work at the mine will be in charge of C. D. Crane.… At the Mountain Lion mine, seven miles west of Murphy, the management is installing electric amalgamating apparatus in the 5-stamp mill. T. J. Brinkerhoff is superintendent.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 18, 1909, page 838

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press
By Dennis H. Stovall.

    In the vernacular of the California and Southern Oregon hydraulic miner, the "pipe clays" consist of those portions of the gravel banks carrying "pay," that is, they constitute a false bedrock on which gold lies concentrated. As a usual thing, they are found in the middle and lower strata of the Pacific Coast old channels. The breaking up of these clays causes some difficulty at times. Placer mines which failed under one management are often highly profitable under another, with the same equipment. The difference was in the manager himself; one could not recognize "pipe clays," the other could, and knew how to deal with them.
    The identification of these "pipe clays," these "working grounds," as some surface miners call them, is a simple matter. Practically all the old channels which form the basis of the California and Oregon placer mines are the beds of ancient rivers and streams. The geology of the property is of little or no interest to the average placer miner. Interesting as its story may be, he throws aside the ancient mortars, pestles, and other relics that his giants uncover, and occupies his mind with the getting of gold. The fact that he might be uncovering relics older than Herculaneum interests him not at all. One such channel extends all the way from Humboldt County, California, to Douglas County, Oregon. This one, no doubt, is the largest of them all, as it shows a width at several places of a half to a full mile. This ancient river was in existence before the present chains of the Siskiyou and Coast mountains were upheaved. The filling of the old bed--the gravel, boulders, and debris--comprise the "working grounds" of the hydraulic mines. How the gold came there is a matter for the geologists to explain. It is a question of erosion and concentration by the washing of floods. Today patches of the old river channels are found on the very tops of mountains. The distribution of the gold through the gravel is in many cases a matter of its being held there by these false bedrocks of "pipe clay." If the "pipe clays" lie in strata so thin that a mountain of debris must be removed to uncover them, then it were better to shut off the water and "hang up." It costs money to move mountains, even by the hydraulic method, and the wise miner will make sure of the returns before he begins. There is no branch of mining that offers better opportunity for making sure than hydraulicking. If the miner will, he can estimate the worth of his ground closely before a dollar is expended in equipping for actual operation.
    The accompanying photographic illustration gives a general idea of the character and formation of some of these Pacific Coast old channels, and of the general nature of the "pipe clays." The picture shows an 80-ft. bank comprising the "fill" of an ancient river channel. Bedrock is slate, in some places serpentine, and at others granite. Above the bedrock, and forming the lower strata, are the boulders and heavier rocks. These usually carry coarse gold. The "pipe clays" are easily distinguished. The strata lie in horizontal and parallel streaks of blue and gray, blending into the darker brown of the upper capping. The bank shown in the picture has only a thin capping on the surface, fully three-fourths being "pay gravel."
    The gravel with the "pipe clays" is small. There are some boulders, but they are never so large that the giant's stream cannot easily tear them from the parent bed, hurling them down the sluices. There is usually an entire absence of "cement." The "pipe clay" gravels yield readily, "melting" like an ash heap when the streams strike them. Blasting may be required for the lower strata. The depth of the "pipe clay " banks ranges from 10 to 250 ft., with an average of from 60 to 80. In Galice district, Southern Oregon, the banks are extremely high. One mine in that camp has a working bank over 1000 ft. long, with a height of 265. The "pipe clays" and the lower strata of this enormous gravel pile consist of three-fourths the entire content. On account of their great height, however, it is necessary to work the banks from a distance of 400 ft., with a battery of giants operating under 500-ft. head of water.
    A feature connected with a thick surface capping is its "flour gold." This frequently occurs in considerable quantity. It is so light and fine that it can only be saved by a system of undercurrents attached to the regular sluices. As long as the water of the sluices is in agitation, the "flour gold" will not settle. The undercurrents are arranged to draw off, or rather "draw down," the water through apertures in the bottom of the sluices, spreading it over broad riffle tables covered with burlap, into which the fine gold settles. To clean the undercurrents the burlap is lifted carefully and rinsed in vats of still water in which the fine gold particles settle. The "pipe clays" of the western channels often carry gold at the rate of from 8 to 20¢ per cubic yard. If the upper capping is not too thick, the miner can move the ground at a cost of 4 to 5¢ per cubic yard.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 22, 1910, pages 159-160

Camping with the Geologists
The Editor:
    Sir--The practical mining man is beginning to realize the value of the work of the United States Geological Survey. The "rock hunters," as the prospectors formerly called them, are the real sort. They are not in the forests or out in the great wilds merely to "kill time" and draw pay from a generous government. It is their work to investigate not only the manner in which the evolution of the earth's great surface features has been effected, but to discover the hidden mineral resources of the country, and present the results of their investigations to mining men in practical form.
    And they do work--these men of the trail, for they are, after all, half-brothers to the veterans of the pick and pan. I was with a party of the geologists for a few days, and for genuine absorption, faithfulness to the task in hand, perseverance, and earnestness, these "rock hunters" have the most gold-fevered pocket hunter badly beaten. At 5:30 they are up from beds made of pine boughs, ferns, sand, or hard earth. The early morning air is nearly always crisp, cool, and keen; very keen, in fact, if it be late fall with a heavy hoarfrost whitening the earth, or midwinter with two feet of snow on the ground. At 6 o'clock the cook's call sounds from the mess tent, and the men file in and are seated around the temporarily constructed table. The morning repast is no dainty nibble of cookies, cocoa, and toast; it is a hearty breakfast of steaming coffee, wild game, and hot biscuit. At 6:30 the chief of the party gives his orders for the day, stating in detail just what each is to do and where the next camp will be. By 7 all are hard at work. In most sections of the West, where the principal work of the Survey is carried on, there is little difficulty in finding good camping grounds. Everywhere out in the wilds is the cool delightful twilight of the forest, the tang of the fir and cedar, and the sound of babbling snow-melted streams.
    When camp is made, space is cleared for the sleeping tents, a wider space for the mess tent, and a trail opened to the nearest stream or spring. The party is supplied with several pack ponies and saddle horses, to move the outfit from place to place. There are also two extra ponies for the camp cook or the roustabout to use in bringing in supplies. The trails built by the rangers and patrolmen of the Forest Service are proving of great assistance to the men of the Geological Survey, as the latter are now able more easily to penetrate the isolated sections of the Far West. Camps of government surveyors and foresters can now be found near together, and the outdoor life of the two differs but little.
    Much of the work of the Geological Survey is the making of the contoured topographic maps, that are now so widely used by mining engineers, prospectors, and locators. These maps are made in the rougher mountain regions and thinly populated areas, on a scale of 1:125,000, or two miles to the inch; in the more valuable and thickly populated areas, they are made on a scale of 1:62,500, or one mile to the inch. Special maps for detailed representation of areas of unusual mining interest are occasionally made on still larger scales. The standard atlas sheet is 20 by 16 inches in size. Sheets made on the two-mile scale embrace an area of between 900 and 1000 square miles, while those on the one-mile scale embrace only 225 square miles.
    The Geological Survey intends to be practical; in truth, the results of its labors are intensely practical. The geological map in its final form is a representation of the topography and geology of the area included. The real geological map represents all that the geologist preparing it knows of the distribution of the rocks occurring within its limits, so far as the scale upon which it is made will allow. Taken in connection with the topographic base, it presents the distribution of the various rocks in the best form for the use of men interested in the mineral formations and resources of the region. To make something even more practical, and to meet the demand of mining men, a second map is prepared, upon which the rocks carrying minerals of economic value are indicated by distinct colors. These maps refer only to the areal distribution of rocks. What is known of the underground geology is graphically illustrated on a structure-section sheet and a sheet of columnar sections. With the four sheets before him. the mining engineer
has at hand, in graphic form, a summary of all that the closely observing geologists who prepared it can tell him of the area.
    To get the data for these maps, and get them correctly and completely, is as stated the main work of the men of the Geological Survey. They must endure hardships, and content themselves with the life of men who "keep close to the soil." Half-brothers as they are to the prospector, theirs is the genuine freedom of the mountaineer. Difficult and dangerous as is their task at times, they enjoy it, not for the dangers and difficulties themselves, but for the health and vigor and the keen enjoyment of living, and, most of all, for the real love of the work itself.
Grants Pass, Oregon, April 25.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 14, 1910, page 684  Click the link for photos.

By Dennis H. Stovall

    Almost every manager of a hydraulic mine on the Pacific Coast admits that he loses, or fails to save, a large amount of the gold in the ground. This loss is due to he fact that fully 25% of the gold is associated closely with black sand. This is the fine or "flour" gold. Because of the lightness of the sand and the fineness of the gold it is practically impossible to save them by riffle and sluice. They simply refuse to settle and lodge, and are carried to the dump and lost. Numerous methods have been tried, and appliances of every description employed, in this work. Experience has proved many of them worthless; in fact, the more complicated the machines, the less efficient they are in saving the gold. One of the best means employed for securing the fine gold is that of drop sluices or undercurrents. These are easily built, require no attention save that of cleaning once a month, and can be installed at little expense. One such system, placed on the Old Channel mines of the Galice district, is shown in the accompanying illustration. This saves an average of 30 oz. of gold per month during the operating season. This is gold that would otherwise be lost, as it is taken from the extreme end of the sluices. The undercurrents are two in number, each taking its water and concentrate from two different points on the line of the sluice. One is placed four box lengths from the end of the sluice, the other, one box from the end and, being near the dump, they give the boxes and riffles every possible chance to save the gold before dropping into the undercurrents. These are merely single or double riffle tables set by the main sluice, the water and concentrate being drawn through a grizzly plate and delivered by an adjustable gate, whence it spreads over the table. The fine gold settles on the table, over which burlap is spread to serve as riffles. The grizzly on the sluice bottom is made of ½-in. iron bars, 3 or 4 in. wide, set edgewise ¾ in. apart. It should have a length of 5 ft. and a width equal to the width of the sluice. Beneath the grizzly is placed a cross-sluice into which the water falls and is delivered immediately to the upper end of the undercurrent. As stated, this flow is regulated by a drop gate. Once a month the burlap is lifted off, rinsed in vats of still water, and replaced. A few hours' work is all the attention required. The undercurrent tables should be at least 10 ft. wide and 15 long, with burlap coverings made to fit. A drop of 8 in., or as little as 6 in., is ample. It should be enough to allow a smooth and even flow of the water and sand over the riffles. If the miner does not care to use burlap he can build the undercurrents with riffles already provided. This is done by constructing the floor of two-by-fours, setting them edgewise, every alternate plank being dropped down ½ in. To clean these, the water is shut off, just enough being allowed to flow over to assist in the work, and the concentrate collected with a pan and broom. The amount of flow over the undercurrents can be regulated only after several trials. The miner will soon learn, however, ,iust how much to admit through the grizzlies to give best results.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 28, 1910, page 801

    (Special Correspondence).--The Pleasant Creek Gold Mining Co. has had a preliminary examination of its ground by Otto L. Haese. The company owns, or controls, 700 acres of placer ground south of Battle Mountain. The mines are reached from Woodville on the Southern Pacific by a fair road of 12 miles. Wood and water for working the ground are abundant. The gravels extend from Battle Mountain to the north, to the former town of Wimer on the south, and are limited by the mountain spurs east and west. The bedrock is decomposed granite that forms natural riffles. The overburden of sandy clay averages 5 ft. and carries 10 to 30¢ per cu. yd. The gravel attains depths of 5 to 20 ft. with an average of 8 ft., and carries 35¢ per yd. The company intends to hydraulic the upper bench and to dredge the lower ground. Joseph Shebley, manager, with headquarters at Woodville, is constructing a ditch and flume to furnish water for hydraulicking under 200-lb. pressure, and intends to purchase the necessary pipe and apparatus to begin operations within two months. A sawmill is cutting lumber for the flume.
Woodville, September 30.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 8, 1910, page 488

    In Galice district the Golden Wedge mine is to resume operation as soon as water for power is provided. Hydraulic work is to begin on the Old Channel mine with the commencement of the rainy season. The dredge on the Jewell & Lewis property is ready to begin work. The mining people of Galice are making a determined effort to have the National Forest boundaries so changed as to place that mining district outside of the timber reserve.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 26, 1910, page 725

    Activity in placer mining is reported in the vicinity of Kerby and Waldo, in Illinois Valley. Hoisting equipment has been put in place at the Deep Gravel mine at Waldo; and in prospecting the Greenback gravel mine pay ore has been found at a lower depth than heretofore. A boiler and other equipment have been hauled out to the latter property recently.… The Alameda Mining Co., whose mine and smelting plant at Galice are on the National Forest, had to give a bond of $10,000 to cover any damage to the standing timber in that vicinity that may result from smelter fume. This bond being given, the District Forester granted a special permit whereby the smelting furnace may be operated.… The Blalock placer mine, situated near Placer, has been leased to John Willtrout and son, who have put in some new hydraulic pipe. They have commenced operating.… The Scandinavian-American Dredging Co. has been organized to dredge for gold the bars and banks of the Rogue River. P. H. Holdsworth, W. L. Hunter, Joseph Slumpf, W. Martin, and others of Seattle are the organizers. It is stated that a dredge has been purchased, and that it is being installed near Grants Pass.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 10, 1910, pages 790-791

    The Alameda M. Co., which recently completed its smelting plant, has deferred blowing in its furnace until the auto-truck road is finished from Leland to Alameda, when coke can be hauled in more cheaply. Wagon roads have been made nearly impassable by heavy rains. The Allen mine, adjoining the Alameda, was sold recently to the Alameda company by the Standard Metals Co. of Portland. These mines and the smelter are in Galice district.… The Oriole mine is well developed and equipped. Adit No. 4 is being driven to cut the lode at a depth of 900 ft. It has been advanced 700 ft. and it is expected to reach the vein 200 ft. ahead. A car of ore recently shipped to Tacoma sampled $204.20 per ton.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 31, 1910, page 886

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Almeda Consolidated Mines Co., operating in Galice district, has over 6000 ft. of development, whereby a strong vein of gold, silver, and copper ore has been opened 1500 ft. on its strike, and to a depth of 500 ft. The mine is opened by adit levels, and by a 500-ft. vertical shaft. The work of tapping the vein by a crosscut from each 100-ft. station is now in progress. The ore body is made up of three distinct seams: the first containing 15 ft. of first-grade ore, the second having about 35 ft. of second grade, and a third seam of low-grade stuff. The width between the walls is about 100 ft. The ore is a sulphide, and is nearly self-fluxing. The mine is well equipped with gasoline engines, for hoisting and operating an air compressor and dynamo; also one steam engine. A plant for semi-pyritic smelting was recently finished. It contains a copper-matting furnace, ore crusher, elevator, ore bins of 3000 tons and coke-bins of 500 tons capacity. The installation of a basic-lined converter is contemplated, whereby the matte may be reduced to blister copper. The furnace has not been blown in, and this will not be done until the hard-surface auto truck road is finished from Galice to Leland, a distance of 15 miles, thus enabling the company to haul in its coke supply at the cost of about $1 per ton. The property is under the management of John F. Wickham.
Galice, January 3.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 14, 1911, page 122

    The Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining Congress met at Ashland on January 17. The state legislature of Oregon was asked to create and equip a mining bureau in the state agricultural college at Corvallis. The delegates protested against the "lease bills" now before Congress; also against the system of exacting fees from domestic and foreign corporations which have for their object the development of mines and other industries. The congress elected officers as follows: O. L. Young, Ashland, president; H. L. Herzinger, Grants Pass, vice president; H. L. Andrews, Grants Pass, secretary; F. J. Newman, Medford, treasurer. The next session Is to be held at Grants Pass on July 18, 1911.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 28, 1911, page 188a

    (Special Correspondence.)--A recent discovery was made at the Almeda mine upon reaching the contact at the 300-ft. level from the shaft. The ore lies on the hanging wall slate and is of the character locally known as grade No. 1, being the same as that opened by levels and adits above, having gained somewhat in value, however, with the additional depth. The increase in value is mostly in copper, the gold and silver remaining about as before. Mineral occurs mostly as gray-copper and chalcopyrite, carrying gold and silver. Drifts are being driven both ways upon the ore with gratifying results, and all possible speed will be urged in reaching the vein at the 500-ft. level.
Galice, Oregon, January 23.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 11, 1911, page 251

    The Deep Gravel mines, situated in Waldo district, have been sold to Eastern people who have organized the Waldo Con. Gold M. Co., in which title to the mines is vested. O. A. Turner is president of the company; Frank M. Leland is general manager. The same company has acquired the Osgood, and the Simmons-Cameron-Logan placers. The Deep Gravel is equipped with 6000 ft. of hydraulic pipe, 4 giants, having heads of 150 and 200 ft. A shaft sunk to bedrock on the lower end of the property is 122 ft. deep, the gravel containing gold and some platinum.
    The Scandinavian-American Dredging Co., for which P. H. Holdsworth is manager, is moving a dredge to the Argo property, and is expected to be ready to operate in a few weeks. A carload of equipment has been received by the Rogue River Dredging Co. for use in rebuilding its dredge.  

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 25, 1911, page 312

Building a Mine Sluice
By Dennis H. Stovall

    The term "sluice" is usually applied by the Western placer miner to the conduit or water channel leading across the diggings; the "flume" is that which carries the water from the head of supply to the reservoir or penstock. The flume is built to remain, at least as long as its hard service and the action of wind and water will allow, but the sluice is not a permanent structure. With the cutting away of the gravel banks, and the moving of the giants and pipelines, the sluices, too, must be moved. For this reason the sluice must be built in short sections. Because of its being a "knockabout" affair, the sluice is one feature of the placer mine too often slighted. Its construction, with some miners, is nothing more than the nailing together of a few boards, and the making of a trough that will carry water. As a matter of fact, the building of a sluice is important, since upon its construction depends the amount of gold found in the riffles at cleanup. Unless the sluice is solidly built, and properly laid, it will not remain firm when subjected to a constant flow, and to the thumping and pounding of the heavy boulders which must pass through. If it does not remain in place, the riffles will not remain intact, but will become loosened sufficiently to allow the escape of gold, thus causing a far greater loss than would cover the cost of a properly constructed sluice.
    Sluices are built in sections, each section being usually 12 ft long. The width and depth depend upon the number of "giants" or the flow of water that must be accommodated. A 4-ft. sluice will care for 2 giants, with an ordinary flow of bywater. If only 1 giant is employed, a 3-ft. or even a 2½-ft. sluice is large enough, if given a depth of 2 ft. Placer miners have found by experience, however, that it is advisable not to make the sluice too narrow, as this results in a rapid current and a waste of gold, the fine particles of precious metal not having a chance to settle. Unless the water is spread thinly, or not over a depth of 6 in., the "flour gold," as the placer miner calls it, will be lost, as it is carried along in suspension in the upper portion of the current. When the width and depth of the sluice are determined, the next thing is the determination of grade or pitch. A fall of between 7 and 10 in. to each 12-ft. section is enough. The maximum is 12 in. to the section, which gives a grade of 8.35%, and the minimum is 3 in., or a grade of 2.08%. The miner should generally use a grade between these two; for the maximum causes the water to flow too swiftly, and does not allow the fine gold to settle; while the minimum causes a flow that is too sluggish, thus allowing an accumulation of mud and worthless sand in the riffles. If the sluice is to accommodate but one giant, the braces need not be larger than 2 by 4 in., and the boards for the bottom 1 by 12 in. The cross-bottom plates should extend 12 in. beyond the side of the sluice, to give ample room on which to set the braces and build a walk, provided the latter is needed. The better practice, however, is to place cross-sills on the uprights of the sluice and lay a walk of 12-in. boards on these. By having the walk directly over the sluice, the miner has a better opportunity to give it a careful inspection. One end of each sluice section is built with the boards of the floor and side extending 2 in., the other being drawn in an equal distance. This is done to allow the sections to overlap and join snugly, end to end, when placed together in the diggings. The usual practice is to use tongue-and-groove boards for sluice floors. But if the sluice is constructed of lumber that is thoroughly seasoned allowance must be made for swelling when the water is turned on. Carefully selected lumber, with planed edges, and free from knots, even though without tongue and groove, serves very well for sluice construction. Most sluice building is done in the summer when the lumber is dry, and the natural swelling that later results makes the floors and walls watertight. The final touch to the sluice construction is the placing of the false wallboard. The purpose of this is to protect the main wall from the battering of the boulders. It is nailed to the main wall, but only lightly, for it must be removed at cleanup to allow the lifting of the riffles; moreover, it is necessary to replace the boards two or three times during the season, and unnecessary nails only add to the difficulty. If the false wallboards are used as cleats for holding down block riffles, it is then necessary to nail them securely; otherwise the blocks will float.

Mining and Scientific Press,
San Francisco, March 4, 1911, page 331

Southwest Districts.

    A strong organization of mining men of the southern districts of Oregon has been formed with headquarters in Grants Pass with a view to giving accurate information about the mines of this section of the state. It is believed that if the members will make weekly or periodical statements of development, operation and production, this information can be sent to all publications which give the mining news, and wildcatting will find little chance to live.
    Estimates of the gold production from the surface mines of Southern Oregon during the present season are placed at a total of $1,000,000. This includes Josephine, Jackson, Curry and Douglas counties.
    Mt. Lion--An electro-cyanide plant has been installed at this property to work on the tailings and low-grade ores. The mine has been idle since 1905.
    Construction work has started on the Grants Pass & Applegate Railway,100 men with 80 teams being employed grading.
Northwest Mining News, April 1911, page 57

    W. Ralph Pittock has gone to Southern Oregon to demonstrate the utility of his gold trap, which is used in connection with placer mining, saving time in cleanup and preventing loss by robbery.

"Trade Notes," Northwest Mining News, April 1911, page 60

    The Almeda Con. Mines Co. is making good progress in building an auto truck road from the railroad to its mine and smelter at Galice. When this is finished, coke is to be hauled in, and the smelter will be blown in.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 8, 1911, page 510

    The Circuit Court for the District of Oregon has handed down a decision affirming that the United States may issue patents to mineral claims within the grant of a military road. This, by extension, would also apply to mineral claims within the lands of the Oregon and California railway grants.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 22, 1911, page 576

    The coal fields of Coos County are the most important in Oregon, and are one of the most valuable resources of that region, as coal mining is one of the leading industries of the county and has great possibilities of future growth. More recently Central Oregon has been explored for oil and it has been found in commercial quantities near Vale, Malheur County. Coal occurs in Jackson, Josephine, and Polk counties, and these deposits also may develop in time into steady producers.
    The Oriole mine, in the Galice district, has attracted much attention recently, several shipments of ore to the Tacoma smelter having netted good returns, and a recent shipment of 20½ tons netted $3724. The fourth tunnel is being driven into the ore body. This will be 950 ft. in length and will open a "back" of some 600 ft. The ore zone has been proved for a width of 40 ft. The vein is composed of quartz stringers and nodules interbedded in soft slaty material, the gold being in the quartz. The footwall is a metamorphic slate and the hanging wall a quartzite. The property consists of nine claims, with attached water rights.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 29, 1911, page 608

Southwest Districts.

    Kerby--C. L. Mangum, who recently visited the Higgins mine, which is about 20 miles northwest from Kerby, reports it to be a porphyry dike lying between serpentine and andesite and to have a total length of 350 feet which is heavily mineralized for the whole distance. Other parties who have visited this new discovery report it to have a value in sight of about $2,000,000 and that pans of the disintegrated mass will run as high as $100 to the pan. The present method of mining is by sluicing, although a considerable loss of values must result, being carried away in the gangue. L. G. Higgins, the owner, was formerly in the assaying business at Grants Pass.
    In the same vicinity a more recent strike was made on a claim owned by Henry Brazile and John Shade, the vein being opened at surface at intervals for a distance of about 400 feet. The vein is four feet wide with an eight-inch streak of ore which shows the gold in wires and chunks, the length of this rich chute being undetermined. Dr. J. F. Reddy of Medford has taken an option on the claim and already has a crew of men at work. Crowds of prospectors and others are rushing into the district, going from Grants Pass to Selma, thence over the old Copper trail.
Northwest Mining News, May 1911, page 74

    Chicago investors have leased 2100 acres of the holdings of the Cascade Coal Co. between the 401 Ranch and the summit of Roxy Ann, and the work of pumping out the slope has begun. There are three seams, of 9, 7, and 5 ft. The coal has been tested and found of superior quality. Only the 7-ft. seam will be worked at first.
    Rich ore has been found by the lessees of the Higgins mine, 20 miles northwest of Kerby, on the divide between Rancheria and Babyfoot creeks. The gold is in friable material which is being washed in sluices. Much excitement has been created and exaggerated reports have been given out, but the existence of rich ore is indisputable.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 6, 1911, page 642

    The smelter of the Almeda Con. Mines Co., at Galice, is reported in operation. The plant is equipped with a 36 by 72-in. water-jacketed, copper matting furnace that was designed and built under the direction of Frederic Powell of Portland. It has the capacity of 100 to 150 tons per day. One batch of ore from this mine showed as follows, by analysis: Gold, 0.1 oz.; silver, 2.3 oz.; copper, 2.8%; iron, 14.5% ; sulfur, 20.9%; silica, 57%. Other samplings and analyses gave 16.5% barium, 26 iron, 28 sulfur, 3.5 copper, 22.9 silica. The property is managed by J. F. Wickham.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 20, 1911, page 709

    The smelter of the Almeda Con. Mines Co., situated at Galice, is treating about 100 tons per day, and turning out 10 tons of matte.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 10, 1911, page 804

Jackson County
    The Homestake mine, near Woodville, is to be operated by Captain Clark and associates, who have a lease and bond on it. They are overhauling the mill and putting the mine in condition for work.
Josephine County
    The Michigan mine, situated on Applegate River, near Murphy, and 8 miles south of Grants Pass, is controlled by people resident of Charlotte, Michigan. It is in charge of Adolph Maier, who is erecting a mill of 25 tons daily capacity. The ore, according to sampling and assaying, runs $11 to $22 per ton. The vein is said to be in granodiorite, strikes southeast, dips 15° northwest, and has a width of 6 ft., the pay streak being 2 to 4 ft. wide. There is one 2-compartment shaft, 135 ft. deep, with two crosscuts driven to the vein. Other development is near the surface.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 24, 1911, page 864

    A mining congress is to be held at Grants Pass on July 18, at which a good attendance of mining men from Oregon and adjoining states is expected. An exhibit of ores and mineral products of Western Oregon is being prepared.
    The Grey Eagle mine, in Gold Hill district, has been leased by the Oregon-Gold Hill M. Co. to the Grey Eagle M. Co., for which W. B. Stevens is manager, and J. R. Wolfe consulting engineer. The property is equipped with a new mill, an air compressor, and drills. The plan of the lessee is to do 500 ft. of sinking from the 125-ft. station of the shaft.
    James T. Logan and Schmitt brothers, who had a 30-day option on the Higgins property, in Chetco district, declined to carry out the terms of the option, claiming the time had not been long enough to allow them to determine as to the probable merits of the ground. Higgins declined to extend the time. The price named in the option was $50,000.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 1, 1911, page 29

    The Sterling Gold Quartz M. Co. is operating at Mineral Hill, 9 miles southwest of Medford, where two veins of gold and silver ore have been developed by a series of crosscuts. The work is in charge of R. L. Ray, and the company is composed of Medford people. Some of the ore is high grade.
    The three claims owned by W. H. Ramsey are at the head of Slate Creek, 20 miles south of Grants Pass. Adolph Maier recently examined the property and reports, according to the Rogue River Courier, that there are two veins. one 20 ft. wide, carrying heavy sulphide and some oxidized ore, and one 8 ft. wide carrying oxidized ore, the first being on the contact of serpentine with slate, while the latter is a fissure vein. The development work consists of a 20-ft. adit and a 20-ft. prospecting shaft. The general average of amalgamation tests was $24.80. The property is 1½ miles from a good wagon road.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 8, 1911, page 61

    The Jewett Mining Co., recently organized with a capital of $500,000, has purchased the Jewett, four miles south of Grants Pass, and will start operations at once. It is said that a new mill will be built. The Old Channel Hydraulic Mines Co. will likely start within a few weeks, as the long litigation in the circuit court has been virtually settled by a decree in favor of the mortgagees. Some time ago the property was sold for $85,000. Fifty thousand dollars was paid in cash and the remainder of the purchase price was held in abeyance subject to notes covering the premises. The property has been operated for many years. The mine has plenty of water and machinery, and is well equipped. Before the sale the mine had been leased for nine years to J. R. Harvey. The property consists of 1500 acres, all of which has been patented.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 15, 1911, page 92

    As a result of the Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining Congress, recently held here, a movement has been set on foot to obtain for mineral prospectors the right to kill buck deer for actual use at any time. Other projects urged by the convention were: a permanent organization of the Congress, in harmony with the American Mining Congress and the Oregon state association; a request for cooperation from Alaska and Washington for a square deal for Alaska and other parts of the West; opposition to the policy of the department in the arbitrary withdrawal of lands from mineral entry; the completion of the geological survey of Oregon with regard to mining districts; readjustment of railroad rates to aid mining; increased appropriation for the Federal Mining Bureau. The next session will be held at Medford January 17 and 18.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 5, 1911, page 182

    L. L. Jewell has leased the Mountain Lion mine on the Applegate, sixteen miles south of Grants Pass, to C. C. Daniels of that city. The mine has been tied up by litigation, which has been settled, and for a time was a satisfactory producer. There are a 5-stamp mill and two concentrating tables on the property. The ore is a quartz.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 2, 1911, page 307

Making Use of Hydraulic Power
By Dennis H. Stovall
    Practical use can often be made of the power afforded by the gravity head pipelines of the hydraulic placer mine. Many surface properties in Northern California and Southern Oregon use power of this sort to operate dynamos, by which electric energy is furnished for night work in the diggings, as well as all the camp buildings. A small wheel, operated by a small "tap" from the main line, does not reduce the pressure in the giants to any appreciable degree, and the convenience is worth many times the trouble and expense involved. A number of placer mines use power from the pipelines, or by penstock from the high-line ditch, to operate a sawmill, and by this means cut all the lumber needed for repairing flume, constructing additional buildings, and for general improvement purposes. Sawmills can be had these days that are easily and quickly moved from one point to another, the entire outfit, including the power wheel, being of such bulk as to allow packing on ponies or burros.
    A "general utility" motor, operated by water from the pipeline, is a handy contrivance. A motor of this type, built by a foreman, was seen on a Southern Oregon property, and is shown in the accompanying illustration. It is employed regularly for a variety of purposes; it hauls the steel cable connected with the derrick and crane in lifting huge boulders from the diggings, and, by attaching a flywheel, it may be used in the machine shops and everywhere else about the mine that power of any sort is demanded. This portable water motor is very simple. It consists of an undershot wheel, with connecting shafts and pinions, and operating levers, all built on a substantial wooden frame. To this frame a drum is also attached, operating a cable. The adjustment for the cable drum is the same as that employed wherever cables are used. Water to operate the movable motor is taken from the main pipeline through a fire hose, the latter being of such length as to allow several moves of the motor with only one connection on the main line. Any work around the mine that requires or needs a donkey engine and cable can be done by this motor. The power is, of course, limited by the size of the water wheel, and can be made as small or as large as the work demands.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 30, 1911, page 415

    Newspaper reports state that Adolph Meier, representing the Boston-Montana Silver & Copper Co., has been investigating the Rogue River district to select a site for a concentrator. The plant is to cost between $500,000 and $750,000, and would be built to handle the output of the Rogue River Valley and Southern Oregon mines. F. E. Steffey, of the Boston-Montana company, is expected in Medford in the near future.
"Jackson County,"
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 30, 1911, page 430

Centennial Mine Works this Winter.
    GOLD HILL, Or., Sept. 30.--(Special.)--Preparations are being made for the operation the coming winter of the Centennial mine on , one of the richest and most reliable placers in this district. The mine was worked in pioneer days, but was allowed to lie idle for many years, when it was bought as fruit land by D. P. Blue and put in successful operation. It was afterward sold to an Indiana company, which made an unsuccessful attempt to work it with an electric dredge. It will be worked this winter under lease by H. L. McMahon and D. P. Blue, the former owner. They will use a hydraulic, under which process the mine has never failed to pay well. From surface to bedrock, about 25 feet, the gravel averages 30 cents per yard, and the bedrock is rich in places.
Oregonian, Portland, October 1, 1911, page 7

Curry County
    A No. 3 giant and 10-in. pipe have been ordered by the Winkle Bar M. & D. Co. A 4-ft. ditch, about one and a half miles long, has been completed and it is believed that this will give plenty of water for mining from January to the end of May. The property is on Rogue River and is reached by going over a mountain trail. It is twenty miles from Dothan. R. G. McDonald, of Seattle, is secretary and treasurer of the company.
Josephine County
    George E. Sanders, manager for the Chicago-Rogue River company, has purchased the Old Channel mine in the Galice district. The Old Channel mine is a large low-grade placer property with valuable water rights and many miles of ditches and flumes, according to press reports, and when in operation employs a large force nine months of the year. Mr. Sanders will start work in the near future. He is now in Chicago.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 14, 1911, pages 505-506

    The Greenback gold mine, twenty miles north of Grants Pass, has been bought by Robert C. Robertson and Frank C. Robertson, of Parish, New York. All claims against the property have been paid through C. H. Clements and R. G. Smith, attorneys for the purchasers. The mine is reported to have produced over $2,000,000, and in the past many men were employed there.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 21, 1911, page 537

Where the Horse Whim Fails
By Dennis H. Stovall

    Our mutual friend, the mine foreman, will tell you that the horse whim is good enough for a "jackass property." By which we are to infer that beyond mines of this class the horse whim has its limitations. After knocking round through Western mining camps, and visiting all sorts of mines, I am willing to state that it is an easy matter to estimate the management of a property when you see its hoist. This prominent feature of the mine's equipment does not always indicate the worth of the deposit, but it is a certain indication of what results are being obtained. Go into almost any mining district, and you will find one or more good properties abandoned, the camp deserted, the mill turning to rust and decay, simply because the management "made a mistake." You soon discover the mine is filled to the collar with water, flooded beyond hope. The "mistake" was in placing an inadequate hoist and pumping plant. A good hoist, operating a skip, either by single or double-compartment shaft, will keep the wettest mine dry, should the pumps fail.
    The horse whim is not altogether to be despised. There are times and places when it plays a most important part. Equipment of this sort costs but little, and does excellent work in prospecting when only a few men are employed. But in this day of cheap gas engine power, the horse whim is becoming more and more a useless adjunct. As a general rule, the intelligent mine manager can make a close estimate on the real worth and stability of his property when a depth of 200 ft. is attained. Then is the time to place an adequate hoist. Enlarging this feature of the equipment every time a deeper level is tapped will prove an expensive business; therefore it is better to place a large hoist at once, or install one of the unit type, which can be enlarged with each stage of development, without the removal or replacement of the original parts.
    At an Oregon property that was originally equipped with a horse whim, hoisting by this method cost 25¢ per ton. Then a small steam plant was installed, and hoisting was reduced to 15¢ per ton. Finally this proved inadequate, and a double-drum hoist of the latest type was erected. With this equipment the expense of lifting the ore from the mine dropped to 5 or 6¢ per ton. Had this plant been placed at the time the horse whim was thrown aside, much unnecessary expense would have been saved. A plant of this type costs between $5000 and $8000, depending upon the situation of the property, but it will serve the mine for all time. With a 150-h.p. engine, and with a lifting speed of 500 ft. per minute, operating double-decked cages, it not only removes all the ore as fast as the men break it down, but takes care of all up-and-down transportation, such as the moving of stulls, tools, powder, and men.
    Where the ore is low grade, every item of expense must be cut down to the lowest possible minimum. If the property is opened by vertical or inclined shaft, hoisting and pumping are two items that must be carefully calculated. Failure in this has proved to be the principal reason why a number of properties never reached the producing stage. To again quote our mutual friend the boss, "pumpin' and hoistin' are just like interest on a mortgage--grinds away day and night."

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 4, 1911, page 583  Click on the link for photos of hoists.

    Chicago investors have purchased the W. H. Barr placer property, consisting of 320 acres on Briggs Creek, state recent reports from Grants Pass. A sawmill will be built and the placer equipment will be added to. Moore brothers leased the property last year, and applied for a renewal, but Mr. Barr decided to sell the property.
    As soon as the Commercial Club of Grants Pass will give him a site, A. J. McCorkle will erect a 200-ton sampling mill at that place.
    Two carloads of machinery for the mill of the Michigan mine have been delivered. The equipment delivered includes Monell concentrating tables and a Monell slimer, manufactured in Colorado. A mill may be constructed at the Jewett mine, 7 miles southeast of Grants Pass. Development will be resumed in the near future at the Granite Hill mine.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 18, 1911, page 667

    A. J. McCorkle and associates have taken a bond on the Gold Drift quartz mine, owned by W. T. Turnham and S. C. Stone, state recent reports from Grants Pass. The price of the mine is said to be $10,000.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 25, 1911, page 697

    The Greenback mill soon will have 20 of the 40 stamps dropping. Some new machineiy has been ordered and is on the way there, says a report from Grants Pass. New ore reserves are being mined and the property will be put again on a paying basis, according to an announcement by F. M. Leland, who is acting in an advisory capacity to the owners, Robertson & Son.
    The Cougar Con. Mines, with headquarters at Galice, will equip the Barr placer mine, consisting of 16 claims, with an electric light plant, sawmill, new flume, grizzlies, and 15-in. pipe. L. H. Medford is manager and Ned Heath superintendent for the company.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 9, 1911, page 758

    Gold dredging in Oregon has never met with any pronounced success. The total production of gold won from dredging operations in the state, does not, so far as can be learned from U.S. Geological Survey records, exceed $250,000. A number of years ago dredges, both bucket and suction type, were built on the Snake River, and for a while some of them, perhaps, paid operating expenses. One of these, a 5-ft. bucket dredge, was reported as being successful after working over some bars of the river and was moved to Boise Basin, Idaho, where it was shortly afterward shut down. An article written a number of years ago for the Mining and Scientific Press by W. M. H. Washburn gives an interesting account of the gold occurrence on the bars of the Snake River and describes some dredging operations at that time. A pony dredge was operated for a while near Sumpter, but was not a success. It was claimed that the machinery was too light for the character of the ground. A company has started to prepare for a dredge this season on ground near Sumpter. After considerable prospecting the dredge pit was dug 150 ft. square by 12 ft. deep, and it is expected the dredge will be built next year. It is to have 9-ft. buckets and use electric power furnished by the Olive Lake power plant, and will be the first modern dredge following California methods to be operated in Oregon. In 1905 the Western Mining & Development Co. put in commission a dredge on the south fork of the John Day River. The dredge operated during 1905 and a part of the second season, and was then dismantled. The White-Shelby Hunt dredge, which operated a short time in Southern Oregon, was originally built for reclamation work at Grays Harbor, Washington. It was afterward moved to Pleasant Valley, Josephine County, and mounted on wheels. Water interfered with its operation and it was again put on a hull. It was run a short time only; large boulders and difficult digging proved a serious handicap, and the ladder was broken. The dredge was equipped with buckets of 2-cu. ft. capacity and a gasoline engine; it is now idle. The Josephine dredge, near Waldo, Josephine County, was a 4-ft. bucket dredge, using steam and wood fuel, and was owned by an English company. It operated only one season, when, it is claimed, the company got into litigation. Repairs were not kept up, and while in charge of a watchman the dredge sank and has never been recommissioned. Recently there has been a report of another dredge to be built near Waldo, but no definite information is at hand regarding it. The only dredge operated in Oregon that seems to have made anything over operating profit, and that could be classed as even partly successful, is that of the Champlin Gold Dredging Co. on Foots Creek, Jackson County. This is a 5-ft. dredge, operated by electric power. It was operated successfully for several years and during part of the present season, but the bucket-ladder line broke a few weeks ago and the weight of the buckets, about 70 tons, sprang the hull planks and the dredge sank in about 18 ft. of water. It is said that repairs will be made at once, the loss being estimated at $35,000. While this is the only company whose dredging operations have returned a profit in Oregon, there seems to be no reason why some of the other dredges should not have proved a financial success if they had been properly designed for the ground on which they were placed. It is probable that investigations will be made of Oregon placers in the near future, and if the proposed dredge near Sumpter returns a profit, a number of other dredges of the type that has proved such a success in California will be erected. Gold dredging in Oregon produced $34,010 in 1910, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
Charles Janin, "Review of Gold Dredging in 1911,"
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 13, 1912, page 102

Jackson County
    The Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining Congress will be held at Medford, February 2 and 3. An exhibit of ore and machinery will be one of the features of the meeting. Among other papers on the program will be one on "The Public Land Question" by J. F. Callbreath, secretary of the American Mining Congress.
Josephine County
    A shipment of gold recently was made from the Horsehead mine at Williams through J. H. Miller, a merchant of that place.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 20, 1912, page 156

Sets Aside $20,000 to Develop Braden Mine--
Good Values Have Been Found Throughout All of the Apartments of the Mine.

