The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

The Great Depression, 1929-1939

Also see the Hoboes page.

    "Most prosperous town in Oregon" is the modest claim made for Medford by Floyd J. Cook, who arrived in Portland yesterday, "and we've got the money in the bank to prove it," he asserted. "The banks are just bulging with money. There was a big pear crop, and the price was good, so everyone is happy." Work has started on the pear crop of 1929 already; that is, the weather conditions are just right to put the pep into the future fruit. There is snow in the mountains which rim the Rogue River Valley, but none down in the orchards. There is something about this climatic arrangement which makes the valley particularly suitable for growing an extra fine quality of pears, and this climatic influence on the next crop is very important. At least that is the untechnical explanation given by Mr. Cook, while boasting about playing golf in shirtsleeves on the Medford links.--The Oregonian.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, January 10, 1929, page 2

    Judging by the responses received, our "Do You Remember" feature has made a decided hit; the "20 Years Ago" column being particularly appreciated.
    In the many comments received from old timers, there is one common note which might be expressed in the familiar complaint, "Them days has gone forever." One subscriber notes about what a pity it is that the spirit of 1909 is not in evidence today.
    Medford was a genuine "boomtown" 20 years ago. There WAS something doing every minute. People from all parts of the country were pouring into the city, the two small hotels were filled to the doors, and a tent city had to be put up to accommodate the overflow. Orchards were being sold as high as $2500 per acre, big deals were being closed by wire, the purchasers fearing they would lose out if their checks were put in the mail. It was a great time to be in Medford, and it is perfectly true "them days has gone forever."
    But there was another side of the picture. And as an aid in gaining this perspective, one should underline the word "DAYS." For, after about 400 of them, the stampede was over and in 90 more the "boom" had definitely busted. In 1911 Medford awoke and--what a headache! A majority of those attracted by the "easy money" departed, and it took the "biggest little city on the coast" nearly a decade to completely recover.
    So, as one of those who shared in this period of recuperation, we do not agree with "old timers" who deplore the fact that the "spirit of 1909" has departed. In fact, we much prefer the spirit and the conditions at present prevailing.
    Medford has grown up. The exuberance and extravagance of youth have been replaced by the sober sense and wisdom of maturity. Instead of building on the sands of hysteria and speculation, Medford is building upon the rock of constructive development and genuine achievement.
    In other words, we believe that the conditions in Medford today are not only better than they were 20 years ago, but better than they have ever been in the city's history. It is natural to paint the past in roseate colors; youth in retrospect is always the "perfect era." But calm analysis almost always discovers half of the picture to be hallucination.
    The "whoopee" has gone, but so has the hot air. The big kick has departed, but so has "the morning after." Those who wish the old days back may have them; but give us these new days, with less inflation and more production; with less ballyhoo and more performance--the good ship "Medford" going full steam ahead, with a firm hand on the wheel and a clear eye on the bridge, determined to steer clear of those rocks which no real boomtown of the "glorious past" ever avoided.
    Yesterday is dead! Long live today!
Medford Mail Tribune, May 8, 1929, page 4

S. S. Smith Quoted by Portland Journal on Medford Prosperity and Plans for Port Dedication
    That the prosperity and growth of Medford and Jackson County have not been more pronounced in 20 years than now was declared by S. Sumpter Smith of the Medford Mail Tribune while a Portland visitor.
    A substantial increase in real and personal property values is reported by the assessor, he said. The lumber mills and box factories have all been running six days a week. The Owen-Oregon mill, one of the largest in the state, has operated with two shifts of eight hours each.
    The Medford district is now harvesting one of the largest fruit crops in history and receiving good prices.
    About 2000 cars of pears have been shipped and an equal or larger number are yet to go to market. Cannery prices in Oregon and California for years run as high as $85 a ton for Bartletts and $110 for fall pears. Twenty cars of the famous Bosc pears are leaving for Detroit and, beginning October 7, Medford will put on a campaign to show the Detroiters that the famous Rogue River Bosc is the best fruit in the world. Professor Harriman of Oregon State College will assist in this campaign.
    This year a half million dollars was spent in Medford in the erection of new pre-cooling, cold storage and fruit packing plants and in repairs and enlargements to other plants.
    Nearing completion is the new Class A airport, three miles north of Medford, one of the largest and most modern plants on the coast. It is over a mile long and a half mile wide, with a hangar 110 by 140 feet that will accommodate 16 large planes. There is also a new administration building, pilots' quarters, waiting room, first aid station, restaurant, machine shop and other conveniences.
    The first flight from the new field by the Pacific Air Transport will occur October 2, but the official dedication will not take place until July 3, 4 and 5 of next year, when Medford will stage the biggest event so far programmed for Oregon.
    There will be air races day and night from Portland and Oakland to Medford. There will be also all kinds of air stunts in which many noted aviators will take part.
    Governor Patterson will ask that the aviation congress of the 17 western states will be held at Medford during this celebration.
    A feature will be a pageant depicting the evolution of transportation from the Grecian age to the present, including a vision of aviation now and hereafter. This will be in charge of Dorris Smith, noted for her work in Portland and Eugene pageants.
    The Ford Motor Company was so impressed with Medford's people's air-mindedness that they ran a page ad in 10 of the leading magazines telling of Medford's issue of $120,000 in bonds voted by a margin of 13 to 1 to build the airport, and citing the Medford instance to other cities as an example to follow. No other city in the country has received such recognition.
    Medford is on the through airway of the coast.
    The government has constructed one of its airways super-radio stations in Medford that will be put in operation soon on a 24-hour basis. This, with the new government aerological weather bureau station, will broadcast reports for all ships on the air.--Oregon Journal.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 27, 1929, page B2