    For 50 years the Braden mine, near Gold Hill, has been a gold-producing mine. It has produced between $600,000 and $700,000 in gold and it is still a mine, not a worked-out proposition, but a real mine possessed of probably more gold values than have ever been taken from it.
    The surface croppings have been worked out, but the real value lies lower down, and Colonel Ray, who is its present owner, is going after those values, not on the surface, but deep down on the ledges.
    Mr. Ray has set aside $20,000 to be expended in sinking a 200-foot shaft on one of the several ledges in the mine. When he shall have gone down 200 feet he will drift for 100 feet in several directions, and by doing this he hopes to have opened up one of the best gold quartz mines in southern Oregon. Dr. Ray is now at the mine with an engineer making surveys preparatory to a commencement of this work.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 23, 1912, page 3

    The Oriole G.M. Co. is planning to build a 50-ton mill as soon as the roads are passable, says a report from Grants Pass, where the annual meeting of the corporation recently was held. The mill is to cost, it is said, about $70,000. O. S. Blanchard, Grants Pass, is secretary of the company.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 3, 1912, page 225

    H. L. Herzinger, of Grants Pass, was elected president of the Southern Oregon and North California Mining Congress at the session recently held at Medford. Yreka, California, was chosen for the next meeting, to be held June 18. A resolution was passed condemning what is considered arbitrary interference with miners on the public domain in regard to the use of timber, and delay in granting patents. A resolution of thanks to W. B. Heyburn, United States Senator from Idaho, was passed, thanking him for his attitude toward recent bills affecting the mining industry.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 24, 1912, page 324

Douglas County
    The Beaver Hill, near Anchor, owned by J. C. Olinghouse and N. G. Chandler, has 100 tons of ore on the dump and shows assays as high as $60 per ton. The adit cuts the vein at a depth of 400 ft., and another adit has been started.
Jackson County
    Mrs. Cora Morgan will construct a custom mill near Gold Hill, and 2½ acres of land has already been donated for the purpose. It will be large enough to treat all the ore of the district, and if the project is carried out it will greatly aid the development of the many prospects of the county. T. D. Stoner reports that a 5-ft. seam of coal of good quality has been uncovered two miles north of Moonville.
Josephine County
    The 3000-lb. display of gold and copper ore from Josephine County won first honors at the Northwest Mining Congress held at Spokane recently. H. G. Siskron recently cleaned up 52 oz. of bullion, worth $18 per oz., from a mill run of 12½ tons of ore at the January First mine on Sucker Creek, 4 miles from Holland. The property was located in 1905 and has several hundred feet of development work.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 2, 1912, page 356

Rogue River Gravel Beds
By Clement H. Mace

    In the present search for new dredging fields, the gravel deposits along Rogue River, in Southern Oregon, should not be overlooked, and merit careful investigation. The Rogue is a clear mountain stream rising in the Cascades and flowing through the valley of Medford and Grants Pass, now famous for its apples. As compared to the physical surroundings of most mining districts, this region is a paradise, especially to one accustomed to desert or high-altitude mining camps. The hills are covered with pine, fir, maple, oak, manzanita, and laurel, while here and there along the river are orchards of apples, pears, and peaches, and vineyards of every variety of grapes. A few miles northwest of Merlin the river narrows to a gorge known as Hell Gate, and from there to the coast flows through rough country. The available dredging ground is therefore confined to Jackson and Josephine counties. The river has a velocity of from one-half to two miles per hour and is subject to sudden rises in the winter, the rainy season in Oregon.
    In the early days considerable gold was won by wing-damming the river and cleaning the bedrock. At Gold Ray, while constructing a large power dam, it was necessary to build a cofferdam, and from 100 sq. ft. of bedrock thus exposed $1750 in gold was obtained. A nugget worth $289 was picked up years ago in Spanish Gulch near the river. The pocket from which it came was never found, however. Below Grants Pass there is an ancient channel to the west of the present bed of Rogue River, in places adjoining it and in others a mile or so distant. In recent geological times the river has been in its eroding stage, leaving the old channel high and dry, and hydraulic mines on it are throwing their tailing into the present stream. These mines claim they are losing 40 to 50% of their gold, which of course is being added to the gravels of the present channel.
    In Sections 2 and 11, Township 36 S., Range 7 W., the river makes a big bend, with the ancient channel cutting across the open end of the U. At the lower side of this bend bedrock is slightly above the surface of Rogue River, and a hydraulic mine at this point has exposed 75 to 100 ft. of gravel with 10 ft. of overburden. Reposing on the upturned slate bedrock is 15 ft. of a rather stiff blue gravel. One pan (small size) taken in this blue gravel gave twenty good-sized colors weighing 0.018 gm. Estimating 135 pans to the cubic yard, the value per yard would be $1.60. The channel exposed so far is 600 to 700 ft. wide, and the back rim is not reached yet. The surface gravels were tested both by pan and rocker, and colors were always obtained wherever the gold had a chance to deposit; that is, where the sand was heavy and contained a fair sprinkling of boulders. In a few places a third or a half of a cubic yard was measured off and put through the rocker, and these tests returned an average of 25¢ per cubic yard.
    Owing to the selective action of running water, the richest streaks are found on the concave side of the river bends, as these points represent the region of slack water. The swift current is continually cutting out the convex side of the curves and redepositing its burden on the inside of the next bend. The gold is coarse with rough edges, which indicates that it has not traveled far. It is mostly scale and plate gold and generally melon-seed shaped. In places the colors are very large, but no nuggets are found in the gravels.
    For the most part the boulders are small, averaging under 6 in. diam., and there is no clay except in part of the overburden. There are places along the present channel where the gravel is only 4 ft. thick, and others where it is evidently at least 30 ft., but where the gravel in the ancient channel is exposed by hydraulic operations it varies from 75 to 150 ft. in thickness. Bedrock consists of upturned slate beds that are hard where exposed to the river action, for the running water continually wears away any disintegrated material. But under the gravel, in places where it can be observed, the slate is soft and decomposed and could be picked to a depth of a foot or two. Benches along the river have been worked in a desultory sort of manner by means of a gasoline-driven pump and sluices. The gravel was fed to the sluices with wheelbarrows and the men cleaned up from $2 to $3 per day each.
    The only dredge in Oregon that is working successfully and returning a profit is on Foots Creek, a tributary of the Rogue, between Gold Hill and Woodville in Jackson County. Near its junction with the river, Foots Creek spreads out in a broad fan-shaped delta, and on this tract the dredge Abbie J. Champlin, owned by the Champlin Gold Dredging Co. of Chicago, has been working for several years. Recently, however, the dredge met with a serious accident. The heavy bucket-ladder line broke and sank the boat in its pond, but it is understood that the damage will be repaired at once.
    The prospecting was done with Keystone drills, there being too much water in the ground for shaft-sinking. Subsequent dredging gave slightly higher results than the test holes. The boat was built by the Allis-Chalmers Co. and is equipped with 8-ft. open-connected manganese steel buckets weighing over a ton apiece, exclusive of the link. Lighter buckets were used at first, but were found inadequate to handle the heavier boulders and were replaced by the present set at a cost of $9000. Too-light construction seems to be the principal reason for the failure of several dredges in Oregon, and future undertakings should profit by the lessons of the past and erect no more monuments.
    Electricity from the Ray power plant operates the boat; 250 h.p. is used. Two 12-hour shifts of three men each are worked; a winchman, a pump and motor man, and a deckhand. The buckets are run at a speed of 7 per minute, the actual working capacity of the boat being 2000 yards per day. Bedrock is not reached and is supposed to be 100 ft. deep on the average, while the dredge digs but 40 ft. The gravel from the buckets is fed to a trommel and the boulders discharged through this over the side of the boat. The undersize passes over a set of riffles to a sump or well, whence it is elevated by a huge centrifugal pump to the tail riffles shown in the foreground of the illustration. These long sluices are supported in the center by an auxiliary barge. The major portion of the gold, however, is caught on the boat before reaching the tail sluices.
    No gold-saving tables of any kind are used, as it is claimed that the gold is all coarse enough to be saved by Hungarian riffles, though it would seem that there must be a certain amount of fine gold being lost. The gold averages 850 fine. According to the figures of the U.S. Geological Survey for 1910, $34,010 was produced in Oregon by gold dredging.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 23, 1912, pages 437-438

    Letters from friends in South America have caused about twenty-five Medford citizens to plan a trip to Bolivia, to investigate gold properties, says a report in the Medford Sun of April 10.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 20, 1912, page 581

    John Carlson, George Colvin, and Oscar Shattuck have found rich free-milling quartz on the old Victor mine, which was formerly owned by Sanders Brothers, having taken out about $900 in five days. The Minnehaha Gold Hydraulic & Dredge Co. has sold its first issue of shares and will install a $50,000 dredge on its property at Tyee Bar, on Rogue River, a mile below Whiskey Creek. Erection of a 500-ton mill at the Alameda copper mine, on Elk Creek, is contemplated. A 100-ton concentrator will be erected by the Three Lodes, which has taken in the Golden Pheasant property on Galice Creek. The concentrates, which assay as high as 12% copper, $5 to $28 in gold, and 11 oz. platinum per ton, will be shipped to Sweden for treatment.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 25, 1912, page 740

    The Tennessee Gulch mine has been sold by Hasselton & Wagner to Portland people for a price said to be $40,000. This is an old mine which was worked by ground sluicing; recently three veins have been found which show promise. J. O. Gunn has shipped the fourth carload of ore from his mine near Takilma to the smelter at Kennett. At the Iron Crown, 11 miles from Grants Pass, copper ore, from 1 to 17% copper and $5.50 to $8 per ton in gold, has been found.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 15, 1912, page 843

Jackson County
    Mike Womack reports the finding of a large ore body on Frog Creek, 7 miles from Ashland. Assay returns of from $4 to $18 per ton are reported, and it is stated that outcrops of the vein can be traced for several miles. Capital has already been proved for the sinking of a shaft.
Josephine County
    The Darkes mine, near the Takilma, has been purchased by E. E. Phillips. It is expected to begin shipment soon and the ore will be hauled by teams to Grants Pass. Ore assaying $35 per ton is being taken from the Red Bean mine, on Starveout Creek, owned by Riggs, Flamm & Evans. R. S. Tucker has been appointed receiver for the Alameda Consolidated Mines Co., which owns 800 acres of land and has sold $13,000,000 worth of stock.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 13, 1912, pages 64-65

    It is reported that the funds have been secured for the construction of a railroad from Grants Pass 52 miles up the Applegate River to the mines of the Blue Ledge district. E. M. Chester is the representative of the interests concerned. The Soule mine has been purchased by J. D. Densmore, H. McBride, and D. G. Dreger, of Salem. Arrangements are being made for the reopening of the property, which has not been worked in five years. The mining men of the district have sent 3½ tons of ore samples to the Mining Congress, held at Yreka this week. L. E. Crouch has begun suit for $100,000 damages against several Ohio people for alleged misrepresentation as to the solvency of the Almeda M. Co. The court has discharged the receiver, R. S. Tucker, who was recently appointed. The Alton mine, near Wolf Creek, has let a contract for a 100-ft. extension of the present adit.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 20, 1912, page 97

    Over 3000 acres of placer ground on Grave Creek, fourteen miles from Grants Pass, has been bought by the Oro Power & Light Co., of Oroville, California. Drilling is to be started at once, and it is said that about $250,000 will be spent in prospecting and placing dredges on the property. The furnace at the Almeda mine was blown in last week, but several details are not yet completed, and these will take some 90 days. A fair quantity of smelting ore is ready for mining. Until the 200-ton concentrating plant has been erected it will be impossible to cheapen operations. The completion of the company's road from the mine to Leland should make a saving of about $7 per ton on freight.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 3, 1912, page 158

Tin at Grants Pass
The Editor:
    Sir--In the interest of the mining development in Southern Oregon, I feel constrained to write you concerning the alleged presence of some of the less common metals, such as tin, tungsten, and platinum.
    In January 1911 T. A. Rickard wrote a letter to the Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining Congress which convened at Ashland, asking that steps be taken by said congress to verify or deny the reports continually coming from the vicinity of Grants Pass with reference to the tin question. A few weeks later the Commercial Club of Grants Pass officially requested the State Bureau of Mines to make investigation of the same. This request was again repeated at the meeting of the Oregon Mining Congress at Portland in May 1911. In response to these requests, the Bureau of Mines took it upon itself to make a brief preliminary investigation. Accordingly, in the latter part of June 1911, Mr. Swartley, my assistant, and myself proceeded to Grants Pass and first interviewed some of the prominent citizens of that city, asking them to cite us to the parties who claimed to have the high tin values. We visited four different properties which were claiming the highest amounts of tin, and took samples ourselves of what was claimed to be the highest grade tin ores. These samples we brought to the laboratories at Corvallis and made a very careful investigation, both mineralogically and chemically. Our report was made at the Mining Congress held at Grants Pass July 5, 6, and 7, 1911, and was to the effect "that while it would be unscientific to state that there is no tin in the district, we, however, found no tin in the samples which we procured from these alleged tin properties." We found also, that some of the minerals claimed to be tin minerals were tourmaline, hornblende, magnetite, and chromite. We also found, while in the Grants Pass vicinity, that the tin reports originated with certain assayers in Grants Pass, who in order to make business good, appeared to give out promiscuously encouraging reports in which tin was given in very generous quantities; platinum was reported in large percentages from base ores, as well as tungsten.
    We had supposed that our verbal report given at the Mining Congress at Grants Pass would be sufficient to convince the truth-seeking public. However, since that time, we have found that there are certain parties in the Grants Pass vicinity who have been doing all in their power to discredit our report, and since I have noted from time to time certain articles in your periodical with reference to certain development work that is being pushed by some of these tin, platinum, tungsten (?) properties, it has seemed to me that in order to further the interest of the mining development in Southern Oregon, we should make the foregoing statement, both for your information and for publication.
State Bureau of Mines, Corvallis, Oregon, July 29.
    (We are grateful to Mr. Parks for his letter. Such examinations as he has made lie in, we believe, one of the most useful fields for state geological surveys and mining bureaus. News of development and of reported discoveries from many districts comes in regularly, and as Mr. Parks says, it would be unscientific to deny them without specific evidence. For that very reason it is all the more important to have such information as contained in his report periodically reprinted.--Editor.)
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 10, 1912, pages 181-182

    Josephine County produced $99,363 in gold, of which $86,557 came from placer mines. Of the silver production of 45,221 oz., over two-thirds came from Baker County. Copper ores yielded the greater part of the 10,436 oz. of silver credited to Josephine County, which also produced about 90% of the 1911 output of copper in Oregon.
    The combined output of gold from Southwestern Oregon in 1911 was $188,971, of which $123,008 was placer gold. The placer gold production of this region decreased $7095 and the deep-mine output decreased $13,258.
"Metal Mining in Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 7, 1912, page 324

Bar Below Gold Hill to Be Scene of Operations by Huge Craft Costing $50,000.

    Medford, Nov. 26.--Arrangements have been practically completed for a new and bigger departure in mining operations on Rogue River near Gold Hill, the site selected being the big bar just below the Lyman ranch, and the method of recovery to be a huge dredge, designed and built expressly for the purpose by the Sutherlin capitalists who are interested in the venture. These men are J. K. Moore, H. H. McLean and C. F. Reynolds, all of whom have had wide practical experience in dredging operations, and who will invest from $50,000 to $60,000 in the construction of the dredge and preparations for the work.
    Mr. Reynolds, representing the trio, was in Gold Hill for several days the first of the week making a final survey of the project and conferring with Henry Ray, who has been largely instrumental in directing interest toward one of the most neglected and undoubtedly profitable systems of mining in Southern Oregon. He is now in Oroville, Cal., at which point some 50 or 60 dredges of varying types are engaged in operations upon the rich sand bars of that river, and where he intends to make a final determination of the type of dredge which will be constructed for work on the Rogue.
Ashland Tidings, November 28, 1912, page 5

    The only dredge operating in Oregon is the Champlin boat on Foots Creek, Jackson County. This dredge was sunk in December 1911, but was raised and again put in commission.
Charles Janin, "Review of Gold Dredging in 1912,"
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 4, 1913, page 45

    During the year it was decided to build a railroad from Grants Pass in Josephine County, up the Applegate River, to the mines of the Blue Ledge district. On Grave Creek, 14 miles from Grants Pass, 3000 acres of land was bought by the Oro Power & Light Co. of California. Drilling is being done with a view to dredging. The Alameda smelter was started, and a 200-ton mill is to be built. The Oriole company erected a 50-ton mill, costing $70,000, at Grants Pass. On the Rogue River, the Minnehaha Gold Hydraulic & Dredging Co. was building a dredge to cost $50,000. The West Coast company has been producing gold from the Champion mine and mill. Ore from the Musick claim is sent to the 30-stamp mill over an electric line about one mile long. The Eureka corporation was to erect a custom mill at High Grade, in California, just over the state border. At Applegate, in Jackson County, a chlorination plant of 100-ton capacity was erected at the Oregon Strong Ledge mine. In Douglas County the Beaver Hill mine, near Anchor, cut a vein at 400 ft. in an adit, and another adit is being driven. The Oregon-Colorado mine is 900 ft. deep, and a smelter was to be erected for the copper ore. In January lectures on mining geology were begun by the mining engineering department of the Oregon Agricultural College, at Baker City. At Medford, in February, the Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining Congress held a meeting. There were exhibits of ore and machinery, and discussions on various mining topics.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 4, 1913, page 82

    The Sterling mine, eight miles southwest of Jacksonville, one of the richest placer mines in Southern Oregon when in operation, is to be reopened by S. S. Bullis and his son, of New York. A ditch for hydraulic work has been surveyed, and will be constructed. The mine has been shut down for four years.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 1, 1913, page 226

    (Special Correspondence.)--The affairs of the Old Channel property, which is one of the largest and best-equipped hydraulic mines in Oregon, and has produced steadily for 40 years, are now in a fair way toward settlement, J. F. Reddy. of Medford, having been appointed receiver. For four seasons this property has been in trouble. "Open weather" has arrived early in Southern Oregon this year, and machinery recently ordered for the Galice quartz mine will now be hauled to the property. The Ocean Beach Dredge Co., a Minneapolis corporation holding an extensive area of land, and which has been working at Gold Beach, near the mouth of the Rogue River, for several years, using old-type sluicing methods, is installing a new "submarine" dredge. It will be equipped with a gasoline power plant and weigh 50 tons, and is moved from place to place on wheels. Buckets carried on endless chains dip up the sand and deliver it to sluices. This system has been tested for some time past by the company.
Philomath, March 12.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 22, 1913, pages 462-463

    The Sterling Gold Quartz M.&M. Co. will hold an adjourned stockholders' meeting April 13 to consider financing of the company. At the regular meeting in March it was resolved to ask the stockholders to submit to a voluntary assessment to raise funds for patenting the ground and working the property.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 12, 1913, page 562

    (Special Correspondence.)--The placer season is drawing to a close in Southern Oregon, and many of the smaller mines have already closed on account of shortness of water. The larger properties will keep their giants at work for a month or so yet; and some of them will have a full pipehead till late in June, but the greater part of the gold from the surface mines will be cleaned up by the end of April. Shipments of gold are already being made through the banks to the Mint at San Francisco.
    For the especial benefit of the miners of Galice district, lower Rogue River, the county is building a new steel bridge across the Rogue at Massie's Ferry. In addition to building the bridge, several thousand dollars will be expended on the road, thus giving much better transportation facilities for the district.
    New Yorkers will operate 10 or 15 of the Greenback's 30 stamps this summer, and work will probably be continued through the fall and winter. Development will be done on the Cowboy, Lyttle, Queen of Bronze, and other copper properties of the Waldo district, southern Josephine County. Ray Bros. are making good progress in overhauling the Braden mine, near Gold Hill. They will have the mine operating to full capacity by the middle of May. The Oriole Mining Co. will have its new mill and concentrating plant finished by the end of June. In the meantime, a large quantity of ore is being opened. Equipment and supplies are going over the road from Medford and Jacksonville for the mines of the Blue Ledge district. The old Jewett mine, near Grants Pass, has been completely overhauled. The Michigan Mining & Milling Co. has resumed work on its property, the Michigan mine, near Murphy, on Applegate River. This mine has been idle for the past five years. The old Mountain Lion mine, on Missouri Flat, Applegate River, is also being overhauled.
Grants Pass, April 11.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 26, 1913, page 634

    (Special Correspondence.)--Among the quartz mines in the Gold Hill district to receive equipment is the Nellie Wright, situated two miles east of Gold Hill. This property is being fitted with a 15-stamp mill, concentrating plant, and auxiliary electrical machinery. The management hopes to have the stamps dropping within two months. The mine is developed to a depth of 300 ft. and has a large body of ore in reserve. Mill tests on this ore give returns of from $12 to $18 per ton, mostly free gold. The mine is easily accessible, and has every facility for operation, including water, power, and timber. The Nellie Wright is owned by P. C. Donovan, of Winnipeg, Canada, who bought it only a short time ago. Henry Ray is local manager. Besides the placing of machinery on the property, the camp itself is being laid out on better lines, and larger and more commodious buildings erected.
Philomath, April 26.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 3, 1913, page 670

    It is reported that a fairly large deposit of ore carrying 10% nickel has been opened in this county, about 18 miles from the railway.
"Coos County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 10, 1913, page 710

    Oregon has appropriated $40,000 for the first two years work of its geological survey, and under the directorship of Mr. H. M. Parks plans are being laid for a vigorous and systematic study of the mineral resources of the state.
"Editorial," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 10, 1913, page 681

Jackson County
    Ashland, in this county, has been chosen as the meeting place for the next annual session of the Northern California and Southern Oregon Mining Congress, which has just concluded a four-days session at Redding, Shasta County, California.
Josephine County
    (Special Correspondence.) — New York and Chicago people are bonding 840 acres of ground in the Waldo district, on the Illinois River. This property will be tested for hydraulicking and dredging. On the Rogue River, 140 acres has been purchased by Washington and Oregon people for $50,000. Prospecting has proved this ground to be valuable, and $50,000 will be spent in equipment. Los Angeles people have been testing property on the lower Rogue River for about three years.   
Philomath, May 22.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 31, 1913, page 841

    (Special Correspondence.)--The annual cleanup of the placer mines in this and Josephine County is now in progress, there being not sufficient water for further hydraulic work. There has been a good supply, and the season's production should be equal to the usual quantity of gold. A satisfactory cleanup was brought in from the Golden West mine, of upper Slate Creek district, western Josephine County, by W. H. Ramsey, the manager, this week. Mr. Ramsey states that there has been more mining activity in the Slate Creek region this season than ever before. As this district will be touched by the Pacific-Interior Railroad from Grants Pass, the mine owners of the district are rushing development on their properties to be ready for the new line. Several hydraulic mines are also being developed; among these being the Buster Brown, owned and operated by L. P. Brown.
Philomath, June 13.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 21, 1913, page 963

    (Special Correspondence.)--A 20-ton mill is being erected at the Nellie Wright mine, in the Gold Hill district. It will be driven by electric power. The ore is worth from $9 to $18 per ton. The Blossom mine, in the same district, is opening well. The Cinnabar has been opened by two adits, driven to depths of 320 and 180 ft., respectively. Drifts from these have opened a large ore body, assaying high in mercury. The property is being examined by two engineers. After an idleness of 20 years the old Alice mine, on Kane Creek, is being reworked.
Philomath, July 4.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 12, 1913, page 74

    (Special Correspondence.)--The old Whitney mine, on the east side of Gold Hill, is being reopened by Humphrey & Son, of Bellingham, Washington, who have it under lease. Years ago it produced a great deal of gold from its rich deposits of free-milling ore. Legal entanglements were responsible for its closing down and years of idleness. Now all points in dispute have been settled, and the new management has set to work to retimber, overhaul, and set it going again. The Braden is another Gold Hill property which is being opened. Under Mr. Horn, the manager, a new adit is being driven on a lower level to cut the main ore body, lost by a cave-in of the old workings. A new and rich discovery was made during the past week on the Lucky Bart mine, at Sardine Creek, near Gold Hill. A 3-ft. vein was found that is averaging $40 per ton in the mill. R. Bordier, of Paris, France, secretary of the French company that owns and operates the Bill Nye mine in the Gold Hill district, is inspecting the property. With the local manager of the mine, F. C. Bellamy, Mr. Bordier is planning better equipment and deeper development. The mine is equipped with a 10-stamp mill and has been one of the leading producers of the district. A deal was completed last week by which the Blue Ledge copper mine, in the upper Applegate district, and on the Oregon-California divide, was sold by Robert S. Towne and associates to a company of Michigan people, among the latter being H. C. Russell, of Marquette.
Philomath, July 15.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 9, 1913, page 243

    Numbers of mining men are arriving at Grants Pass in connection with mine examinations. Arthur H. Gruber and associates of Milwaukee will provide capital to equip the Old Glory mine, on Silver Creek, with modern plant. James W. Neill, of Pasadena, California, has secured an option on dredging ground on Grave Creek, near the Columbia mine, and prospecting is under way. About 1500 acres of dredging ground, situated on Pleasanton Creek, 17 miles from Grants Pass, is being tested by J. K. Kendrick of California. The Bill Nye mine is being developed by French people.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 23, 1913, page 320

Metal Production of Oregon
    The value of the mine output of gold, silver, copper, and lead, in Oregon, in 1912, according to Charles G. Yale, of the U.S. Geological Survey, was $849,886, against $669,016 in 1911. The total yield of gold was $770,041, an increase of $136,634 over the 1911 production. Of the gold output, $580,945 came from placers. There was an increase in production from hydraulic mining of $38,131, but there was a small decrease in the yield from drift and surface mines. About 50% of the placer gold recovered came from mines in Josephine and Jackson counties. The gold recovered from deep mines amounted to 28,103.21 fine ounces, valued at $580,945, of which 27,278 oz. was derived from siliceous ores, 616.40 oz. from copper ore, and 208.84 oz. from lead ores. The southwestern counties of Oregon (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, Josephine, and Lane), which form an extension of the California gold belt, made a combined production of $217,565 in gold, and of $10,343 in silver. Northeastern Oregon, comprising Baker, Crook, Grant, Malheur, and Wheeler counties, reported a gold production of $552,476, of which Baker County contributed $484,041, or 87.6%. The silver production of Oregon was 57,081 fine ounces, valued at $35,105, compared with 45,221 oz., valued at $23,967, in 1911. Of the 1912 production, 1941 oz. came from placers, 44,018 oz. from siliceous ores, 10,555 oz. from copper ores, and 567 oz. from lead ores.
    The copper production increased in Oregon from 93,136 lbs., valued at $11,642, in 1911, to 260,429 lbs. valued at $42,971 in 1912. All the copper except 6049 lbs. was derived from ores mined in Josephine County. The production of lead in Oregon in 1912 was 39,317 lbs., valued at $1769. The output came from a small quantity of lead ore mined in Jackson County and from concentrate shipped from Lane County.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 20, 1913, page 480

    (Special Correspondence.)--The winter rains have started a number of the hydraulic placers. Thomas Wilson, of Nevada, has bought the Grand Prize placer, of Sucker Creek district, discovered by T. M. Anderson last February. The price to be paid is $100,000, of which a substantial part was handed over; Mr. Anderson to retain one-fourth the net profits of the mine till settlement is made in full. The Grand Prize is in a dry gulch well up on the Siskiyou, near the California line. There being no water available, Mr. Anderson has followed the plan of packing the dirt by burro down the mountain over a rough trail to the nearest stream. It has yielded average returns of $25 per yard. The deposit is reported 200 ft. wide and over 1500 ft. long, and has been opened to a depth of 200 ft. The new owner has already begun the placing of hydraulic equipment and will operate one or two giants with water brought from Lake Creek. The Almeda smelter, on Rogue River, near Galice, has managed to keep in operation for some time by running a line of motor trucks between the property and the Beaver cement plant, near Gold Hill. Each truck makes a round trip every day, hauling a load of lime to the smelter, and on the outward trip taking a load of matte as far as Merlin, where it is loaded on the cars for shipment.
Grants Pass, November 8.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 15, 1913, page 788

    At the coal mine being developed by C. A. Smith and associates near Marshfield, the shaft is down 1200 ft. The equipment is to be operated by electric power.

"Coos County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 20, 1913, page 987

    (Special Correspondence).--At the Oriole mine, in the Galice district, a large number of men is busy with deep development and erecting a new 10-stamp mill. J. C. Mattison is manager. In addition to the reduction plant, concentration and cyanidation is also to be used. Power will be supplied by water and steam, and the mill will be crushing ore within 60 days. As the ore of the Oriole is soft and friable, the 10 stamps will easily reduce from 40 to 50 tons per day. The Oriole has now a mile of underground workings, and is one of the best-developed quartz mines in the Galice district. In opening the property a considerable quantity of shipping ore was extracted, and this has been shipped to Tacoma for treatment. There is enough profitable ore in reserve to keep the new plant running for a considerable time.
    The Silver Creek district, in the western part of the county, is showing unusual activity this season, both in quartz and placer mining. F. L. Mangum, manager of the Old Glory, is employing men on development through the winter. The Old Glory is a large low-grade proposition, containing gold, copper, and silver, gold being the predominating metal. F. V. Metts, owner and manager of the Metts hydraulic mine, of Silver Creek, reports that his property has been in steady operation for some time, and that the present season promises to be an excellent one, not only for the Metts, but for many of the placers of western and southern Josephine County. It is figured that the falling off of the surface gold yield, as shown by last year's figures, will more than be made up this season, because of the extended run and richness of ground on which many mines are operating.
    Deep snows are putting a check on the development of claims on the Siskiyou Range, particularly in the upper Sucker Creek districts above Holland, where a number of rich discoveries were made late in the fall. Work on these will be resumed in the spring. The snow is proving of great benefit in maintaining a steady water supply for the placers, and assure an extended run in the spring.
Grants Pass, December 20.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 27, 1913, page 1031

    The Afterthought mine on Thompson Creek has been sold to Michigan and Illinois men for $12,000. A good deal of ore has been opened by adits, and assays give high returns in gold.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 17, 1914, page 157

Jackson County
    (Special Correspondence.)--M. Blanchin, president and general manager of the Bill Nye Corporation, a French company, but with American headquarters at San Francisco, arrived this week to make an inspection of the Bill Nye mine, near Gold Hill. M. Blanchin was pleased with the mine. It is now worked by one shift, but has been unwatered and overhauled, and the superintendent, Mr. Bellamy, states that an additional shift will soon be added. The new 75-ton mill at the Nellie Wright mine is nearly completed. It will be driven by electric power. The mine contains a large tonnage of ore.
Gold Hill, January 15.
    A. E. Smith, of San Francisco, has been visiting the hydraulic mines at Gold Hill, and has interested the miners in saving black sand, which contains platinum. Tacoma and Sutherlin, Oregon, people have purchased placer ground near Dowden Falls, three miles from Gold Hill. Active prospecting is under way. While there is plenty of water for large hydraulic mines, the smaller properties are short, the former depending on snow and the latter on local rainfall.
Josephine County
    (Special Correspondence.)--A great amount of development is being done at the mines of Illinois Valley, surrounding the pioneer camps of Kerby and Waldo. The hydraulic placers are making a fine showing, as the season is an excellent one for surface mining. New workings have been opened on the Simmons-Cameron-Logan placers. A double-lift Hendy elevator has been installed on this line to take care of the tailing. John Logan, owner of the mine, is also operating the Osgood, nearby, with excellent results. The Wimer mine, known as the Deep Gravel, is operating this year under the management of Morrison brothers. A tubular elevator is also in operation on the Wimer, there not being sufficient natural dump to take care of the debris. The local manager, Mr. Wimer, reports that an exceptionally rich bank of pay gravel is being worked this year. George W. Otterson, a prominent mining man of Ottawa, Canada, after making a thorough investigation of the mines of Southern Oregon, took an option on a Grants Pass placer. He has begun work and will more extensively develop the mine, operating the present equipment during the remainder of the season.
Grants Pass, January 15.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 24, 1914, pages 197-198

    The organizing of a mining experiment station at Grants Pass is being discussed in Congress at Washington, the bill having been introduced by Mr. Hawley. It provides that the station be under the control of the Bureau of Mines, the appropriation necessary being $25,000. A survey of the Dothan quadrangle is also suggested.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 31, 1914, page 235

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Beaver Portland Cement Co.'s new plant to manufacture cement from the limestone deposits near Gold Hill is making good progress. Machinery is arriving, and is being installed. The rotary kiln is 200 ft. long and 10 ft. diameter. Five large "slurry" tanks, 20 ft. high, being built from native fir, will hold the pulverized kiln feed from the crushers. Work at the quarry continues. The company has several contracts for cement highways in the state.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 21, 1914, page 350

Hydraulicking on the Klamath River
By J. H. Theller

    The debris law does not affect Siskiyou County, as the drainage is directly westward to the Pacific Ocean, hence hydraulic mining in this county is still carried on.
    The River Bend mine is on the Klamath River, 25 miles west from Hornbrook, 25 miles north from Yreka, and 15 miles east from the junction of the Klamath and Scott rivers. The prevailing rocks of the country in that vicinity are granites and schists. It is the former that largely contributes so many rich pockets to the prospector. The deposit which is being mined is an ancient channel of the Klamath River, running nearly parallel to its present course, but lower than it. From the work already performed, the old channel shows a width of 100 ft. from rim to rim, although prospect drifts run at intervals of 600 ft. ahead of the work failed to reach the inner rim. The prospect work had to be discontinued owing to bad air, hence no definite results were obtained, although indications point to the widening of the channel.
Character of Bedrock
    The bedrock is a hard schist, very rough and water-worn, with a general dip to the southeast. Soft streaks of black shale are encountered at intervals. This shale is highly tilted, forming an excellent stopping place for the gold already caught. In cleaning this shale it is found advisable not to strip it clean with the giant, but to have men pick it at right angles to the dip to a depth of about two feet. If it be washed clean with the giant or taken up parallel to the dip, the gold sinks deeper and is lost. The hard bedrock is different; it may be piped clean, the crevices only being cleaned by hand. Where this soft bedrock occurs, large quantities of gold are found. In the center of the channel the bedrock is high and very hard, falling off abruptly on either side about six or eight feet, where it again rises forming the rims. At the contact of the hard schist and shale there is a blue clay separating the two. This is termed "sluice robber," as any gold contained in or picked up by it will be carried through the sluices. We have experienced no trouble in handling it, since the clay is entirely broken up when hit by the stream of the elevator, thus delivering any gold contained therein to the riffles.
    The bedrock is, on an average, at a depth of 30 ft., the best gravel occurring within 5 ft. of the bottom, although the pay streak has an average depth of 10 ft. The gravel gold is much lighter in weight than the bedrock gold, although the former has a greater fineness than the latter. Resting on the pay streak is a gravel of finer texture, but of poorer grade. Topping this is overburden. The entire mass constitutes a bank about 30 ft. high.
    The pay gravel is dark blue in color, and consists of heavy, well-rounded rocks, together with much wash. It has a shingled appearance while in place, contains medium-sized boulders, the largest of which weigh from 500 to 1000 lbs. "Bulldozing" has been found more economical than moving them with a derrick. All boulders larger than 10½ in. diameter must be broken, or thrown aside on a clean strip of bedrock, as the size of the elevator throat is 10½ in. Black sand forms but a small part of the gravel. Although the degree of concentration is not definitely known it will approximate one-quarter of a pound of black sand per cubic yard of gravel. Assays of it show no platinum, and it is valueless except for the free "flour gold" which it contains. Sulphide minerals, such as cubical iron pyrite and arsenopyrite, which occur in the gravel also mineralize the bedrock. They assay $18 per ton, but no attempt is made to save them. It is chiefly due to these sulphides that the pit water, or water flowing from cracks in bedrock, is heavily charged with arsenic. This water attacks all parts of metal with which it comes in contact, so that it is found necessary to paint with asphaltum all pipelines, parts of the elevator, and other pieces of metal which are in contact with the pit water.
Water Supply
    The water supply is from two separate sources. The system includes 11 miles of ditch and l½ miles of flume. The ditch supplying the two giants and the 8-in. Evans water lift brings the water from Dogget Creek, two miles east of the mine, and delivers it to a penstock 115 ft. above the works. The ditch carries an average of 350 miner's inches. The pipeline at the intake is 22 in. tapering to 13 in.; branches feeding the giants are 11 in.; the branch supplying the lift is 11 in. tapering to 9 in. The water lift is used only in case of an emergency, such as the choking of the elevator. The elevator water is brought from Buckhorn Creek, ten miles to the west. The main ditch is 4 ft. on the top, 2½ ft. deep, and 2 ft. wide on the bottom. The grade is ⅝ inch in 16½ ft. It will convey 700 miner's inches of water, but only carries 375 at the present time. The water is delivered a distance of two miles to a point 2000 ft. above the property. From there it is conveyed down the mountain through a flume for one mile, discharging into a gulch which takes the water the remaining distance. It is caught by a dam 375 ft. above the mine, from which it flows to a penstock, and thence through a pipeline to the elevator. The pipe at the intake of the penstock is 24 in. diameter, tapering to 11 in. at the nozzle of the elevator. The length of the pipeline is 1040 ft. Slip-joint pipe is used until water level is reached, and flanged pipe from that point to the elevator.
    There are two giants (No. 2 Joshua Hendy) in operation. They consume approximately 350 miner's inches of water, working at an effective head of 90 to 100 ft. Three and three and one-half-inch nozzles are used. One of the giants is used to cave the gravel, the other to drive it to the elevator. The elevator is one of the Campbell type, having a 3
½-in. nozzle, a 10½-in. throat, and a 14-in. upcast pipe. It uses 375 in. of water under an effective head of 325 ft. It is set in a sump 10 ft. deep, in bedrock. The sump is six feet square at the collar, tapering to four feet at the bottom. The elevator is set at an inclination of 70°. The height of elevation is 46 ft. vertically from the top of the nozzle to the top of the blocks in the headblocks, ensuring sufficient dump to the river. It may be stated in passing that no trouble is experienced with the tailing after the current of the river is reached.
    The following table is made up from daily averages throughout the season of six months during 1912-1913:
Cubic yards of gravel washed per day 417.00
Miner's inches of water per day (24 hr.) 350.00
Cubic yards of gravel washed per miner's inch 1.19
Cubic feet of water per cubic foot of gravel washed 67.00
Cubic feet of giant water to be lifted per minute 525.00
Cubic feet of seepage water to be lifted per minute *45.00
Total flow in elevator upraise pipe, cu ft. per min. †1132.00
Cubic feet of gravel to be lifted per minute 7.81
Height of banks, feet 30.00
Grade of sluices, inches 7 to 12
    †Elevator feed water, 375 miner's inches.
    The following table is the average working cost per yard throughout the season, administration charges not included:
Per day Per cu. yd.
Foreman and common labor $17.50 $0.041
Freight, supplies, etc. 1.00 0.002
Boarding house 5.85 0.014
Maintenance, including all dead work 3.22 0.008
Depreciation of plant, ditch, riffles, giants, etc.     6.66   0.015
    Total working cost $34.23 $0.080
    In the above table is shown the duty of the miner's inch of water per 24 hours in the carrying of the gravel from the giants to the elevator only. I have limited the discussion to this in the belief that it is improper to charge the carrying capacity of the total water used with that portion of the work of transportation performed in and beyond the elevator itself: first, because the giant water has a "carrying duty" only between the giant and the elevator. Thereafter it becomes "freight" and has to be itself carried as dead weight along with the gravel; second, at the elevator additional "freight" is presented in the shape of seepage water that enters the cut in large quantities and has to be carried away. These two bodies of water, giant and seepage water, comprise the real load that consumes the water for the elevator, and we seldom deliver enough gravel at the elevator to reach the carrying capacity of the elevator. Therefore, the duty of the miner's inches from the giant to the elevator is the important consideration and if the elevator carries the water from its giant it will handle any amount of gravel the water contains whether it be large or small, although an excess of sand will choke the elevator.
    At the beginning, after setting the elevator, the gravel bank being close, all gold is caught in the upper sluices. As the work progresses and the gravel bank becomes farther away a bedrock flume is necessary. The first box is set so that its end is 3 in. above the nozzle of the elevator. This sluice is 20 in. wide on the bottom, 24 in. deep on the sides, and is set at a grade of 7 inches in 12 ft. To overlap the joints of the bottom boards of the sluice, false bottoms are put in. Upon these rest the riffles, held down on the sides by 2 by 4-in. scantlings. The sluice boxes are built in 12-ft. lengths of 1¼-in. yellow pine boards. They are riffled longitudinally and also laterally. The longitudinal riffles are 20-lb. rails, flanged down, spaced with slip blocks, giving a 3½-in. riffle space on top. These rails give an ideal surface over which boulders can travel. The cross riffles are pine blocks 4 in. high, spaced 2 in. apart. In the second box from the head, Hungarian riffles are kept. They are taken up every three days. It is easier and quicker to handle them than the longitudinal or block riffles. Eighty percent of the gold recovered is caught in the bedrock sluice and the elevator sump.
    The elevator raises the gravel to the upper sluices and through them it runs to the river. The head box is 6 ft. high, 12 ft. long, tapering from 48 to 32 in. The bottom boards are l½-in. yellow pine covered with l
¼-in. false bottoms of the same material. In addition, back and top are made of l¼-in. lumber, lined with ¼-in. steel plates. It is yoked on the sides every three feet with 4 by 4-in. timbers. A slightly curved hood of cast iron, 4 ft. long, 30 in. wide, and 4 in. thick, is bolted to the top of the box. This stops the upward trend of the water and gravel, directing it down the sluiceway.
    The sluices are built in separate units. Each box is 12 ft. long, 32 in. wide, and 24 in. high. They are set on a grade of 6 inches in 12 ft., and are built of 1
½-in. yellow pine lumber, yoked every 4 ft. with 3 by 4-in. yokes.
    The bottom of each box is covered with a planed false bottom, down to and including the eighth box. The false bottom for the other 12 boxes are of unplaned lumber.
    Owing to the wear of the constantly falling boulders on the bottom of the headbox, blocks 12 by 12 by 12 in. were used. These were built close together with no riffle space between the sets (Fig. 2), no attempt being made to save gold in this box. From the headbox to the first box in the sluice there is a drop of 3 in. The blocks in this space, together with the succeeding four boxes are 9 by 9 in. Experiments showed better results by spacing the blocks 1 in. apart in each set and separating each set by 2 in. This gives a longitudinal as well as a lateral riffle. The longitudinal space between the blocks is staggered. This is accomplished by varying the widths of the first block in the set (Fig. 3). This style continues for the next three boxes.
    There is a drop of 3 in. to the box containing the Hungarian riffles. These are angle-iron sections running laterally across the sluice. They are bolted to iron strips which tie a set of the bars together. Each of these sets is 2 ft. long, and contain eight bars, thus producing a riffle space of 3 in. (Fig. 4).
    This type continues for two boxes where a drop of 2 in. brings the material onto the longitudinal rails. These are of the same kind already described in the ground sluice. The space at the top is 3½ in., nine rails to the box (Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). These continue for two boxes, where again one box of block riffles is placed. This takes us to the tenth box. From here to the end, gold becomes so scarce that it hardly pays to clean up. From the tenth box to the twentieth and last, old rails, scrap iron, and the like, are placed on the bottom of the boxes to save wear. Quicksilver is used from the fourth to the tenth box. It is an interesting fact to note that in a set of boxes, 25% of the gold is caught in the different sudden drops from one riffle to the next lower one.
    Most of the gold is caught in the fourth, fifth, and sixth boxes. From there on the quantity falls off rapidly. Beyond the tenth box it is not economically saved, hence attention and labor may well be directed elsewhere. The reason more gold is not caught in the first three boxes may be explained by the fact that the gravel is given such momentum by the elevator that two or three boxes are required for the separation of the different particles according to their respective specific gravities, and in order to allow the particles to fall with the riffles.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 28, 1914, pages 523-526

    Mining in this state has been described in "Mineral Resources of Oregon," Vol. I, No. 1, published by the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, H. M. Parkes, director. This serial will be published regularly. The total value of all minerals in 1913 was $3,650,000, of which $1,925,000 was from gold, silver, lead, and copper. Josephine, Jackson, Lane, Douglas, Curry, and Coos counties, in the southern district, produced gold and silver worth $225,000. The ratio between placer and deep mining is over 2 to 1. In eastern Oregon the output was $1,700,000, 75% from deep mines, from Baker, Malheur, Grant, Wheeler, and Crook counties. The volume also deals with the necessity for a mineral survey, work of the bureau, "What Is the Matter with the Mining Industry?" by A. M. Swartley, coal in Oregon, and other matter.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 28, 1914, page 548

    Southwestern Oregon has long been known for its widespread and varied mineral resources, among which gold, silver, copper, platinum, and coal are the most important. They have been the subject of investigation for a number of years by J. S. Diller, of the U.S. Geological Survey, and the results have just been published in Bulletin 546. The gold rush of '49 landed many a prospector in Southwestern Oregon. Placers were opened and placer mining has ever since continued to be a thriving branch of mineral industry. The gold produced in Southwestern Oregon before 1881 cannot be closely estimated, but it was many millions of dollars, while from 1881 to 1912, inclusive, the production of gold has been $11,257,772. During the 10 years 1903 to 1912, inclusive, the placer mines produced $2,014,715 and the lode mines $1,523,226. Besides the gold and a considerable amount of copper, the production of silver during the same period was valued at $63,385, platinum $15,293, and coal $2,602,122.
Josephine County
    A 10-day run at the placer claims of Martin and Daniels, l½ miles below Galice, yielded 184 oz. gold. At the Anderson placer mine, owned by "Dry Wash" Wilson of Nevada, 8 miles of ditch and pipeline was completed recently, but a slide carried away 1500 yds. of the ditch. Rich quartz has been found by R. Boswell, at a depth of 15 ft., on Sucker Creek, 4 miles from Holland, and near the Anderson placer.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 4, 1914, page 591

    (Special Correspondence.)--The old Braden mine, near Gold Hill, is one of the first properties in Oregon to take up the "sliding scale lease system" in its operation, by which a number of its operatives and employees derive a share of the returns. There are about 40 on the payroll, and some receive as high as $200 to $350 per month. This property is well equipped. O. A. Jackson, of Fort Worth. Texas, has purchased the old Opp mine, near Jacksonville, for $200,000. It will be further developed and ore treatment changed considerably. A 20-stamp mill is on the property.
Gold Hill, April 8.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 18, 1914, page 670

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Rogue River Public Service Corporation is erecting dams and power plants on the Rogue River near Grants Pass, to compete with the Oregon-California company, whose plant is at Raygold above Gold Hill. The Ament dam and works have been secured for a central station, and will develop 5000 h.p. G. E. Sanders is manager of the concern. A large hydraulic plant is being installed by the Althouse Mining Co. near the old town of Holland.
Grants Pass, April 8.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 2, 1914, page 748

    (Special Correspondence.)--With only a few men employed, and a small mill working a few days each month, the Lucky Bart mine, in the Sardine Creek district, is doing well. The gold output in March was $800, and the regular cleanup produced between $700 and $1000. The De Luse Mining & Dredging Co., of Sutherlin, has purchased the Lyman apple orchard, on the Rogue River near Gold Hill, for $12,000. The area will be dredged, machinery having been ordered. The orchard yielded $500 per acre last season, and the trees will be reset as soon as uprooted for the dredge. A. E. Bamber is to be in charge. Southern Oregon capital is to develop and equip the St. Albans copper-gold claims on the upper Applegate, in the Blue Ledge district. Henry Callahan and associates have been opening the property for some time past. A concentrating plant, to cost about $25,000, will probably be erected.
Philomath, April 24.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Kubli Bros., owners of the Gold Standard mine, of Galls Creek, in the Gold Hill district, announce that this old property, which has been idle for the past seven years on account of litigation, will soon be reopened. About 2000 ft. of underground work has been done, and returns in the past have averaged as high as $40 per ton. In a claim owned by Zeb Hyde, on the Applegate River, 12 in. of rich quartz ore has been opened.
Philomath, May 10.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 23, 1914, page 868

    The mineral resources of Southwestern Oregon are described by J. S. Diller in Bulletin 546 of the U.S. Geological Survey. This publication of 147 pages is accompanied by illustrations and interesting maps of the various districts, and covers the geology, mineral production ($6,218,741 since 1900), gold-quartz lode mines, copper mines, and prospects (blister copper output in 1912, 260,429 lbs.), placer mines, and coal.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 6, 1914, page 946

    The Northern California-Southern Oregon Mining Congress will meet at Ashland on July 9 and 10. L. J. Luce, of Etna Mills. Siskiyou County, California, will preside. Following is the official program: First day, reception at Commercial Club rooms; address of welcome by the mayor, Mr. Johnson; response, F. J. Newman, of Medford, S. J. Taylor, of Yreka; president's address, L. J. Luce; S. B. Edwards, of Grants Pass, "Placer Mining in Southern Oregon"; H. N. Lawrie, of Portland. "Mining Industries of the State"; and R. A. Watson, corporation commissioner. "Blue Sky Law, Relation to Mining Industry." On the second day the following papers are to be read: A. L. Lamb, of Ashland, "Mining in Jackson County"; J. Mangum, "Mining in Josephine County"; Henry M. Parks, "Mineral Resources of Oregon"; address by F. McN. Hamilton, state mineralogist of California; C. B. Watson, of Ashland, "Clay and Kaolin and Their Possibilities," "Iron and Copper, Their Relation to Commercial Industries"; E. P. Hopson, "Irrigation and Reclamation"; and an address by C. L. Probsted, ".Mineral Resources of Siskiyou County."

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 20, 1914, page 1031

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Purkeypile mine, in the Gold Hill district, has been bonded by Southern Oregon men. A stamp mill and other equipment has been ordered from San Francisco. The mine's output to date is over $75,000. Gold Hill mines are fairly active, judging by gold receipts at the local bank.
Gold Hill, July 10.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 18, 1914, page 116

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Old Channel hydraulic mines, of Galice district, have been sold to Chicago people for $10,000. Of this amount, only a part has been paid down, the remainder to be handed over within the next two years. The deal was completed by J. R. Harvey, the former manager of the mine. The Old Channel is one of the best-equipped hydraulic properties in Southern Oregon. It was for years one of the largest gold producers, but during the past few seasons has been practically idle, this being due mainly to litigation and dissatisfaction among the shareholders. The property includes about 600 acres of timber and mineral lands, with fine water rights. There are over 20 miles of ditches and flumes, and many thousand feet of pipelines. Three No. 6 giants are operated when the mine is at work, these working under a head of 500 ft. The gravel is deep, occupying the fill
of an ancient river bed.
    About 360 oz. of gold, the weekly cleanup from the Braden mine, is being shipped each week through the local banks to the mint at San Francisco. The management of the Braden is not only doing a great deal of improvement and development work on this property, but is showing also that there is a long life for it.
Grants Pass, June 24.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 1, 1914, page 195

    (Special Correspondence.)--The old Granite Hill mine, in the Louse Creek district, are to be reworked by the Oregon Gold Mines Co., in charge of J. M. O'Grady. The first work will be to unwater the mine by baling. Electric pumps were drowned on No. 7 level some time ago. There is said to be a good tonnage of ore developed, containing fair gold content. There is a good equipment consisting of a hoist, compressors, steam and electric power plant, 30-stamp mill and concentrators, all in good order. Several mines in Southern Oregon are backed by European capital. The Braden mine has been shut down since the war started, although making good returns. The Bill Nye is owned by French people, but is still working.
Grants Pass, August 12.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 29, 1914, page 351

New Railway Improves Development of Josephine County.--
Work at the Old Channel Gravel Mine.--Oregon Gold

Mines Co.'s Property.
    Mining in western and southern Josephine County has been greatly stimulated by the completion of the first 12-mile unit of the municipal railroad being built from Grants Pass toward Crescent City, California. The copper mines of Waldo, Slate Creek, and Butcher Knife have increased their development crews, and ore is already being hauled from some of these to the end of the line for shipment by rail. Trains are now making regular schedule over this first portion of the line. Ore, logs, and other products of the district are received by the new road at Wilderville for shipment to any point in the United States, the cars being transferred at Grants Pass to the main Southern Pacific line. Mining men have found that they can save considerable in both time and money by hauling by wagon to Wilderville only and making rail shipment from this point rather than at Grants Pass. From the amount of shipments promised, it appears that the new line will be kept in active operation while awaiting the building of the remaining portion. This 12 miles of the proposed road was built and equipped at the expense of the people of Grants Pass, who voted bonds for the purpose to the amount of $200,000. With this much built, the city hopes to meet no great difficulty in securing capital for completing the remaining part to Crescent City, thus giving a direct route to San Francisco.
    Extensive improvements have been made this summer on the Old Channel hydraulic mines, of Galice district, for the purpose of operating the properties on a large scale the coming season. The mines have been virtually idle during the past two years, owing to legal difficulties. But this trouble is now removed, and the recent improvements will allow the operation of the extensive diggings to their full capacity. Water is available by two long ditches from Tom East and Galice creeks for three 6-in. monitors working under 450 and 500-ft. gravity head. The banks are from 180 to 300 ft. high on slate bedrock, with coarse gold on the lower strata and finer gold above. The properties are heavily timbered, and the natural dumping facilities are of the best.
    James O'Grady, manager for the Oregon Gold Mines Co., states that he is meeting excellent success in the reduction of the upper level ores lately uncovered on the Granite Hill and from the Ida claim on the same property. Ten stamps of the mill will be kept in continuous operation on this low-grade though free-milling ore. In the meantime the large hoist is operating a double skip day and night in removing the water from the mine, and the level is being steadily lowered.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 3, 1914, pages 532-533

    The petrology and mineral resources of the above counties are described by A. N. Winchell in The Mineral Resources of Oregon for August, published at Corvallis by the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology. The work covers 265 pages, and is well illustrated. The field work on which the report is based was done during the summer of 1913. With the author were S. W. French, L. E. Reber, Jr., C. B. Watson, and Harley Hall. Many men in the various districts visited gave generous help, also the director of the state bureau mentioned, H. M. Parks. The investigations cover the location, topography, history, development, production ($16,314,633 since 1852), geology, mineral resources, ore deposits, mineral waters, coal, placer mines, gold quartz mines, copper, and future possibilities of the nine districts examined. A good index completes a useful work on the most important mining counties of the state.
"Jackson and Josephine Counties," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 21, 1914, page 824

    Two mining deals were completed at Medford on December 2, whereby the Old Channel mine, on Galice Creek, has been sold to H. K. Owens, C. L. Creelman, and John C. Eaton, of Seattle, for $65,000; and a 75% interest in the R. A. Rowley mine, on Drew Creek, to DeWitt Van Ostrand, of Wisconsin, for $30,000. The former mine has been tied up by litigation for five years. It was owned by the Old Channel Hydraulic Mining Co., of Chicago. The Rowley is a copper mine, and has three short adits.
    A 30-ton cyanide plant is in full operation at the Queen mine near Leland. in charge of W. A. Burr.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 19, 1914, page 976

    A deal was made Tuesday afternoon whereby the mines of the Jacksonville Mining & Milling Co. will be transferred to Messrs. James McChatka & R. H. Bailey of Grants Pass, whom it is presumed represent a wealthy syndicate. The papers have been signed up and together with the certificates of stock have been placed in escrow in the Bank of Jacksonville. The purchasers are to have immediate possession and work will be commenced at once upon the property. Mr. Bailey is a mining engineer of experience, and after a thorough examination of the property is well pleased with the outlook and says that it is surely a mine. This property has lately been under lease to Mr. Rhinehart, but his lease having expired the deal above mentioned was made this week.
"Local News," Jacksonville Post, June 19, 1915, page 3

    The mining property of the Jacksonville Milling & Mining Co., one mile west of Jacksonville, has been purchased by James McChatka and R. H. Bailey of Grants Pass, Or., who will commence immediate operations of the same.
    The property was well known in the early mining days of Jacksonville, as it is the ledge from which the famous Bowden pocket was taken, which yielded over $60,000. On top of the ridge near the same property a pocket known as the Johnson pocket was also taken out, and is reported to have yielded $30,000.
    The property is located near and in the same mountain as the well-known Opp mine, on which stands a twenty-stamp mill and cyanide plant, but this plant is not in operation, although it is reported that plans are in progress for starting up again in the near future.
    Professor A. N. Winchell in the August number of the Mineral Resources of Oregon last year gives considerable space to a description of these properties.
    There has always been a feeling among old miners of Jacksonville that some very rich strikes would someday be discovered in this region, and much surface prospecting has been done there.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 30, 1915, page 6

    It is reported that recent development work at the old Jacksonville Mining & Milling Co.'s mine, recently purchased by McChatka & Bailey, has uncovered a vein of rich ore and that work on a large scale will be immediately begun. This property was well known in the early mining days and yielded several rich pockets of gold, one of which contained $60,000 worth of the yellow metal. Further development of the mine will be watched with interest by the miners of this vicinity.

"Local News," Jacksonville Post, July 3, 1915, page 3

    It is reported that molybdenite has been discovered in Ashland Creek canyon near Ashland. A local syndicate will develop the deposit.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 25, 1915, page 984

    "Minerals of Oregon' is the title of a University of Oregon bulletin by Graham John Mitchell. The publication consists of 60 pages, and was prepared to give students in economic geology as complete a list as possible of the minerals found in the state, together with their situation, and to give the people generally some idea of the minerals found in Oregon. The minerals are arranged alphabetically. Prospectors and others should secure a copy of this bulletin.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 19, 1916, page 290

    The establishing of a mining experiment station in Oregon, possibly at Grants Pass, is being urged in Congress by Representative Hawley.
    The Queen of Bronze mine at W'aldo has been sold to John F. Twohy of the firm of Twohy Brothers, and others. The sum of $78,000 has been paid as an installment. The mine contains good copper ore, some of which is hauled 45 miles to Grants Pass, and then railed to Kennett and Tacoma smelters. The Twohy railway is to be extended to Waldo.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 11, 1916, page 386

    If the hardy miners of pioneer days had set their stakes forty feet either way when prospecting their claims along the banks of Birdseye Creek, in an extensive area known to be mineralized, they would have found gold-bearing ore yielding from $285 to $15,000 a ton. They mined within a few feet of the ledge on each side of it, and then abandoned the territory to look for something richer. Many of them found rich deposits of ore in various parts of this vast mineral region, including gold, copper, silver, iron and coal, some of which were developed as far as it appeared to be profitable to work them in the absence of facilities for shipping the ores to a smelter. Scores of valuable claims are found in this condition today--still awaiting the advent of transportation facilities to make their operation worthwhile. It is the opinion of well-informed mining men in this region that many excellent claims of early days have been abandoned because of the absence of railroads in the district.
    But the claim on Birdseye Creek now being worked by Swacker & McReynolds had never been disturbed until a few weeks ago, when an indifferent surface indication suggested examination.
Startling Results Announced
    The result is that the Swacker-McReynolds Company are taking out ore from that claim that runs as high as $15,000 to the ton. The poorest rock they have taken out yields $285.72 to the ton. It is rock in which there is no gold apparent to the naked eye. Refuse accumulations shoveled out of the way of the main dump assay over $5 to the ton.
    After sinking a shaft twenty-three feet, during which depth the character and value of the ore were unchanged, the company has begun to tunnel into the mountain on the ledge. The only change in the ore is that of increase in values so far. It is pockety, and the vein is enlarging as depth is attained.
    F. C. Elliott, who has driven out to Birdseye Creek two or three times lately, brought in some of the ore. It may be seen at The Pantorium and Dye Works, on North Fir Street.
    Mr. Elliott also brought in a quantity of specimens of ore from the Highland mine, on Foots Creek, now on exhibition at the Commercial Club rooms. This, too, is a very promising property, the prospect showing better results as depth is attained. An offer has been made for this property, but the deal has not yet been concluded. Whether or not it may be between the parties to it in this case depends somewhat on the success of present plans to develop it under its present management.
New Life in Old Mines
    The Sterling mine, owned by S. S. Bullis of Medford, the oldest and most reliable producer in this part of the country, is being operated day and night by the largest force and equipment of greatest capacity ever used on it. Great electric searchlights enable the workmen to pursue operations at night as well as during the day. It is the scene of greater activity now than for many years. Thirty men are at work and three giant nozzles, each throwing a five-inch stream, are constantly washing the precious dirt from the walls of Sterling Creek.
    The Opp and Norling mines, also in the vicinity of Jacksonville, are being operated on full time, the ore from each being treated at the Opp mill.
    Work will soon be resumed on many of the mines in this district, preliminary preparation now being made for it on properties that have for years been idle.
    The lure of gold has again invited the prospector to search the mountains of southern Oregon and northern California as in the days when the element of chance was less promising. Many representatives of capital in the East are in this district at this time inspecting properties with a view to buying and opening them up for substantial development, much reliance being placed on the prospect of transportation facilities in the near future.
Tungsten Recently Found
    Tungsten, a rare metal, has been recently found in the Gold Hill district, according to the reports of G. L. Huff and H. A. Ray, two industrious prospectors of this region. This discovery is said to have been made about three miles above Gold Hill. Two veins have been opened up showing this metal, which is properly classified as scheelite and is free from any other forms of this ore, such as huebnerite, wolframite and ferberite. The principal vein is from eight to ten inches in width. Four chutes have been exposed, showing workable ore of good values. Assays from these chutes have given values per ton of $800 to $3000 at the prevailing prices--and the prices are steadily rising.
    This ore is found in heavy-looking sands and will cling to the pan the same as gold. It is white or creamy in color. In certain formations it may be yellowish.
    Special search is being made for cinnabar wherever quicksilver may be found in the mining territory.
    There is no doubt that this season will develop extraordinary activity in mining matters throughout the entire southern Oregon cluster of districts.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 20, 1916, page 2

    Mr. Walsh, representing the Drexler estate of San Francisco, which is operating dredges at Oroville, Chico and other California points, has been in this district for some days investigating conditions on Foots Creek with a view to locating a dredger on that stream if optional rates are not too severe. The conclusion reached apparently puts it up to those who own the lands affected. If their rates are reasonable, a dredger will be installed on Foots Creek, involving a monthly payroll of $1600 to $1800.
"Local and Personal,"
Medford Mail Tribune, March 20, 1916, page 2

    A large deposit of iron, with indications of manganese, has been located by W. B. Sherman and others of Grants Pass, about 8 miles from the California & Oregon Coast railway, being constructed from that town to Crescent in California.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 8, 1916, page 530

    The Black Eagle property near Grants Pass has been sold by W. S. Neill and others to P. H. Walters, P. Wright, and F. Pirth of Seattle for $175,000. A 50-ton mill is to be erected.
    Tungsten ore has been opened three miles above Gold Hill.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 22, 1916, page 610

    An election is to be held at Medford on May 23 to decide whether the town will issue bonds for $300,000 to help in constructing a railway to the Blue Ledge mines, 30 miles from the present terminal of the Bullis electric line. If carried, the road will eventually head toward the Pacific coast north of Trinidad in Humboldt County.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 13, 1916, page 725

    Fred Moore is hauling lumber, brick etc. for the new retorts on the Blue Jay mine. The retort is expected Saturday next.
"The Meadows," Medford Mail Tribune, May 25, 1916, page 5

    GOLD BEACH, Ore., May 30.--Completing a hair-raising voyage down Rogue River from Grants Pass in a homemade watamaran [sic], after shooting rushing waters, threading narrow canyons and rapids, dodging rocks and whirlpools where the current ran white, Captain John Aubery and his crew of four arrived here Friday.
    The object of the trip was to deliver a stamp mill, weighing three and one-half tons, to the Blossom Bar mine, three miles below Mule Creek. The heavy stamp mill steadied the vessel in rough water, but added to the difficulties of steering.
    The crew was made up of volunteers who desired to get to the mouth of Rogue River and were willing to save the time and expense incident to the conventional trip overland. They were not concerned with the dangers involved. Besides the captain, they included J. G. Van Horn, Frank Stone, Commodore Fleming and C. C. Ponting, and they took Van Horn's dog along.
    The craft was modeled along the lines of a double Venetian gondola, but of more ample proportions, with a length of 38 feet and 9½ feet beam. Captain Aubery, who has had years of experience in navigating the Rogue, declares the boat was the largest that ever descended the river.
    The expedition was a succession of thrills and narrow escapes. The party left Grants Pass Saturday, May 13, and all day Sunday was spent getting the boat over Rogue River falls. At Almeda it was necessary to weigh down the boat before it could be gotten under the bridge.
    The country is sparsely settled, but news of the expedition was telephoned ahead, and at every accessible point along the river bank the adventurers were cheered by the settlers.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 30, 1916, page 3

    The Waldo copper mine has been unwatered and is now being examined. The lower adit has been under way for several months to complete the drainage. At the same time the upper levels yielded some high-grade ore.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 3, 1916, page 839

    Fred Moore hauled a couple of wagon loads of brick from Tolo for the new quicksilver retorts on the Bertelson group of mines, and then finding 700 pounds more needed, ran over Sunday morning and brought them in the Ford.
"The Meadows," Medford Mail Tribune, June 8, 1916, page 2

    On the Illinois River G. E. Anderson has a gravel mine yielding gold and platinum. A recent cleanup from about 20 days' sluicing recovered 122 oz. of gold. About 10 oz. of platinum is saved each winter. Two giants and an elevator are operated.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 10, 1916, page 879

    Grants Pass people are trying to restart the Takilma smelter, which has been closed since 1908. About $4000 is required to overhaul the plant, which is of 100-ton capacity. Ample ore is available.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 1, 1916, page 30

    On July 10 an election was held at Medford to decide whether the people approved of the Bullis contract for construction of a railway to the Blue Ledge mine. The voting was 1009 for and 366 against the proposal, a win for those in favor.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 22, 1916, page 144

    The well-known Layton placer property on upper Williams Creek, near Grants Pass, has been sold to the Pacific Placer Co., headed by Austin Wilson of Boston, by the heirs of the late J. T. Layton. To the 600 acres are to be added the adjoining 400 acres. There are 38 miles of ditches, delivering water with a 300-ft. head to the giants. More plant is to be added.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 29, 1916, page 182

    TAKILMA. At the Queen of Bronze mine a gravity tram is to be constructed to the bins on the new railway partly built from Grants Pass to Crescent.… The Del Norte Claims Co. of Chicago is setting up a diamond drill near Preston Peaks.… D. Van Austrand of Denver contemplates erecting a 50-ton mill, embodying flotation.… Ore shipments from mines in the Illinois Valley are increasing fast. Last week 10 carloads left Waters Creek, at the terminus of the new line. Half of this quantity was copper ore from the Queen of Bronze and Waldo mines, while the remainder was chrome ore. These ores went to Tacoma and New York, respectively. A large quantity of chrome ore is said to be available.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 19, 1916, page 291

Southern Oregon Mining Notes.
    A few days ago J. Willis Hay of Gold Hill sold to Robert Spencer and associates of Boston his holdings at the head of Sams Creek. The claims run a very good assay of cinnabar, and were traced very definitely by Mr. Hay.
    The discovery of tungsten mines about one and one-half miles east of Sterling mines by Mr. and Mrs. Steven Kromitz has been announced. They also located a 12-foot ledge of galena ore that holds gold, silver, nickel, zinc and lead. Mrs. Kromitz was formerly Mrs. Crews-Carlson of Texas. The couple expect to open up their mines on the Missouri Gulch just as soon as they find a company with money enough to handle their tungsten prospect.
    Gold Hill News. Last week Joe Beeman reported the sale of a bunch of quicksilver claims known as the "73" group, located near the head of Sams Creek. The discovery was made by "Bill" Hay, one of the oldest miners in this section. R. H. Spencer and associates are the new owners and have taken charge and are working the property. The claims run a very good assay of cinnabar and will no doubt add quite a little to the mineral wealth of this section.
Ashland Tidings, August 28, 1916, page 6

    RIDDLE. The Eldorado Copper Mining Co., capitalized for 2,000,000 shares at $1 each, has been organized by Spokane and Oregon men to take over and operate the Banfield copper mine, 32 miles east of this place, on the main line of the Southern Pacific railway. The reported price is $300,000, part cash and the remainder shares in the new company. The incorporators are Andrew Laidlaw and S. W. Miller, of Spokane, and others. The Banfield mine is one of the best known copper properties in Southern Oregon, and many well-posted mining men regard it as the largest high-grade copper deposit in the state.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 16, 1916, page 889

    JACKSONVILLE. Little is published concerning mining in Jackson County. The reason why so little is being done is the short-sighed non-progressive crowd that "guarded" the district and warned off would-be purchasers of properties, afraid that the mine owners would not receive their dues. The county has had rich placer mines, and there are some that will still pay to work. There is also some likely-looking ground in the ranges. A subscriber sends this news.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 30, 1916, page 959

    The Powder River Dredge Co., operating two boats near Sumpter, Cracker Creek district, is the most productive placer mining enterprise in the state. In 1916 a new dredge was under construction in the John Day Valley, Grant County. The most productive hydraulic mine in Oregon is that on the property of the Columbia Mines Co., in Placer district, Josephine County. Other notably productive hydraulic mines are the Martin & Daniels, Galice district, Josephine County, and the Sterling, in Forest Creek district, Jackson County. The gold won by dredging far exceeds that obtained by all other forms of placer mining combined.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 6, 1917, page 26

    In the October, 1916, "Mineral Resources of Oregon," published by the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, G. M. Butler and G. J. Mitchell give a preliminary survey of the geology and mineral resources of Curry county. The text covers 132 pages, with 41 illustrations. Curry County lies in the southwestern corner of Oregon, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its length is 68 and width 36 miles. The area is mountainous. Gold deposits consist of veins, stream placers, and beach placers. There are occurrences of copper, iron, chrome, platinum in the placers, coal, borax, and quicksilver.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 27, 1917, page 142

    KERBY. The black sand plant of T. W. Gruetter makes it profitable for miners to save their concentrates and have them treated there for recovery of rusty gold and platinum. Some miners send their black sand without first panning or amalgamating, thus saving time for sluicing.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 17, 1917, page 248

    The W.&O. Mining Co. of Seattle, has applied to the California State Water Commission in two separate applications for permission to appropriate the waters of the west fork of the east fork of the Illinois River, in Del Norte County, tributary to the Rogue River in Oregon. It is proposed to carry the water back again into Oregon where it is to be used for hydraulic mining on the Osgood claims, near Waldo, the proposed ditches and flumes being 9½ miles long. A total of 230 cu. ft. per second is asked in the two applications. It is proposed to construct two dams across the stream and these with the other works have an estimated cost of $30,000.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 31, 1917, page 459

    (Special Correspondence.)--Near Takilma the Queen of Bronze mine is working 50 men, and producing a good grade of copper ore. The Waldo and Cowboy copper mines are also being worked. The Logan hydraulic mine is being prospected with churn drills. It is from 30 to 40 ft. to bedrock, and the gravel is mostly small, so good headway is being made. The hydraulic pit at this mine is 500 by 1000 ft. One elevator is in operation working under a head of about 250 ft. Ten men are employed. Chrome mines in this vicinity are active.
Waldo, March 26.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 7, 1917, page 492

    Recent reports that the Blue Ledge Copper Co. was planning immediate work at its mines in the northern part of this county appears to be erroneous. Until a railroad is extended into that district transportation problems heavily handicap production. A line has been surveyed to Medford, Oregon, and may be built this summer. Should this be done the Blue Ledge district promises to become one of the most active copper regions of the West, as large deposits of fair-grade ore has been discovered there.
Yreka, April 5.

"Siskiyou County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 14, 1917, page 525

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Cheney, Simmons, Ray and Haff group of quartz claims, three miles northeast of this city, have been operated by H. A. Ray and G. L. Haff the last two years. They were the owners of these properties excepting the Simmons and Cheney claims, which they operated under a lease from the owners. This property has been sold to Sacramento, California, people, who have been represented here by J. W. Davies, of that city. The consideration is stated to be $80,000. The vein contains quartz carrying pyrite; this lode-matter contains gold and silver to the value of $3 per ton. The high-grade ore occurs in boulders, at a depth of 80 to 100 ft. Sulphide ore begins to appear at 160 ft., and the vein is 5 ft. wide at 225 ft. depth. The hanging wall is a slate, and the footwall is limestone. The greatest depth attained on this vein is 600 ft., where it is 25 ft. wide. The discovery, in March 1916, of scheelite with the gold ore in this mine was announced. The mineral is a small stringer with quartz. Samples have been taken that run as high as 40% tungstic acid, but it is claimed by the management that the vein as a whole runs less than 2%. The discoverers of this vein, William Cox and George Lyman, two local miners, in 1896 mined a pay chute that netted them $8000 in gold. This chute occurred where a fault displaced the vein at a depth of 35 ft. Two years later they disposed of the claim to Elisha Ray, of this city, who began operations by driving 16 ft. and striking the continuation of the vein and removing a pay chute containing $4800, at a depth of 25 ft. This claim has been owned and operated by the Ray family since that time, and they have realized various sums while developing the vein. Most of the permanent development work is on the Simmons and Cheney claims, which are generally known as the Sylvanite mine. The Sylvanite lessors, who were Canadians, fully equipped these two properties several years ago with a modern mill, hoists, and other machinery, all operated by electric power. Later, financial troubles caused the suspension of their operations, and the machinery was sold in the courts to satisfy their creditors. The new owners will start an adit at the foot of the hill and extend it to the vein, 1200 ft. This will give them a depth of 500 ft. Operations will begin at once with new machinery, operated by electric power. George Stone, recently of Colorado, will be general manager and G. L. Haff will be superintendent.
Gold Hill, April 3.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 14, 1917, page 527

    THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF OREGON. Vol. 2, No. 4. A handbook of the mining industry of the state, with a description of mining districts. By H. M. Parks, State Geologist, and A. M. Swartley. Pp. 306. Maps, Ill. Oregon Bureau of Mines, Corvallis, 1916. This work, the latest of the monthly publications of the Oregon State Bureau of Mines, is a valuable and timely compilation of the mines, quarries, and mineral-producing industries of that state, alphabetically arranged. Many of the more important mines are carefully described, and the descriptive text of some of them is illustrated by line drawings, maps, and halftones. 'The geology of the principal mining districts is also gone into, and on the whole the book will be found an acceptable addition to scientific mining and geological literature of Oregon.

"Recent Publications," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 14, 1917, page 534

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Nellie Wright mine is on the south slope of Blackwell Hill two miles east of Gold Hill, and consists of 40 acres of land. It is situated within half a mile of the Pacific Highway. It was recently sold to Salt Lake City people, who are now operating the mine under the management of R. M. Wilson. The former owners were Canadians with P. C. Donovan, of Winnipeg, as manager. The consideration was about $25,000, with a substantial cash payment. This mine is equipped with a 25-ton Beers mill, plates, and a Johnson concentrator. The mill is situated at the main shaft. The shaft is equipped with a modern hoist, and all the machinery is operated by electric power. The new owners are installing compressors and drill machinery. There are two shafts 130 ft. apart and 50 and 60 ft. deep, respectively. These are connected by a drift which extends 120 ft. beyond the shafts. The ore is chiefly quartz with some pyrite, chalcopyrite, and a dark sulphide that probably is galena. The vein strikes N 75° W., and dips 87° N.; it varies in thickness from 2 to 5 ft. The country rock is the Siskiyou tonalite, which is here traversed by a dike of andesite. The vein cuts both the tonalite and the dike.
    This vein was discovered by James F. Davis, a veteran miner of this district, in 1902. The discovery was made on the land of a homesteader who had acquired a patent for the land in the early nineties. Soon after the discovery Davis acquired the property and sold the prospect to Portland parties. The first real development was made in 1904, by Wright, a mining man from Denver, who operated under a lease and option from the Portland people. Financial troubles soon overtook Wright, and he was compelled to abandon his venture before he was able to make a mine out of the prospect. He named it for his daughter, the Nellie Wright mine.
    In 1911 the ownership of the property passed to the Canadians, who in 1913 equipped the mine with machinery, developed the vein by sinking and driving as described. In the meantime they operated the machinery for several months, testing the value of the mine. The next year the war came on and the property has been idle until now.
    Several thousand tons of ore has been treated with the present machinery. The ore is free-milling, averaging $10 per ton in free gold, and it also produces some concentrate, carrying gold. There is several thousand tons of ore in the block above the 250-ft. drift. The owners are preparing to operate the mine to its full capacity. They will sink 50 ft. deeper in the main shaft and run a new level.
Gold Hill, April 10.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 21, 1917, page 562

    (Special Correspondence.)--The history of quicksilver in Gold Hill district dates back to 1878, when Wm. Mayfield, Sr., an early settler in Rogue River Valley, discovered cinnabar on the property known as the Mercur claim, now owned by Dr. W. P. Chisholm, of Gold Hill. The mine is 12 miles north of Gold Hill, and comprises 20 acres. It is contiguous to the Little Jean, and the 36 claims held by the Utah Quicksilver Co., of Salt Lake City. From the time of discovery, and until he sold the property to Chisholm in 1900, Mayfield annually distilled mercury from the ore by roasting it in a crude manner. He disposed of it to the placer miners in this district, who used it in their sluices to catch the flour gold. After Chisholm purchased the Mercur claim he located the Little Jean, an extension on the Mercur vein. These two claims were inactive until two years ago when Chisholm employed H. A. Ray and G. L. Haff, the discoverers of scheelite in this district, to develop his properties. They exposed the vein at intervals by adits for 2000 ft.; the greatest depth attained was 75 ft. Since that time the Utah people, and others, have located the main vein for several miles on the north and east. The strilic of this vein is N. 5.3° W., and at an elevation of 2500 ft. It occurs along a granite-sandstone contact, where the granite is in part pegmatitic. The mineralized zone is from 100 to 200 ft. wide. It is not a well-defined vein, but is mineralized along an irregular contact. The ore, or mass, contains cinnabar, native mercury, pyrite, gold, zinc, silver, and a heavy black mineral resembling metacinnabarite. Samples taken from all of the adits assayed from $5 to $6 per ton in gold, $5 in silver, 2½% zinc, and 1% mercury. The cinnabar appears all through the rock and also in the hanging and footwalls in the form of seams and kidneys. The seams are from 6 to 20 in. thick, and average 17% mercury. This last year Chisholm has employed two miners in developing his property, and during this time they have retorted and shipped 800 lbs. of mercury, using a bench of three 6-in. retorts 4 ft. long. During this time Samuel Bertelson, of the Utah company, has retorted and marketed from 600 to 800 lbs. of quicksilver from the Rainier claim. The Mountain King quicksilver mine, situated two miles south of the Chisholm group, seems to be on the same vein. The same formation is found at both properties. The vein on the Mountain King strikes nearly west. Except in the solid quartzite, much faulting is in evidence in all directions. The Mountain King is owned by J. R. Hayes, of Detroit, Michigan, who is represented here by Alfred Lewis, of Gold Hill. This property consists of 800 acres of patented land, and is covered with valuable fir timber. This property was worked the past season under a lease and option held by J. A. Robinson, of San Francisco, who did considerable development work on the property. This property and the Chisholm group are the only two mercury properties in this district which have been extensively developed.
Gold Hill, April 16.

"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 28, 1917, page 597

    (Special Correspondence.)--In the spring of 1916, John McRunnels and Dick Swacker, miners of Gold Hill, while tracing for the source of fine gold in the soil, uncovered a promising vein, six miles southwest of Gold Hill, and west of Rogue River. It is within a mile of the river, and about 300 ft. above the bed of the stream. The discoverers uncovered the vein, and within a few feet of the surface found a pay chute, which extended for 150 ft., with a depth of from 10 to 35 ft. They recovered about $1000 in gold from this chute; the vein was from 3 to 12 in. wide. It strikes south 80° west and dips 20° north. The hanging wall is porphyry, and the footwall diorite; the vein is composed of crystal and decomposed quartz, and is free-milling. The discoverers refused several offers, and later were unable to agree as to the manner of developing the prospect. Recently McRunnels sold his interest in the property to John T. Donegan, a local miner. The present owner is preparing to sink a shaft on the vein to demonstrate the worth of the property.
Gold Hill, April 28.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 5, 1917, page 638

    (Special Correspondence.)--Alfred Lewis, of Gold Hill, who has charge of the development of the Mountain King quicksilver mine, north of Gold Hill, reports that the richest ore yet found in the mine has been uncovered this week. Carey Edmonds, a miner employed in the mine, while off shift, prospecting through curiosity, made the strike. He found very rich panning dirt on the surface on the strike of the main vein, 1500 ft. east of the works. Digging down two feet from the surface, he struck the main vein, 15 ft. across, which averages 35% mercury. Four additional adits extending 100 ft. from the discovery along the vein shows the same grade of ore. It is reported that J. R. Hayes, of Detroit, Michigan, owner of the property, will have buyers on the ground in the next few days, who will also buy 300 acres of adjoining patented land, making a total of 900 acres.
Gold Hill, May 4.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 19, 1917, page 712

    (Special Correspondence.)--H. H. Leonard, who arrived here from Coeur d'Alene last season, is operating the Bowden claims, four miles east of Gold Hill. The mine is owned by J. F. Davis, a local miner, and is situated on the southeast slope of Blackwell Hill, near the Pacific Highway. Early the present year two mill tests were made by Leonard from the upper available stopes; 9 tons averaged $7 in gold per ton, and 16 tons averaged $8.60 in gold per ton. The ore from this vein has all been free-milling, running from $7 to $300 per ton; the concentrate from the two tests referred to assayed $160 per ton. This vein was first discovered and worked by two ranchers, James McDonough and James Davis, who recovered $10,000 from $300 ore from a depth of 50 ft. Since it was first operated the vein has produced about $30,000, though always mined in a crude manner. The vein is in tonalite, strikes N. 75° E., and dips 85° N. It Is from 8 to 30 in. wide, in a 500-ft. drift at a depth of 120 ft. The main shaft west of the original works is 185 ft. deep on the vein, and the 500-ft. drift extends from this shaft. The present lessee has installed steam-power pumps and hoist, and reopened the 120-ft. level. He is preparing to join the 120-ft. level west of the main shaft with the other works, and is already down 40 ft. on the new shaft; 30 ft. more will reach the 120-ft. level. A pump with a 2-in. suction readily handles all the water.
Gold Hill, May 14.
    (Special Correspondence.)--H. H. McCarthy, an old time mine operator in this district, recently took an option on the North Pole-Lucky Boy group of quartz mines, situated eight miles west of Gold Hill, and south of Rogue River within a mile of the stream. It is owned by Phil Robinson and others living in the district, who discovered the vein six years ago. The lessee is erecting a ball mill of 15-ton capacity on the property. The mill will be operated by electric power, which will be available in a short time. A small force of miners is employed in developing for an extensive run on the ore as soon as the milling equipment is completed. The owners last year shipped three carloads of the ore to the Selby smelter and had five carloads milled at the Opp mill in this valley. All this ore averaged $28 per ton in gold. The vein strikes due east and dips north at 45°. The vein is from 14 in. to 4 ft. wide. The hanging wall is andesite and the footwall is slate. The ore is oxidized near the surface, but at a depth of 50 ft. merges into the base ore. The strike extends up a steep hill sloping toward the river at an angle of 45° with an elevation of 900 ft. at the base, and 2100 ft. at the apex. The principal works on the property is a drift of 175 ft. on the vein at an elevation of 1800 ft., and a drift of 140 ft. on the vein about 1000 ft. below the apex of the hill.
Gold Hill, May 16.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 26, 1917, pages 749-750

    (Special Correspondence.)--A mining deal of considerable Importance to the copper industry in Southern Oregon was closed at Grants Pass this week, when an option on the 20 claims comprising the Greyback copper group on Grayback Mountain, 13 miles east of Selma, in the Waldo district, was signed. The lessee is John Hampshire, the local representative of Twohy Bros. Company, owners of the California-Oregon Coast Railroad, which is being operated and built from Grants Pass into the Waldo district. The company has been a large buyer of mines in that district during the past three years, and are the owners of the Queen of Bronze copper mine, and the 100-ton smelter, both located at Takilma, in the Waldo district. Under the terms of the contract development work must be started on a large scale at once. The new owners announce that their first work will be the building of a six-mile road connecting the mine with the road leading up Deer Creek from Selma, and the shipment of some of the ore now on the dumps. More than 700 ft. of development has been done on the main vein, opening one of the largest copper-bearing ore bodies in the district. It lies on the north-south copper lode that extends through the Waldo district, and on down into Northern California.
    The property has been sold by W. L. Bat»cock, who has owned and developed the property for 16 years. It is the only property in the state where mining locations on the Oregon & California lands have been litigated through the Supreme Court and the title secured by having the patents to the railroad canceled.
Grants Pass, May 20.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 2, 1917, page 785

Curry County
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Blanco mine, commonly known as the Madden property, has been taken over by L. B. Newby and associates, of New York. This property, an old beach deposit, is about halfway between Port Orford and Langlois, at the foot of Madden Butte. The mine was formerly worked by Cyrus Madden and was equipped with 500 ft. of sluices, with seven burlap-covered tables for saving fine gold and platinum. The gold and platinum-bearing material consists of 12 to 20 ft. of sand in which are several layers of black sand. There is a little small gravel interstratified with the sand, the metal-bearing strata being covered with 7 or 8 ft. of worthless wind-blown detritus. The bedrock is shale, but lies a few feet lower than the natural drainage. It is said the mine, when worked about 6 months annually, has paid over $1000 a year, though it operates in a small way. It is the intention of Mr. Newby to put in a plant that will treat 500 tons per day, which will greatly increase the output and enable the work to be accomplished at a cost much below that heretofore obtaining. It is believed that when suitable machinery has been provided to work the sand below the level of the present natural drainage, the value of the material handled will show a substantial increase in value per ton. The property covers a large area of workable material.
Bandon, May 30.
Jackson County
    (Special Correspondence.)--W. H. Gore, president of the Medford National Bank, with several other local capitalists and a Portland auto-truck company, have submitted a proposition to the Blue Ledge Mine Co., by the acceptance of which it will be able to ship from three to five carloads of ore per day, instead of three weekly, as heretofore. The mine is situated 30 miles from Medford. The owners began shipping ore last December, employing all the available teams and trucks in the valley, paying as high as $10 per ton for the haul to the railroad. The object is to put on about 50 auto-trucks and convey the ore from the mine to the railroad as fast as it is extracted. More trucks will be added if necessary. A feature of the plan will be to expend about $10,000 on the road in conjunction with an equal amount furnished by the county. The total cost to the proposed truck-company would be in the neighborhood of $50,000.
    Should the development of the mines adjacent to the Blue Ledge, and in other camps of that district, as now contemplated, justify it, the new transportation company will eventually build a railroad into that region, to handle both its mine and timber output, and to use the auto-trucks on feeder lines.
    In this manner Mr. Gore and his associates hope to be able to solve the transportation problem, lack of a solution of which has so long retarded the development of several rich mining districts immediately tributary to railroad transportation in this valley.
Gold Hill, May 29.
Josephine County
    (Special Correspondence.)--Eleven copper claims on Fall Creek, in the Upper Illinois district, 13 miles northwest of Selma, known as the United Copper-Gold Mines property, were sold this week to R. J. Rowen, representing Eastern capital, by W. S. Low, Daniel Webster, and C. E. Lebold, of Salem. The property is an old producer and is known as one of the high-grade properties of this county. It shipped ore in the early days by way of Crescent City, and later to Martinez and Tacoma. Shipment was made by pack horses, wagon, and railroad.
    Building the new wagon road to the chrome mine, four miles this side of the property, solves the transportation problem. The new owners will begin shipments promptly upon the completion of this road on which 165 men are employed. Mr. Rowen has also closed deals for the Katy Ayers and Emerald groups of copper claims on Rancheria and Cedar creeks, smaller and less developed properties.
Grants Pass, May 28.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 9, 1917, page 818

    (Special Correspondence.)--Several Gold Hill miners returning from the Buzzard mine in the Elk Creek district, 40 miles northeast of Gold Hill, report that the lessee, Paul Wright, is making good progress in the development work at the mine. The new work consists of an 850-ft. drift on a stringer of sulphide ore on the opposite side of the hill from the old works. This drift will cut the main vein at a depth of 300 ft. The work is being crowded with two shifts. The old works consists of 3009 ft. of drift. The greatest depth is 170 ft. on the vein. The ore body strikes northwest.
    The property is owned locally by the Pearl Mining Co., of Central Point. The machinery equipment consists of a jaw-crusher, a small Huntington mill, and a Frue vanner, operated by steam power.
    Some of the highest grade sphalerite known in the state has been produced from this mine. The last shipment, made late in 1916, consisted of four tons, which returned $2100.
    Elk Creek is a new district in the northeastern part of the county; Gold Hill being the nearest and most practicable shipping point. The geology of the district consists of a series of flat-lying Cascade andesite flows. Vertical fissuring has taken place locally, producing fractured zones, which furnished opportunity for the mineralizing waters to deposit ore in the crushed or brecciated rock. It is a heavily forested area and is within the Crater National Forest. The elevation of the district varies from 2000 to over 5000 feet.
Gold Hill, June 6.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 16, 1917, page 864