Misery and Waywardness Unfolded--Pictured in Plea for Action--Blind Father Is Problem--Children Are Sufferers.
    The county court, at its regular session today, heard tales of human misery and distress, drab waywardness and appeals for county aid, because little children were the chief sufferers. The sordid details were outlined by friends of the stricken and Lillian Roberts, Red Cross aide, and the county health officials were instructed to investigate and report and act accordingly.
    Earl Fehl headed a delegation that asked the county court to render assistance to a family wherein the father had gone blind from a kidney disease within the week, and is wracked by path in what were described as "unbelievably squalid conditions." Fehl said that he had helped the family for four years. Not long ago, he told the court, the family had $2000 in the bank, a home without encumbrances and an automobile. These happy circumstances, Fehl charged, had been dissipated by wifely extravagance, and further claimed that aid to the family, as a whole, was useless.
    The stricken man has three children by his first wife, and one by the second--a babe of 18 months. The mother of the three, now residing near Salem, desires their custody, if the father will sign a release. The oldest, a boy of 14, has been living with his mother, but returned to be at the bedside of his father and refuses to leave.
    The court felt that the father should be sent to the county poor farm, where he could receive care and proper food. Fehl offered to pay a third of the expense if he was sent to a hospital. Final action was delayed.
Divorce Result
    The second case involves a mother and a 3-year-old child. The woman was given the custody of the child. The father is employed in Northern California. Another man is also implicated. The mother was removed to the hospital and the 3-year-old child left in the care of the other man. Kin seek the care and custody of the child.
    The Red Cross and county welfare agencies have the case in their hands.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 16, 1929, page 6

A Needless Insult
To the Editor:
    The exalted panegyric written of and concerning themselves by and for themselves, by those members of the self-adulation society who constitute a majority of the city administration, as appearing in the morning paper, is worthy of a high place in the archives of city government in this paternalistic age. Virtue is no longer its own reward, and these busy martyrs who so valiantly are consecrating their lives on the altar of public weal, need no longer await the evanescent hand of time for their laurel wreaths, but may fashion one of their own design and frank fulsomeness.
    It would seem that it is now in order to rout the bums out of the city parks and give employment to the city's unemployed in the erection of life-sized figures of the city administration affixing skirts of the proper length on the blushing figure of the goddess of Terpsichore.
    In the meantime, let us not overlook the fact that the Exalted Ruler of the Elks Lodge got out of a sickbed to come down to the temple home and protect the wives and daughters of its members from what he and other self-respecting members consider a gratuitous and unwarranted insult.
    The members of the Elks' lodge will remember that these gentlemen who hypocritically and obsequiously pretend to flatter the personnel of the lodge, are standing behind the police matron in the circulation of a vicious and slanderous innuendo against the lodge.
    As was well observed in your recent editorial, the fraternal organizations of Medford have no need of police control.
    Medford, January 8.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 8, 1930, page 4

    REESE CREEK, Ore., Jan. 8.--(Spl.)--H. Ball and son helped C. W. Wadden saw wood on the 4th, in exchange of work. Somewhat old-fashioned, but a brotherly act and cooperation at first hand, which if practiced more among us farmers would prove our salvation. Let's try it.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 8, 1930, page 6