    (Special Correspondence.)--Asbestos in limited quantities has been uncovered at times and at various points in this region, but it has been of too short fiber to prove of commercial value. Recently, however, a deposit of long-fiber asbestos has been located in the Shelly Creek mining district, below Grants Pass. The extent of the discovery has not been demonstrated. The best-developed asbestos property in Gold Hill district is situated on the south slope of Cedar Mountain, on the Umpqua divide at the headwaters of the West Fork of Evans Creek, 20 miles north of Gold Hill. It was developed by George Houck, and Irvin Ray, of Gold Hill, 10 years ago. The vein is 4 ft. wide. It is at an elevation of 4000 ft. The fiber runs from 10 to 16 in. long and is of fair commercial value. It is 12 miles to the terminal of the wagon road leading to this valley, which is the only outlet. Recently there have been many inquiries in this district regarding asbestos.
    Another auto-truck was added this week to those hauling copper ore from the Blue Ledge mine to Medford, making 14 to arrive from California, all of which are in service. The road is in bad condition, making the transportation of ore slow and expensive. Improvements are contemplated by the county, assisted by the mine and truck owners.
    In Douglas County, near the Jackson County line, a few miles from Tiller post office, a promising vein of cinnabar is being uncovered on the Webb-Hayes property. This prospect seems to be an extension of the large dike carrying cinnabar, which runs through the Ramsey Canyon and Meadows districts, north of Gold Hill.
    Those who have visited this district of late have found that the chrome deposits, especially those in the Waldo district, are of sufficient importance to justify development. It is assumed that for a number of years the deposits in this region will be a source of profit and a field for numerous laborers.
    Reorganization and refinancing of the Rogue River Public Service Corporation, of Gold Hill, was forecast last week when, upon the petition of Francis M. Fauvre, vice president of the company, Federal Judge Wolverton, at Portland, appointed J. F. Reddy and George M. Soranson, of Grants Pass, joint receivers. The Rogue River Public Service Corporation owns important water-power rights in Southern Oregon on Rogue River, including the huge Ament Dam, situated between Gold Hill and Grants Pass, and a completed wing-dam power development project at Gold Hill. The reorganization is of much local interest, as the company has been of vital importance to the mining industry in this district in the past. The company operates the municipal water plant of Gold Hill under lease.
Gold Hill, June 14.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 23, 1917, page 897

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Queen of Bronze mine continues to ship 500 tons of copper ore monthly, working 65 men. There is a large amount of ore in sight. Roy Clark is manager.… The Waldo copper mine is under lease to local parties. In an eight months' run last year, this mine yielded ore valued at $65,000. De Witt Van Ostrand. of Phillips, Wisconsin, and A. H. Gunnell, of Grants Pass, are interested in this property.
    The Maybell, Little, and Cow Boy mines are under lease to C. E. Tucker and George Fife, who are shipping high-grade ore to the Tacoma smelter.
    The Lilly copper mine, which adjoins the Waldo on the south, is under option to M. A. Delano, of Grants Pass, who is shipping high-grade ore to the Tacoma smelter, by way of Grants Pass.
Takilma, June 14.
    (Special Correspondence.)--D. R. Morrison shipped the first car of ore from his Pickett Creek copper mine last week. It will average 10%. The shipment went to the Tacoma smelter.
Merlin, June 16.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Another cleanup at the Simmons-Logan placer mine yielded $7000 in gold and $1000 in platinum in a run of 26 days. This property is owned by Mrs. Jane Simmons, of Grants Pass, and J. T. Logan, of Waldo, and has been a dependable producer for many years. It comprises about 1500 acres and is operated by hydraulic elevators. Water is obtained from the branches of the Illinois River. There are 25 miles of ditches and pipeline.
Waldo, June 15.
    (Special Correspondence.)--A large body of chrome ore has been opened up near Oak Flat on the Illinois River. A motor-truck road 14 miles long is to be finished by July 1 to connect the mines with the county road at Selma R. J. Rowan is manager.
    A mining deal has just been closed on the Grayback copper mine, which is situated 13 miles east of Selma and three miles from the Oregon Caves. The property is taken by the Twohy people, represented locally by John Hampshire of Grants Pass. Development is to commence at once, and will include the building of a new road six miles long. There Is 700 ft. of development work on the property, all adits. The property was sold by W. L. Babcock, the owner, for the past 16 years, he having developed the group. The price has not been made public.
Selma, June 16.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Williams chrome property on Sexton Mountain, consisting of 160 acres, has been leased to George S. Barton, of Grants Pass. Arrangements have been made for a large crew of men. This property was found by J. J. Williams, of Pacific Grove, California, a short time ago when surveying timber. There is 250 tons of ore in sight. It will be hauled to Threepines for shipment.
    The United Copper company's mine on Grave Creek is making regular shipments of high-grade concentrate to the Tacoma smelter. Some rich sulphide ore also is being shipped. Chromite mining is a comparatively new industry in Northern California and Southern Oregon. Until the war, no ore was shipped from this region. This season every ton that is available finds a ready market. Buyers have been scouring the district all winter and spring.
Grants Pass, June 17.
    (Special Correspondence.)--On June 9 the Williams chrome property, on Sexton Mountain, consisting of 160 acres, was leased to George. S. Barton, of Grants Pass. Barton has arranged for miners and will begin work at once, mining and shipping ore. The property has been owned by J. J. Williams, of Pacific Grove, California. There is now over 250 tons of ore ready, which will be hauled to Threepines for shipment. The sale of this property is but one of several recently made. Already large investments have been made in buying and developing available properties, which show extensive bodies of ore, and the operators are assured of a profitable market. During the past year the first permanent development was done on the prospects in this district, when approximately 2000 tons of the ore was shipped to Chicago and Pennsylvania. Chromite occurs in many places in this county. Some of it was used at the copper furnace at Takilma, in this district, as a refractory lining, for which it was found to be well suited.
    Those who have been searching this region for minerals are surprised at the richness of the placers in platinum.
    John Hampshire, of Grants Pass, the local representative of the Twohy Bros. Company, owners of the railroad and smelter in the Waldo district, is at Crescent City, California, investigating the company's properties in that district. All the men available are employed on the Low Divide, and other chrome properties which they have recently purchased. Shipments will soon commence. Their new purchases on Copper Creek are opening up fine, and it appears there is a large amount of high-grade ore there.
Grants Pass, June 11.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Webb copper mine seven miles southwest from Waldo has been taken over by the interests now controlling the Greenback mine. The option agrees to transfer the mine from D. L. and L. R. Webb Bros, to D. R. Robinson. The property must be continuously and vigorously developed, and the ore mined is to be sorted and shipped.
    The Webb property consists of nine claims, on which 1500 ft. of development has been done. The main adit 450 ft. long cuts the main vein 390 ft. in, where it is 22 ft. wide. Driving on the vein is under way. The deal settles litigation over the ownership, which has been in progress the past two years, and prevented proper development work.
    A. M. Swartley, account director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, spent three days in the Waldo district in the interest of a series of experiments being conducted by the bureau in conjunction with the Federal Bureau of Mines, the object being to find a commercial practicable method whereby the pyrrohtite can be separated from the chalcopyrite in the ore. A satisfactory solution of this problem would be of great value to the Southern Oregon mines.
    The Logan placer mine, situated near Kerby, shipped to the mint last week five gold bricks, valued at $7000, the cleanup from the run of 26 days. Along with the shipment was platinum to the value of $1000, which was included in the cleanup. The experts who have recently visited in Southern Oregon have found nothing that interested them more than the platinum found in almost all the placer deposits. There is little doubt that from the early days of placer mining in this region, a great deal of platinum went through the sluices.
Grants Pass, June 1.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 30, 1917, pages 931-932

    (Special Correspondence.)--John Hays of Gold Hill, Oregon, and Charles Moon, of Hornbrook, left for their gold quartz mine, 8 miles from Hornbrook. They discovered the vein several years ago and from time to time have done considerable development work, and now are preparing to erect a small mill on the property. The ore is rich and free-milling, but is only 8 to 10 in. wide, where uncovered.
    Mike G. Womack, of Medford, Oregon, and M. A. Carter, and L. D. Corbett of Ashland, Oregon, have a promising gold prospect, the Golden Gem, which is situated 16 miles west of Hilt on Hungry Creek. They discovered the vein last year and have done enough work to justify the further development of the property. On account of the inaccessibility of the wagon road to the mine they contemplate erecting a small mill on the property. The ore assays $70 per ton of gold and is free-milling. The vein has a width of 6 to 22 in. There is several hundred feet of work on the property, though the greatest depth attained on the vein is 70 feet.
    Mr. Womack and his associates will resume operation on a vein of gold, silver, and galena situated 16 miles west of Gazelle, in the Etna Mills district. The vein is in limestone and averages 10 ft. wide. On account of the distance to a shipping point the owners are contemplating erecting a mill on the property this season and reducing the ore to concentrate for shipping.
Hornbrook, June 25.

"Siskiyou County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 7, 1917, page 31

    (Special Correspondence.)--Operations have been resumed on "The Diamond Creek" cinnabar property. 16 miles southwest of here. This property is owned and operated by W. Ehrman, John Taggert, and L. C. Cole. Preparations are being made to install machinery.
    The Preston Peak copper mine is under option to J. F. Reddy of Grants Pass. It is reported that an Eastern company is ready to take over the option and begin operations. This mine is opened to the depth of 1300 ft. There are many thousand tons of ore in sight showing from 3½ to 20%, copper and from $4 to $8 per ton gold.
    A. Justin Townsend, of Lynn, Massachusetts, owner of the Pacific placer mine, is planning to put in a dredge capable of handling 2000 yards of gravel daily. This will be used in addition to the hydraulic equipment.
    The Collard-Moore and Collard chrome mine is one of the largest shippers in this district. The owners have installed a concentrator, and are shipping some high-grade massive chrome ore that requires no concentration.
    A body of chrome ore was found 6 miles southeast of Waldo by W. Bunch and son and Walter Smith. It is only a few hundred feet from the Kerby-Holland stage road, near the old Sly ranch. Ore is being mined and shipped by way of Grants Pass.
    The Osgood placer mine, located in Fry Gulch, is a dependable gold producer. It is owned by F. H. Osgood, of Seattle, and has been leased by James Logan for the past four years. This property comprises about 640 acres. Three giants are in operation. Water is taken from the east fork of the Illinois River.
Waldo, June 23.
Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 7, 1917, pages 32-33

    There are two main belts of production in California, one in the Klamath Mountains and the Coast Range from Siskiyou County to San Luis Obispo County, and the other in the Sierra Nevada from Plumas to Tulare County. The larger output has come from the Klamath Mountains, because the ore bodies there are larger and railroad transportation is more convenient.
    The production in Oregon is increasing in both the Klamath and Blue Mountains. The ores west of Riddle are the richest yet mined in the state, in some places assaying as high as 55% chromic oxide, and much of the ore contains about 50%. Most of the Oregon ore, however, like that of California, averages about 40% chromic oxide, and ore of that grade is commonly the basis of sale. It generally contains 38 to 45% chromic oxide, 6 to 8% silica, and 17 to 25% alumina. The largest ore body and producing mine thus far developed in Oregon is owned and operated by Collard & Moore near Holland, about 20 miles southeast of Kerby, in Josephine County. Much of the ore may be improved by concentration, and a plant of 90-ton capacity for that purpose is nearly completed. It is claimed that the ore can be concentrated to a content of 55% chromic oxide. The concentration of the lower-grade ore would give it a wider market and increase its value and the demand for it. Without concentration the Pacific Coast deposits cannot furnish a dependable supply of high-grade chrome ore, but with successful concentration industries based on high-grade ore may be attracted to the Coast. The Sawyer Tanning Co., established on tidewater at Napa, California, has had great difficulty in obtaining sufficient high-grade ore for its use. T. W. Gruetter has recently established at Kerby, Oregon, a custom plant for concentrating black sand to win its gold and platinum. The black sand of the Klamath Mountains usually contains a considerable amount of chromite, and it is believed that by adding magnetic separators to Gruetter's plant to remove the other minerals from the tailing sufficient chromite may be obtained from the black sand in chromiferous serpentine areas to make the operation financially successful.

J. S. Diller, "Chromite," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 21, 1917, page 92

Jackson County
    (Special Correspondence.)--The cinnabar strike recently made in the Butte Creek district is situated in the eastern part of the county 20 miles west from Mt. Pitt. This district is of recent volcanic formation, much broken up, and where mineral has never before been discovered. The first strike was made in basalt on the Terrill ranch six miles southeast of Eagle Point, the nearest railroad shipping place. The vein or dike contains cinnabar and assays high in quicksilver. Since the first discovery the dike has been traced for several miles north and south, and running from 100 to 200 ft. wide. It seems to be an extension of the cinnabar dike in Ramsey Canyon, and in Meadows district. The new strike has caused many claims to be located. The new find extends in a heavily timbered region on the slopes of the Cascade Mountains.
    F. F. Childers, manager of the Greenback mine, says that the new equipment now at the property will be installed and ready for operation this fall. Modern machinery has displaced much of the old plant, which has been electrified. Four other properties besides the Greenback are under his management; the Jim Blaine, the Elk Basin, and the Illinois River properties. Three of these are copper, the others being gold. The new truck road to the chrome deposits in western Josephine County runs within three miles of the Illinois River properties; a connecting road will be constructed.
    The wartime prices have given an impetus to the development of the sulfur deposits 45 miles northeast of Gold Hill, on the farm of W. T. Grieve, near Prospect. He is preparing to put it on the local market for fertilizer. It is being used extensively in this valley for that purpose.
Gold Hill, July 16.
Josephine County
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Gold King mine, 6 miles west of Kerby, after a long idleness has been relocated by T. P. Johnson and Mrs. J. M. Finch. The mine is being unwatered. There was considerable development done a few years ago, but it was given up. With modern machinery the new owners believe it will pay.
Kerby, July 16.
    (Special Correspondence.)--On July 7 the final payment of $60,000 cash was made on the Queen of Bronze copper mine by John Hampshire, representing the purchasers. Less than two years ago Hampshire saw the property and began negotiation for its purchase. An option for 90 days was granted in December, 1915, but the size of the property called for longer time, and in March, 1916, a working bond was secured, expiring January 1, 1918. Under that bond work has been in progress up to last Saturday, when the final payment was made six months
before it became due.
    The property is purchased by John Twohy, R. B. Miller, John Hampshire. M. S. Boss, T. F. Ryan, and Roy H. Clarke. A corporation will be formed. Hampshire will remain general manager, with R. C. Crowell, superintendent; Roy H. Clarke, consulting engineer, and Edward Strong, foreman.
    The full price paid for the mine was $150,000. There has been shipped out of the mine in little over a year $283,000 worth of ore. The shipments have averaged 9.48% copper, and gold, $3.50 per ton. The property has been shipping 700 tons per month. The monthly payroll is $12,000, of which $4000 goes for hauling. The expense of transportation is $4.25 per ton. This property, which had been turned down on account of the pyrrhotite in the ore, has been paid for out of the mine itself. If the experiments now being conducted by the United States Bureau of Mines jointly with the State Bureau, looking to the perfection of a flotation process of separating the pyrrhotite from the chalcopyrite, is successful, a much larger percentage of the ore can be shipped profitably. These experiments are being made at this and the Waldo mine, both companies assisting in the work. The process will be given to the public as soon as experiments have been completed.
Grants Pass, July 12.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Local men who have had the Waldo copper mine leased for some time have sold their leases to the owners of the mine, who are repairing the concentrator and putting in new track in adit No. 4. They will soon begin operations.
    The Queen of Bronze copper mine now has 80 men employed and the force is being increased as rapidly as miners can be obtained.
    K. J. Khoeery and Chas. Johnson, who sold the Lily copper mine to M. A. Delano some time ago, received another payment on the property July 1.
Takilma, July 17.
    (Special Correspondence.)--At the Boswell gold mine, three miles from Holland, a gas engine has been installed to operate the Huntington mill, recently placed on the property.
Holland, July 16.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 28, 1917, page 143

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Turk copper mine, which is owned by the Grants Pass Hardware Co., is under option and is being prospected by M. A. Delano.
Takilma, July 25.
    (Special Correspondence.)--A carload of gravel has been shipped from the Osgood placer mine, in Allen Gulch, on which a test is to be made. The Preston Peak copper mine is being prospected with a diamond drill. The mine is owned by a Chicago stock company.
Waldo, July 23.
    (Special Correspondence.)--W. S. Baker, of Buffalo, New York, one of the owners of the Greenback mine and other properties in this district, which are being developed by the same interests, is here and will remain to take personal charge. It is reported that G. W. Finch is developing a copper property on Rogue River, in Curry County, at Agness.
Grants Pass, July 24.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 4, 1917, page 181

Jackson County
    (Special Correspondence.)--W. P. Chisholm of the Mercur and Little Jean claims, 12 miles north of Gold Hill, is installing a 12-pipe Johnson and McKay furnace on his property. The machinery is from the Joshua Hendy Iron Works, San Francisco. The claims are in a wooded district, and plenty of water is available. It will be in operation in less than 30 days. R. H. Spencer and associates, of Portland, who recently acquired the 73 group of quicksilver mines near the Chisholm group, has a 3-pipe Johnson and McKay furnace, which is operating successfully. They will add 9 retorts as soon as they can be had. Other owners have ordered the same furnace, to be installed as soon as possible.
    The Red Hill gold quartz mine, in the Jumpoff Joe district, five miles east of the Greenback mine, and three miles from Three Pines station on the Southern Pacific railway, is being reopened. It is owned by T. N. Anderson of Gold Hill, and Lester Lord of Danbury, Nebraska. The property was originally discovered and operated by Joseph Dysert, who mined a large amount of rich ore, which he reduced with an arrastra. The vein is at contact of red porphyry and serpentine. The main drift, in 500 ft. on the vein, is being retimbered, and ore shipments will be made. The power line of the C.&O. Power Co. crosses the premises.
    Samuel Carpenter and Harry Hocksworth, of Medford, are shipping antimony ore regularly to New Jersey from their Applegate mine. The ore is running 50% antimony with some gold. This property is 17 miles southwest of Jacksonville. The vein is from 18 in. to 4 ft. wide, with 400 ft. of drift.
    The United Copper Co. has struck ore on its property that runs 35% copper. These mines are in the Greenback district in the northwest part of Jackson County at the head of Slate Creek. The ore deposit is in a fissure in andesite. The development made last season exposed in surface cuts a vein which runs 5% copper and $2 gold. The company operates a mill and concentrates the sulphides, which are shipped. The plant is being enlarged. The company is constructing a road from the mine to Evans Creek Valley leading to Rogue River, 9 miles west of Gold Hill.
    E. H. Richards and A. W. Bartlett, of Grants Pass, recently leased from M. G. Womack, of Medford, and M. A. Carter, of Ashland, a vein of molybdenite near Jacksonville. The lessees are developing the prospect.
Gold Hill, August 6.
Josephine County
    (Special Correspondence.)--More chrome deposits have been located in Fidlers Gulch, six miles west of Kerby, by Fred Hart and T. P. Johnson. Dave Bauer and J. W. Bigelow also are developing chrome down the Illinois River.
    The Neils Success gold mine is in operation under the management of R. J. Firth, of Seattle.
Kerby, August 8.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 18, 1917, page 254

    The placer mines in this district are shut down until the rainy season. The Waldo copper mine shut down August 6. It is reported a sale is pending and changes are to be made.
Waldo, August 8.
    (Special Correspondence.)--During July 1600 tons of copper ore from the Waldo district passed over the branch road, 15 miles to Grants Pass, the nearest shipping point. This shipment was from the Queen of Bronze group, and the Pickett Creek properties, owned and operated by the New York & Oregon Development Co. The wagon haul from these properties is from 20 to 30 miles to the railroad. The ore went to the Tacoma smelter.
    The chrome tonnage from the same district and over this road was 1200 tons. Shipments of chrome will be increased during August, as the new wagon road to the deposits was not completed until after the first week in July. The chrome shipments also require a long haul to the railroad. All of the shipping chrome deposits adjacent to this new wagon road are being operated by the United States Steel Co., shipments going to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Tucker and Fife, of Takilma, have taken a lease on the Cow Boy and Lyttle copper claims and are shipping. These properties are controlled by the Queen of Bronze people. The ore runs from 10 to 36% copper, and the shipments amount to two carloads per week.
    Collins McDougall, of Grants Pass, has taken a lease on the Meade gold prospect, situated on Jones Creek, 5 miles east of Grants Pass. This is a free-milling mine, running $5 per ton in gold. The vein is 12 ft. wide and has been prospected for 1200 ft. Mr. McDougall is negotiating for a 5-stamp mill to be operated by a gasoline engine. He expects to be able to crush 15 tons of ore per day.
    The output of the Logan placer mines in Waldo district, which recently closed down for the season, amounts to $40,000 in gold. The yield of platinum was said also to be large, but the figures are not available. The mine is operated by George M. Esterly of Seattle. The water supply permits mining for 8 months of the year. The gold is very fine, and accompanied by platinum, also a little osmium and iridium. The deposit is from 10 to 25 ft. in depth. There are three ditches, the water from one being used in the elevator under a head of 325 ft., another is employed in two giants, and the third is used to clear away the tailing from the end of the sluice at the head of the elevator.
Grants Pass, August 9.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Chrome mining is increasing near Adams station on the Crescent City-Grants Pass road.
    A large group of chrome claims are owned or leased by R. J. Rowen, M. E. Young, and Geo. S. Barton, of Grants Pass, who are pushing development. About 40 adits on the veins have been started, in most of which chrome has been uncovered. The properties are on French Hill, seven miles from the wagon road. It is planned to haul the ore by auto trucks to Crescent City.
    Mike G. Womack, of Medford, and M. A. Clark, of Ashland, are developing manganese, two and a half miles west of their recent manganese strike, 10 miles west of the Josephine Caves on Buck Peak. The ore assays 50% manganese. The nearest shipping point is 22 miles at Wilderville, on the Grants Pass-Crescent City railroad.
    C. A. Winetrout has finished the installation of a gas engine to operate the Huntington mill on the Boswell mine three miles from Holland.
Grants Pass, July 25.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 25, 1917, pages 292-293

    D. D. Good and D. M. Watt of Ashland, Oregon, report a new strike at their High Grade mine located on the south slope of the Siskiyou in the Sterling district. They were opening up the second ore chute in the new 240-ft. drift and working in 2 ft. of rich ore.
"Siskiyou County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 1, 1917, page 330

    (Special Correspondence.)--Robert Grimmett, who located chrome deposits near Holland, is now shipping the ore to Grants Pass.
    Chrome deposits near Wolf Creek are being developed by Dr. Reddy of Grants Pass.
    The Waldo copper mine, at Takilma, is again in operation with a crew of 40 men under same management.
Grants Pass, August 13.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Three motor trucks have arrived at Grants Pass for the California Chrome Co.'s mine near Selma. Two were of 4 tons each, the third of l½-ton capacity. Four more 4-ton trucks will follow. The distance from the mine to the railroad is 21 miles, with grades ranging as high as 20%. H. L. Egan accompanied the outfit.
    It is stated that 10,000 tons of ore is in sight, half of which the contractors expect to move before the rainy season arrives. Building of the truck road from the mine, the loading point on the Grants Pass-Coast road, 15 miles southwest of Grants Pass, cost $32,000. The loading and unloading is accomplished by gravity. The chrome tonnage over this railroad for August will be 100% over July shipments.
    R. L. Thompson, representing Seattle people, has taken an option on the Osgood placer mine, a mile south of Waldo. This property is owned by F. H. Osgood of Seattle. A shipment of 23 tons of the bedrock has been made to Seattle. It is said to be rich in gold and platinum.
    A small crew is employed at the Neil-Success group of gold quartz mines on Fidlers Gulch 7 miles west of Kerby preparing for the winter's run. The mine is operated by water power. The property is under the direction of Fred Furth of Seattle. The group consists of the Neil and Mood properties, which have been producers, the ore being ground in arrastras. The underground works are extensive. A 50-ton rotary mill was recently installed on the properties. Water furnishes power from 4 to 6 months annually.
Grants Pass, August 14.
    (Special Correspondence.)--More ore bunkers are being built at Waters Creek, the terminus of the California & Oregon Coast railroad, to accommodate the increasing ore production from the Takilma district.
Grants Pass, August 20.
    (Special Correspondence.)--W. C. Williams, representing the Chemical & Alloy Ores Co. of Cleveland, Ohio, is buying chrome ore, tungsten, and other minerals in this region.
    E. A. McPherson of Grants Pass has uncovered a rich chute of copper ore at the Old Crow mine in the Monumental district, owned by F. E. Bausman of San Francisco. The vein is 3½ ft. wide on a 100-ft. drift in porphyry, assays $7 in gold, and $4 in silver. Negotiation is being made for its sale to Eastern men.
    It is rumored that the old Monumental, which has been idle for a number of years, will soon be operated again by Eastern capital. There is a large tonnage of ore running $10 to $40 in gold.
    It is reported that the Monkey Creek mine is soon to be an antimony producer again.
    The Diamond Creek cinnabar mine, owned by W. J. Ehrman, is being equipped with a furnace.
    John Griffin, of Kerby, accompanied by J. C. Kendall and Ernest Rackliff of Reno, Nevada, recently inspected the Griffin cinnabar mines on Diamond Creek, with a view to purchasing.
    R. R. Horner, of the United States Bureau of Mines, has been in Southern Oregon mines the past week. He is giving special attention to the black sand deposits.
Grants Pass, August 20.
"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 8, 1917, pages 367-368

Curry County
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Chetco Mining Co. of Harbor is spending $35,000 in erecting new machinery and building roads. The mine is situated on the summit of Mt. Emery, 12 miles east of Harbor, at an elevation of 3200 ft. The vein of free-milling ore is 60 ft. wide.
Harbor, September 4.
Josephine County
    (Special Correspondence.)--The decline in the price of copper has closed many of the copper properties in the Waldo district. The miners and equipment from these properties are being diverted to the production of chrome and other minerals. Every effort is being made to develop the production of manganese in Josephine and Jackson counties.
    The Pittsburgh-Oregon M.&M. Co. was incorporated last week. The office of the company is to be at Grants Pass and a general mining and ore-marketing business is planned.
    With the burning of the C.-O. Power Co.'s substation in the Greenback district north of Grants Pass, the Greenback mine will suspend operation for ten days.
Grants Pass, September 4.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 15, 1917, page 406

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Blue Ledge copper mine is again an object of inquiry. Its sale is forecasted to the English syndicate that owns the Lady Smith smelter at Vancouver, B.C. The copper ore from this mine with that from the Alaskan mines makes an economic flux. Sixteen motor trucks are employed in hauling ore from the mine to the railroad at Jacksonville.
    Andrew Jeldness of Medford, who has been developing the Bloomfield copper mine in the Blue Ledge district, has uncovered a body of rich ore and will start shipping. C. J. Fry of Medford is developing several promising copper veins in the Blue Ledge district.
    Operators are active in the Gold Hill district investigating manganese deposits. Recent tests from the Gold Hill iron mine have proved that this ore will produce a low-carbon manganese-iron alloy. Several mines in the Meadows district, north of Gold Hill, will be developed to prove the extent of their manganese deposits.
Medford, September 12.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Buzzard gold mine, two miles north of Gold Hill, was sold yesterday to J. W. Wakefield of Medford, Oregon, and his associates, who are Eastern people. The new owners have been investigating the district and selected this mine. They will reopen the old workings and expect to erect a 5-stamp mill. The vein, in a porphyry and slate contact, contains free-milling ore, three feet wide. Ore averaging $40 per ton was reduced in local mills when the mine was in active operation.
    Another strike of specimen ore has been made on the old Elashia Ray mine, three miles north of Gold Hill. It is operated by J. W. Davies and associates of Sacramento.
Gold Hill, September 12.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Five auto trucks are being used to haul ore from the California Chrome Co.'s mine to Waters Creek. The haul is 21 miles and 50 tons is shipped per day. The destination of the ore is Niagara Falls, N.Y. At the mine 21 men are employed.
    Chrome deposits are being developed by R. C. Fehely and R. W. Kitterman on Grayback Mountain.
Grants Pass, September 4.
    (Special Correspondence.)--C. Long and F. Nelson are developing a copper deposit in the Preston Peaks district.
    Chrome ore is to be concentrated at the Dorothea chrome mine in Coyote Creek. Crushers, stamp batteries, classifiers and standard tables comprise the mill equipment. The ore contains 30% chrome, associated with serpentine, and it is expected that a 65% concentrate will be made.
Grants Pass, September 4.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Logan placer mine situated on the Grants Pass-Crescent City highway, two miles northwest of Waldo, has been sold to George M. Esterly and associates of Seattle, Washington. The purchase price is $140,000. The mine is one of the oldest in the state. Its early history is contemporaneous with the gold rush to Jacksonville. An option on the property was taken by the new owners ten months ago, and it was operated by them during the past season, the output being $50,000 in gold and platinum. The property will be operated on a much larger scale. The water supply permits mining for eight months of the year. The placer gold is fine, and is accompanied by platinum, together with osmium and iridium.
Grants Pass, September 4.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Waldo copper mine, two miles from Waldo, has been sold to the American Exploration Co. of Grants Pass. The purchase price was $135,000. The property has been in operation 12 years, but only during the last two years has it been worked with modern machinery. A mill of 50-ton capacity is used to concentrate the ore. Recent production totals $300,000 worth of copper. The ore is a massive chalcopyrite associated with pyrrhotite and pyrite.
Grants Pass, September 7.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 22, 1917, page 444

    An interesting feature of future chrome production lies in the fact that T. W. Gruetter has recently established at Kerby, Oregon, a custom plant for concentrating black sand to win its gold and platinum. The black sand of the Klamath Mountains usually contains a considerable amount of chromite, and it is believed that by adding magnetic separators to Gruetter's plant to remove the other minerals from the tailing, sufficient chromite may be obtained from the black sand in areas of chromiferous serpentine to make the operation financially successful. The process will evidently yield a high grade of chrome ore, which may be suitable for special uses.
"Chromite," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 29, 1917, page 463

    (Special Correspondence.)--Marshall mine, eight miles east of Wolf Creek station on the Southern Pacific, was operated many years for gold. Chrome ore was recently discovered in the mine, which is now being worked for that mineral. The ore is crushed and concentrated on standard tables. The ore is said to contain 30% and the concentrate 65% of chromic oxide.
Medford, October 6.
    (Special Correspondence.)--John Hampshire, of Grants Pass, and associates are considering the purchase of the Waldo copper mine, one mile east of Takilma. The property consists of 480 acres of patented ground and 12 unpatented claims, and 325 acres adjoining the Queen of Bronze and the Lyttle mine, both of which are owned by the new purchasers. Col. Draper operated this property between 1900 and 1906 and the ores were treated at the Takilma smelter. Litigation, however, on account of the sulphurous fumes caused its closing down. The total output has been about $300,000. The price is said to be $135,000.
Grants Pass, October 6.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 13, 1917, page 555

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Elkhart quicksilver mines, nine miles southeast of Yoncalla on the Southern Pacific railroad, on which $75,000 was expended in development and plant fifteen years ago, was taken over early in 1917 by E. P. Perrine and H. L. Marsters of Roseburg. The plant has been reconstructed and the mine is being reopened. The ore is said to run 10 to 12 lb. of quicksilver per ton.
Roseburg, October 6.
    (Special Correspondence.)--J. M. Finch and T. P. Johnson are mining chrome ore near Kerby and will begin shipping soon. Their property is west of Kerby, across the Illinois River, and, there being no bridge at that point, they are endeavoring to get as much ore as possible before the rains come.
Kerby, September 26.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 20, 1917, page 590

    The Barron gold mine, nine miles east of Ashland, Oregon, has been purchased by H. J. Sallee of Redding from the Byron L. White estate. The vein is 16 ft. wide, and contains gold, silver, and antimony in paying quantities. Development consists of a 200-ft. shaft, 750 ft. of levels, and a 5-ft. winze. Sixty men are to be employed with John Kemple as superintendent. The ore will be shipped to Kennett smelters.
"Siskiyou County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 27, 1917, page 625

    (Special Correspondence.)--There is evidence of steady activity and increasing interest in the mining and prospecting in Jackson County. The government price on copper has served to quell the excitement about that metal, but the established price is quite sufficient to keep the present plants active.
    Clark & Webb, of Medford, have leased the Gold Ridge gold and silver mine on Kanes Creek, three miles south of Gold Hill, owned by T. C. Norris, of Medford. They have a crew operating a 3-stamp mill and developing a 20-ft. vein that averages $100 per ton in gold and silver.… M. G. Womack, of Medford, and M. A. Clark, of Ashland, representing Trinity County, California, people, have taken a lease on the old Red Oak gold mine, three miles southwest of Gold Hill, on Galls Creek. This property produced $40,000 from the 60-ft. level 25 years ago, but since then it has been idle owing to litigation. Recently it fell into the hands of John Ralls and Claude Lawrence, local miners, who will reopen the 300-ft. level. The vein is three feet wide. W. M. Cowley, president of the Cowley Investment Co., and Howard H. Startzman, both of Seattle, have been inspecting the Copper King copper mine on Grave Creek. 20 miles southwest of Gold Hill. They announce that their reorganization plans have been adopted. The mine is owned by the United Copper Co. of Seattle; it is fully equipped and there is a large ore body said to run 36% copper. A new wagon road from the mine to Rogue River, eight miles west of Gold Hill, is being made.… Earl M. Young, of Rogue River, has sold his manganese property near Wimer, 12 miles west of Gold Hill, to Seattle steel people, who will develop the mine. The ore occurs in small veins running through serpentine.
Gold Hill, Oregon, October 9.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 27, 1917, page 627

    (Special Correspondence.)--Herbert Brewitt of Tacoma, Washington, representing investors of that city, has taken a lease on the Truit manganese deposits in the Eagle Point district, 20 miles northeast of Gold Hill. The lessees have done considerable development work on the property and ordered machinery for a concentration plant, and 40,000 ft. of lumber [for] a mill building. C. F. Daugherty, examiner and buyer for the Noble Electric Steel Co. of San Francisco, has been examining manganese properties in this district during the past week.… Clark & Webb of Medford have leased the Gold Ridge gold and silver mine, three miles south of Gold Hill, on Kane Creek. The lessees are operating a three-stamp mill and making further developments on a 20-ft. vein that averages $100 per ton in gold and silver. The vein Is in a gabbro-porphyry contact and is free-milling.… The owners of the Copper King copper mines on Grave Creek have reorganized and operations have been resumed at the mine. New equipment will be added and a wagon route from the mine to Rogue River, nine miles west of Gold Hill, is under construction. A large body of ore has been uncovered recently.
    Earl M. Young of Rogue River has sold his manganese property, 12 miles west of Gold Hill, on Evans Creek, to Seattle steel people, who will develop the mine. The ore occurs in small seams, running 35 to 50% manganese. Operations have been resumed on the Nellie Wright gold mine, two miles east of Gold Hill, after a closedown of two months pending reorganization. The 25-ton Beers mill will be replaced by a larger and more modern one. R. M. Wilson is the lessee, representing San Francisco investors. Development work is progressing favorably on the Cheney, Simmons, Ray, and Haff gold mines, two miles north of Gold Hill. This group is being operated by J. W. Davies for Sacramento people.
Gold Hill, October 22.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The first modern quicksilver furnace has been completed and is in operation in this county. It is situated 12 miles north of Gold Hill, at an elevation of 2500 ft., on the slope of the Umpqua Mountains in a heavily timbered district. The mines are owned and operated by W. P. Chisholm of Gold Hill, and consist of 40 acres, which have been mined for cinnabar since 1878, but the ore has been reduced in only a crude way.
    The vein, which strikes N. 53° W., has been exposed by adits for 2000 ft.; the greatest depth attained is 75 ft. It occurs along a granite-sandstone contact, where the granite is in part pegmatitic. The mineralized zone is from 100 to 200 ft. wide; it is not a well-defined vein, but is mineralized along an irregular contact. The ore, or mass, contains cinnabar, native mercury, pyrite, gold, zinc, silver, and a heavy black mineral resembling meta-cinnabarite. Samples taken from all the adits assay from $5 to $6 per ton in gold, 5 oz. in silver, 2.5% zinc, and 1% mercury. The cinnabar appears all through the ore and also in the hanging and footwalls in the form of seams and kidneys. The seams are from 6 to 20 in. thick and average from 17 to 70% mercury.
    The initial run of ten tons of ore in the new furnace produced three flasks of quicksilver; 1200 lbs. of this ore was taken from a rich seam that runs as high as 70% quicksilver. With recent developments in the mine there is 5000 tons of ore in the block. The furnace, a 12-pipe Johnson and McKay, is placed within 300 ft. of the main adit.
Gold Hill, October 25.
    (Special Correspondence.)--A deposit of chrome ore has been discovered on the old McGrew road, 15 miles southwest of Waldo, by J. H. Gregg, and is being hauled to Waters Creek for shipment.… The chrome claims located on Canyon Creek, near Kerby, a few weeks ago by J. M. Finch and T. P. Johnson have proved to contain a large deposit of high-grade ore. The ore will be hauled to Waters Creek.… A carload of chrome ore has been shipped from the Falls Creek district by W. E. Gilmore of Kerby. The ore was packed several miles on horses.
Kerby, October 26.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 3, 1917, pages 665-666

    (Special Correspondence.)--The 1000-bbl. cement factory of the Portland Beaver Cement Co., on the outskirts of Gold Hill, began operations last week with a crew of 85 men. This factory was recently completed at a cost of $700,000 furnished by local and Portland investors.… The state lime board has taken over the J. H. Beeman limestone deposits lying on the opposite side of Rogue River from the cement factory, and will equip the quarry for furnishing the Oregon farmers with limestone fertilizer at cost in excess of $20,000 at once. This property is 1½ miles from Gold Hill, and the output will be delivered by aerial tramway to the Southern Pacific railway.… M. G. Womack, L. R. Bigham, and George Thrasher, of Medford, are developing a promising quartz gold deposit three miles south of Jacksonville in the Poormans Creek, which is a rich placer district. The vein is in a greestone-porphyry contact, and 10 ft. wide.
    The Manganese Metal Co., of Tacoma, has purchased the J. H. Tyrell ranch in the Lake Creek district for $18,000 cash. This ranch contains the most extensive and promising manganese deposits in this new mining district, 20 miles east of Gold Hill. The new owners have taken options on two adjoining ranches. Three carloads of mining machinery are on the way from Tacoma to equip the mines. Charles W. Scott, representing the company, is at Lake Creek, and is hiring men and teams preparatory to moving the machinery from Eagle Point.… W. F. Sears of Gold Hill, who recently imrchased the Larsen ranch on Kane Creek three miles south of Gold Hill, is preparing to reopen an old gold-quartz vein on the property, and equip it with a small stamp mill and pumping plant.
Gold Hill, October 29.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Kerby Queen copper mine in Hanfort gulch five miles northeast of Waldo is to be reopened at once. The property is owned by D. W. Collard of Kerby and is developed by a 900-ft. adit on the lower level and a 300-ft. on the upper level. There are many thousand tons of 4% copper ore on the dumps. The high-grade ore being shipped averages $6 per ton gold.… The Collard, Moore & Collard chrome mine, near Kerby, will begin to concentrate ore next week. The concentrator was erected last spring. Over 2500 tons of chrome ore has been shipped from this mine and there are many thousand tons of high-grade ore in sight.
    A two-stamp mill has been erected at the Abbott and Williams gold mine on the Illinois River near Selma. The ore runs $17 gold.… I. L. Thompson of Seattle has made the second payment on the Osgood placer mine, one mile south of Waldo. Preparations are being made for extensive development work. The bedrock in this mine carries platinum.… The Del Norte Claimholders Association has commenced to grade eight miles of wagon road between Waldo and its copper claims in the Preston Peak district. Supplies have arrived and work is being directed by J. T. Gilmore and A. C. Hoffman.
Grants Pass, November 1.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 10, 1917, page 703

    In Southwestern Oregon the old Blanco, a beach sand deposit in Curry County, between Port Orford and Langlois, is being equipped with new machinery to treat 500 tons of gold-platinum sand daily. The Nellie Wright mine, near Gold Hill, Jackson County, was recently sold to Salt Lake people, who are installing compressors and drills. The mine has a 25-ton Beers mill. The Cheney, Simmons, Ray, and Half group of quartz claims, in the same county, has been sold to Californian capitalists, who are starting a new 1200-ft. adit. In Josephine County the Grayback copper group has been leased to owners of the California-Oregon Coast Ry., who also own the Queen of Bronze and the smelter at Takilma. Development on a large scale has been commenced. The Queen of Bronze is working 60 men and producing a good grade of copper ore.
"Oregon Mines in 1917," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 24, 1917, page 757

    (Special Correspondence.)--Mine operators in this district anticipated a relief from the shortage of help as soon as the miners working in the lumber camps returned for the winter, but the new supply is insufficient to meet the loss of the miners of the draft age who are enlisting in the service of their own choice before the second draft is called. The Blue Ledge mine lost seven men in one day last week.… H. H. Leonard, lessee of the Bowden mine, three miles south of Gold Hill, is now operating in the 120-ft. level on a 3-ft. vein of rich ore. He also has taken a lease on the Yellow Jacket, an adjoining property, owned by Thomas Hagen, who is now his superintendent.… W. A. Douglas, a local mine operator, has taken a lease on the G. Danielson quartz gold mine on Galls Creek, three miles west of Gold Hill. This property is an old producer, but has been idle for a number of years. The lessee will reopen the old drift and extend it on the vein into adjoining property owned by himself and Thomas Dungey.… R. M. Wilson is equipping and will operate the Nellie Wright mine and mill, three miles south of Gold Hill, which has been closed down the past 90 days.… The Manganese Metal Co. of Tacoma has received three cars of machinery for its manganese property in the Lake Creek district, 20 miles east of Gold Hill. Shipments will be made from Eagle Point.
Gold Hill, November 24.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 8, 1917, page 843

    (Special Correspondence.)--Concentrating machinery is being erected at the Golconda chrome mine. The mine has been producing steadily during the summer.… The Oak Flat mine, leased by the California Chrome Co., has developed 2000 tons of ore, which will be ready for shipping next spring.… G. S. Barton has 400 tons of chrome ore ready for shipment at his mine 14 miles from Grants Pass.… In this county there are a number of deposits, isolated by lack of roads, which would be opened if chrome prices attained a higher level.
Grants Pass, December 17.

"Josephine County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 29, 1917, page 945

    (Special Correspondence.)--Harvey J. Sallee. who recently bonded the Barron gold mine east of Ashland from the Alton Mining Co. of Ashland, has closed down the mine for the winter and left for his Reed mine in Shasta County, California. He has spent $6000 in reopening the Barron mine, but the late heavy rains have made the roads impassable between the mine and railroad. During the operation five carloads of ore were shipped to the Mammoth Copper Co. smelter at Kennett, which assayed 1 oz. of gold to 20 oz. of silver, with some zinc and lead. The high-grade ore assayed $75 per ton in gold and silver, while the low-grade $10 to $15. There is 1000 ft. of drift in the mine, one main drift and some prospects. The lessee thinks well of the property, although it presents some difficulty in the way of economical operation. Under the conditions this fall the haul to the railroad, a distance of seven miles, cost $5 per ton, while the difficulty of placing a mill at the mine is that water is only available six months in the year.… Much progress is being made in developing and operating the Chisholm cinnabar mines, 12 miles north of Gold Hill. W. P. Chisholm, the owner, reports that he will put in crushers and concentrating machinery next spring to operate with his 12-pipe furnace.… L. P. McConiche, of Tacoma, representing people of that city, is developing the Buena Vista group of cinnabar mines, recently purchased from W. S. Webb of Medford. This property is just over the Jackson County line in Douglas County, and is an extension of the mercury-bearing dike that extends through Jackson County from California. The property will be fully equipped with furnaces next spring.… Extensive work is being done at the Greenback gold mine in the north end of this county. The old equipment is being dismantled in order to erect new machinery during the coming season. The 7000-ft. aerial tramway has been sold and is being removed to equip the State limestone fertilizer plant at Gold Hill.… The late rains have set the placer mines through Southern Oregon and Northern California in operation, and from present indications the coming season will be a successful one. Considerable attention will be given by the operators to save platinum, which formerly went to waste.
Gold Hill, December 27.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 5, 1918, page 35

Oregon Metal Production in 1917
    A preliminary estimate of the production of metals from Oregon mines in 1917, compiled by Charles G. Yale, of the San Francisco office of the U.S. Geological Survey, shows a material decrease from that of 1916. The output of gold in 1916 was $1,902,149, and the estimated output in 1917 is $1,466,419, a decrease of $435,760. The output of silver in 1916 was 231,342 oz., valued at $152,223, and the estimated output in 1917 is 115,697 oz., a decrease of 115,645 oz. in quantity and $58,046 in value. The output of copper in 1916 was 3,501,886 lb., valued at $881,144, and the estimated output in 1917 is 1,508,639 lb., valued at $410,349. A small quantity of lead was produced in 1916, but no production of this metal has been reported for 1917.
    There are about a hundred productive mines in Oregon, and although two-thirds of them are placer mines, the larger part of the output of gold comes from the deep mines, and, of course, virtually all the output of the other metals. There were no important discoveries in any of the mining districts of Oregon in 1917, and no great increase in the output of any of the more productive properties. The entire output of ore from all the deep mines combined does not exceed 160,000 tons. Most of the placer mines are worked by the hydraulic system, but the three dredges now in use produce far more gold than all the other placer operations combined. The largest output of gold and other metals in 1917 came, as usual, from Baker County, which produces annually about 90% of all the gold mined in the state. Josephine County is next in production.

Mining and Scientific Press,
San Francisco, January 19, 1918, page 96

    (Special Correspondence.)--Since the winter rains have set in, the copper mines in Southern Oregon, which have long wagon hauls, are reducing their shipments of ore and are developing for record shipments next season. The Blue Ledge has 60 men employed and is shipping 1000 tons per month, while the Queen of Bronze has 40 men employed and is shipping 1200 tons per month, and the Waldo has quit shipping and has 10 men employed developing.… O. C. Runnels of Seattle, representing people of that city, has purchased the Utah group of quicksilver mines, 12 miles north of Gold Hill, as well as the Samuel Bertelson group of adjoining claims, and intends to combine these properties. These mines are contiguous to the Chisholm group of mercury mines, which is equipped with furnaces. Machinery is being ordered to equip these new mines and representatives of several machinery companies are on the ground to arrange the final details.… Tony Ross and Lawrence Witsette of Gold Hill, who have a lease on the Reynolds copper mine six miles west of Waldo, are making considerable progress in development work. Recent assays show that the copper ore near the surface runs 10 oz. in silver per ton and some gold. This property is eight miles west of the Queen of Bronze copper mines and within half a mile of the Grants Pass-Crescent City highway. Five veins, from 5 to 20 ft. wide, run through the property at an elevation of 2000 feet.
Gold Hill, December 31.
    (Special Correspondence.)--O. C. Runnells of Seattle, who recently acquired the Utah and Bertelson groups of cinnabar mines, 12 miles north of Gold Hill, for Seattle investors, will incorporate a company with a capital of $600,000 and equip the properties with a mercury reduction plant of 100 to 200 tons capacity. A power line will be erected from the C-O Power Co.'s line in the Beagle district, five miles from the mine, and electric power will be used in operating. Samuel Bertelson of Beagle will be the local manager temporarily.
Gold Hill, January 5.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 19, 1918, page 105

    (Special Correspondence.)--W. A. Sharp of Grants Pass, Oregon, and his brother, L. C. Sharp, of Plattsmouth, Nebraska, have purchased the placer land known as the Hydraulic mine, on upper Jumpoff Joe Creek in the north end of Jackson County, from Mrs. Elizabeth Smith of Ashland. It is the intention of the new owners to erect a hydroelectric precipitating plant.… A new find of cinnabar has been reported uncovered in the Trail Creek district, between the Elk Creek and Meadows districts north of Gold Hill, and north of the Lake Creek district.… Much progress is being made on the 900 and 1200-ft. drifts at the Ray & Haff gold mines, two miles north of Gold Hill, which is being operated by J. W. Davies of Sacramento. The 900-ft. drift will open up a large body of ore on a new level, while the 1200-ft. drift will connect with a 1200-ft. drift into the vein from the opposite side of the hill.
Gold Hill, January 15.
    (Special Correspondence.)--The Golconda chrome mine at Takilma. owned by Collard, Moore & Collard, which has been idle since September, will resume operation at once under the management of R. J. Rowen, who has been operating in the Gold Hill district for the past two years. He has had a contract for the ore output, but difficulties in production by the owners caused delay and complications which resulted in litigation. Mr. Rowen is being financed in the construction of a mill by the Atlantic Ore & Alloys Co. of Philadelphia, which has purchased the entire output of the mines. This company is to make an advance on ore of $20,000, which is to be used to erect the plant. Under the present plans the property will be operated with a prospective production of 5000 tons of concentrate annually; this will require the mining of 100 tons of ore per day. The ore, which is all under contract to the government, will be shipped to Canto, Pittsburgh, and Jersey City.
Gold Hill, January 17.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 26, 1918, page 140

    (Special Correspondence.)--L. H. Van Horn of Kerby and associates have taken a lease and bond for two years on the Copper King copper mine in the Blue Ledge district, with the stipulation that work must begin at the mine within 60 days. The mine property consists of eight claims, or 160 acres.… The machinery for the State 200-ton limestone fertilizer plant at Gold Hill has arrived from the East. The 7000-ft. aerial tramway at the Greenback mine has been dismantled and shipped to equip the plant, which will be operated by electric power. Contracts call for the completion of the plant by April 1. The Rogue River Public Service Corporation, operators of power plants at Gold Hill and Grants Pass, which went into the hands of a receiver last June, has gone into involuntary bankruptcy, with liabilities of $650,000. Since the corporation's financial troubles last year most of its contracts have been taken over by the California-Oregon Power Co., with plants on Rogue and Klamath rivers.… Much progress is being made in the development and equipment of the cinnabar mines in the Meadows and Lake Creek districts, north of Gold Hill, with a view to a record production in the coming year.
Gold Hill, January 26.
    (Special Correspondence.)--George S. Barton is opening a new chromite deposit on the Waldo Corporation property that is giving considerable promise. Mr. Barton will operate continuously through the winter.
Grants Pass, January 20.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 2, 1918, page 177

    (Special Correspondence.)--The Gold Hill Manganese Co. has been incorporated with a capital of $1,000,000 and headquarters at Grants Pass. The property is known as the Manganese Consolidated, was located in 1909, and recently sold by McCallister & Britten to L. F. McConiche of Tacoma. It consists of four claims on Shan Creek, six miles from Rogue River. Recent assays show 24 to 44% manganese, with gold-bearing quartz running as high as $724 per ton. The mine will be equipped with jigs, water motor, crushers, rolls, sawmill, and stamp mill, and $5000 will be spent on the road leading to the mine.
Gold Hill, January 30.
    (Special Correspondence.)--Allen Davis and W. A. Patrick, of Ashland, are developing a chrome deposit 10 miles west of that city. Talent is the nearest shipping point with a downgrade haul. Croppings of asphaltum and dried oil, which can be traced for half a mile, have been uncovered on government land six miles east of Ashland. M. G. Womack of Medford, associated with men of that city, and H. J. Barton, of California, have located claims on the deposits. The ground will be explored at once to determine the advisability of exploiting for oil by drilling.
Gold Hill, January 31.
"Jackson County," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 9, 1918, page 212

    GOLD HILL.--Herbert Brewitt and C. W. Scott of Tacoma, Washington, officials of the Manganese Mining Co. of that city, are here inspecting the new plant at their Lake Creek manganese mine east of here. Twenty men are employed. The company has recently spent $30,000, and development promises to have an important bearing on this region. The poor condition of the road is hampering haulage to shipping point.
    The McKinley copper mine, consisting of 12 claims lying 12 miles east of Gold Beach, has been sold by Delmer Colegrove and associates of Gold Beach, Oregon, to the owners of the Takilma Smelting Co. at Takilma, Oregon. These mines have long been known for their rich ore, and it is reported that the new owners will commence operating at once.
    Hauling chrome and copper ore from the Waldo district to shipping at Water Creek on the Grants Pass-Crescent City railway continues only in a small way, on account of bad roads.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 2, 1918, page 314

    GALICE.--Gold Bar placer mines on Rogue River, below Galice, have been sold to Hayes Temple, Gust Fisher, and Alfred Eubanks, of Seattle, Washington. New owners are operating with three giants and a steam shovel.
    GOLD HILL.--J. W. Davies and associates, lessees of the Cheney, Simmons, Haff, and Ray gold claims, 3 miles north, have opened rich ore at 400 ft. depth, enough to repay development and purchase price--$100,000. The new chute was found at end of a 900-ft. drift. Three years ago, Ray and Haff, lessees, discovered scheelite in the gold ore, the vein averaging 2% tungstic acid. Most work on the group is in the Cheney and Simmons claims, generally known as the Sylvanite mines, developed by the Sylvanite Mining Co. The lode contains quartz with pyrite, carrying gold and silver valued at $3 to $5 per ton. High-grade ore occurs in boulders, at a depth of 80 to 100 ft. Sulphide ore begins to appear at 160 ft., and the vein is 5 ft. wide at 225 ft. depth. The hanging wall is slate, and footwall limestone. Greatest depth attained on this lode is 600 ft., where it is 25 ft. wide.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 9, 1918, page 351

    GOLD HILL.--Decision of considerable importance to miners in this region was given this week at the United States Land Office at Roseburg, in a contest for government land between J. H. Beeman and E. J. Jamison. Judgment was in favor of Beeman, the mineral claimant, and against Jamison, the agricultural claimant. Several years ago Jamison located a homestead of 160 acres on government land, which includes the quarry tract selected for the State limestone plant at Gold Hill. Later, Beeman and others discovered the lime deposits on the homestead, and located three claims of 60 acres thereon, and on the recent application of Jamison for a patent for his homestead. Beeman filed a contest, claiming the land more valuable for mineral than agricultural purposes. The decree gives Jamison a patent for the homestead, saving and excepting the mineral land of 60 acres, which is given to Beeman.
    MEDFORD.--Lee Devenport of Portland has arrived here with oil-drilling machinery to exploit the recently reported discovery of asphaltum deposits east of Ashland, in the hills at the head of Antelope Valley. It appears that large deposits of high-grade asphaltum have been uncovered in carbonaceous shale, with evidences of petroleum.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 16, 1918, page 388

Placer Platinum
    Platinum, osmium, iridium, palladium, ruthenium, and rhodium form a group of closely related metals, which are generally found as native metals more or less alloyed with each other. They are rarer than gold, and some of them, especially platinum, iridium, and palladium, are now more valuable and in greater demand than gold. Because of their difficult solubility, their fusibility only at very high temperatures, and their extreme hardness, they are especially suitable for use in the chemical and electrical industries. One of its most important present uses is in making sulphuric acid, for through catalytic action it brings about the combination of materials required to form that acid, which is needed for making fertilizers and explosives and is thus essential to sustain the feeding and fighting powers of our nation.
    Under normal conditions the United States requires about 165,000 oz. of the platinum metals per year. It produces only a few thousand ounces and is meeting increasing difficulties in importing sufficient quantities. In this emergency we find that we have not utilized all our natural resources and that we have lacked the imagination to foresee the value of some of these resources. Henry G. Hanks, a former state mineralogist of California, as far back as 1884 made the following statement: "If the miners could be persuaded to collect the platinum minerals an industry might be established of considerable importance. There is no reason why platinum should not be manufactured in San Francisco and the American demand in part or wholly supplied by this state."
    A comprehensive survey of our platinum resources was begun by the U.S. Geological Survey during the field season of 1917, the work in California being done in cooperation with the California State Mining Bureau.
    The problem of increasing the production of the platinum metals is closely involved in the production of placer gold. The modern dredge, which is capable of handling as much as 200,000 cu. yd. of gravel per month, has become a highly efficient tool, but it is capable of still further improvement. If the gravel is clean and comparatively free from sediment, the dredge recovers most of the gold and platinum from the gravel that is handled, but if a large amount of fine mud or sediment is mixed with the gravel, it is not so effective. Over 30 dredges were at work in 1916 in California and Oregon, and during that year 710 oz. of crude platinum was produced. By careful experiment one dredge operator estimated that his dredge has been losing 4¾ oz. of platinum per month. More efficient methods may yield some increase in the quantity of platinum recovered.
    Old stream channels buried beneath the lava on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada formed the feeders of the gravels in the areas along the foothills that are now being dredged. These buried channels are mined by driving or tunneling under the lavas, bringing the gravels to the surface, and recovering the placer gold. Some of these old channels carry considerable platinum aside from the gold, and at a few places attempts are being made to mine them more extensively.
    The hydraulic mines in Northern California and Southern Oregon are producing some platinum along with the gold. The proportion of the value of the platinum to that of the gold produced at some of these mines is about 1 to 20. Unmined gravel deposits along streams in this area contain platinum and should yield a considerable quantity of the platinum metals. The main problem at most of these deposits is to get sufficient water for mining. Large reserves of the platinum metals are probably locked up in these gravels, to be recovered when the cost of mining is reduced by more favorable conditions.
    The beach sands along the coast of Oregon and California have long yielded gold and platinum. The sands mined include not only those of the present beaches, but of old beaches that now stand about 200 ft. higher. The sands of the present beaches were in places so rich that in the early days they caused one of the great stampedes recorded in the history of California. The problem of Mining the black sands of the beaches has been an alluring one, and many attempts have been made to mine on a large scale. A successful method must be based on a thorough prospecting of the material, which varies in richness not only vertically, but horizontally.
    No reliable method has yet been found to handle these beach sands, though during the season of 1917 preparations were being made at several places for working them on a large scale.
    Some platinum is recovered by small sluicing operations that are in progress near the headwaters of many streams, where the gravels are shallow and where the gold and platinum are close to their source in the bedrock. The platinum metals are generally supposed to be derived from the serpentine that occurs in many areas in Northern California and Southern Oregon. Wherever platinum seems to have been traced nearly to its source this rock is found. A roughness of the platinum and in some specimens a black or brownish coating, which is apparently iron oxide, indicates proximity to its source, but it has not yet been traced directly to the serpentine, although it is probably derived from this rock. Streams that drain areas of serpentine would seem to be particularly favorable for prospecting. At no place are the platinum metals concentrated in large quantities. Being rarer than gold, they are harder to find than gold. Iridium is in great demand, and the fact that it forms 10 to 40% of the platinum metals in nearly all the placer deposits in the United States is a special incentive to the search for more. The elimination of litigation and the equitable settlement of questions regarding surface rights and underground rights in drift mining and regarding the distribution of water for irrigation, power plants, and mining might also increase the output.

Mining and Scientific Press,
San Francisco, March 23, 1918, page 416

    Ashland.--M. G. Womack, H. H. McCarthy, and Carl Jeschke, of Medford, are developing a promising asbestos deposit in Siskiyou Mountains south of Ashland, which is within 5 miles of shipping. Samples show a high-grade long-fiber asbestos.
    Grants Pass.--Contract has been let for erection of reduction plant at Almeda copper-gold mine on Rogue River, 27 miles below Grants Pass. Concentrator is to be 200-ton capacity, and blast furnace of 150-ton capacity. Cost will total $200,000. About 500 h.p. will be required to operate machinery, which will be furnished by the local electric power company. Almeda mine is said to be better developed than any mine in Southern Oregon, due partly to its favorable situation, being in a narrow canyon of the river, giving a natural transverse section of lode to depth of 500 ft. Development consists of 8000 ft. of underground working, consisting of 5 levels, supplemented by a 500-ft. vertical shaft. These open ore for 1000 ft. horizontally and 800 ft. vertically. Reserves are estimated to be worth $6,000,000.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 23, 1918, page 426

    Gold Hill.--Millionaire gold mine, three miles east of this place, closed for a number of years, has been sold by the McKeen National Bank, of Terre Haute, Indiana, to Charles Knight and associates of that city. The new owner has arrived at Gold Hill and taken charge. He reports that much new machinery is in transit to the mine. This mine is on level ground at an elevation of 1730 ft., and is opened by two vertical shafts 400 ft. deep, with several hundred feet of levels opened both ways. There are three parallel veins, which strike east and dip 60°. All contain quartz with pyrite, with some galena and chalcopyrite. Country rock consists of dark argillate, with bands of andesitic material. Shafts are well equipped with electrically driven machinery. Mill includes two Nissen 1500-lb. stamps, with amalgamating plates, crushers, and standard concentrating tables, which have never operated.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 30, 1918, page 459

    Grants Pass.--Mountain Lion gold mine, 12 miles southwest of Grants Pass, has been acquired by J. P. Sinnott of Portland and C. G. Murphy of Grants Pass. They have erected a 30-ton Lane mill. This mine has been extensively opened during the past 25 years, there being 8000 ft. of workings done on two veins that are in greenstone and slate, and close to contact of these rocks within an area of granodiorite. The slate occurs as narrow lenses in the greenstone and the best ore of the veins has been obtained near the contact of the two rocks. The veins are 12 in. wide and are faulted at many places. The vein filling consists chiefly of quartz, calcite, and sulphides, the last constituting 1%. The new equipment is driven by gasoline power.
    Takilma.--Golconda chrome mine, six miles northeast of Takilma, has made an initial shipment of two cars of ore at Water Creek under the new lessee, R. J. Rowen. Thirty-five miners are employed, and on arrival full equipment of auto trucks ordered, production will be 1200 tons of ore per month.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 6, 1918, page 496

    Gold Hill.--Rainier Mercury Co. of Seattle has been organized in Jackson County, with T. H. Ellis, president and general manager, and headquarters at Beagle, Oregon. This new corporation takes over the Utah Quicksilver Co.'s 35 claims in the Meadows district, 12 miles north of Gold Hill, also the Samuel Bertelson group adjoining. These properties are contiguous to the Chisholm group, which have been producers since 1878, and are now operated with a 12-pipe furnace to reduce the ore mined during development, and pending the arrival of a 200-ton plant to be selected.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 20, 1918, page 562

    Gold Hill.--Shortage of skilled miners and millmen prevents resumption of work at the Millionaire, Nellie Wright, and other smaller gold mines in this district. Rich ore has been uncovered from an 80-ft. raise, 400 ft. below the surface, in the Ray and Haff mines three miles north of Gold Hill. This is operated by J. W. Davies of Sacramento, California.
    Grants Pass.--The 13 chrome deposits in the Waldo district controlled by R. J. Rowen and associates have 27 auto trucks employed hauling ore. Five cars daily are sent from the shipping point at Waterville. This quantity is to be increased.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 4, 1918, page 632

    Medford.--The Blue Ledge copper mines, which suspended shipments late last winter, will resume. It is probable that 40 motor trucks will be engaged in carrying 300 tons of ore each day from the mine to railroad this summer. Seventy-five miners have been employed all winter opening ore for these increased shipments. The Copper King, Bloomfield, and other groups being operated from the Blue Ledge district will also be heavy shippers.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 11, 1918, page 666

    . . . I am now at this time at the home of my old friend and ministerial brother, Rev. M. C. Davis, four miles from Wolf Creek. On my arrival at the Wolf Creek station, I was met by Mr. Davis and was soon on the way in his Maxwell car, for his home, where I was met by his wife, son Bertie, daughter Miss Esther, and little granddaughter, Inez Howard. After partaking of a bountiful dinner, Mr. Davis then took us in his car for a trip up to the reservoir, where they store their supply of water for mining. On the route we passed through the little village of Golden, that at one time was quite a flourishing mining camp, before the different mining claims passed into the hands of the few capitalists. The reader will remember that while an individual may have a good mining claim where there is good-paying dirt, or if it happens to be a quartz mine, good prospect for gold, that that one person, unless he has the capital to develop the mine is not much better off than he was before, for it takes money to make money. And that is almost invariably the case, for instance, the mine of which I am writing, which is situated .on Society Creek, before it could be worked successfully had to have two ditches dug and one of them is some five or six miles long, and the other is about half that length, and then they have made a large reservoir where they store the water so as to give a pressure sufficient to do the work, and then in addition to the ditch and reservoir there is some five thousand feet of heavy steel pipe from 16 to 24 inches in diameter through which the water is forced by gravity pressure and comes out of a discharge pipe six inches in diameter, and all this has to be done before the gold can be taken out of the dirt, and the result is that the poor man is forced to sell out to the man or men who can command the capital to do all this work. Passing on through Golden we went on up, up the mountainside until we finally reached the reservoir, where we found Mr. Nias Layman, the man who attends to shutting off and turning on the water as it is ordered by telephone and who goes over the entire length of the ditches every day. He lives in a beautiful little cove on the side of the mountain and seemed to be as "happy as a clam at high tide."
    After spending an hour or so looking over his neat new house, garden and flower garden, we began to retrace our steps, and on the way left the car and walked a few hundred yards to the part of the mine where they are working at this time. Owing to the scarcity of water, for there is no snow in the hills this season, and consequently a shortage of water, they can run the hydraulic only a part of the time, a few hours each day. But since I was here a few years ago they have washed off and cleared up several acres of land. The way they clear up the land is to first cut and roll together the timber and burn it to get it out of the way. They then set their elevators and that is an incline built of heavy timbers and plank. It is made on about a 25 percent grade, 12 feet wide and runs to an elevation of about 20 feet. The first part of the floor is made of heavy steel bars two inches wide and one inch thick and a space between the bars of two inches. This extends up for about 12 feet and is so arranged that all of the gold and fine gravel passes through onto a heavy plate of steel and that is so constructed that all the dirt, gold, etc., goes from that into a sluice box containing apartments to catch the gold. The rest of the floor of the elevator is made of heavy plank and extends on up until it reaches the required height, generally about 20 or 25 feet, and as the dirt is washed up by the force of the water the racks are forced onto the elevator and pushed over it. When the rocks get up even with the top they will sometimes put on an extension of 16 feet so that they pile the rock up to a height of 30 feet, and they will roll a boulder over the elevator that will weigh five or six hundred pounds simply by the force of the water. By the use of the two elevators they will clean off an acre of two of land at a time without moving the elevator. When the fine gravel and dirt accumulates so as to interfere with the flow of dirt from the flumes the man who directs the hydraulic simply turns loose the water on that and drives it into a pile to itself and now they have some six or eight of these mammoth piles of rock and gravel. At one setting they will clear off over an acre and half of ground, down to the bedrock, and in many instances the dirt is as much as 12 to 15 feet deep. After they get the dirt and rock all sluiced off they then go over the whole of the bedrock and clean up the gold.
A. C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets,"
Medford Mail Tribune, May 13, 1918, page 5

    In my last I spoke of the amount of dirt they moved in the mine and of the manner of taking care of the rock, etc. But the most interesting part is the cleaning up the "bedrock." The debris is all washed up into piles, as before stated, and then the bedrock is left bare with the exception of a little dirt and what gold naturally settles in the crevices of the rock. Then the hydraulic man turns the pipe onto that and all of the remaining dirt is washed into the lowest part of the channel and carefully gathered up and put into the flume; and then the tedious part of the work begins. For every foot if not every inch of that bedrock has to be gone over with a steel scraper and pick, and often they have to go down as much as a foot where they find a soft place, where the gold accumulates and all has to be gone over with a brush specially prepared for the work until they can find no gold. This is attended to after the water fails so that they cannot clean off the surface. But in this mine it seems to pay, but how well remains to be seen.
A. C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets," Medford Mail Tribune, May 14, 1918, page 5

Director Parks of the State Bureau of Mines Makes Favorable Report
Upon Manganese Deposits in Lake Creek Section--
Deposits of Vast Extent and Outlook Favorable.

    H. M. Parks, director of the state bureau of mines, at the request of the federal government, recently made an extended examination of the manganese deposits in the vicinity of Lake Creek,and his report made to Secretary Lane is most favorable. He says: "If this low grade manganese ore is distributed throughout the entire depth of the tuff, they will soon have demonstrated a very large tonnage of ore. In fact, if this be the case, it can be demonstrated within a few weeks that ore sufficient to supply the entire needs of the government will be here available, provided proper equipment is installed of sufficient capacity."
    The report in full follows, and will be followed by supplementary reports, and Mr. Parks is now again examining the deposits.
    The Manganese Metal Company's property is situated in Jackson County, Oregon, about 17 miles southeast of the railroad at Eagle Point, a station on the P.&E. railway, connecting with the Southern Pacific railway, near Medford. It is about five miles southeast of Lake Creek post office and near the confluence of Lost Creek with the south fork of Little Butte Creek at about latitude 40 degrees, 20 minutes, longitude 122 degrees, 35 minutes. (See Ashland topographic sheet, U.S. Geological Survey.)
    The manganese ore is found as psilomelane and pyrolusite disseminated through a flat bed of volcanic tuft breccia. The thickness of this bed of tuff in the vicinity where the development is taking place has not been fully determined, but will probably exceed 100 feet. The bottom of this tuff bed outcrops 400 feet above Lost Creek at an altitude of about 2,400 feet.
Development Work.
    The development work thus far is mostly confined to the outcrop of the bed on the nose of the hill, lying between Lost Creek and the south fork of Little Butte Creek and consists of a large open cut on the west side of the hill, some views of which are seen in the accompanying photographs, numbers 1 and 2. This open cut exposes a face about 40 feet vertically in the deepest place and 75 feet horizontally, in addition to this there are five or six other surface cuts farther to the north along the hillside, following the outcrop of the tuff bed for a distance of about 400 yards. In each case these surface cuts penetrate the mantle of weathered overburden, exposing the manganese-bearing tuff in place.
    A churn drill of approximately 100 feet capacity is being used on the north point of the hill which is about 400 yards, north from the large open cut first mentioned. The first drill holes in this vicinity were located at points almost too far down the hill to catch the tuff at all, most of them showing a depth of tuff only 10 to 15 feet thick, the last one being located further up the hill, penetrating 30 feet of manganese-bearing tuff.
Character of Ore.
    The ore is largely psilomelane, with some pyrolusite very widely distributed throughout the tuff and occurs in varying-sized grains and rounded nodules, sometimes in butyroidal masses. A few of these individual masses have been found weighing from 25 to 50 pounds, but most of them occur as smaller pieces or grains from the size of a bean down to mustard seed. These grains of manganese oxide, when clearly separated from the tuff gangue material, are quite pure, running from 53 to 58 percent manganese. All of the open cuts above described were sampled, running from 2.13 percent to 14.86 percent manganese, the smaller percentages coming from the shallow cuts, the higher one from the main open cut. Here a 12-foot vertical channel sample taken from the face of the open cut, beginning at about six feet below the surface, contained 14.86 percent manganese. On the face of the cut in the deepest part there is exposed an area 12 feet vertically by 30 feet horizontally, that will average from 12 to 15 percent manganese. The development thus far indicates that the manganese content improves materially eight or 10 feet below the surface.
Development Work.
    This company has secured options also on certain holdings about two miles farther north on the ridge, lying between the south fork of Little Butte Creek and the north fork of Little Butte Creek. Some very good-looking manganese ore is found, outcropping in the same formation, and is probably a continuation of the same volcanic tuff bed. The development work here is confined to eight or 10 surface cuts, exposing in most cases ore which appears to be of concentrating grade.
    The volcanic tuff bed in which the ore is found lies between flows of basalt, the overlying rocks of which on this particular hill have been very largely removed by erosion. A glance at the topographic sheet above referred to will show that at least 2,000 to 3,000 feet of these rocks have been removed by erosion in the tributaries of the Little Butte Creek. To have not as yet had the opportunity to particularly study the local conditions, in order to suggest a theory of the origin of these ores, but it seems probable from my hurried study of the situation that the manganese ore described will be found to be the product of weathering and rock decay of the overlying rocks and that they were concentrated in these very porous tuff beds largely, if not entirely, by the action of descending surface waters.
Prospecting Drill.
    Very good use is being made of the prospecting drill at the present time and it seems probable that the development work which is now in progress will show that the manganese ore is distributed or disseminated through this tuff bed in sufficient quantity and quality to make it possible to mine a very large portion of it. If this low-grade manganese ore is distributed throughout the entire depth of the tuff, they will soon have demonstrated no very large tonnage of ore; in fact, if this be the case, it can be demonstrated within a few weeks that ore sufficient to supply the entire needs of the government will be here available, provided proper equipment is installed of sufficient capacity.
    Although the milling of manganese ores is comparatively a new field and has been many times attempted with unsatisfactory results, it seems reasonable to expect, owing to the peculiar texture and the occurrence of these hard, rich grains of manganese oxide in a comparatively soft tuff gangue, that the ordinary processes of water concentration would be successful.
    A small experimental mill was built last winter about 150 feet below the large open pit on the west side of the hill. The mill consists of a gyratory crusher of about 550 tons daily capacity, two sets of rolls and two Faust jigs. They also have a Faust table which to date has not been used, owing to a lack of proper adjustment. This machinery has been installed under the direction of the Faust Concentrator Company of Seattle. Some details of the mill are not well arranged and on this account they have been operating under difficulties. Notwithstanding these difficulties they have produced recently about 200 tons of 60 percent concentrates from the two jigs, containing from 10 to 14 percent silica. At my suggestion, Mr. C. W. Scott, the manager, shipped to the mining experiment station at Seattle a few hundred pounds of this ore so that we can assist them in working out the very best scheme of concentration possible.
    A study of the topographic sheet shows plainly that Lost Creek at the property is only 200 feet higher than Eagle Point, the railway station 17 miles away. The wagon road follows the stream on an even grade through an agricultural valley. The road is a fair earth road, certain sections of which, however, are poorly drained. For heavy, all-year road hauling this road will require macadamizing or graveling. Railroad construction from Eagle Point to the property would be comparatively simple and of low cost, there being no rock work and no heavy cuts or fills and only a few small bridges.
    The manganese company is backed by business men of Tacoma.
    Both President Brewitt and manager Scott have expressed their desire to cooperate with the government and seem to be concerned more about government needs than personal gain. They are receptive and appreciative of technical advice and are extremely anxious to avoid mistakes. The services of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, in cooperation with the United States Bureau of Mines, has been tendered and accepted.
    Director, Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 20, 1918, page 1

    Gold Hill.--Three extensive deposits of manganese have been uncovered on the Pacific & Eastern railway in the Butte Creek district, at the east end of Jackson County. Two are within two miles ot a shipping point, and are on the same strike of the Lake Creek deposits a few miles south. The Tacoma, Washington, company, operating on Lake Creek, is making regular shipments of concentrate and is erecting an additional unit to its plant. The company is drill prospecting its adjoining holdings, which are said to show a large tonnage of good-quality ore.
    The new owners of the defunct Rogue River Public Service Corporation properties, consisting of power plants at Gold Hill and Grants Pass on Rogue River, have incorporated under the name of the Irrigation & Power Co., with headquarters at Grants Pass. The new company is composed of Indianapolis, Indiana, citizens, with Frank M. Fauvre at the head. Rehabilitation and operation of the properties will be resumed at once.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 25, 1918, page 735

    Gold Hill.--J. G. Davies of Sacramento, lessee of the Sylvanite gold mine, has purchased the electrically driven 10-stamp mill formerly operated on the Gray Eagle mine north of Gold Hill on Sardine Creek, and will place the equipment on the Sylvanite. This mine has been a steady producer of rich ore since the first of the year. The mill will treat the present output until contemplated development is completed, when a larger plant will be erected.
    Harbor.--Theo. R. Heintz, manager for the Chetco Mining Co.. operating the Mt. Emery gold mine 12 miles east of this place in Curry County, reports that operation has been suspended due to trouble in securing supplies, principally gasoline.
    Rogue River.--Recent developments have uncovered a large deposit of 17 to 42% manganese ore 11 miles from this place on Evans Creek. The property is under lease to M. S. Johnson of Gold Hill, who will ship some ore and dress the lower grade ore.
    Selma.--Daily brothers and John Casey of Selma are operating chrome mines on the Illinois River.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 1, 1918, page 770

Manganese Possibilities of Jackson County.
    The director of the Oregon State Bureau of Mines, H. M. Parks, at the request of the federal government, has made an examination of the manganese deposits in the Lake Creek district in the east end of Jackson County. His report is favorable. He says: "If this low-grade manganese ore is distributed throughout the entire depth of the tuff, they will soon have demonstrated a very large tonnage of ore. In fact, if this be the case, it can be demonstrated within a few weeks that ore sufficient to supply the entire needs of the government will be available, providing proper equipment is installed of sufficient capacity." The report states that the Manganese Metal Co.'s property is 17 miles southeast of the railroad at Eagle Point, connecting with the Southern Pacific near Medford. It is five miles southeast of Lake Creek, near the confluence of Lost Creek with the south fork of Little Butte Creek. The ore is a psilomelane and pyrolusite disseminated through a flat bed of volcanic tuff breccia. The thickness of this bed of tuff near where development is under way has not been fully determined, but will probably exceed 100 ft. The bottom of this tuff bed outcrops 400 ft. above Lost Creek at an altitude of 2400 ft. All the open cuts sampled assay from 2.13 to 14.86% Mn, the lowest coming from shallow openings. A 12-ft. vertical channel sample taken from a face of the open cut, beginning 6 ft. below the surface, contained 14.86% manganese. Development so far indicates that the manganese contents improve materially 8 or 10 ft. below the surface. The volcanic tuff bed in which the ore is found lies between flows of basalt; the overlying rocks of the hills have been largely removed by erosion. It seems that the ore will be found to be the product of weathering and rock decay of the overlying rocks, and that they were concentrated in these porous tuff beds, largely if not entirely by the action of descending surface waters. The Manganese Metal Co. last winter built an experimental mill 150 ft. below a large open pit on the west side of the hill. It consisted of a gyratory crusher of 550 tons capacity, two sets of rolls, and two Faust jigs. There is also a Faust table which has not been operated owing to lack of proper adjustment. Some details of the plant are not well arranged, and on this account they are operated under difficulties. Under these conditions there was produced recently 200 tons of 50% concentrate, containing 10 to 14% silica.
Mining and Scientific Press,
San Francisco, June 15, 1918, pages 834-835

    Gold Hill.--The Rainier Mercury Co. has found a large vein of good cinnabar in the Meadows district, 12 miles north of Gold Hill. They have a 12-pipe furnace at work, and shipped 40 flasks last week.
    Jacksonville.--The Blue Ledge copper mine is employing 65 men, shipping 150 tons of ore per week. This assays 12%. The haulage charge is $10 per ton.
    Waldo.--The California Chrome Co. has purchased from George S. Barton and associates of Grants Pass 24 chrome claims on Smith River near the Josephine County-California state line. Much development has been done, and a large tonnage is available for shipment by way of Crescent City, California.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 22, 1918, page 869

Old Jackson County Mines Being Opened
    Gold Hill, Dec. 21.--The Alice quartz gold mine, three miles south of Gold Hill, an old-time producer and closed down for several years, will be reopened by H. F. McClellan, W. S. Webb and C. C. Clark of Medford, under a lease and option to buy. The lessees propose to reopen the old works and do extensive improvements at once. With the reopening of this property, the Whitney group and the Nellie Wright group, both three miles east of Gold Hill, and several other important quartz mines in the Gold Hill district, all old-time producers, the gold industry in this region has a splendid outlook.
Oregon Journal, Portland, December 22, 1918, page 21

    Oregon produced 673 flasks [of quicksilver] in 1918, chiefly from the Black Butte mine,  but also from the Rainier mine, in Jackson County, which was not in operation in 1917.
"Quicksilver Production in 1918," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 25, 1919, page 135

PLATINUM on the Pacific Coast is associated with chromite, ilmenite, magnetite, and various siliceous minerals, the aggregate constituting what is known as "black sands." The U.S. Bureau of Mines, through one of its staff, Mr. K. H. Hornor, has recently investigated some of the more promising localities in Coos, Curry, and Josephine counties of Oregon, and in Del Norte County, California, to ascertain whether the deposits were valuable enough to exploit for platinum and gold. The Bureau now reports, in Technical Paper 196, that "in general the black sand deposits are disappointing in both value and quantity; they rarely contain enough gold and platinum or occur in adequate quantity to be exploited at a profit. There are, it is true, a few favored places where small areas of the black sand show some precious metal content, and these may become the site of small operations.… The chief difficulties in the profitable exploitation of these deposits are: first, lack of uniformity in occurrence and metallic content, and, second, the high cost of mining and treating the material...." This conclusion should once and for all settle--pace Dr. David T. Day--the many reports of rich black sand along the coast of California and Oregon.

"Editorial," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 1, 1919, page 137

Status of Mining in Southern Oregon.
    Chrome miners in this region, who all suspended work in November, are still inactive, not taking up the mining of other minerals. They were all heavy losers and are collecting proofs of their losses in hopes of recovering from the appropriation made recently by Congress. Many, if successful in obtaining repayment, will be able to resume gold mining, in which they were engaged before the war. But little gold mining will be done in this district under the present high prices for machinery, supplies, and labor. A few fully equipped properties will be operated in the coming season, but no new development will be undertaken. The manganese properties are closed. The Rainier Mercury Co. and several small properties in the Meadows district north of Gold Hill are still operating their furnaces at the reduced price for quicksilver, and claim that they can produce at a good profit with the metal at $50 per flask.
    The Nellie Wright group, under lease to R. M. Wilson of Gold Hill, and the Ray & Haff group, under the management of J. G. Davies, of Sacramento, are the only gold properties being operated at present in this district. Several leases have been made recently for important gold properties based on future operations; among them are the Alice quartz mine, an old producer, three miles south of Gold Hill, leased to H. F. McClellan, W. S. Webb, and C. C. Clark of Medford.
    Benjamin Hays and Horten Beeman, experienced local miners, recently took a lease on the Lucky Bart gold mine six miles north, and after two months work extending an old drift uncovered a large body of $35 ore 100 ft. below an old pay chute which produced $150,000. This property is well equipped with a 10-stamp mill, and has yielded $250,000 since the early 'nineties.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 29, 1919, page 434

    Hutton.--At the Blue Ledge copper mine, in the Elliott district of Siskiyou County, near the Oregon border, the winter's accumulation of 1000 tons of sulphide ore is now being moved over the Rogue River Valley Railway and Southern Pacific at Medford, Oregon. The 34-miIe haul by teams and trucks costs $10 per ton. Twenty-seven miles of standard crushed rock highway, extending to the California state line, is to be completed by the state of Oregon at a cost of $50,000. A moderate reduction in transportation costs will render available for shipment several hundred thousand tons of developed ore. Gold and silver are important metals in this ore. This district includes the Gray Eagle mines at Happy Camp, and is one of the most promising copper areas in California.

"California," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 17, 1919, page 680

    The superintendent, Jerome A. Hilbert, of the Blue Ledge mine at Copper, California, was a visitor at Medford last week, and reports that everything is moving well at the mine, where they have 25 men employed mining and shipping 500 tons of ore per month, which is shipped to the Tacoma smelter, Washington. This ore averages 14.5% copper, 6 oz. silver, and $2 gold per ton. Copper at 15 cents and silver at $1 per ounce brings the value to $51.50 per ton. This is a good grade of ore, but the first 30 miles of its journey to smelter--mine to Jacksonville, Oregon, the railhead--it is conveyed by team 7 miles, auto truck 23 miles, which costs $12 per ton, and runs into $6000 per month, that this mine alone pays out for freight on ore, besides the supplies and passenger traffic that is carried. This is an attractive item for any railroad to consider when it is remembered that it is claimed by those familiar with the district that there is a number of undeveloped properties with exposures fully as good as the Blue Ledge was at the same stage of development, but are handicapped by want of capital for development and wagon roads. Among the good properties are the Bloomfield, Blue Canyon, Copper King, St. Albans, and Great Northern groups.
    John Dixon and associates have met with good results at the Buck and Sullivan copper claims, which are situated on Squaw Lake Creek, 6 miles north of the Blue Ledge mine.
    O. F. Tainer and associates have just discovered and located a deposit of 9% copper ore, besides gold and silver. This is in the head of the Elliott Creek region northeast from the Blue Ledge mine.
    E. W. Cooper of Sams Valley, 15 miles north of Medford, is reported to be making good progress in driving the new tunnel on the Gold Wedge mine. This is intended to cut the vein at considerable depth, as milling ore of satisfactory grade in upper workings is all worked out.
    The management of the Copper Lode Association announces its intention to resume work soon. They have an attractive copper prospect, equipped with a 30-h.p. gasoline engine, air compressor, and hoist. This property is 12 miles south of Jacksonville and is reached by a good auto road.
    The improving metal and mineral markets are shown by an increased amount of assaying, as reported by Campbell & Liljegran, of Medford.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 14, 1919, page 824


    Gold mining companies in this region that took up the extraction of chrome, copper, manganese, and mercury during the war, and expected to resume the mining of gold afterward, are now fully convinced that the scarcity and high prices of labor and machinery will cause a prolonged suspension of a general resumption of gold mining in this region and in Northern California.
    The only copper property operating at present in Southern Oregon is the Blue Ledge group on the Oregon-California boundary in the upper Applegate district. Its weekly output is three cars of ore carrying over 12%. The wagon haul to shipping at Jacksonville is 35 miles, at a cost of $11 per ton. The Tacoma, Washington, smelter, which is treating the ore, recently had officials at the mine and propose to double the output by handling lower-grade ore.
    The Rainier Mercury Co., of Tacoma, has been operating two 12-pipe furnaces on rich cinnabar, with a daily output of three flasks during the past two years from the Utah group of 35 claims, north of Gold Hill. The new organization, the War Eagle Mining Co., recently organized at Medford, and composed principally of local men, has taken the property over, doing some development and operating the present plant. They propose to erect a 500-ton furnace during the coming season to calcine lower-grade ore, and claim that they can produce mercury at $55 per flask at a profit.
    The original old channel or bed of the ancient river, recently uncovered in the Esterly placer mine in the Waldo district, west of Gold Hill, is being successfully developed, operating in gravel carrying coarse gold. After passing through a barren zone on the bedrock sluiced off years ago, a pit to the depth of 25 ft. has been piped below the level of the former workings, at a point between two benches of bedrock. This pit opens a bed of gravel entirely different in character from the clay banks that were so profitable during the past 50 years. The depth of this gravel has not yet been determined, neither has any cleanup been made on which to show high gold content. Heretofore, the gold recovered at this mine has been fine and flour gold, and evenly distributed through the clay banks, which are from 10 to 40 ft. deep. This property, formerly known as the Logan mine, and the Simmons mine, has been worked at a large profit during the past 50 years, and consists of 4200 acres, practically all profitable placer ground. Water right consists of 14,000 inches, and is supplied by a system of ditches 25 miles in length. It was purchased in 1916 at a cost of $140,000 by Seattle people, with George M. Esterly at the head as manager and superintendent, and has been yielding for some years $40,000 in gold dust and $10,000 in platinum annually. The lack of grade for the dumping of tailing led to the erection of a hydraulic elevator system, the residue being lifted 73 ft. by two elevators. With the opening of the new pit an additional elevator has been erected, making a total lift of 89 ft. above the pit. All the standard placer gold-saving devices are in use, but due to the fineness of the gold much is lost and carried over in the tailing. It is proposed to dispense with this system this coming season at a cost estimated from $40,000 to $50,000, by opening a race through a 700-ft. tunnel through serpentine to the west fork of the Illinois River. The daily capacity of the mine at present is 1000 cu. yd., at an average cost of 6 cents per yard, but with the new system the capacity will be greatly increased, with a reduction of operating cost.