Central Civic Council Banquet Brings Out Need of Support--
Local Industry and Home Products Lumber Use Cited--Fruit Business Reviewed--Products Listed.
    If the residents of Medford and the Rogue River Valley work together as one unit, a successful industrial future for Southern Oregon is assured, and if complete support is given the industries already here, other manufacturers will come to Medford, was the gist of several speeches made last night at the first annual community inventory dinner at the Hotel Medford, attended by over 200 people. K. I. Dazey, president of the newly organized Central Civic Council, presided as toastmaster.
    Leonard Read of Seattle, assistant manager of the western division of the United States Chamber of Commerce, delivered the closing address of the evening, "Growing Responsibilities of Business," touching matters of importance to all business men. Awards in the Christmas outdoor lighting contest were presented the winners by E. C. Gaddis of the chamber of commerce publicity committee as the first number on the evening's program.
Lumber Big Revenue.
    The lumber industry, providing a giant's share of Medford and Southern Oregon's payroll, was discussed by Gain Robinson, sales manager of the Owen-Oregon Lumber Company, which has its sawmill situated on the northern edge of the city.
    "There are at least 27 sawmills in this county," said Mr. Robinson in part, "in addition to a number of box factories, planing mills, cabinet works and retail lumber yards. Many of the smaller sawmills are located in out-of-the-way places and operate only intermittently throughout the year. I have not been able, therefore, to determine how much lumber is manufactured, nor have I been able to have available the number of men employed in the lumber industry.
550 Men Employed.
    "I can, however, give figures on the Owen-Oregon company, from which conclusions can be arrived at as to the value of this manufacturing concern, established here in 1924, but it was not until the spring of 1927 that the present plant was built. Last year 65,745,000 feet of lumber was produced, or 2975 carloads in round figures, and shipped approximately 2625 carloads or 57,681,000 feet. In producing this, 550 men were employed the entire year, the number exceeding that figure at certain times of the year. Allied industries give employment to 55 more.
    "There is ample timber available," continued Mr. Robinson, "for a cut of 125,000,000 feet a year, and our facilities will take care of such cut. Records reveal that the company shipped 7,081,000 feet locally last year. Our last year's sales therefore were a little over 10 percent of our production, and as closely as can be estimated. 5,000,000 feet were shipped in from outside points. From those figures were furnished 58 percent of the lumber used in this city, and at our labor costs the people of our city have contributed to northern sawmills to the extent of $62,500.
    "We do not expect local people to pay a premium for our product, against stock of equal quality shipped from the outside, but believe that everyone interested in the development of Medford should determine of his lumber dealer whether he is quoting on locally manufactured stock or lumber manufactured elsewhere," concluded Mr. Robinson.
Scherer Reviews Fruit.
    A review of the fruit industry by Paul Scherer of the Southern Oregon Sales Company revealed that 4961 carloads of apples and pears were shipped from Medford last year, having a value of over $6,000,000. Of this amount $2,000,000 were expended on payrolls in producing and marketing the fruit. M. Scherer, who returned recently from an eastern trip, reported that market conditions had greatly improved during the past three years and that Rogue River Valley fruit has come into its own in eastern markets, no longer giving first place to fruit grown in the Santa Clara district of California.
    The speaker also told of the success of the Winter Pear Committee in promoting the sale of 19 cars of Bosc pears in Detroit, where only a limited amount had been sold before, and reviewed the work of Professor Hartman of the Oregon State College, who has been spending several months in the East in the interest of valley fruit. Over half a million dollars was spent in Medford and Southern Oregon last year for increased fruit facilities, Mr. Scherer said in closing.
Farmers Prospered.
    That the farmer of Jackson County enjoyed a prosperous year in 1929 can be seen in the payment of taxes by sons of the soil, said County Judge Alex Sparrow in reviewing 1929 as a year for the farmers. He said that more prompt tax payments were made last year than for some time, and many delinquent payments were also made. He declared a big need of the county was the increase in dairy and beef herds, which could be made possible through the use of cheap capital, which, at the present 8-percent interest rate, is regarded too high for any farmer to pay.
    He also was not particularly impressed with the government farm relief measures, which, he said, attempted to solve the problem in an awkward manner. He declared the farmers must become better organized and lose a portion of the spirit of independence that has characterized them for so long.
Industrial Future.
    "The industrial future of Medford is just what you make it," W. H. Gore, president of the Medford National Bank, told his listeners in speaking of the industrial future of this city. "Over 50 percent of the state's payroll is in the lumber industry, which we must protect. In Jackson County our billions of feet of lumber can supply a payroll of $105,000,000 if the industry is properly protected by a tariff.
    "Our present payroll in Medford is estimated at $3,000,000 annually on industrial pursuits, in addition to the money expended by fruit interests," he said in part.
    He told of attempts to interest a pulp pear manufacturing concern to locate here, this section having the best pulp material on the coast, but the interested parties were not convinced the people of Southern Oregon would be behind the project in a determined manner. He also told of the railroad possibilities of Southern Oregon, and declared in the future the Union Pacific railroad would find its way to Medford, already having a good start in Eastern Oregon. He suggested people of Southern Oregon must organize to bring this dream to realization. He told of the tonnage such a line could take from this section and dwelt at short length on the mining resources of the section.
C. of C. Work Told.
    Carl Swigart, president of the Medford Chamber of Commerce, reviewed the work of that organization for 1929, including activities in industrial expansion, land settlement work, aviation, Community Chest, Better Business Bureau, agricultural council and other important civic work. The budget for the next year's work has been increased to include a larger territory.
    In making the closing address of the evening, Leonard Read declared that the United States Chamber of Commerce figures revealed that 15 percent of the retail stores in the United States are responsible for 85 percent of the nation's retail business. He stressed the buy-at-home idea, but declared the retailer was more at fault than the consumer. The retailer fails to have the goods wanted and fails to use proper methods.
    An observation that struck his listeners as an interesting disclosure came when Mr. Read declared he had counted hats in the hotel lobby and found that 58 percent had not been purchased from local stores. Mr. Read was an interesting speaker but confined his speech to a few minutes.
Products Listed.
    A program given diners included a list of Medford manufacturers and gave information that the dinner, held in the big dining room, was given by the civic council, composed of the Medford city council, city planning commission, Kiwanis Club, Medford Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Club, Lions Club, and the American Legion. The committee in charge included H. S. Deuel, Marc Jarmin, Gus Newbury and B. E. Harder.
    Music was furnished during the dinner hour by the Medford High School musicians.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 9, 1930, page 8