Mining and Scientific Press,
San Francisco, June 21, 1919, pages 856-857


    The director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines, Henry M. Parks, has announced that the Bureau expects to do considerable field work in Southern Oregon during the present season. The auto-truck engineer crew of the Bureau left Portland on June 3 for this region, and will be operating during the coming few weeks in the Jacksonville district south of Gold Hill. This outfit is an auto-truck upon which is mounted a complete sampling, crushing, pulverizing, and assaying plant. The power is operated by the motor of the truck. There will be four or five men in the crew, and they will make detailed examination of a number of partly developed mines, most of which are now idle. Mr. Parks expects to be there during the preliminary work.
    During the war, the State Bureau suspended all field operations, likewise its publications, but with an appropriation of $50,000 by the recent Legislature, the Bureau will resume field work throughout the state and publish results. There will be also a systematic investigation of oil and gas possibilities. The field work in Eastern Oregon is being done jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey, while the western part of the state is being investigated solely by the state department. The Bureau has contracted with a well-known firm of consulting oil geologists to do the work in Western Oregon.
    The War Minerals Relief Commission will probably hold a public meeting at Medford early in August to hear any further evidence in support of the claims filed for relief in Southern Oregon and Northern California.
    The lessee of the Nellie Wright gold mine, R. M. Wilson, three miles east of Gold Hill, who recently undertook to unwater the mine preparatory to resuming operations, found that the present electric power line and service were not sufficient to operate the mine and mill. The property is less than 1 mile from the main transmission line passing down the valley on the Pacific Highway, but due to the lapse of this service during the 24-hour period, he will be forced to put in an independent wire to the substation at Gold Ray, a distance of 5 miles, at an expense of $1500.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 5, 1919, page 23

    Medford.--The War Eagle Mining Co. was recently incorporated and taken over by local people, who are: C. M. Kidd, president; A. L. Hill, secretary and treasurer; Sam Bertelson and Ed Skewis, directors. The property consists of a group of quicksilver claims on upper Evans Creek, 25 miles north of Medford. It has been known for many years that cinnabar existed in a considerable area in this region. Some prospecting was done with variable results until Mr. Bertelson and associates opened a vein that, according to the management, has been tapped with a crosscut tunnel 75 ft. long, driven east and west 275 ft. and raised to the surface 85 ft., and is now sinking to a depth of 280 ft. The vein averages 5½ ft. In width, and carries 3.5 to 4% mercury. There are two batteries of 12 Johnson and McKey retorts. During 1918, August 1 to January 15, they produced 17,425 lbs. of metal. At present one battery of retorts is treating three tons of ore daily, saving a little over 100 lbs. of mercury. This is not satisfactory, and a change to other methods of extraction is contemplated.
    The Dr. Chisholm group adjoins the War Eagle on the south and the Mountain King mine is still farther south by three miles; these have some good exposures of cinnabar.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 12, 1919, page 69

    Medford.--We have received a letter from A. E. Kellogg, of Gold Hill, entering a friendly protest against the statement appearing in this column in our issue of July 12, that the War Eagle mine carried 3½ to 4% mercury over a width of 5½ ft. Mr. Kellogg further states that he has recently inspected this property, and that he is moved to protest in the interest of the district, which can only be injured by such extravagant reports. We are glad to make this correction here.--News Editor.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 19, 1919, page 102


    Medford.--The War Minerals Relief Commission arrived in Medford from San Francisco on July 27 and began its session in the federal building the next day. The session consumed the entire week in taking the testimony in the cases of the 174 applicants for relief in the Medford district, which includes the whole of Southern Oregon and Northern California. The commission consists of three members: Philip N. Moore, of St. Louis, Past President of the A.I.M.&M.E., John F. Shafroth, ex-Governor, Congressman, and Senator from Colorado, and M. D. Foster, ex-Congressman from Illinois. The commission was accompanied by Paul S. Black of Washington. D.C., their counselor, and H. E. Meyer of Washington, secretary, and several clerks and stenographers. The largest claim to come before the commission in Medford was that of J. F. Reddy, who filed his claim to recover $80,000 losses in chrome mining in Siskiyou County, California. The next largest claim was that of the Manganese Metal Company of Tacoma, Washington, for $55,000.15, which it expended in its manganese deposits at Lake creek east of Medford. In his testimony, Herbert Brewitt, president of the company, alleges that the money was spent in erecting machinery, reduction works, building roads, ditches, and dams, and in purchasing property in which the ore was located. Two other large claimants heard were Maine & Reichman, chrome operators in the Fort Jones district in Siskiyou County, California, for $29,435.66, and the Suffern company of Coos County, Oregon, for $27,516.
    The following communication was presented to the commission while in session here by Henry M. Parks, Director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines:
    "As Director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology I am appearing before you to make clear the part taken by the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology and the members of its staff in encouraging and stimulating the developments of new properties and increase of production of war minerals during certain periods of the years 1917 and 1918.
    "In October 1917 I received a letter from George Otis Smith, Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, a copy of which is enclosed, in which he requests me to exert every effort to increase the domestic production of chrome ore, as per following quotation from his letter, being the last paragraph on the first page:
    "'With difficulties limiting the importation of chromite multiplying, it is necessary to exert every effort to increase domestic production of chrome ore and to this end the hearty cooperation of your organization with the U.S. Geological Survey is earnestly invoked.'
    "During the month of May 1918 I had occasion to visit Washington, D.C. and called upon Dr. C. K. Leith of the War Import and Export Committee, who called my attention to the impending crisis in war minerals, due to the shortage of ships for importing such materials from foreign countries, and requested me to push with the greatest speed the development of all manganese and chrome properties in Oregon.
    "On account of this critical situation in connection with the war minerals demand I ordered the field staff of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology to do everything possible to encourage new development, and speed up the production of manganese and chrome.
    "To this end the staff of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology visited many manganese and chrome properties in Oregon and came in direct touch with the miners and prospectors by correspondence and personal conferences. In all cases where in our judgment an extra effort was warranted, we requested on behalf of the government the speeding up of the production of development.
    "This activity on the part of the staff of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology caused many prospectors and miners to engage in an effort to produce these war minerals, as is shown by the fact that Oregon's production of chromite in 1918 over 1917 increased from 7000 tons to 22,500 tons, and the number of producers increased from 26 to 59. Many others engaged in development work, but did not have sufficient time before November 11, 1918 to bring their properties to production."

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 16, 1919, pages 241-242

    GOLD HILL.--The field party of the engineers and geologists of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology is making its headquarters at Gold Hill for the next few weeks. The party has spent two months in the mining districts north and south of Gold Hill and during that time has examined, by request, a number of mines and prospects that are being developed and operated. Surveying, mapping, assaying, geologic study or whatever was required to assist the development of Southern Oregon mines was done. Some of the better known deposits that have been thus examined in detail are the Blue Ledge (copper), the Opp (gold), the Sterling (placer gold), and the War Eagle (mercury). Several Gold Hill mines are slated for examination, after which the party will make its headquarters at Grants Pass, and later in the Waldo district. The field party is in charge of G. E. Stowell, assistant mining engineer, under the direction of H. M. Parks, director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology. It is likely that the party will return to Medford late this season.
    A mining deal involving a purchase price of $50,000 was closed and filed in Josephine County recently, when a group of copper claims in the Grave Creek district, west of Gold Hill, was sold to the International Copper Co., an Arizona corporation. The payments extend, in installments, to January 1920. The proposed extensive improvements on the Almeda copper and gold mine on Rogue River, west of Grants Pass, have been suspended by reason of the revival of the litigation between rival stockholders and directors of the Almeda Mines Co. and the Almeda Consolidated Mines Co. Suit was recently started in the federal court of Portland, when one stockholder brought the suit against the other stockholders, as well as the directors and state officials, for a complete accounting of all affairs of the two concerns. The amount involved runs high into the millions. The same litigation has been before the same court on former occasions after passing through the courts of Josephine, Douglas, and Multnomah counties in Oregon. The plaintiff asks that the federal court nullify the proceedings now pending in the circuit court of Josephine County, and that the entire property involved be awarded to the Almeda Consolidated Mines Co. against the Almeda Mines Co. The plaintiff charges many of the officials with fraud and deception, and alleges that the original litigation, dating several years back, was commenced as a means by which the opposing parties could procure control of the property.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 30, 1919, page 309


    Jackson and Josephine Counties.--But little attention  was paid to the production of platinum in Southern Oregon until the war. With the interruption of the normal importation from the Ural Mountains, the government made a special effort to discover and develop the deposits in Jackson and Josephine counties. To this end L. M. Prindle and H. G. Ferguson, geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, early in the war spent over three months in an inspection of the region, including practically every hydraulic placer mining district in Southern Oregon and Northern California. In nearly every district visited by these geologists they found that, prior to their coming, practically no attention had been paid to the recovery of platinum by the hydraulic miners. The miners had often discarded it without recognition, or, after keeping it some time as a curiosity, threw it away when a ready local market was not available. The geologists, however, found that platinum occurred in small amounts in almost all the placer diggings, and started interested investigations on the amount that it was possible to recover.
    Platinum, like chrome in this region, is closely associated with serpentine. It occurs as an alloy of platinum, iridium, and osmium, as in the Ural Mountains. Although it is believed that the source of the gold placers, like those of California, was in the serpentine and olivine-bearing rocks of the Sierra Nevada and tributary ranges, the source of the platinum has not been traced to lode deposits containing the metal in the native form, nor, except in one instance, have lode deposits been discovered. A roughness of the platinum and in some specimens a black or brownish coating, which is apparently iron oxide, occasionally indicate proximity to a source. In the Riddle Quadrangle the serpentines have resulted chiefly from the decomposition of the peridotites and the pyroxenites, but some areas of the serpentine are probably the result of the decomposition of basic phases of the greenstone.
    Many of the miners in prospecting for platinum have difficulty in determining whether or not the black sands of the region contained the metal, and at other times confused it with silver. In some placer deposits the grains of the platinum are coated with a dark film and somewhat resemble the grains of chromite, magnetite, or ilmenite, which in panning was confusing to the miners. During the visit of the geologists to the region they showed the difference to the miners, and now most of them are able to detect the presence of platinum. The sodium-mercury amalgam is the principal agent used for collecting jointly the gold and platinum.
    Late in 1916 the owners of the Highland quartz mine in the Gold Hill district were surprised, on receiving from the smelting company a report of a mill run, to find that the shipment in addition to the gold and silver contained 0.032 oz. platinum. The ore was mined at a depth of 100 ft. The footwall of the vein is mingled schist and granite, and the hanging wall is made up of serpentine, schist, and granite. The Highland claim lies 12 miles southwest of Gold Hill, on the right fork of Foots Creek, at an elevation of 2600 ft. It was first worked about 20 years ago, the present workings are confined to the oxidized zone; the old workings were more extensive. The vein strikes NE and dips about 35° SE; the country rock is a micaceous sandstone. The owners of the mine, in an attempt to discover the source of the platinum found in the shipment, gave the walls of the vein a thorough test by both pan and assay but found no trace of platinum. They then looked to the vein-matter for the source. The vein-matter contains quartz of three colors: rose, amber, and blue. The blue quartz, which is quite dense, is pitted throughout with small cavities, which are lined with a black, sooty mineral, and filled with a decomposed irony matter. In crushing and panning this quartz it gave results high in platinum.
    The mine is equipped with a 3-stamp mill, amalgam plates, and one 4½ by 16-ft. Frue vanner. The ordinary sodium-mercury amalgam was used, which saved the platinum. The field survey of the Oregon Bureau of Mines was informed of this discovery, which occurred since the former survey in 1916, and while in this district the past summer it intended to make a thorough survey of this deposit. A forest fire, however, swept over the mine before the survey was made, destroying some of the underground work and making it unsafe, so that the work was left for another visit.
    The accompanying illustration shows the Old Channel hydraulic placer mine in the Galice district in Josephine County. This is a typical placer mine in Southern Oregon; since the investigations on the occurrence of platinum in these gravels its recovery has received careful attention, with the result that mines of this sort are now producing some platinum.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 11, 1919, pages 541-542


    Gold Hill.--The purchase of the Medford-Jacksonville railway by the Gagnon Lumber Co., of Medford, Oregon, is a matter of importance to the development of the copper deposits in the Blue Ledge district in the southern part of this county and Northern California. The lumber company has a large holding of sawmills and box factories in Medford and Jacksonville, and this road already extends into the timber of the Applegate district supplying these plants. The new owners have already taken steps to organize a company to extend the railway from Jacksonville a distance of 35 miles to the Blue Ledge mine, California, and from there on to the coast at Crescent City. During the war this region was a heavy shipper of high-grade copper ore to the Puget Sound smelters. During that time the smelters found these ores essential in fluxing with the Alaskan ores from the north, and the result is that they are now in the market for all the available ores from this region.
    This has been an impetus for the Blue Ledge mine to continue operations since the war under the high cost of mining. The mine is operated with 40 miners and has a weekly output of three cars of ore. It is under lease to the Mexican S.&R. Co., of New York. Jerome A. Hilbert is engineer in charge at Copper, California. Only ore running 12% or more is shipped, while the lower grades are being dumped to await future reduction at the mine or a lower shipping rate to the smelters. The present wagon haul to the shipping point at Jacksonville from the mine costs $11 per ton, which is done by wagons the first six miles from the mine and thence by 5-ton-capacity auto trucks.
    The ore of the Blue Ledge mine consists of nearly solid pyrite and chalcopyrite with a little pyrrhotite and sphalerite or galena. The deposit is opened by a series of adits on the face of a cliff at different elevations; with the winzes and raises this gives a vertical exposure of ore for about 800 ft., and a horizontal exposure for about 2000 ft. The elevation of the mine is 4000 ft. The first fissures were cemented by coarse vein quartz; after shearing the second fissures were filled with calcite, chlorite, and sulphides. The veins average 2 ft. in thickness, and are narrower and lower grade in the lower levels. The veins strike nearly due north and dip about 65 degrees west; they are parallel with the banding of the schist country rock, but locally cut across it. There are three veins which are roughly lenticular in form; one lens succeeds another along the strike, usually with a small offset. The hanging wall is a soft white schist near the vein, but elsewhere it is a mineralized quartzite containing some muscovite. The footwall is a bluish-black hornblende schist. The position of the bedding and rock cleavage seems to indicate that the mine is on the east side of an anticline (overturned to the east ) which pitches to the south. Faults are common in the workings, but usually the offset is only 1 to 5 ft., so that there is no difficulty in following the veins. Pyrite in big cubes occurs in the wall rocks, especially in the hanging walls.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 15, 1919, pages 721-722


    Grants Pass.--During the war period gold mining declined in Josephine County and the operators took up the mining of the war metals, and since the war the high cost of mining has prevented a general resumption of gold mining. Now, however, the operators are reaching a point where many of them, heavily encumbered with equipment, have no choice but to resume gold mining with present costs. Nearly all the old hydraulic placer mines in the county are ready for the season's run, and many operators are preparing to resume quartz mining. The early September rains were an impetus to the placer miners to prepare their properties in anticipation of an earlier season than usual, and the production of gold from this source the coming season promises to be the largest in the history of Josephine County.
    Holland.--W. R. Burner and associates of Holland, in the western part of Josephine County, have purchased the McCourt placer ground in that district and are employing a large force of men in developing the property. This ground for a number of years has been known to be rich, but on account of the depth and water the old-time equipment was useless. The new owners, however, are placing modern engines, pumps, hoists, etc., on this ground and by driving propose to be washing gravel by the first of the year. In this same region the old Hansen property is being prospected by Michigan people, by sinking shafts to bedrock with a view to eventually using a dredge. The ground averages 35 ft. to bedrock and if equipped with a dredge a hydroelectric power plant will be erected nearby on the Althouse.
    Pickett Creek.--The Big Four placer mine, 10 miles west-northwest of Grants Pass on Pickett Creek, near the junction of Rogue River, which has been idle for several years, is ready to resume operations. This property is owned by M. J. Merrill, of Portland, Oregon, and covers 200 acres, chiefly on a bedrock of slate. The gravel ranges from 30 to 70 ft. in thickness, and is in part clearly stratified. The 14 ft. of red earthy sand and clay overburden is said to contain fine gold that can be saved, but the large pieces are in the bottom of the gravel. The lower 12 ft. of gravel contains well-rounded cobblestones, the largest being 6 inches in diameter. At the bottom a few boulders, generally slate, rest on bedrock, and from 2 to 4 ft. of the bottom gravel is partly cemented. The rimrock rises abruptly and the slates are much crushed and faulted, forming a terrace on the northwest toward the creek. The old channel is 250 ft. in width and 30 ft. in depth below the slate-rim terrace, from which the gravel capping has in part been mined away. The water is supplied from Pickett Creek at a head of 200 ft., two giants being operated for a large portion of the year.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 6, 1919, page 827

    Medford.--The Bolen Creek Mining Co., in which a number of Medford people are interested, has been organized under the laws of Arizona and capitalized at $150,000. The office of the company is in Medford with Porter J. Neff as attorney-in-fact for the concern. Its gold placer mine is located on Sucker Creek in the Holland district of Josephine County, 30 miles west of Medford. The mine is now being equipped for operation.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 6, 1919, page 832


    Sixes River District.--An important recent development in this district is the opening of placer mines by the Inman Mines Co. The company recently completed a dam on Sixes River, 35 ft. high and 135 ft. long, which will retain about 6,000,000 cu. ft. of water. A 34-in. wood-stave pipeline has been built with a vertical fall of 147 ft., and three hydraulic giants with 6-in. nozzles are now at work. According to the estimate of the company's engineer the project will develop 3000 hydro horsepower. The company proposes to erect an electric power plant for mining and lighting purposes. This district is situated in the northern part of Curry County and occupies the area drained by the Sixes River. The climate is mild, and the annual rainfall varies from 65 to 70 in. Snow rarely remains in the lower altitudes, while in the higher parts it may fall to a depth of 3 or 4 ft., and last for a few weeks. The rocks are predominantly shale, sandstone, and conglomerates of the Bothan and Myrtle formations, which are often intruded with basic igneous rocks. A considerable area of greenstone is found in the headwaters of the Sixes River near the Rusty and Salmon mountains, while a large area of basalt occurs in the north-central part of the district. Placer mining has been done for over thirty years, in later years leading to considerable activity in quartz mining. These placer deposits contain besides gold, some platinum and iridium. The beach sands at the mouth of the river have been successfully worked for gold and platinum for a number of years past.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 10, 1920, page 60

    Gold Hill.--F. H. Van Horn, representing Victor W. Brown and associates of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has taken a lease and option to buy the old Sylvanite group of quartz-gold mines two miles northeast of Gold Hill. The property was recently operated by the Gold Hill Mines Co., of which J. W. Davies of Sacramento, California, is the head. It was closed down last summer, due to the scarcity of labor and the high cost of mining. Davies is now on the ground and announces that the lessees propose to resume as soon as they can repair the mine and mill equipment. The property has a 10-stamp mill and other machinery, driven by electric power. Considerable interest has been attached to this property since the discovery, in March 1916, of tungsten in the form of scheelite along with the gold ores. The mineral occurs in small stringers of quartz. Samples have been taken from these quartz veins which run as high as 40% tungstic acid, but it is said by the management that the vein as a whole runs less than 2%. The veins carrying the best grade of tungsten have been developed to only a small extent, but more work will be done.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 24, 1920, page 136


    Waldo.--A general resumption of copper mining in this district seems probable. Several producing copper mines, which closed down on the suspension of hostilities last November, had shipped ore containing more than 12% copper to the Tacoma smelters, while lower-grade material accumulated on the dumps. It was during the war period that the smelter operators discovered that the Southern Oregon copper ores could be used to advantage as a flux for Alaskan copper ores, and with the smelter in the market for such ore several companies are planning to resume operations. The Blue Ledge copper mine in the upper Applegate district, just over the line in California, was the only mine in this region to continue shipments after the Armistice. This mine has been operating steadily with a crew of 25 miners, shipping three cars of ore per week.
    Work at the Queen of Bronze and associated properties has recently been resumed under lease, and regular shipments are being made. This property is 2½ miles east and south of Waldo and is equipped with a 100-ton smelter. The ore is hauled a short distance to the smelter. This plant has a 125-ton water-jacketed blast furnace operated semi-pyritically, making matte averaging 45% copper, 2.5 oz. silver, and $2.50 gold per ton, that is shipped to the Tacoma smelter for converting. Up to 1910 more than $150,000 was spent on the property, including the building of the smelter, and more than 20,000 tons of ore was smelted, the average content being 8½% copper and the usual amount of gold and silver. The ore contains massive chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and some pyrite, together with some oxidized minerals. It occurs in a brecciated zone of variable width, in which chunks of massive copper and iron sulphides are found.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 14, 1920, page 240


    Gold Hill.--The placer miners of Southwest Oregon are feeling blue just now because the dry weather and the lack of snow in the mountains has lowered the water in the streams to such an extent that all placer mining is coming to a standstill.
    Curry County.--Platinum ore, according to report, has been uncovered along the Sixes River in the western part of the county. The deposits have been traced for nearly twenty miles in a northeasterly direction, ending near the mouth of the Sixes River, and some of the assays run as high as 18 oz. per ton. Many claims are being staked along the line of discovery by locations from Marshfield and Bandon. Mining men of the region doubt the character of the find, although platinum ore was found in the Highland gold-quartz mine in the Gold Hill district in Jackson County as early as 1916.
    Placer mining has been carried on for more than thirty years in this district, and in later years led to considerable activity in quartz mining and the recovery of platinum from hydraulic placer operations. The country rock of the district is predominantly shale, sandstone, and conglomerate of the Dothan and Myrtle formations, with frequent intrusions of basic igneous rocks, which are altered in numerous places to serpentine. A considerable area of greenstone is found in the headwaters of the Sixes River near Rusty Butte in the Salmon Mountains and an area of basalt is found in the north-central part of the district. Wagon roads are confined to regions near the coast, and trails are the only means of transportation in the main part of the district.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 13, 1920, pages 390-391


    Gold Hill.--David Force of Beagle, who has been driving a 200-ft. drift on his mercury mine in the Meadow district, 12 miles north of Gold Hill, has uncovered a large body of cinnabar ore assaying 60% mercury. The new find is a typical chute found in the mercury-bearing lode extending through this district. This vein occurs along a granite-sandstone contact, where the granite is in part pegmatitic. Most of the workings of the mine are less than 100 ft. deep. The mineralized zone is from 100 to 200 ft. wide. The ore contains cinnabar, native quicksilver, pyrite, gold, zinc, silver, and a heavy black mineral resembling meta-cinnabarite. Samples taken from several adits assay from $5 to $6 per ton in gold, 5 oz. silver, 2.5% zinc, and 1% mercury. The rich cinnabar ore appears all through the mass in the form of seams and kidneys. The seams are from 1 to 20 in. thick and average from 17 to 70% mercury. The Force mine is equipped with a 12-pipe mercury furnace and has been a producer since 1916. Considerable development work is under way and much rich ore has been uncovered in the War Eagle group, adjoining.
    Medford.--John Sullivan, a pioneer mine operator in the Upper Applegate district, has uncovered a rich gold-copper-silver vein eight miles north of the Blue Ledge copper mine and in a practically undeveloped part of the district. The vein is 12 in. wide and assays $16 gold per ton; it is rich in silver and is the highest-grade copper ore ever discovered in the district. The Upper Applegate district is occupied in large part by old Paleozoic sedimentary rocks with interbedded sills or flows of andesite character. In places these bedded rocks are penetrated by dikes of dark igneous rocks and also by larger irregular masses of tonalite. The sediments in general strike about N. 20° E. and dip at a high angle to the eastward. As elsewhere shown for this entire region they have perhaps both overturned so that the oldest beds now lie above the younger.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 27, 1920, page 465

    Josephine County.--The Almeda Mines, whose property is in the Galice mining district, has a crew of men at work cleaning up tunnels, crosscut, and raises and retimbering. The work is being done under the supervision of Harry Sordy, who took charge of the property last October. He has opened several good veins of gold-silver ore.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 10, 1920, page 548


    Josephine County.--A. Walker and H. P. Campbell are associated in developing the California mine 18 miles from Glendale. The property is situated near the Gold Bug and Copper Stain properties, and is equipped with a two-stamp sampling mill. The vein averages four feet in width and runs $23 in free gold. They have spent $50,000 in development work and have run a crosscut 651 ft. long at a depth of 300 ft. There are also drifts totaling 230 ft. on each side of the crosscut. Work on the property was discontinued during the war, but was resumed last winter. The elevation of the mine is about 2500 ft. Aside from small deposits of stream gravel the rocks of the area are either Jurassic sediments or igneous intrusives. The general strike of the sediments and also of the contact between the sediments and igneous rocks is about N. 20° E.; the sediments dip steeply to the east. The ore is white quartz containing some pyrite.
    Gold Hill.--It is reported that William Piggott, of Seattle, who several years ago acquired control of the Oregon Iron & Steel Co.'s Oswego plant near Portland, has recently purchased the iron mine owned by the Garfield Iron & Lime Co., situated two miles north of Gold Hill, and that he will reopen the old workings and ship the ore to the Oswego plant. This iron deposit is within a mile of the main line of the Southern Pacific railway at an elevation of from 1850 to 2250 ft. The deposit consists of limonite, hematite, and magnetite, occurring in lenses in Paleozoic sediments, which include some limestone and abundant argellite. The sediments are cut by a dike of granite. The history of the deposits dates back to the year 1870, when the locators, practical iron ore experts, hauled several tons to Sacramento, the nearest rail point, and shipped it to Wales. The report on this test shipment demonstrated that the ore was a high-grade hematite. During the early '80s two iron experts, Burgess and Pomeroy, acquired the property, did some development, and made shipments, but on account of the low price of ore and the high transportation charges they abandoned the project. Later the property fell into the hands of the Garfield Iron & Lime Co., a Portland concern, that has let it lay idle since.
    Jacksonville.--The Blue Ledge copper mines in the Upper Applegate district, 40 miles out from Jacksonville, have resumed the shipment of three cars per week to the Tacoma smelters. The mine employed about 30 miners during the winter, while shipments were suspended, developing new ore. The scarcity of auto trucks and teams this season will cause an increase in the cost of the haul to Jacksonville over last season's price of $10 per ton. The shipments consist of ore running better than 12% copper and $7.50 in gold and silver, while the lower grade ore is dumped at the mine for future reduction.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 15, 1920, pages 723-724

    Gold Hill.--The War Eagle Mining Co. has let a contract to W. H. Stickel of Gold Hill to burn 200,000 brick at the mine, 12 miles north of Gold Hill, to be used in the construction of a 30-ton Scott mercury furnace. The property, consisting of 36 claims, known as the Utah group of mercury mines, was purchased by Salt Lake City men in 1915 from the original locators and later sold to the Seattle men who developed the property. The mine is equipped with two 12-pipe mercury furnaces with 10-ton capacity and has been a steady producer since 1915. The present equipment has been used only on high-grade ore, running better than 17%, but with the completion of the Scott furnace ore running as low as 2% can be reduced at a profit, with mercury selling at present prices of from $80 to $90 per flask of 75 pounds.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 24, 1920, page 141

    Gold Hill.--It is reported that the Chisholm group of mercury mines, adjoining the War Eagle property, that has been worked in a crude manner since 1878, will soon change hands and a large Scott furnace will be erected at the works. This mine is equipped with a 12-pipe furnace operating on high-grade ore. The Force group, owned by David Force of Beagle, is likewise equipped with the pipe-type furnace, but recently developed rich ore warrants the purchase of a large-capacity furnace.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, July 31, 1920, page 178

Strike Said to Ensure Future Stability of Sylvanite Mines Now Under Lease.

    GOLD HILL, Or., July 31.--(Special.)--The uncovering of a large body of rich ore in the Sylvanite group of gold mines two miles north of Gold Hill, under lease to Victor W. Brown and associates of Pittsburgh, Pa., and owned by J. W. Davies and local people, ensures the future stability of these mines. This property is the only quartz mine at present in active operation in this region. Gold mining has been almost wholly suspended in this district since 1914, excepting the large hydraulic placer mines which have extensive water rights.
    The new find was made in the lower level of the old works, at a depth of more than 500 feet, running in value from $26 to $50 a ton in gold and silver, and compares favorably with the rich galena ores of the southwest states. The several mines constituting the group, known as the Simmons, Cheney, Haff and Ray mines, have been extensive gold producers for 30 years, but worked in a crude way until the present owners and lessees began development.
    There has been considerable interest in this property since the discovery in 1916 of tungsten along with the gold ores by Ray & Haff of Gold Hill, who were operating the mine. The mineral occurs in small stringers with quartz, and ore running from 2 to 40 percent tungsten was extracted. The veins carrying the best grade of tungsten have been developed only to a small extent, and the tungsten resources of the mine, therefore, have not yet been determined.
Sunday Oregonian, Portland, August 1, 1920, page 18

    Gold Hill.--Rich ore has been discovered in the Sylvanite group of gold mines by Victor W. Brown and associates of Pittsburgh, lessees. This property is the only quartz mine among those in operation in this region. Gold mining has been almost wholly suspended in this region since 1914, excepting the hydraulic placer mines which have extensive water rights. The new find was made in the old workings at a depth of more than 600 ft., and contains ore worth from $20 to $50 per ton in gold and silver. The several mines constituting the group, known as the Simmons, Cheney, Haff, and Ray mines, have been gold producers for 30 years.
    Tungsten was discovered in this property in 1916 by Ray & Haff of Gold Hill, who were operating the mine. The tungsten occurs in small stringers with quartz, and ore containing from 2 to 40% tungsten was extracted. The veins carrying the best grade of tungsten have been developed only to a small extent, and the tungsten resources of the mine, therefore, have not yet been determined. The increased amount of this metal required for tool steel and incandescent lamps has kept up the interest of prospectors in the district.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 18, 1920, page 432

    Gold Hill.--Charles A. Knight, who three years ago acquired the Millionaire gold mine, an old-time producer situated three miles east of Gold Hill in the Blackwell Hill district, is preparing to resume operations. He has spent a large sum of money in reopening the old works, rebuilding the shaft houses, remodeling the mill, and rebuilding the electric power line to the mine, which was dismantled early in the war period. The mill has two 1500-lb. Nissen stamps with circular discharge and two 10-ft. amalgamating plates; it has a rock crusher and a Standard concentrating table.… Among the large hydraulic placer properties which control large flows of water and are not affected by dry seasons is the Sterling mine, in the Jacksonville district, controlled by R. S. Bullis, of Medford. A large electric-power pump has recently been added to the equipment, by means of which pressure at the nozzle has been increased to the equivalent of a head of 200 ft. The gravel is so thoroughly cemented that much of it must be broken with powder before using the giants. The deposit is 20 to 40 ft. thick and about 400 ft. wide. The slope of the bed is about 2 ft. in 100. The value of the gravel is about 40¢ per cu. yd., and the total production of the mine is said to exceed $3,000,000. The length of the working season varies from 7 to 10 months.
    Waldo.--The Esterly mine, generally known as the Logan placer, is owned and operated by George M. Esterly and associates of Seattle. Forty miles of ditches carry water from the higher portions of the east and west branches of the Illinois River to supply the mine. The head is 325 ft. The gold is generally iine, running about 15¢ per cubic yard; it is accompanied by some platinum, as well as a little osmium and iridium. The output of this mine is about $60,000 annually. The area mined varies greatly in width, averaging an eight of a mile. Formerly a hydraulic elevator was used to remove the tailing from the pit, with a lift of a maximum of 15 ft., but recently a tail race tunneled through solid rock at a cost of $60,000 has been completed which will double the output of the mine. The other important hydraulic placer mines in the Waldo district are the Deep Gravel or Wimer mine, and the High Gravel or Osgood mine.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 25, 1920, pages 925-926

    Grants Pass.--The recent sale of the Boswell mine to Thomas Norden and associates of Seattle has resulted in the incorporation of the Boswell Mining Co. The new owners will erect modern equipment on the property at once. This mine is situated 30 miles south of Grants Pass in the Sucker Creek district, a comparatively new gold-producing area in this region. From the present working, which is not over 20 ft. in depth, $46,000 in gold has been taken.
    A decree in the circuit court of this county in the suit of Rowan vs. Barton is in favor of Barton and associates. Two years ago a receiver was appointed for certain chrome mining properties and the personal property held by the Bartons, upon the petition of Rowan, who alleged that a partnership existed between the Bartons and himself and that he was entitled to a portion of the proceeds from the chrome mines. By order of the court appointing a receiver assets totaling some $50,000 were tied up. The decree released all of this property and holds that a partnership never existed, that Rowan has no interest in the proceeds from the wartime mining operations of the Barton brothers, and that the appointment of a receiver was wrongful.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 22, 1921, page 140

    Rogue River.--The Ancient River Gold Mining Co. is operating in the old channel of the Rogue River, about half a mile south of the town of Rogue River. The company has put in a 6-in. Byron Jackson centrifugal and a 6-in. S-type Allis-Chalmers pump, direct connected to a 75-h.p. motor and delivering direct into a No. 1 giant. The bank of the river was worked for miles 30 years ago with good results. The bottom of the present river is conglomerate which runs up at a low angle under the bank, then lays flat for a few feet, when it dips steeply into the old channel. Great wealth is reputed to lie in this old channel, but the present workings are not sufficiently advanced to estimate values beyond showing that gold and platinum are present, and the gravel ranges to over 20 ft. in thickness, with a loose sand overburden, averaging about 6 ft. The usual difficulty of separating the fine gold from black sand is present. J. S. Taylor is manager.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 5, 1921, page 208

    Medford--Under the initiation of Henry M. Parks, of the Oregon State Bureau of Mines, a meeting of mining men from the Blue Ledge district in Northwestern California and Southwestern Oregon, Gold Hill, Jacksonville. and the Applegate districts in Oregon, was held on February 11. The meeting was devoted to an open discussion of ways and means for continuing the existence in a revised form of the War Minerals Relief Commission, which under present rulings will terminate with the current administration. With this in view, resolutions were adopted favoring prompt action on a bill passed by the Senate and awaiting action of the House of Representatives, which provides for continuance of the War Minerals Relief Commission with revised scope of authority which would allow appeals from the action of the commission to be made to the United States Court of Claims. The meeting went on record as opposed to the dilatory and entirely unsatisfactory methods by which the present War Minerals Relief Commission handled the claims presented from this particular section. An informal discussion on the possibilities for a protective tariff on manganese and chrome minerals brought out the fact that the local mining opinion was strongly in favor of such legislation.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 26, 1921, page 306

    Gold Hill.--The outlook for gold mining is more favorable than at any time since 1914. The only quartz mines in operation in Southern Oregon at present are the Sylvanite group, the Millionaire, and the Gold Ridge, all within a radius of three miles from Gold Hill. A number of the old producers, including the Ashland, Opp, Braden, Bill Nye, Greenback, Almeda, and many smaller properties have been kept in repair with a view to resuming operation. Many of these will resume with the dropping of the price of mining machinery, supplies, and labor.
    In spite of the falling price of quicksilver there is activity in the development of cinnabar deposits in Southern Oregon and in Siskiyou County, California. The War Eagle Mining Co., operating the Utah group of mercury mines 12 miles north of Gold Hill, has operated steadily since the war. It has a full crew in the mine and is reducing the ore with a 25-ton Scott furnace and is also operating several units of 12-pipe mercury furnaces on rich ore. The Chisholm and Force groups, adjoining mines, are being developed. Each has furnaces for reducing the ores.
    The Blue Ledge and the Queen of the Bronze, copper mines that suspended shipping of ore during the winter months, are preparing to resume shipments to the Tacoma smelter. During the shipping season the Blue Ledge's shipment averages 200 tons weekly of ore averaging 12% copper. It is an excellent flux for the Alaskan copper ores. The Blue Ledge company is planning an electric power plant at a cost of $50,000. The proposed plant will be situated at Seattle Bar on Elliott Creek, eight miles from the mine, and will develop 200 h.p. At this point the water will have a drop of 200 ft. The plant will double the present output of the mine.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 2, 1921, pages 434-435

    Gold Hill.--The Roaring Gimlet mine, on Kane Creek, under lease to M. A. Applegate, A. J. Armstrong, and E. W. Moore, of Medford, Oregon, has been reopened. This mine, an old producer of rich free-milling ore, has been idle since 1906. The lessees propose to sink a deeper shaft near the old one, which is less than 100 ft. in depth and open a new level on the ore body. This property adjoins the Gold Ridge mine, where a large body of high-grade ore was recently uncovered.… The Gold Ridge Mining Co.. of Medford, Oregon, is developing. The company has purchased the 10-stamp mill and equipment on the Bill Nye in the Gold Hill district. The new equipment will be operated by electric power.… It is reported that the Revenue Pocket and Alice groups, two old producers, and adjoining properties on the east of the Gold Ridge, will be leased.… Work at the Millionaire group, two miles east of the Gold Ridge, has been resumed by C. A. Knight, who purchased the mine two years ago. The mine is well equipped. Ore from the upper levels is being milled.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, April 30, 1921, page 614

    Grants Pass.--A cleanup of the plant of the Boswell Mining Co., after 24 days' operation, has resulted in the recovery of 1805 oz. gold. The ore is milled in a Huntington mill; plates and a Pierce amalgamator are used. A cyanide plant went into operation on May 5, the vats being made of redwood, constructed by the Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. Twenty-five men are employed in the mine. The west drift has a vein of ore that is 4½ ft. wide and averages $250 to the ton. The ore treated by the mill averaged over $800 per ton. The property consists of 108 acres.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 7, 1921, page 649

    Gold Hill.--The War Eagle Mining Co., producer of mercury, has closed down its Scott furnace, but is going ahead with development work in the mine. The closing down of the furnace is not due to the low price of mercury, but to the refractory nature of the ores in the lower levels, which contain arsenic and other refractory minerals. Metallurgical tests are to be made.
    The old Bertha gold-quartz mine on Foots Creek has been acquired by Kellogg & Donegan of Gold Hill, who are reopening the old workings.… Chester Kubli, of Jacksonville, a part owner in the old Kubli gold-quartz mine five miles south of Gold Hill, is reopening the mine for operations.… Carter & Rawles, who recently acquired the Red Oak gold-quartz mine adjoining the Kubli, are reopening and developing.
    Jacksonville.--The Blue Ledge Mining Co. that has been mining copper ore without interruption since the war has closed down. The proposed construction of the $50,000 electric power plant has been indefinitely postponed.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, May 28, 1921, page 761

Gold in Black Sand
The Editor :
    Sir--Probably a treatment suitable to one locality would be unsatisfactory when applied in another. The richness of black sand is as variable as its components. In working vein-ore the results from the mill and from the concentrates are not a constant, and the richness of black sand differs materially even in a few feet. I have carried out a number of perhaps rather crude experiments, but believe the results may be useful to some of your readers. I have concentrated down to the nearly clean black sand, and I found much less gold in it than when a considerable proportion of the heavy gray and brown sand was left in. After amalgamation, I separated the concentrate magnetically--the non-magnetic averaging 35 to 40% of the original. By grinding the magnetic, I find it releases about 10% more of the non-magnetic--by various tests, which need not be specified. I obtained practically no value out of the magnetic material. By roasting the non-magnetic portion to cherry red and then grinding it, I get values in gold ranging from roughly $50 to $800 per ton that can be amalgamated. Grinding alone without roasting gives a good return, but roasting increases it. I find that by grinding a sample without magnetic separation, extraction is considerably reduced, and is reduced by about 80% if the non-separated sample is roasted. I speak, of course, of recovery by amalgamation. As about 20 lbs. of this non-magnetic sand can be recovered here per cubic yard of gravel it is an important asset. My conclusion is that every large placer proposition "contaminated" with black sand should have a concentrator, an electromagnetic separator, and a ball mill as part of its plant, and where platinum is present, a complete chemical outfit may also be necessary.
Rogue River, Oregon, May 24.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, June 18, 1921, page 833

    Discoveries of rich ore upon the properties formerly known as the Norling mine on Jackson Creek has caused a stir among local mining men. Assays taken of ore from various places show values running from $9 to $18 per ton.
    An engineers' survey of the four ledges show that they will intersect at a given point upon the property, and a tunnel is now being driven upon one of the veins that will cut this intersection at about 300-foot depth.
    Numerous pockets have been taken from the surface and shallow workings, yet considerable ore has been staged and shipped with excellent returns, netting from $50 to $100.00 per ton.
    The mine is situated about three miles by good road from Jacksonville, a little over one mile from the railroad and is easily accessible.
    A company has been organized by C. C. Clark and Etna Wall, known as the Medford Mining and Milling Association. The officers and trustees of the association are C. C. Clark, president; Etna Wall, vice-president; M. P. Schmitt, secretary; F. J. Newman, G. A. Childers, L. J. Miksche, H. E. Childers and E. R. Wall, trustees.
    P. X. Johnson of Portland, Oregon, who is deeply interested, has been appointed business manager.
    Mr. Walter B. Robinson, the mining engineer formerly connected with the Blue Ledge mine, has made a preliminary report substantiating the foregoing statements and is now at the property completing his final examination and report.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 23, 1921, page 3

Gold Hill, Ore., August. 6,1921.   
    The recent sale of the Sylvanite group of gold mines near Gold Hill to the Oregon-Pittsburgh Mining Co. and the reopening of other old-time producing mines is evidence of a general resumption of the industry. Local lumbermen are looking hopefully to this industry for demand for lumber and timbers. Other mines now operating and resuming are the Braden, the Millionaire, Gold Ridge, Roaring Gimlet and Centennial.
"Jackson County, Ore.," The Timberman, Portland, August 1921, page 124

    Gold Hill.--The recent purchase of the Sylvanite group of gold mines three miles from Gold Hill, by the Oregon-Pittsburgh mining company, indicates the increased activity in gold mining in this district. This is a new concern organized recently under the laws of Arizona with a capital stock of $3,000,000; its headquarters are at Gold Hill and its main office at 307 Bessemer Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The purchase price of the mine is announced to be $180,000. Gold was first discovered on the Sylvanite vein, or, as it is known locally, the Big vein, 40 years ago when it produced high-grade ore near the surface. Later, in 1916, tungsten was discovered in the mine and since that time considerable importance has been attached to the property, due to that find. The tungsten is found with the gold ore in the form of scheelite. The mineral occurs in small stringers with quartz. Samples have been taken from these stringers which assay as high as 40% tungstic acid, but the veins as a whole average less than 2%. The veins carrying the best grade of tungsten have been developed to a small extent, but the tungsten resources of the mine have not yet been determined.
    It was later in 1916 that J. G. Davies and associates of Sacramento, California, took over the property, and in two years operation recovered about $60,000, which was spent in developing and equipping the property. The mill equipment erected on the mine consisted of a 10-stamp mill with all auxiliary equipment for milling free ore. Early in 1919, Victor W. Brown and associates of Pittsburgh took an option on the property and have continued development with good results. The engineer in charge of the property, L. H. Van Horn of Gold Hill announces that the first unit of equipment for the reduction of the ores will be of at least 100 tons per day capacity. This applies to the treatment of both free-milling and base ores that are refractory and will require several processes. The Doan adit was driven on the vein at a depth of several hundred feet in the early history of the mine. It is advanced a distance of 1330 ft. This disclosed several bodies of high-grade ore. Work is now progressing through the Haff tunnel, which is a crosscut tapping the Big vein at 650 ft. from the portal, and 65 ft. higher than the Doan level and 350 ft. below the surface. Several crosscuts from the Haff level have opened good bodies of rich ore. About 120 ft. from the portal of the Haff adit a crosscut was run north which at 28 ft. struck the Blind vein. A drift on the new find uncovered a body of rich ore. Continuing, this drift cut the Scheelite vein, so called because at the surface It yielded scheelite ore. At this point, however, it developed into a well-defined quartz with high-grade gold ore with the scheelite but little in evidence. The accompanying photograph shows the mine and mill on the hill beyond the river.
    Two miles south of the town of Gold Hill is the Braden mine. This property has been worked intermittently since the early 'sixties. Just south and east of the Braden mine are the Centennial, Millionaire, Roaring Gimlet, and Gold Ridge mines, all of which have passed through the same experience as the Sylvanite, but are now being put in operation again with the idea of mining deeper. Just across the ridge from the Braden on the west are the Bill Nye, Kubli, Red Oak, Tin Pan, and other smaller mines which have been the principal producers of this district and are still closed.
    The recent reported uncovering of a large body of cinnabar ore, in the David Force quicksilver mine, which assays from 40 to 60% mercury is reported.… The War Eagle company has developed ore containing, in addition to mercury, large quantities of arsenic, some gold, silver, nickel, and zinc. Before resuming the company purposes to install equipment in its plant to recover several of the byproducts.
    Jacksonville.--The old Norling gold-quartz mine three miles west of Jacksonville on Jackson Creek has been acquired by the Medford Mining & Milling Association, recently incorporated under the laws of Oregon. Recent work in the mine has uncovered a large body of ore assaying $9 to $18 per ton. During the first development of the mine in 1905-'07 it is reported to have produced 120 tons of ore worth $6400.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, August 6, 1921, page 208

    Kerby.--Some high-grade gold ore has been found by Mansfield and Lofland, of Williams, Oregon, on the headwaters of Lightning Creek, 15 miles west of Kerby. A 35-ft. shaft has been sunk showing gold all the way down. In early-day mining more gold was taken out of the Lightning Gulch diggings than any other district in this region. This new property is about 25 miles west of the famous Boswell mine recently reopened.
    Selma.--The Myrtle gold mine nine miles below Selma, owned by Frank Hobart and B. W. Fowler, has been reopened. Over 100 tons of ore running $50 in gold is on the dump ready for milling. A 3-ft. vein is opened with 400 ft. of drifts. New equipment will be added.
    Talent.--A large body of ore has been uncovered in the Shorty Hope mine, an old-time producer recently reopened.… The uncovering of a large body of ore, rich in platinum, on Anderson Creek six miles out from Talent is also reported.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 17, 1921, page 411

    Gold Hill.--In spite of the low price of quicksilver, ore bodies in several quicksilver mines in this district are being developed. No furnaces are being operated, however. The War Eagle company, with headquarters at Medford, the largest quicksilver mine in this district, has a crew opening a large body of cinnabar ore, while it is also preparing to spend $15,000 in building a new water system to supply its plant. Heretofore the mine has furnished the water to operate the mill and furnaces. The War Eagle mine is equipped with a 25-ton Scott furnace and two 12-pipe retorts for auxiliary purposes.
    The Millionaire gold mine, three miles south of here, which was reopened last season, is operating its mill steadily on a large body of rich ore which was stored for milling some years ago. Ore from a large body in the new works is also being reduced. The main shaft on the mine has been abandoned for the present, and the shaft house and equipment has been rebuilt a few hundred feet east on the vein. The new shaft has been driven to a depth of 200 ft., and drifting both ways on the vein is under way, but principally toward the old shaft which has a depth of 450 ft. On the completion of the new level connection will be made and the old works will be unwatered and mined.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, October 8, 1921, pages 517-518

    Gold Hill.--The Millionaire and Gold Ridge groups, both three miles south from Gold Hill, are producing, each with 10-stamp mills. Other mines within a radius of five miles from Gold Hill, which are being reopened and re-equipped, that will soon be producing, are the Sylvanite, Red Oak, Blossom, Lucky Bart, Roaring Gimlet, Corporal G, Braden, Bill Nye, Kubli, Nellie Wright, Alice, and Gold Hill Pocket groups.… The Sylvanite group two miles above Gold Hill on Rogue River, which was recently acquired by the Oregon-Pittsburgh Mining Co., is in charge of L. H. Van Horn. Plans for a 100-ton mill, a power plant on the Rogue River, and heavier mine equipment are being made. Material is being assembled to erect a large number of cottages and quarters for the employees at the mine.
    The Manganese Ore Mining Co., of Terre Haute, Indiana, has just spent $100,000 in erecting a modern electrically driven dredge of the drag type. The company has laid a 3-in. pipeline from Rogue River at Gold Hill, which is to deliver water pumped to the plant.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, November 19, 1921, page 717

    Gold Hill.--The Gold Coin Quartz and Placer Association, a local concern organized in the early part of the year, is developing mines in this vicinity. The association has been incorporated as the Gold Coin Mining Co. A. M. Knapp, of Medford, is at the head. The original Gold Coin group of mines, the Mohawk, the Alice, the Pearce groups, and the Red Ribbon have been acquired. In the Alice mine recent work on the vein has uncovered three ore chutes of high-grade ore. The Gold Coin group is in the Jacksonville district; it is being further developed with a crew of 15 miners. This property has a contact vein approximately 15 ft. wide carrying gold. The Pearce group is rich placer ground on Poormans Creek, four miles out from Jacksonville, consisting of 240 acres of virgin ground.
"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 7, 1922, page 29

    Gold Hill.--At the Gold Ridge mine, where operations were commenced last summer, mill runs are averaging from $1500 to $1700 in gold per week. The plant is a modern 5-stamp amalgamating mill with a Wilfley concentrating table; the tailing is being stored for cyanide treatment. A new ore chute is being opened up at the south end of the slopes and a raise is being driven from the 500- to the 400-ft. level. The vein follows the top of a steep ridge, giving an opportunity to reach it with short crosscut adits.
    The Roaring Gimlet mine just below the Gold Ridge is being reopened under lease by Mark Applegate and associates of Medford, Oregon. This mine is an old-time producer; it has been idle for nearly 20 years, and is considered richer than the Gold Ridge. The lessees have driven a new shaft on the vein to a depth of 100 ft. and are drifting at that depth under the old workings to open a new ore body.
    The Millionaire mine two miles north of the Gold Ridge, which was reopened two years ago by C. A. Knight and S. E. Heberline, has a crew of 20 miners employed. The mill is operated periodically. The old works are to be reopened through the new 200-ft. shaft. About $100,000 has been spent on the mine in remodeling the plant and in development. The mill has two 1500-lb. Nissen stamps with circular discharge and two 10-ft. amalgamating plates, with a crusher and a Standard concentrating table, all driven by electric power.
    The Centennial placer diggings, a mile northeast of the Gold Ridge, has been re-equipped at an expense of $100,000 and after an idleness of 15 years. Production has commenced.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 14, 1922, pages 65-66

    In Southwestern Oregon there was a decided midsummer revival of activity in the region tributary to Jackson and Gold Hill. The old Sylvanite mine is being reopened by the Oregon-Pittsburgh Mining Co., and the Boswell mine, in the Holland district, by the Boswell Mining Co. The Opp mine, near Jackson, was reopened in July, and the Millionaire, which has been under development for more than a year, has been milling steadily. In addition to these mines a number of others not so well known were under development, and since the middle of 1921 several of them have been making shipments.
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 4, 1922, page 166

    In Oregon, the War Eagle Mining Co., operating what was formerly known as the Rainier mine, in Jackson County, completed a 25-ton Scott furnace in 1920 but is not known to have produced any quicksilver in 1921.

"Quicksilver in 1921," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 11, 1922, page 196

    Gold Hill.--P. X. Johnson and associates of Portland, with headquarters at Gold Hill, are developing the Clausen property. This tract adjoins the Kubli and Red Oak groups on the east, and is situated between these two mines and the Bill Nye group. The present work is driving the lowest level, which will cut the three parallel veins 410 ft. from the adit. Three upper adits, consisting of 500 ft. of drift, have uncovered 2000 tons of gold ore assaying from $9 to $34 per ton. The average width of the veins is 24 in. The works are at an elevation of 2700 ft. and in a heavily forested area. Power, compressor, drills, trackage, and other mine equipment have been purchased.… The recent find of rich free-milling ore on the 350-ft. level of the North Pole mine, 9 miles west of Gold Hill, is important. It is being operated by the owner, P. H. Robinson. The present equipment on the mine is a 2-stamp mill with 10 tons capacity.
    Jacksonville.--The Opp mine, owned and operated by J. W. Opp, has purchased the Medford-Jacksonville electric and steam railroad; it will be operated in conjunction with the mine. This road extends from Medford on the main line of the Southern Pacific to Jacksonville and three miles out from Jacksonville into the timber past the Opp mine. This deal will result in new life in the mining district west of Jacksonville. The Opp mine will enlarge its stamp mill to handle the output of smaller mines. The mill has a crusher, a Dorr classifier, one Wilfley and six Johnson concentrators, and four plates.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, February 25, 1922, page 275

Quicksilver in Southern Oregon
By A. E. Kellogg

    That quicksilver existed in Southern Oregon was only known before the war by a few local operators, by the scientific mining bureaus of Oregon, and by the Geological Survey at Washington. It was during the early days of the war that the government, in dire need of quicksilver as a war metal, ransacked this region for new deposits. The investigation demonstrated fully that the quicksilver zone in California extended into Oregon; this discovery disclosed large and rich deposits, which, as shown by state and federal mining bureau reports, outclass anything that as yet have been uncovered in the United States.
    The history of the quicksilver industry in Southern Oregon dates to 1878. At that time an early settler in Rogue River Valley uncovered croppings in an area known as the Meadows, twelve miles north of Gold Hill--the nearest shipping point. The Meadows is now the center of the quicksilver area in this region. The settlers have always distilled the quicksilver; they found a ready market for the product among the local miners, who used it for recovering flour gold in the placers of the region. The crude open process used in roasting the ores usually resulted in the recovery of about 50% of the metal only, the remainder escaping as vapor and causing mercurial poisoning.
    The Gold Hill district is a region occupied chiefly by Paleozoic sediments, interbedded with sills or flows of andesite and greenstone. The sedimentary rocks strike north, usually about N. 15° E. and dip east at 65° to nearly 90°. Dillar has shown that the Jurassic beds west of the Gold Hill district have been overturned so that the oldest strata now overlie the younger formations. It seems probable that the Paleozoic sediments are also overturned; the limestone found in the south part of the district is probably of early Paleozoic times; fossils in the limestone lenses indicate that they are Silurian rather than Carboniferous in age. Accordingly the Paleozoic sediments in the Gold Hill district are referred to as of Devonian or Carboniferous, or as of both periods.
    Long after the formation of these Paleozoic sedimentary rocks the region was intruded from below by a mass of molten igneous rock; at about the same time and perhaps by the same agency the bedded rocks were closely folded and overturned to the west. The intrusive rocks solidified beneath a considerable thickness of sediments or other rocks, which have since been removed in some places. Thus, the igneous mass is now exposed to view in the mountains in the southern part of the district, extending northward to the Meadows; and it probably underlies at considerable depth a large part or all of the Gold Hill district.
    This igneous intrusion and intense folding seems to have elevated the region sufficiently to cause a new cycle of erosion and the formation of coarse sediments, which could not be transported far by ordinary agencies. Therefore conglomerates were produced, and these were succeeded by feldspathic sandstones during part of Cretaceous times. Rocks produced in this way are now found there. Along Evans Creek, from the Meadows northward, those Cretaceous sandstones are overlain by a considerable thickness of Tertiary sandstones that contain thin beds of coal.
    The latest rocks in the district consist of stream deposits. some of which are variable on account of the gold they contain. They are found along the streams, but are not abundant along Rogue River, which, in this region, runs in a narrow cut in the rock channel.
    The Meadows is at an elevation of 2500 ft., on the south slope of the Umpqua Mountains, in a heavily timbered and well-watered area. The quicksilver deposit occurs along a granite-sandstone contact, where the granite is in part pegmatitic. It strikes N. 53° W.; most of the mines are less than 100 ft. deep. The mineralized zone is from 100 to 200 ft. wide; it is not a well-defined vein, but is a mineralized dike along an irregular contact. The ore contains cinnabar, native quicksilver, pyrite, gold, silver, zinc, nickel, arsenic, cobalt, and a heavy black mineral resembling metacinnabarite. Samples assay about $5 gold, 5 oz. silver, 2.5% zinc, traces of the other minerals mentioned, and 1% quicksilver. The cinnabar appears through the ore, in the hanging and footwalls in seams and in kidneys. The seams vary in width up to 20 in., and average from 17 to 70% quicksilver. The larger bodies of rich ore are found in chimneys and in pay chutes. which are generally in the faults of the main dike, or appear as veins and stringers.
    This description, as to formation and contents, is equally applicable to the dike that extends north from California into and through Jackson, Josephine, and Douglas counties, in Oregon. This dike makes its first appearance in Oregon in the bedrock of the famous '49 placer diggings, four miles northwest of Ashland. Other dikes, which have been considerably faulted, appear as laterals from the main dike--on the west in the Applegate district and extending into Josephine County; on the east into the Butte Creek district. The main vein or dike makes its next appearance north in the Mountain King mine, eight miles north of Gold Hill, then in the Meadows, afterward extending through the Umpqua Mountains into Douglas County, where cinnabar deposits are still in evidence. The Mountain King mine, which has been idle since 1916, is considered the richest and most extensive quicksilver mine in the region.
    It was due to the consistent efforts of Samuel Bertelson, at present engineer in charge of the Rainier group of quicksilver mines in the Meadows, that the industry was successfully developed. He went there in 1916, representing Salt Lake City investors, and instructed to uncover new war metal deposits. The company was known as the Utah Quicksilver Co. and it acquired 36 mining claims in the producing area of the Meadows. That same year Bertelson organized the Rainier Quicksilver Co., composed of Puget Sound investors. They took over the Utah group, and in 1917 were producing quicksilver with two 12-pipe furnaces. In 1918, being unable to interest his investors in the possibilities of a more extensive plant, he organized the War Eagle Mining Co., composed of local investors, with headquarters at Medford, Oregon. The company's holdings consist of 520 acres of mining land; up to the present $175,000 has been spent in developing and equipping the property. The adjoining properties, which are heavy producers, are the Chisholm group, owned and operated by Dr. Wm. P. Chisholm, and the Force group, owned and operated by David Force, both of Gold Hill, Oregon. In August 1920 Clifford G. Dennis, a mining engineer of California, examined the mine. The property had produced 565 flasks or 42,375 lbs. quicksilver, which was sold for $59,325. This engineer advised the building of a 35-ton Scott furnace, which the company at once erected at a cost of $45,000.
    The ore in the War Eagle group is in a true fissure vein, averaging 5 ft. wide; it comes in contact with the main dike a few hundred feet away. The general geologic conditions existing in this and in the adjoining properties are unlike any others on the Pacific Coast, but they are similar in some respects to those that characterize the deposits at Almaden, Spain. In the War Eagle mine the cinnabar occurs in a breccia and stockwork structure along an open fissure in quartzite. Underlying the quartzite is some bituminous shale of an extent undetermined; there is some evidence of a shaly formation overlying the quartzite. The fissure occurs 60 to 100 ft. south of the north limits of the quartzite area. The width of the quartzite is at least 400 ft. and the length fully 3000 ft. The fissure has a slight dip to the north, again following the indicated dip of the quartzite. A dike-like intrusion of Tertiary or Quaternary age cuts the quartzite east of the ore. It trends north and south, and it is probable that the transportation of the solution from which quicksilver minerals were derived was along this dike. The fissure in the quartzite is a persistent fracture and contains a gouge or salvage, usually on both walls. The cinnabar occurs between fragments of quartzite and by replacement in quartz associated with pyrite. The grade of the ore is in proportion to the amount of quartzite breccia present. Hence the ore is erratic in occurrence.
    The mine is opened by two crosscut adits; the first is about 80 ft. in a southwest direction. A drift about 120 ft. east exposes several pockets of ore. A drift about 110 ft. west shows high-grade ore for 45 ft. The ore chute became slightly longer as it was stoped upward, lengthening to about 60 ft. at the surface and 85 ft. above the drift. The average width of ore stoped from this chute was about 4½ ft. A winze was sunk under this chute to a depth of 70 ft. and the ore was stoped. The best ore has been taken for reduction in the retorts, and all the faces show a decrease in width and grade. The nature of this deposit indicates erratic occurrence; it is reasonable to suppose that the mine was impoverished of high-grade ore, the work being stopped only when the faces were unpayable, both as to quantity and grade.
    The lower adit was driven several hundred feet east of the upper adit, and about 187 ft. lower, to the southwest. It crossed the fissure at approximately 200 ft.; at about 55 ft. east it exposed traces of ore that are likely to develop into small deposits. To the west low-grade cinnabar was exposed for 55 ft., then bunches of ore for 60 ft., of a width varying from 3.3 to 6.2 ft. The ore assayed from 9.1% to 1.75% mercury. Streaks of almost pure cinnabar lead into the north wall. The 42,375 lbs. of quicksilver was produced evidently by mining about 1500 tons of ore. The exposures in the upper and lower workings are favorable to a more extensive occurrence of ore; in three places more favorable than where ore has already been extracted. The ore showing at the bottom of the winze in the upper workings is rich. The east drift or upper workings have exposed ore of normal grade. The lower workings contain ore several hundred feet west of the upper workings; exposures on the surface indicate chutes of ore occurring along the fissure for over 900 feet.
    The cost of production per ton recently given by the War Eagle company with present equipment was as follows:

    Labor $2.36
    Supplies 0.60
    Power 0.50
    Tools 0.30
    Foreman and timberman 0.30
    Liability insurance 0.41
    General   0.50
    Labor 0.96
    Supplies 0.16
    Power 0.50
    Mucking, track, etc. 0.30
    Tools 0.30
    Liability insurance   0.13
    Labor 0.72
    Wood 0.20
    Flasks 0.30
    Foreman 0.26
    Power 0.20
    Rock-breaker 0.12
    Liability insurance 0.07
    General   0.05
Management and general 1.20
    Total per ton $10.44
Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, March 25, 1922, pages 411-413

Medford Man's Invention Stirs Interest of the Mining World
    The Sunday Oregonian gives E. G. Trowbridge of Medford a splendid write-up on his recent invention, a small quartz mill, for use by small operators at small cost. Mr. Trowbridge is making the mill at his new manufacturing plant in the north part of the city which he and H. D. Mills are conducting with great success. The write-up follows:
    GOLD HILL, Ore., Aug. 26.--(Special.)--The problem of operating the small and isolated quartz mine in this region has been solved by E. G. Trowbridge, a Medford mining engineer. This problem has been the troubled dream of the small mine owner and prospector ever since gold was discovered in quartz veins on the Pacific Coast. The invention is a portable quartz mill with the capacity of an ordinary three-stamp quartz mill. Assembled it weighs 1800 pounds. Dismantled, the heaviest piece weighs only 185 pounds, which permits its transportation wherever a burro can scale a mountain trail.
    The inventor has recently patented this mill and is manufacturing it locally at an expense of $270, while the ordinary quartz mill weighs several tons and costs several thousand dollars. Its daily capacity is seven tons of the ordinary gold-bearing porphyry vein matter of this region, while less of the harder type of quartz.
    The simplicity of the mill is unique. Mounted it has the appearance of an ordinary barrel. The staves and heads are made up of cast malleable iron. The staves are one and one-half inches thick and three feet long. They are bolted on the cylinder heads, which are 30 inches in diameter. Enclosed and unmounted are two four-inch high-tempered steel rollers, the crushers, which are set in motion with the revolving of the cylinder.
    The staves, which also serve in the capacity of screens, are placed on a bevel, and adjustments in bolting them to the cylinder heads regulate the fineness of the mesh. The crushed ore is deposited on a concentrating table and the gold is recovered with amalgam made up of quicksilver.
    The shaft holding the cylinder is cast on the cylinder heads and the feed four inches in diameter is through one end of the shaft, while the gearing is attached to the other end. The jar and motion of the mill in operation are so slight that a framework of 4x4-inch timbers make a sound and sufficient bedding. A one and one-half horsepower gas engine or other motor power operates the full equipment, including a jig for the feed and concentrating table.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 29, 1922, page 5

    The quartz mill being manufactured and put out by the Medford Iron Works has created a sensation in the mining world in this country and Alaska, much to the satisfaction of Edward G. Trowbridge and Harry D. Mills, the owners of that concern which is not only receiving orders but inquiries from all sections. The Popular Mechanics magazine, will soon contain a large write-up of this mill, which was invented only last August by Mr. Trowbridge.
    If the orders continue to come in it will mean a big thing for Medford in the way of manufacturing, payroll and output. The mill has been given thorough tests, and orders continue to pile up. The mill is a small one designed for developing mining properties of limited financial means and can be operated by one man. It is said that three mills on one property can be operated by a single operator.
    Among the latest orders received is one for three mills at Telluride, Colo., which will be transported from Medford by auto truck all the way, going by way of Bend, Ore., and another for two mills to be sent to Oakland.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 22, 1922, page 3

History of Industry in State Dates Back to 1878, When Cinnabar Ore Was Discovered
Twelve Miles from Gold Hill by Early Settler--War Lends Stimulus to Owners of Deposits.

    The history of the quicksilver industry in Southern Oregon dates back to 1878, when an early settler in Rogue River Valley, well versed in the industry, discovered cinnabar ore in an area known as the Meadows, 12 miles out from Gold Hill. The Meadows is now the center of the quicksilver-producing area in this region. Since 1878, up to the recent development of the industry, the early settlers distilled quicksilver from the Meadows ore and disposed of it to the local miners, who used the metal in the recovery of flour gold and platinum in the placer diggings of the region. By the crude process of roasting these ores in open furnaces usually about 50 percent of the metal was recovered, while the other 50 percent escaped in the fumes, causing the deadly mercurial poisoning to the operator.
    It was due to the consistent efforts of Dr. William P. Chisholm of Gold Hill that the industry was successfully launched. He acquired the claims where the original strike was made in 1878, about 20 years ago, and in 1912 erected a 12-pipe mercury furnace on the property, which was the first commercial furnace installed in the region.
Deposits Are Examined.
    Through his effort an examination of the cinnabar ore deposits in the Gold Hill district was made in 1913 by A. N. Winchell, in charge of the field work of the Oregon Bureau of Mines. H. M. Parks and A. M. Swartley of the same bureau made mention of these deposits in their 1916 "Handbook of Oregon Mines," and are jointly responsible for the development of the industry in this region.
    That quicksilver existed in Southern Oregon up to the beginning of the war was known only to a few local operators and the scientific mining bureaus of the state of Oregon and the geological survey at Washington. It was during the early days of the war that the government, in its dire need of quicksilver as a war metal, and in ransacking for new deposits, fully demonstrated that the quicksilver zone in California extended into Oregon. This discovery disclosed large and rich deposits of the metal, which the state and federal mining bureau experts reported outclassed anything yet uncovered in the United States.
    Up to the time of the war California contributed more than half the quicksilver produced in the United States. Nevada had a few producing deposits, while Texas produced about a quarter of the domestic production. The average grades in the three states named above are less than .01 percent, or less than 20 pounds to the ton of ore. The Spanish carries 14 percent, and subsidiary ore bodies .02½ percent; the Italian about .01 percent, and the Austrian .85 percent.
    The greatest cinnabar dikes extending through Southern Oregon average less than .01 percent, but these dikes are rich in chimneys, or pay chutes, which produce large bodies of ore that reduce to as high as 70 percent quicksilver. Three furnaces in the Gold Hill district operated during the war on ore that averaged 17 percent, while in Douglas County the operators found conditions there about the same as in the Gold Hill district, but less rich in pay chutes.
    The largest produced during the war period was the War Eagle mine, which produced 565 flasks of 75 pounds each, or 42,375 pounds of quicksilver, which was sold on the open market for $59,325.
Elevation is 2500 Feet.
    The Meadows is at an elevation of 2500 feet, on the south slope of the Umpqua Mountains, in a heavily forested and well-watered area. The quicksilver-bearing deposits extending through the district occur along a granite-sandstone contact, where the granite is in part pegmatic. It strikes north 53 degrees west, and most of the mines on this deposit are less than 100 feet in depth. The mineralized zone is from 100 to 200 feet wide. It is not a well-defined vein, but is a mineralized dike along an irregular contact.
    The ore or mass contains cinnabar, native quicksilver, pyrite, gold, silver, zinc, nickel, arsenic, cobalt and a heavy, black mineral resembling metacinnabarite. Samples as a whole taken from along this dike assayed about $5 in gold to the ton, 5 ounces of silver, 2½ percent zinc, 1 percent quicksilver and traces of these other minerals. The cinnabar appears all through the ore, in the hanging and foot walls, in the forms of seams and kidneys. The seams are from a well-watered trace up to 20 inches in thickness and average from 17 to 70 percent quicksilver. The larger bodies of this rich ore are found chiefly in chimneys and pay chutes, which are in the faults of the main dike, or veins and stringers of the main dike.
    This dike makes its first appearance in Oregon extending from California in the bedrock of the famous "49" placer diggings four miles northwest of Ashland. There it is in a calcite formation. These dikes, which are very faulty, appear as laterals or stringers from the main strike through the country; on the west in the Applegate district;, extending down into Josephine County; and on the east in the Butte Creek Mountain King mine, six miles north of Gold Hill, next in the Meadows, thence extending through the Umpqua Mountains into Douglas and Lane counties, still holding its rich values in cinnabar ores.
    Geologically, the Gold Hill district is an area chiefly occupied by old Paleozoic sediments interbedded with sills or flows of andesite and greenstone, the sedimentary rock striking northerly, usually about N. 15 degrees E., and dipping eastward at angles ranging from 65 degrees W. upward. Diller has shown that Jurassic beds west of this district have been overturned so that the oldest strata now overlie the younger formations.
    It seems possible that the Paleozoic sediments are also overturned, and that the limestone found in the southern part of the district probably is of early Paleozoic age, and fossils found in limestone lenses in the district indicate that they are not Devonian. Diller suggests that they are Silurian rather than Carboniferous in age. Accordingly, the Paleozoic sediments in this district are referred to as the Devonian or Carboniferous or to both periods.
    Long after the formation of the sedimentary rocks, the region was intruded from below by a mass of molten igneous formation which is now exposed to view in the mountains by the same agency, the bedded rock solidified beneath a considerable thickness of sediments or other rocks which have since been removed in some places. The igneous mass is now exposed to view in the mountains, and it seems probable it underlies, at considerable depth, the major part of the Gold Hill district. This igneous intrusion and intense folding appear to have elevated the region sufficiently to cause a new cycle of erosion and the formation of coarse sediment which could not be transported far by ordinary agencies. Therefore conglomerates were produced, and these were succeeded by feldspathic sandstone during part of the Cretaceous period.
    The greatest menaces to the quicksilver industry in this country are the Almaden mines in Spain, which yield mercury from ore averaging 11 percent, at a cost of $16 a flask of 75 pounds. The ore reserves at Almaden are good for 40 years on a basis of an output of 1000 tons of metal annually. These deposits are owned by the Spanish government and operated with convict labor. The entire output of the mine is contracted to the Rothschilds in London at £7 sterling for a flask of 75 pounds, and this concern has the privilege of regulating the output of the mine.
Oregonian, Portland, November 19, 1922, page D10

Quicksilver Strike
Special Dispatch to The Chronicle
    CHICAGO--The largest and richest deposits of quicksilver ever discovered in the United States recently have been uncovered by the Medford Reducing and Refining Company in the Rogue River Valley, in the Meadows district, near Medford, Or., according to a statement by Draper, Stevens & Co. of Chicago. Samples of cinnabar ore taken from this area assayed from 1.75 percent to 9.1 percent mercury. Considering that mines in California have been operated successfully for many years on ore assaying ½ of 1 percent and less of quicksilver, the deposits in the Meadows district offer a peculiarly favorable field for development.
San Francisco Chronicle, October 18, 1926, page 15

The Sterling Mine, Near Jacksonville, Oregon
Begins New Operations After Years of Idleness


By A. E. Kellogg
    While the recent entering of the Ludlum Engineering Corporation of New York in the mining field of Southern Oregon and its active operation in the construction of a $500,000 gold dredge at Foots Creek, 20 miles below Medford, is a very important event in the resumption of mining in this region, yet the entry of Fred J. Blakely and associates of Portland in this district in the recent operations in the reopening of the famous Sterling placers, twelve miles out from Medford, also marks a new era of mining in this region.
    The Sterling mine, which has lain idle for some time, is now being worked. This will be welcome news to the mining interests of Southern Oregon, as the Sterling was always shown to visitors, and when in operation it showed what quantities of gravel can be moved by water.
    In the early days of mining of Southern Oregon, Sterling Creek was the scene of the most active mining operations in and around Jacksonville. There was a large camp on Sterling Creek; in fact, it was a real live mining town. It was reported that 600 votes were cast at the time Lincoln ran for President the second time.
    Early in the '70s an ancient river channel was discovered. It was very rich in gold values. The find was reported all over the country. A syndicate of Portland capitalists, M. S. Burrell, Governor Grover and Levi Ankeny, afterwards U.S. Senator from Washington, became interested in the proposition. A ditch line to convey the waters of the Little Applegate River to a point of sufficient height to mine this newly discovered channel by hydraulicking was surveyed. The survey showed it would take a ditch 27 miles in length to answer this purpose. In those days a ditch of this length, and a large portion to be cut through solid rock, was a stupendous undertaking. The Portland men had made a thorough test of the ground, which showed the gold values were about 45 cents to the yard. So the ditch was constructed, giants installed, and mining operations on a larger scale than ever before known in that section of the country was started.
    For nearly a half a century the mine was operated, more than $2,500,000 in gold being taken from the mine during this period. Those conversant with the property declare that not one-third of the values have been taken from the ground.
    Mr. Mathews, or as he is familiarly known and called in Alaska, Jack Mathews, believes that the Sterling property is one of the richest placer properties on the Pacific Coast. He backs up this by taking an interest in the property. New mining equipment has been installed, and it will be interesting to the miners of Southern Oregon to see how the gold was saved in Alaska. In Mr. Mathews' opinion, a great deal of the gold, especially the finer gold, in the old Sterling operations was not recovered by the system that was used at that time for saving gold.
    If under Mr. Mathews' management, and his plans for handling the gravel, the Sterling mine lives up to its own record as a producer, it will do much to stimulate and revive mining in Southern Oregon.
    Mr. Blakely recently in Medford said:
    "At the time gold was discovered in Alaska, mining men from Oregon, as well as from all over the United States, flocked to the northern country. Then later, when the Goldfield and other camps were discovered, it was another rush to these camps; practically all of them are things of the past, with the exception of some mining that is still being done in Alaska, but the records show that the production of gold in the Alaska region has fallen off greatly in the last few years.
    "From some of those who take the boats to Alaska every spring, this report has come that few people are now going into that country, and business is on the ebb in that northern territory. The great gold-producing states are now California and Colorado, both of them far outdistancing Alaska.
    "The time is now opportune for bringing to the attention of the people throughout the country the vast riches that are to be found in Southern Oregon. Not only has this section shown that gold is to be found along all the streams that flow into Rogue River, but there is also great deposits of gold and other precious metals in the hills and mountains, where numerous quartz mines are constantly being opened up.
    "If the people of the country, especially those interested in mining, would visit this territory, they would be surprised at its richness. In Alaska they were able to mine only about sixty to ninety days in a season, then the cold set in, and it was everything but pleasant to live there. Where these Goldfield and other camps have been discovered, they were in a bleak and barren country, where no one cared to reside. Many of the Rogue River Valley's best citizens are the descendants of the early miners who located in this country, and there is no doubt that if people came to the Rogue River country now to investigate the mining possibilities, they would eventually decide to become citizens of Southern Oregon.
    "For many years past, a great deal of money has been spent in advertising Rogue River pears, apples and other fruits. It has brought many people from many parts of the country who have located here. It is now in order for the people to start an advertising campaign in which the mineral products of this section should do more to bring in outside capital and new people than any other plan that could be devised.
    "With the Sterling going, the giants knocking down the gravel and which has been mined on this property, it is a sight sure to impress anyone."
    An editorial in the Oregonian of the issue of May 17, 1905, recites:
    "The Sterling mine in Southern Oregon, which is reported sold at a high figure, was well named. There are a great many other mines in that part of the state, as well as in eastern Oregon, which possess 'Sterling' qualities and which are appreciated at their true worth because their merits have not been noised abroad. There has been such conservation in operation as well as exploiting our mine, and they have kept right on producing, not spasmodically, but regularly for many years. There has never been a mining boom in the state such as have drawn thousands of people to camps like the Black Hills, Leadville, Klondike and Tonopah; but the mining industry in Oregon is on a much more legitimate basis than it was in most of the boom camps. There has been a vast amount of exaggeration regarding the wealth-producing qualities of some of the camps, especially those in Alaska.
    "The output from Alaska this season is estimated as high as $25,000,000, but this is believed to be considerably in excess of the amount that will be in evidence at the final cleanup. From estimates submitted to the director of the mint by officers of the several mints and assay offices, it is shown that the 1904 gold production of Alaska was $9,000,000, while Colorado produced $26,000,000 and California $19,000,000. These figures are somewhat surprising, considering the extensive advertising that has been given the Alaska country. No gold strike ever made was more thoroughly exploited and boomed than those of the Klondike, Nome and Tanana. The frozen north has for a number of years been producing great quantities of gold, and it has turned out many millionaires as well as a few thousand bankrupt miners who were not so lucky. And yet the mint returns shown that the Alaska country last year produced only about one-third as much gold as was produced in Colorado, and less than one-half as much as was secured from the mines of California.
    "Neither of these states enjoy anything like a mining boom, nor did either of them attract crowds of gold seekers as rushed to the Far North from all parts of the world. The discovery of gold in Alaska has been one of the greatest factors in the rapid growth of the Puget Sound cities, and the entire Pacific Coast has shared in a degree of the benefits arising from this discovery, but the returns per capita in comparison with what has been spent in getting in and out of the country will not make a favorable showing. There is but little doubt that if all the toil and money expended in the Alaska mines had been used in the mining camps of some of the western states the result would have been much more satisfactory.
    "The Sterling mine in Southern Oregon has never made any such remarkable cleanups as were made on the Klondike, but its regular annual output, in the many years since its discovery, aggregated a vast sum of money, equal to, if not exceeding, that of the best mines in Alaska."
Pacific Coast Miner, March 1, 1928, page 1

Newly Discovered Process Produces 6½ Percent Tin
From Southern Oregon Rock

    An entirely new process for the recovery of tin and other metals from the tin-bearing ores of Southern Oregon has been announced by members of the research committee of the Mine Owner's Association of Grants Pass, which will definitely prove the oft-disputed claim that tin is to be found in commercial quantities in the large deposits of mineral-bearing rock which abound in Southern Oregon and other sections of the Coast. Dozens of experiments have been made with tin recovery by this process, and in each instance the results have checked or showed an increased recovery as the chemists became more accustomed to the use of the process.
    Just what this process involves has not been divulged by the committee nor by Charles Lull, the local assayer who was largely responsible for its discovery, nor will it be divulged except by legitimate operators who can convince the holders of the secret that they intend to develop the tin industry in this section. While the process has only been tried in the laboratory, the sponsors claim that they are convinced that its use on a larger scale assures a simple and profitable manner to make the tin recoveries commercially. In addition to recovering high percentages of the tin in the ore, the process is also said to make recoveries of the gold and other metals with but little additional handling of the pulp.
    Recent tests of this process in the process of Mr. John Beede, a prominent Portland chemist, are said to have shown the presence of six and one-half percent tin in samples of ore gathered by Mr. Beede from properly located on Iron Creek in Josephine County. Subsequent tests are said to have increased this already high percentage of tin in the ore.
Pacific Coast Miner, March 1, 1928, page 2

    The Western Mining Company of Grants Pass, Oregon, which is operating a bench placer property near Hell Gate on Rogue River, is just completing the installation of additional equipment to handle the gravel which is carrying rich gold values. The operation has been under way with but one oil-operated shovel, but it has been found that additional equipment will materially increase the production and profit in the operation of the mine. The Western Mining Company's property has long been known as the Flannagan mine.
Pacific Coast Miner, March 1, 1928, page 2

    A recent strike made in the Continental mine, near Myrtle Creek, Oregon, is said to show values as high as $327 per ton in gold and silver. By weight, these two metals exist in about the same amounts, but this high grade will not prevail throughout the mine. It is understood that a shipment is being prepared for consignment to the Tacoma smelter.
    P. B. Wickham of Grants Pass, Oregon, has taken a lease with option to purchase the Ashland and Shorty Hope mines, near Ashland, Oregon, from E. D. Briggs, owner. A general survey is to be made at once and the property placed in shape for systematic development and mining. The principal problem will be draining the main shaft, which holds about 500 feet of water.
    The Edwards Mining Company, near Grants Pass, Oregon, has been remodeling its flotation mill and plans putting in an additional flotation unit, according to general manager D. Potter. New stopes have been opened up, and a shaft is to be sunk to provide a new haulage way.
    James P. Noonan and S. E. Heberling of Central Point, Oregon, will start about April 1 to complete the tunnel in the Red Ribbon group of gold claims, near Gold Hill, to intersect an ore chute at greater depth. This tunnel has already been driven 345 feet. A 25-foot tunnel has been driven in the Union claim and a 45-foot tunnel has been made in the Eureka property. Some time ago the operators built a trail to the mine about one and one-half miles, installed a Fairbanks-Morse compressor and a building to cover the same.
    K. Dean Butler of the Robertson Gold Mine, Inc. has placed 18 men at work at his property in the Galice district in Oregon. A road is to be built to the mine so that heavy machinery can be taken in next spring. Some of the recent finds in the mine have carried particularly high values and have attracted considerable attention. Mr. Butler makes his headquarters at Grants Pass, Oregon.
    Zane Grey, noted western author, is said to be planning the development of the mining claim on his property on the Rogue River in Oregon, according to B. B. Irving, United States mineral surveyor, Roseburg. The property was worked several years ago and can be reached from West Fork, Douglas County. A domestic water system is to be put in and about 20 cabins built.
The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, March 30, 1929

By A. E. Kellogg

    Following the war, requests of the manufacturers addressed to the Oregon Bureau of Mines for asbestos properties aroused holders of asbestos deposits in the Gold Hill district to activity in renewing work at abandoned deposits in which, before the war, they saw possibilities. The Gold Hill deposits are said to be the most important in the region.
    Asbestos is found on Upper Evans Creek in the Umpqua Mountains in the Gold Hill district and other points in Jackson County, also in the Galice district in Josephine County. It occurs in serpentine areas in close proximity to diabase. Amphibole asbestos in the Gold Hill region has been exploited, while the chrysolite exists, but has been lightly reported.
    Notwithstanding these known occurrences, the state bureau of mines, during its existence, now defunct, was not aware that a single asbestos property in the Gold Hill district had been sufficiently developed that the bureau could recommend for examination by a prospective operator. It is now believed that the increasing uses for asbestos, together with favorable prices, which prevail at the present time, warrant development of some of the southwestern Oregon deposits.
    Samples of the local deposits have been submitted and stood the usual test as to fireproofness, ample in length of textile, but the staple lacks the elasticity and flexibility when it comes to spinning qualities, which the Canadian and other foreign deposits possess.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, March 30, 1929

    Arrangements are being made to continue the 60-foot crosscut tunnel in the Alta Vista claims, near Galice, Oregon, according to L. S. Hansen, who is the sole owner of the property. This tunnel will cut several ledges of ore, which have been traced on the surface. Mr. Hansen is financing the work himself, and during the last 23 months he has built a two-room house, woodshed, blacksmith shop, etc., and has graded 2,000 feet of trail.
    Any machinery that is taken to the property will have to be packed in on mule-back, as the mine is about 10 miles from any road. Three other claims will probably be added to the property this summer.
    The Bonanza Quicksilver Mining Company plans the early erection of a 5 x 72-foot rotary furnace, according to manager J. W. Wenzel of Sutherlin, Oregon. Tunnel No. 9 has recently encountered the vein at a distance of 25 feet from its portal. This is the main working tunnel for the south end of the property. An electric transmission line crosses the property about 500 feet south of the No. 6 tunnel, but it is said that the power company prefers extending a line from the Sutherlin substation instead of tapping the line near the property.
    The new line will cost approximately $3,500. Water is available at the mine nine months out of the year and during the remaining three months will have to be pumped into tanks at an elevation of 100 feet to ensure a gravity flow. Fuel oil for the furnace can be delivered at the mine at not more than 5½ cents a gallon.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, April 15, 1929

    The Columbia Mine on Grave Creek, near Grants Pass, Oregon, has been taken over by a new company, known as the Bullion Mountain, Inc. Twenty men are putting in a ditch and dam to give ample water with a 650-foot fall. The Bullion people have also taken over 70 percent of the holdings of the Oregon Metals Corporation, A. W. Yount, manager, Grants Pass, and George Bouton of Victoria is president of the Bullion company.
    Through the persistent efforts of D. H. Ferry, manager of the Rogue River Gold Company, there will be no more mud deposited into the Rogue River from the dredge, which is being operated by the company on Foots Creek. From October to December 10 last year the river was kept clean by means of settling basins, but these have filled, and other means were necessary. Several devices are combined in the new system, including the disposition of the mud and clay from the dredge back into the tailings, instead of running it into the pond, and the building of a large basin below the dredge, which will capture any overflow and filter the mud.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, June 30, 1929

    Pat Jennings and his son, George, have purchased the Crystal Mine in the Bohemia District, Lane County, Oregon, from George McQueen, and have organized the Lead Crystal Mining Company. A crew has been engaged to begin development on a 2,000-foot tunnel, and the work is expected to start soon.
    The Millionaire gold mine, four miles east of Gold Hill, Oregon, which has been closed down due to litigation for a number of years, and sold last year by the court to the lien holders with M. S. Johnson of Gold Hill at the head, has been sold to Alexander Moe and associates of Los Angeles, California. Engineer Knotts, R.F.D. Central Point, Oregon, is in charge, and is unwavering the 400-foot working shaft to the 200-foot level. This property is equipped with electrically driven machinery, including two 1,500-pound stamp mills. A new type mill will be installed when the mine is in readiness. It will be manufactured by Moe, featuring a stamp mill and oil flotation. The ore bodies are large and of low grade. The new owner announced that he will spend a large sum in developing the mine.
    Thomas A. Sweeney of Portland, Oregon, hydraulic contractor, has been awarded the contract for the construction and installation of a 600-horsepower power plant, dams, and canals, at the Blue Ledge Copper Mine, near Copper, California. The cost is said to be approximately $100,000. The Consolidated Copper Company is operating the mine and maintains headquarters at Medford, Oregon. George F. Hughes is local manager.
    The road from the mine to Medford, the shipping point, and which is 45 miles distant, is being repaired at an expense of $9,000, to resume shipping copper ore to the Tacoma smelter. Plans are to build a 100-ton reduction plant at the mine and a power plant for its operation. Initial shipments will be from ore mined and placed on the dump that runs less than 15 percent copper. A crew of 12 men has been employed for some time.
    It is understood that a new ledge of ore has been cut in the Randall Group mining claims in the Mormon Basin in Oregon, operated under lease by G. F. Bodfish of Rogue River. Development work on this and other properties is progressing favorably and indicates that the Mormon Basin is coming back into prominence.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, September 30, 1929

    Consummation of the sale of the Blue Ledge copper mine, 45 miles from Medford, Oregon, has resulted in the organization of the Consolidated Copper Company, which will reopen and operate the property. The new concern is made up of eastern, and middle western investors, with George F. Hughes, local manager, Liberty Building, Medford, Oregon. While the Blue Ledge is four miles south of the Oregon-California state line, in Siskiyou County, California, the outlet to shipping is through the Oregon country.
    The property was formerly owned by the American Smelting and Refining Company, which acquired the property late in 1928 from the Mexican Smelting and Refining Company, a subsidiary of the Compañia Metalúrgica Mexicana. Dr. J. F. Reddy of Medford, representing a syndicate who made the recent deal involving nearly $750,000, took an option on the property from the late owners about the first of the year.
    A Los Angeles group headed by J. B. Root and B. F. Miller, Jr. were bidding on the property for several months and it had been reported that they had exercised their option, but recent developments indicate that they have pooled their interests with the eastern and middle western investors. The Blue Ledge was a heavy shipper of copper ore to the American Smelting and Refining Company's smelter at Tacoma during the war period, and continued until the total suspension of the copper industry in 1920. It has been closed ever since.
    The new owners have incorporated a subsidiary Oregon company, the Consolidated Light and Power Company, to supply the mine with electric lights and power. Waters of Elliott Creek and the middle fork of the Applegate River, in California, and Carberry Creek, in Oregon, will be utilized to develop the power. Siskiyou County in California, Jackson County in Oregon, and the national Forest Service are spending approximately $30,000 in rebuilding the road from the mine to the shipping point at Medford.
    Many new hotels and office buildings are being equipped not only with brass piping, but copper radiators as well.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, October 15, 1929

    It is understood that the War Eagle Mine in the Meadows District, near Gold Hill, Oregon, is being cleaned up, under the direction of George Schumacher of Medford, Oregon. The Chicago Trust Company recently acquired the property by mortgage foreclosure proceedings.
    The Oregon Exploration Company, William Cavanagh, president, 531 Railway Exchange Building, Portland, Oregon, has appointed a committee to estimate the money needed to develop its property near Riddle to the point where the work can be financed through the shipments of ore. F. Reed McBride of Portland is one of the shareholders. He recently visited the mine accompanied by a Spokane engineer.
    The Preston Peak copper mine, lying just over the California line and accessible only through Waldo, Oregon, 20 miles from the mine, has been sold to Mark Killiam of Santa Barbara, William H. Thompson of Pasadena, and Edgar Wallace of Los Angeles, all California mine operators. Twenty years ago the mine was a heavy producer, but has been idle since and owned by a New York estate. Sixty miles to shipping has proved prohibitive, but the recent completion of the Redwood Highway within 20 miles of the property, and modern trucking facilities, have made reopening possible. The new owners will reopen the mine at once and ship ore to the Tacoma smelter. Waters Creek, 15 miles out from Grants Pass, Oregon, is the nearest shipping point.
    Four suits have been filed against the Wearea Mining Corporation and C. M. Huddle, one of the largest stockholders and former manager of the Almeda Mine, near Grants Pass, Oregon, to restrain operations on the Riverside placer extension claim, and the Fraser placer claim. The Wearea Company recently announced the reopening of the Almeda Mine, which has been closed since 1916.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, October 15, 1929

    A permit has been granted to the Lucky Boy Mining Company to sell 25,000 shares of its stock at $1 par value. Funds will be used in equipping the mine and bringing it into production. The officers of the company are: W. N. Long, president; J. S. Miller, vice-president and engineer in charge; C. G. Larsen, secretary and treasurer. Headquarters are in the Tiffany Building, Eugene, Oregon.
    Two carloads of machinery, including a 120-horsepower diesel engine and an air compressor, have arrived at the Reeves mine, in the Silver Peak district, near Riddle, Oregon. Lotz and Larson own the mine and have made several shipments of ore, carrying silver and gold values.
    H. C. Wilmot and associates of Vancouver, British Columbia, have purchased the Bonanza quicksilver mine, east of Sutherlin, Oregon. The sum of $200,000 is said to have changed hands in the deal. The same interests are said to have taken an option on the Shirley Ranch of 117 acres, adjoining the Bonanza property on the north. Tentative plans are to install a furnace of about 100 tons capacity and some other equipment.
    Col. Frank M. Leland has been purchasing machinery in San Francisco for the Lone Star Mine in Star Gulch, about five miles from Grants Pass, Oregon, where tests have been made of the gravel during the last six months and average $1.25 per yard. Richard M. Reeves is in charge at the mine, and as soon as there is enough water mining will be started.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, October 30, 1929

    The Ashland Mine, 4 miles from Ashland, Oregon, has been sold. The property consists of about 430 acres that has produced over $1,000,000 from $15 to $50 ore.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, June 15, 1930

    The West Coast Metals Company has started production on its property in Southern Oregon, near Althouse Creek. A five-mile road has been built to the property, supplies and equipment hauled in, ditches repaired, and hydraulic plants built, with enough water to power two giants up to mid-July. The streambed of the Althouse will be mined out first, then bench ground, and then the Old Blue Channel, which parallels the Upper Althouse.
    Frank Meyers, new operator of the Argo Mine, near Galice, Oregon, is to start production again in a few days. This property has produced gold profitably in the past, and is equipped with a 16-ton rotary ball and tube mill.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, July 15, 1930

    A 100-ton flotation plant is to be built at the Queen of Bronze mine, near Takilma, Oregon, after 185,000 tons of moderate-value grade gold and copper ore has been blocked out for milling. Values are stated to be around $41/ton.
    A crew of 10 men is working the Llano de Oro mines, near Waldo, Oregon. On behalf of the drainage is cut, 50 feet deep and 2 miles long, is now completed. Regular operations consist of open-cut hydraulic placer mining work to recover values in gold and platinum. 1500 tons of gravel are handled daily. The company owns 4300 acres.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, August 15, 1930


    The Marion-Bell gold mine on Poorman's Creek, five miles from Jacksonville, Oregon, is reporting ore worth $120/ton. The mining claim comprises 160 acres.
    $400 worth of gold has been mined from a hole 20 feet deep at the Big Six mine, three miles west of Jacksonville, Oregon. The gold was reduced from 2½ tons of ore.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, October 30, 1930

    The Deep Channel gold placers, better known as the old Sailor Diggings, has been reopened in the Waldo District, with new ownership.
    Applegate Mines, Inc., are about to operate three hydraulic mines in the Buncom District, not far from Medford, Oregon. The old China Ditch from the Little Applegate River has been reconditioned with new 30-inch pipe, connecting with the scene of operations.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, January 30, 1931

    C. A. Hartley of Medford, Oregon, has recently opened valuable gold quartz property on Foots Creek, out from Gold Hill. This property is located over the hill from the famous Kubli gold mine on Galls Creek, rich in high-grade telluride ore.
    Considerable free-milling gold ore has been blocked out in the J. C. L. Mine near Glendale, Oregon. The ground is being reopened and operated by the Lewis family of Portland, who own valuable gold and copper mines in the Glendale, Galice and Grants Pass districts.
    Principals have made the final payment on 1300 acres, known as the Osgood and Fry Gulch placers, in the Waldo Mining District in Oregon.
    The famous Black Channel gold placers on Foots Creek, 7 miles from Gold Hill, Oregon, have been leased to L. L. Smith. This property adjoins other rich placers in the area.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, February 15, 1931

    Free-milling ore, running $500/ton in gold, has been opened on the west fork of Mule Creek, not far from Gold Beach, Oregon. The discovery was made in a drift tunnel, not far below the surface.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, February 28, 1931

Eastern Concern Has Extensive Project Under Way;
Heavy Pay Lode Discovered in Back Yard of Jacksonville's Mayor.

    Convinced that beneath the mountainous and green-clad terrain of the Rogue River country there reposes a vast treasure of wealth in gold, copper, chrome, cinnabar and coal, men of vision in Southern Oregon at last have arrived at some realization of the great future that will come from proper development of these resources.
    Doubtless it will be a revelation to many to hear that at present gold mining in Southern Oregon is in a stage of development such as it has never known before, and the fact is that before long gold mining activity in the Rogue River Valley will be at its height. Southern Oregon, with its placer mines, is destined to rank as one of the foremost gold mining regions in the West.
    Jacksonville, once the seat of government for the old Oregon Territory [not true], where that well-known cry, "Thar's gold in them thar hills" was a familiar one, today is witnessing a revival of gold mining, and many an old-timer has returned to the task with a will, wielding a pick and shovel in his own back yard. Backyard mining is nothing new in Jacksonville, but since the discovery only a few weeks ago of a heavy pay lode just off the main street, behind the frame house of John R. MacIntosh, mayor of the town, digging has been well under way in the yard, and MacIntosh and two of his pals have been hard at work, and making excellent wages.
Gold Mine in Back Yard.
    Although the yard is littered with empty bean and milk cans and little chicks hop hither and yon, while sleek, snub-nosed porkers create their share of excitement, it's a gold mine just the same, and the drift on which the men are working 12 feet down on bedrock is four feet thick, containing an extremely rich ore.
    The men are using the same old rockers which were so widely utilized in California and Oregon during gold rush days. Even with this crude equipment, the three are able to pull out $10 or $12 apiece each day. They are saving up to buy equipment which will enable them to operate with a net profit of approximately $20 a day, on a larger scale. A piece of mining equipment known as a "long tom" would do the trick, they say.
    However, the Jacksonville backyard miners provide only a very small view of the entire picture. Mining men who know declare that the numerous creeks in the Rogue River Valley are fairly choked with gold, and with dredging operations would yield approximately $50,000 a month as regularly as clockwork. Such operations in a comparatively small acreage would provide eight or ten years of work for a powerful dredge.
    There are many mines in the Jacksonville, Applegate and Myrtle Creek areas of Southern Oregon, and these mines have never been worked, although their owners dream dreams of untold wealth someday when the big boom comes. And this boom, it is indicated, is not far off.
    The mere fact that powerful eastern interests with unlimited capital are backing one of the greatest mining projects in the West, and that the importance of this project is being minimized to keep the value of Southern Oregon mines at a lower level, is one indication of the mining possibilities in that region. These possibilities are far more vast than mining men in the past have ever dreamed they could be. But the perfection of mining equipment now makes it possible to derive the utmost from a good-producing property.
    Take the Rogue River Gold Company, for example, operating a 100,000-ton dredge on Foots Creek near Gold Hill, a famous gold mining center. This dredge operates at full capacity for 24 hours a day, halted by no obstacle, eating its way stubbornly into the loamy soil to bedrock, digesting the gold from the rich deposits in the Foots Creek area in its ponderous and complicated maws. Whole forests must be leveled to make way for this monster of steel and electricity.
    The dredge has been there for two years, but few people who have known that the dredge even existed have no more regard for it than they would have for a mud scow.
Project Little Publicized.
    The reason for this ignorance of what is going on in the Foots Creek district is doubtless that the operators of the dredge have succeeded in carefully preventing any information from emanating to the public or the newspaper concerning its operations. Big-scale gold miners do not care to permit the knowledge of their operations to become general, because of the fear of gold robberies and other troubles.
    Newspaper men who have endeavored to obtain details of the operations, such as data on costs and profits, have been rebuffed in every attempt. Furthermore, when the state bureau of mines recently issued the figures for gold production in Oregon during the last year the yield taken from Foots Creek by the Rogue River Gold Company was not listed and the figures given, according to mining men, fell far short of what they actually should have been.
    Of course, that is the way of big business. And the gold mining industry of Southern Oregon is big business, indeed, if it is what the Foots Creek dredging project indicates. The fact is that publicity enhances the value of mining property, and when the worth of certain diggings becomes known the sum which eastern capital must pay for such mining property is considerably more than it would be otherwise.
    Recently the Medford Daily News carried a front-page story under an eight-column headline in which it was stated that the same capital financing the Foots Creek dredge was planning to construct two large stamping mills, one in the lower Applegate country at the Humdinger mine, which, by the way, is a famous old producer, the surface of which has hardly been scratched as yet.
    The other property is the old Continental mine in the Myrtle Creek sector between Grants Pass and Roseburg, another famous producer. Both mines have been shut down for many years, due to lack of capital and lack of interest in the dormant gold mining industry. The Humdinger, according to the story which appeared in the Medford newspaper, was purchased at a cost of $20,000, but the ore which is already blocked out there for milling is said by mining men who know the property to be worth $1,000,000, and contains an unknown quantity of ore as yet unblocked.
    The eastern interests financing the Foots Creek operations paid $400,000 for the dredge which is now in operation there, and purchased the land on which the project is being carried out for $200,000. Nearly a year was spent by the company in sinking shafts and prospecting. When engineers reported the creek was worth working, capital literally was poured into the venture, and the project has been steadily functioning ever since. It is estimated that the dredge will operate at tremendous profits for the next eight or ten years in the same vicinity.
    There is little money in the Rogue River country for mining purposes, although the banks are amply able to finance them. The fruit industry, however, has detracted from interest in the mines. It is for this reason that the profits taken from Southern Oregon's chief mine developments are sent to eastern interests, while the people who live next door to this gold field have the privilege of selling their mines for a mere pittance, and of working in the mines for $5 a day.
Oregonian, Portland, March 15, 1931, page 48

    P. B. Wickham, owner of the Ashland Mine, Ashland, Oregon, has purchased the Wagner Ranch, which adjoins the Ashland Mine in the north, and which covers the continuation of the Ashland vein system for ½ of a mile. This brings the entire holding up to 600 acres. A 10-stamp mill is on the property, and with the acquisition, the workings will be dewatered and developed further after the south shaft is reopened. Three veins, the Nutshell, Rogers, and the Roach, will be further explored, and the vein intersection exploited.
    The Osgood placer mine, under the supervision of J. T. Logan, Takilma, Oregon, has completed the installation of elevators and has started working three shifts of miners. The property is operated by the Plateureke Mining Company.
    The Western Metals Mines Company is resuming work on its Black Jack and Sugar Pine claims, near Grants Pass, Oregon. The company is stockpiling sufficient ore to continue operations during the coming fall and winter. The property is equipped with a 10-stamp mill, amalgamating plates, and Wilfley tables, driven by water power. An additional battery is to be built on the site, doubling reduction efforts.
    J. J. Siedel of Grants Pass, Oregon, reports a strike of high grade free-milling gold ore running $4000/ton in gold, on the Victor Mine. Excessive water flowing into the mine is hindering full development of the stope. The Victor Mine is located on Birch Creek, one of the pioneer bonanza diggings in southwest Oregon. Much of the 1000 feet of underground workings in the mine were done by hand methods, though overall production is a history of strikes on rich ore.
    For the first time in 50 years of production, the Medford Water, Power, and Development Company, Medford, Oregon, is idle at present for lack of water for placer mining.
    Fred Voit of Agness, Oregon, is pushing two tunnels on his Indigo gold property, and on the Gold Ridge property. Higher grade gold ore is more consistent on the Indigo, while the Gold Ridge produces alternating milling grade and high-grade pocket gold.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, March 30, 1931

    Charles S. Klingaman and J. W. Light have taken a lease on the famous granite deposit carrying gold and platinum on Pleasant Creek, six miles from Rogue River, Oregon, owned by J. D. French and W. E. Mosby, local men. The property is several hundred acres of mining ground, formerly operated and deeded by John C. Haynes of Pontiac, Mich., and several Michigan mining investors. Ore production is to start on May 1, 1931.
    Sixty placer gold claims have been filed on a new find in the extreme northeast corner of Jackson County, Oregon, seven miles from Prospect, on a plateau of the basalt Cascade Mountains, at an elevation of 5000 feet. Due to its geological formation, the area was always considered to be devoid of gold and other metals. C. W. West, of Portland, Oregon, decided to test ground that others ridiculed him over wanting to test, and made a rich find in virgin ground, carrying large and coarse gold nuggets. West has 56 of the claims that were filed.
    Robert Pepper and his brother are testing the mouth of China Creek on the South Fork of the Coquille River, for gold. The property is owned by the Coos Bay Lumber Company, and a deal to lease a portion of the ground near the Gant place is being worked out after favorable test results.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, April 15, 1931

    The South Umpqua Mining Company announces reopening of the Banfield gold-copper mine in Douglas County, Oregon, four miles south of Drew. The Banfield and several other prominent old-time mines in the Trail-Tiller District were discovered by the Umpqua Indians, and developed into production in the late 1890s. Due to isolation and lack of roads to Riddle, 35 miles away, also the nearest shipping point, mining in the district has been unsuccessful. However the recent completion of the Trail-Tiller cutoff road from the Pacific Highway is helping the resumption of mining in the district.
    Count George Hay DuBarry has purchased control of the Empire Mining and Development Company, which controls the Mule Mountain and Keystone groups of 21 mining claims in Curry County, Oregon. The main office of the company will be at Gold Beach, where DuBarry will spend most of his time. Paul G. Bischoff, metallurgical engineer, will be resident engineer on the project. The mine machinery at Keystone is to be repaired, along with the construction of an assay office, and the mill is to be reconditioned and enlarged so as to handle about 100 tons of ore per day. Company employees have blasted large rocks in the Rogue River, which has rendered the river more navigable from Gold Beach.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, June 30, 1931

A Gold Rush
    A "gold rush" is planned for Jackson County. It is to be a project to supply jobs to the jobless.
    County-owned land near Jacksonville will be worked under expert direction, with the county supplying lumber for "rockers" and a steam shovel for gouging out a channel. Wages or better have been made this autumn and winter by many who have mined in the Jacksonville area. In December $978 in gold dust and nuggets was cashed in one store in Jacksonville.
    What about gold, anyhow? What about deposits of gold in the many old mining camps in Oregon mountains and in many districts in which new mines might be opened?
    All the world is grasping for gold, clamoring for it and clinging to it whenever possible. There is anxiety in every nation about gold and the gold supply. The gold supply has become so scarce that a dozen nations have abandoned the gold standard.
    Who knows what might come of a "gold rush" planned in Jackson County for the unemployed?
    Lost so long ago that it came to be regarded as a myth, the famous "lost mine" of Little Applegate was recently found. For more than 60 years it was sought. Hundreds of gold hunters had vainly scoured the district.
    When nature created Jackson and Josephine counties they were literally underlain with gold. Rogue River from its source to its mouth was apparently lined with the yellow metal. Hidden deep in the gulches and hillsides are undoubtedly lodes and veins of ore from which time and the elements have strewn free gold through gravel on almost every stream in Josephine and Jackson counties.
    Someday the hidden sources of gold that filtered out in the many rich placer diggings in the two counties will be found. Who knows but the "gold rush" of the unemployed may uncover some of them.--Oregon Journal.
"Press Comment," Medford Mail Tribune, January 15, 1932, page 8

    Mining ventures in Jackson County, Oregon run into numbers although their net values may not be startling. There are sixty-one producing mines, with a production value of $95,087, last year in the county. Mineral production included gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc.
"Here and There," Niagara Falls Gazette, October 26, 1932, page 6

    Fifteen men are working at the Black Channel Property on Foots Creek, working placer gravels to depth of 20 feet..

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, November 15, 1932

Gold Hunters Remove or Excavate Around Jacksonville Buildings.
    To the Editor: A few days ago I visited the historic town of Jacksonville, where I was born in 1853, and I found the good old town being literally turned upside down by miners. Buildings are being removed and dwellings left standing alone with mines being developed all around them. One mine is being opened up right alongside of the famous United States Hotel, where President Hayes and party put up away back in the '70s.
    The old brewery is another landmark that is giving way to the rush for gold where the miners of early days used to stop for a glass of beer on their way into town. There is also a new quartz mill crushing ore right on the edge of town. The miners are having varied success, all the way from $1 to $30 per day.
    There are miners scattered out all over the county and taking out gold where there has been no mining done for years and years. The chamber of commerce at Medford and the mining association are doing everything in their power to aid them in the work. Owners of mining property are letting them mine without royalty and it has helped many a family to buy their eats.
    I had the privilege a short time ago of witnessing the cleanup at the celebrated Sterling mine, which was made only after a short run on account of lack of water. It was a great sight, after they removed the riffles, to see the gold as it moved along behind the sand and gravel and see the foreman scoop it up with a small shovel--only a short run, but probably $2000. Mr. Blakely, the owner, told me that the Sterling mine made an average cleanup of $60,000 for thirty years. He said they were going to extend the ditch this summer and would own enough ground to run them another 50 years. Over 200 men have been allowed to mine along the creek on Mr. Blakely's ground free. No royalty, which is certainly very kind of Mr. Blakely, and kept many of them off the bread line.
    Well, things are looking up and we sure have a great president.
    Medford, Or.
Oregonian, Portland, May 16, 1933, page 6

    Pumping gold out of the Rogue River is an experiment to be tried by Seattle men who are assembling equipment at Almeda. The most modern gold-saving devices will be used, and the plant will be equipped to handle 75 yards of gravel per hour.
"Town Briefs," The Tattler, Medford, July 7, 1933, page 1

    MEDFORD, Jan. 26. (Special.)--As the result of backyard mines causing the streets to settle, the Jacksonville city government is contemplating damage action against property owners held responsible for tunneling under the city streets.
    Caution signs were placed today around one or two places on [California] Street that were starting to settle. It is feared tunnels underneath may develop holes. Several spots are sagging on Fourth Street, and caution is being taken in traveling over it, Mayor Wesley Hartman said.
    The Dave Dorn residence on East 
[California] Street and his woodshed suffered most from a tunnel cave-in. Thirty-two truckloads of dirt were used to bring his house to a normal position from a dangerous angle. A corner of the Johnson dwelling sank badly. One light pole was a victim of a cave-in.
    The city council in an attempt to stop street tunneling learned from the state highway commission that property owners possessed ground halfway across the street.
Oregonian, Portland, January 27, 1935, page 1

    Dave Dorn lives on East 
[California] Street in Jacksonville, Southern Oregon's history-wrapped mining capital of early days. Last week when the walls of Dave's house started to crack he was mildly interested. When the domicile commenced to tip and the woodshed assumed a crazy angle he began to suspect that something might be wrong.
    Dave dashed outside, took one look and hollered for help. After 32 truckloads of dirt had been hauled to his lot and tamped down the perpendicular lines of his abode again became what the builder intended them to be.
    Dorn was not the only Jacksonville resident who got a big surprise last week, for the pioneer town was literally falling into itself as water from recent heavy rains percolated through the surface and carried the soil into the honeycomb of tunnels which underlies the city.
    Had the caving-in been confined to back yards, where the phenomenon was most pronounced, little notice would have been taken. But when chunks started to fall out of the streets the council and citizenry in general grew perturbed.
    Fourth Street had several dips in it, and signs warning the public were placed on 
[California] Street, where similar manifestations were indicated. The bottom fell away from light poles, leaving them suspended by the wires on the cross arms.
    The Chinese, who burrowed like rabbits under a section of San Francisco, as the earthquake--pardon--fire revealed, also had a part in making Jacksonville porous, according to pioneers. One whole street in the Oregon town has been settling since the '80s, but so gradually that it caused little comment. A tunnel dug by sons of Cathay 30 feet under the surface in their search for gold is held responsible for this settling.
    Local historians report that scores of tunnels, some of them crisscrossing, some of them diving under or zooming above when they met a crosscut, underlie Jacksonville. For years small sections of these have been caving in.
    Gold worth millions has been taken out of Jacksonville and nearby districts, and new strikes worth millions more may be made any day. Several concerns are now engaged in large-scale operations with modern equipment.
    The most glamorous attractions, however, are the backyard mines manned by a couple of men equipped with pick and shovel, hand windlass and bucket. When hard times hit, dozens of men went to work in an effort to make "ham-and" wages. Then official ukase made gold worth $35 an ounce, and for many of these primitive operators "ham-and" became chicken.
    Some backyard diggings are said to produce from an ounce up in dust daily with a few, whose owners maintain the greatest secrecy, reported producing as much as five ounces daily on occasion.
    Meanwhile Jacksonville is becoming a big molehill. Sensing the situation, the town council made an effort to stop tunneling under the streets, but was informed that property owners' rights extended halfway across the streets.
    Now the council is considering possible damage actions as the result of the cave-ins.
Arthur Jones, "The Week in the Northwest," Oregonian, Portland, February 10, 1935, page B1

    Rogue River Valley farms benefited yesterday by the most substantial soaking in two years, but at Jacksonville "backyard mines" and a portion of California Street crumbled.
"Blizzards Rake Central Oregon," Oregonian, Portland, February 5, 1937, page 2

Gold Fever Rises in Oregon Town: Historic Church May Hide Nuggets
Building Will Be Razed if Sold to Private Interests; More Than $1,000,000 in Ore Still Available.

By United Press.
    JACKSONVILLE, Ore., April 3.--The Methodist Church here, built in 1853 and said to be the oldest Protestant church west of the Rocky Mountains, may be razed to make way for another of Jacksonville's "backyard" mines.
    During the Depression almost every resident of Jacksonville, the second oldest city in Oregon, sank a shaft in his yard and went into gold mining on a small scale. Some made as high as $500 in a single day working over territory that had been combed 50 years before.
    It has been estimated that more than $1,000,000 in gold nuggets rests in the three unexploited spots in Jacksonville--the site of the old church, the old courthouse grounds now abandoned since the county seat moved five miles east to Medford, and California Street, the main thoroughfare.
    The county court has rejected hundreds of applications to mine the courthouse grounds, the church had refused mining rights, and the city council had vigorously protested all efforts to mine under California Street, which in 1850 [sic] rang to the boots of miners at one of Oregon's richest gold strikes.
    Two rich creek beds run through the town--Daisy and Jackson creeks--carrying placer gold. The church and the courthouse are near these creek beds, but their grounds are as yet unworked and a mystery as far as the yellow metal content is known.
    A few years ago, despite the efforts of the city council, amateur miners "drifted" their tunnels under California Street and a large block of paving caved in. Cave-ins over abandoned mines are not uncommon.
    If the church is sold to private interests--and the Methodist council has announced it is on the block--the building probably will be razed and several shafts sunk. Residents hope to retain the building as an historic landmark and make a museum of it. It is said gamblers helped to build it.
The Repository, Canton, Ohio, April 4, 1937, page 15

Rogue River Valley's Early History  Reviewed
Part V
The Gold Rushes and Developments Therefrom
    Gold was first discovered in Oregon on Canyon and Josephine creeks in Illinois Valley, southwest of Rogue River Valley. [Gold was discovered in Southern Oregon previously, but not extensively mined.] It was found there in 1851 by several prospectors coming north over the mountains from the Klamath River in California. Even so, the actual development of the Rogue River Valley preceded that of the Illinois Valley by about four years. Daniel Fisher, John E. Ross, Nathaniel Mitchell and James Tuffs were among the very first to mine in the Illinois Valley, and very shortly they all came into the Rogue River Valley to settle.
    During Indian troubles in June 1851 Major Kearny dispatched a subordinate officer to the Illinois Valley. A number of miners there responded to the call and proceeded to Camp Stuart on Bear Creek, where they served until released by the Gaines' Peace Treaty.
Gold Found Here in '52
    In January 1852, James Clugage and J. R. Pool, owners of a mule pack train carrying supplies between Willamette Valley and Yreka, stopped to rest their animals a few days near Bear Creek. Clugage, familiar with gold prospecting in Northern California, wandered into the foothills on the west side of the valley to Jackson Creek and there, in Rich Gulch, struck gold. The first mining claims were taken up by Clugage, Pool and their associates, Sykes, James Skinner and Wilson.
    The news traveled fast. Miners poured in from the Willamette Valley and from the gold fields in California. Emigrant wagon trains, fresh from the East, halted and the menfolks rushed to stake claims. Many, already settled on farms, left their holdings to try their luck in the gravel bars.
    In February every foot of Rich Gulch had been claimed and staked out. By March there were a hundred or a hundred and fifty men working in Jackson Creek. Young Skinner took out a decent fortune in a few weeks' work. Later "Old Man Shively" took $50,000 from the gulch that bears his name.
    The mining effort soon spread out, and all nearby creeks, gulches and hillsides were prospected. More strikes were made including one on the Cameron place at Forest Creek [then called Jackass Creek], which was invaded by a small army of miners. Other strikes were made on Big and Little Applegate forks and on Palmer and Sterling creeks. By midsummer not less than a thousand miners were engaged.
Althouse Rich Find
    In the spring of 1852 immigration had set entirely towards Jacksonville. Then, in the fall, Althouse Diggings were discovered and ten miles or more were worked, with pay dirt surpassing any in Jacksonville district. Hundreds of claims were staked there. Gold was then discovered in Democrat Gulch, separated from Althouse by a divide; and at Sailor's Diggings (Waldo), between east and west forks of the Illinois River. Sailor's Diggings was named for its discoverers who are said to have deserted their ship in Crescent City port, in their excitement for gold. [Luther Hasbrouck recalls the sailors were aboard a schooner wrecked at Crescent City.] A large amount of gold was taken from both localities.
    More new strikes were made that year in Rogue River Valley where a big one occurred at Willow Springs. Gold was discovered also on Galice Creek in northeastern Josephine County.
    During the summer the valley population was greatly increased by the Snelling train of 159 wagons, coming via the "Southern Pass Route" [sic--the "Southern Route"] and escorted into Yreka and on to Jacksonville by Captain Ross and the Jacksonville volunteers. This large group consisted of 400 men, 120 women, 170 children, 2600 cattle, 1300 sheep, 140 loose horses and 40 mules, with agriculture and household implements.
    The hard winter of 1852 and 1853 caused many miners to leave the Illinois Valley in search of food, until pack trains carrying provisions from Crescent City arrived in the spring, But in the summer of 1853 nearly a thousand men were mining there again.
    Every spot where gold was likely to be found was prospected in the Illinois and Rogue River valleys, and a steady stream of miners continued to pour in via the Siskiyou route, from the Willamette Valley and from Crescent City.
Trade Flourishes
    With such an influx of miners and emigrants there sprung up a great demand for the necessaries of life, from whence packers and merchants entered upon their occupations and trade took root and flourished. Jacksonville, the center of activities and trade, mushroomed first in Rogue River Valley. Kerbyville followed the next year in the Illinois Valley.
    About ten miles west of Jacksonville, Uniontown (Logtown) sprang up as a miners' supply base. Its buildings were built of heavy logs for protection against the elements and the Indians, whence its name. [It was more likely named after resident Francis Logg.] That community was at the junction of Forest and Poorman's creeks, from which rich deposits were being taken. Near Althouse, Browntown and "Hogtown"; and near Waldo, Frenchtown served the same purpose. Later Buncom was built for Sterling's supply base.
    More placer discoveries were made on Foots Creek, Big Bar on Rogue River, , Sardine Creek, Wards Creek, Evans Creek, Pheasant Creek and Galls Creek. They produced coarse placer gold. Then rich strikes were made on Grave Creek, Jumpoff Joe, Louse and Coyote creeks in northern Josephine County, and at Cow Creek near the Douglas County line. In the upper Bear Creek Valley, gold was discovered on Wagner Creek and at the Forty-Nine Diggings near Phoenix.
    In all these rich placer grounds all the earliest work was done with pick, shovel, pan and rocker (cradle). Then sluice boxes were made, using the water from the gulches and streams to wash the pay dirt.
Indians Busy, Too
    During the Indian wars, all of which took place during the gold rush, most of the miners came into Jacksonville or to the nearest fortified settlements, and returned to work just as soon as the disturbance was quelled in their particular locality. [Indian wars usually took place when there was no water available for sluicing.] Some miners who were caught alone or in small groups were brutally murdered by the Indians and their camps or cabins were set fire to. Yet, there are several tales about miners who braved a surprise attack and survived, including nearly a hundred men who persisted in working the gravels of Big Bar on Rogue River at intervals between distinguishing themselves as Capt. Lamerick's volunteers.
    By 1853 nearly all the fertile lands along Bear Creek and Rogue River had been claimed, mainly by Oregon farmers who had come down from Willamette Valley. The larger portion of the mining camp population were Californians. Many men engaged in both occupations, farming in the summer and mining in winter while the streams were high.
    Rapid development was taking place throughout the valleys. The communities and small towns included: Jacksonville, Ashland Mills, Wagner (Talent), Phoenix, Willow Springs. The Dardanelles, Woodville (Rogue River), Brownsboro, Eagle Point, Ruch, Williams Creek, Murphy; and in the Illinois Valley: Pearsoll Bar and Deer Creek and near Cow Creek, Galesville, and Leland on Grave Creek.
    In 1856 the gravel bars were being worked with renewed vigor and improved methods. The output of gold had then risen to $3,000,000 annually, including the Jacksonville, Althouse, Cow and Grave creeks and ocean beach districts.
Chinese Come
    Oriental miners began to come into the mining districts. The Marysville newspaper, dated Sept. 9, 1856, reported: "The Chinese are going to Jacksonville from Yreka to avoid the foreign miner's tax imposed in California."
    Cheap labor in experienced miners had been imported from China during the California gold rush. The Chinese had been shipped to the United States in large numbers. They worked under Chinese leaders, going quietly to the mining districts. They moved from one "worked-out" locality to another, reworking each with considerable profit and sending their gains back to China.
    So, John Chinaman came to Oregon, dog-trotting or trudging along the roadsides, avoiding stages, emigrant and freight wagons, and clearing the trail for mule pack trains, horseback riders and white men on foot. They came in picturesque native costume, each with a pole slung across his shoulders, pendant from either end of which was about fifty pounds or more weight of provisions, clothes and tools.
    Great numbers crowded the mining areas before their presence was realized. They worked everywhere--in Jacksonville district, in Applegate district, on Canyon and Josephine creeks, in Althouse district and on Cow Creek. Their contracts belied their numbers; for example 20 Chinese leased the "worked-out" Cameron mine on the Applegate and, under the leadership of Jim Ling [Gin Lin], a hundred Chinese worked it and took out $500,000.
    They piled boulders, dug long water ditches to convey water to the mines, scraped tiny fissures in bedrock with a Chinese knife made for such a purpose, brushed the bedrock with their "Chinese miner's broom," and used both placer and hydraulic methods of mining. The later method of mining was coming into general usage here then. It was later estimated that 1800 Chinese worked in the Jacksonville district and nearly 3000 at one time worked in the Illinois Valley.
    Some Hawaiian laborers also came, but in much smaller numbers. A camp near Jacksonville bore the name "Kanaka Flat" in recognition of their presence.
Districts Divided
    The mining districts became somewhat divided when Josephine County was set aside from Jackson County on January 22, 1856. Then, in 1857 and 1858, Josephine County mines lost to the Fraser River excitement.
    Hydraulic method of mining way extensively used here by 1859. Expensive hydraulic equipment capable of handling more ore in a day than the old prospector could handle in a season was a great improvement. Ditches carried the water to the mining area and to a reservoir. From there it was piped to the "giant head" and forced out at great pressure. With the sway of the powerful "giant" and a steady flow of backwash, hills were washed down to bedrock, and the gold-bearing gravel was washed into sluice boxes. The gold particles, being heaviest, lodged against riffles in the bottom of the boxes. The fine gold was often gathered by the use of quicksilver.
    Nearly all of the early placer mines have been reworked by hydraulic methods.
First Quartz Mine
    The valley's first quartz mine was Hick's Lead on the left fork of Jackson Creek, above Farmer's Flat. It was discovered in 1859 by Sonora Hicks and his brother. It yielded $1,000 in two hours.
    The second quartz locality was the famous Gold Hill Lode, discovered the same year by Mr. Graham, who took George Ish, James Hayes, Thomas Chavner and John Long as partners. The first quartz mill in the valley was built there. It was purchased in San Francisco and shipped to the mine by the firm of Klippel, McLaughlin and Williams at a cost of $12,000, including the freight; $400,000 was taken out the next year.
    Henry Klippel, who was called "The Father of Quartz Mining in Southern Oregon," found a piece of quartz mixed with gold weighing 13 ounces which yielded $100.
    Swinden Ledge on John Swinden's donation claim near Gold Hill was discovered in 1859. A shaft was dug and the quartz was reduced by arrastra. The McDonough and Slump claims were nearby.
    The Foots Creek mines of Johnson, Lyons and Peebler were discovered that year also. In Shively's Gulch on Jackson Creek a quartz ledge was discovered and called Holman Ledge, after its discoverer. It was worked by a mill erected by Henry Pape, and yielded $10,000. At Davenport Claim on the right branch of Jackson Creek, $75 per ton was obtained by an 8-stamp mill. It was exhausted within a year and the engine was used in a sawmill on Forest Creek. The stamp battery was used on Wagner Creek where Anderson and Rockfellow were working a quartz lead. The boiler of another smaller mill with an amalgamating pan and settler, that first worked Timber and Shively's Gulch, was converted to use at Karewski's flour mill in Jacksonville.
Steamboat Largest
    The largest quartz mine in Jacksonville and Applegate districts was Fowler Ledge or Applegate Quartz Mine, later called Steamboat. It is on Carberry (right fork) of Big Applegate, was discovered by Frank Fitterman and William Billings, and yielded $18,500 in one week. Its owners included Captain Barnes, John Ely, William P. Ferris, W. W. Fowler. G. W. Keeler, D. L. Hopkins. McKay and O'Brien, Anderson and James T. Glenn. Its total yield was $350,000.
    An 8-stamp free gold mill was installed at Grants Pass in 1860.
    A 12-stamp mill, amalgamating in the battery and crushing wet, was located at The Dardanelles. It was later sold to Jewett Bros. and Douthitt and removed to Jewett mine near Vannoy's, and still later the engine powered a sawmill at Parker's on Big Butte Creek.
    There were many larger plants later, including the Greenback Mine that had 40 stamps.
Total Yield Huge
    The gold yield of the entire area between 1852 and 1870 has been estimated at between $15,000,000 and $18,000,000 [around half a billion dollars in today's purchasing power].
    The Ester Mine of Grave Creek was discovered by Browning and Son in 1876. The rock yielded $12 and $14 per ton.
    The Blackwell Lead was discovered near Gold Hill, and a rotary quartz crusher was installed in 1882. Its yield was from $10,000 to $12,000.
    Jewett Ledge yielded $40,000 and exhausted itself in 1874. Then Klippel and Beekman possessed it and installed an engine, boiler and two steam arrastras. After more profit it became exhausted again.
    Placer and hydraulic methods are still in use today near old Waldo district. In later years many of the earliest mines were remined a third time by dredge methods. Such is the case at old Logtown district (dredged out), Foots Creek (dredged out), Althouse (dredged out), and Evans Creek, where a dredge is now working.
    So different are the modern methods from the old--in recent years huge diesel bulldozers cleared ground at Sterling for a diesel shovel which scooped dirt into 5-yard trucks at a rate of 3,000 cubic feet a day, and worked day and night, excepting Sundays and holidays. The dirt was then put through the mill and sluice boxes, leaving the gold in the boxes. The bedrock was then gone over by a crew of men and the fine dirt shoveled into smaller sluice boxes.
Fossils Also Found
    Besides their wealth in gold, the mines of this area have produced many valuable specimens of prehistoric life.
    During hydraulic operations, the fossiliferous sandstones of Grave Creek revealed perfect shells of the giant mollusk and tiny gastropods of ancient marine life. In the Logtown and Sterling mines many tusks and bones of the woolly mammoth (ancient cousin to the elephant), were washed out. A perfect specimen of the skull and horns of an ancient broad-faced water oxen was unearthed more recently near the early Logtown district.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 17, 1948, page 7

    Quartz and granite were quarried steadily during 1949 by the Bristol Silica Company of Rogue River. The output was used for poultry grit and foundry furnace linings.
    Reporting on exploratory operations, in this part of the state [director of the
state Department of of Geology and Mineral Industries F. W.] Libbey said development work was undertaken in the area of the Gold Hill "pocket," where a lenticular body of molybdenite was uncovered in bulldozing. A nickel deposit at the Shamrock mine in northern Jackson County was explored on the surface and by underground work by the United States Bureau of Mines. The bureau's work at this property was a continuation of work started in 1948 following an investigation by the state Department of of Geology and Mineral Industries. Ore there is said to consist of pyrrhotite carrying nickel, copper and a small quantity of cobalt.
    Early in 1949 scheelite was found in the granite area near Ashland. Two shipments of the ore were made to a tungsten concentrating mill in California. Libbey said his department is making an investigation of the area including topographic and geologic mapping designed to obtain a structural pattern of the occurrences in order to assist prospecting.
    Oil prospecting was carried on during 1949 in the Harney Valley near Burns, where Weed and Poteet No. 1 was drilled by the United Company of Oregon, a Medford firm, to a depth of 6,480 feet and abandoned. A fire destroyed equipment at this test early in December 1949. Previously the United Company had drilled to a depth of 4,500 feet in Fay No. 1 and suspended drilling in favor of Weed and Poteet No. 1.
    Commenting on Oregon's waning gold mining industry, Libbey says there are only a few remnants of what was once the backbone of the state's metal production. He said the decline was caused partly by the ill effects of the war production board order which closed gold operations down without recourse in 1942, and partly by the fixed price of gold in relation to the low value of the dollar measured by what it will buy in labor and supplies.
"Lack of Incentive Chokes Off Production of Metals in State; County Mine Development Cited," Medford Mail Tribune, April 2, 1950, page 17

Explorations Start in Illinois Valley
    Cave Junction--Gold, which in the 1800s was mined in the Illinois Valley, may again enter the mining picture here if explorations at historic old Browntown and other portions of the once-rich Althouse area prove successful.
    Virgil Peck, president of the Peck Publishing Company, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Barr Smedley, a Utah engineer, have joined with Elwood Hussey, former mayor of Cave Junction, to start a development company in the Illinois Valley.
    With gold as their first objective, they have brought in a shovel, truck, compressor drills and pumps to the Browntown location, and exploration work will start as soon as revolving screens are in place.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 6, 1957, page 11

Last revised July 19, 2021