W. S. Bolger, Penney Store Head, Predicts Busy 1930 Season
By William S. Bolger
    Business prospects for 1930 are the brightest that we have had for many years. This opinion seems to prevail among the business executives in every line throughout the nation. The crash in the stock market fortunately affected Southern Oregon investors very little, and those that might have claimed losses, real or imaginary, have possibly learned that playing with fire is dangerous. There is always an abstract "something" that the alibi-seeker calls "conditions" that a limited few will remind us of, but the number in Medford and vicinity is mighty few.
    We had a splendid year in 1929, and it goes without saying that the majority of business men in Medford also had a good year. I have talked with men in various types of business, and really the spirit of optimism is general. And why not? The slogan, "Let's go ahead, Oregon," is a dandy, and no other state in the Union has greater potential possibilities for development. The undeveloped resources of Southern Oregon would call for plenty of publicity in some nearby states, if they could claim like resources. They would be seeking capital to aid in the development.
    It looks favorable this year to greater advancement along industrial, agricultural and commercial lines than heretofore. For real healthful progress, all these factors must be prosperous, and aside from all statistical help one may see, there is just "something" that prevails mentally that says, "1930 will be bigger and better than ever."
    The J. C. Penney Company sales for 1929 were slightly less than $210,000,000, which is an increase of about $35,000,000 over the previous year. Thirty-seven stores in Oregon contributed a generous share of this sales success. These 37 stores spent over $100,000 in this state for advertising in local newspapers. Over $100,000 went for taxes. Salaries amounted to over $750,000. Merchandise purchased from Oregon manufacturers was in excess of $500,000.
    The best indication that our company is satisfied with future prosperity is the fact that last year our expansion program called for the addition of 500 new stores. We added more than 500, which gives us the continued lead as the largest mercantile institution in the multi-store field. Additional expansion is not a matter of additional money or merchandise--it is a matter of preparing men along our methods that is the big problem. We contemplate some minor changes in our building, of which we are owners. Enlarging of some departments will be necessary.
    Just a slight insight into what is actually "looking to the future," we are now selecting our line of Christmas toys for delivery next December.
    The acceptance of our organization in the business life of Medford and Southern Oregon has been very gratifying to me. We have been willing to share our part in any community activity, and have given liberally of time and money for community advancement. The good will and spirit of friendly competition that exists in Medford has impressed us from the start. Competition is keen, but clean, and to us this is an indication of successful merchandising on the part of our competitors. It is the man who is slipping that is bad competition. This splendid feeling of good will existing among merchants makes merchandising more pleasant.
    After all, that's one of the finest things in life, for one can find plenty of strife without seeking it.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 12, 1930, page B5

    Tourists may come and tourists may go, but the auto tramp goes on forever. Miss Marjorie Jones, state representative of the Red Cross, visited Medford yesterday and called attention to the gravity of the problem, and the need of public support in the efforts of that organization to solve it.
    Said Miss Jones: "People must learn to give to organizations such as the Red Cross and then stand behind them in their work. Professional beggars who whimper to churches, service clubs of the hardheartedness of charitable organizations are becoming more numerous each year. Although the Red Cross often buys milk or food for children of such families, they do not feel justified in buying gasoline, that they may repeat their begging in the next town. The disgruntled transients then use this refusal as a means of wheedling provisions, food or clothing from other persons, with the tale that charitable organizations have refused them aid."
    It was to relieve the people of such a burden that the Community Chest was adopted in Medford. Therefore all such requests should be referred to the Red Cross or the headquarters of the Community Chest, as each individual can rest assured that deserving cases will be promptly attended to, while the professional beggars will be convinced Medford is no place to ply their questionable trade.
    Only by the observance of such a program, supported by the people of this community, can this problem be properly handled and successfully solved. Hamilton Patton, head of the Community Chest, informed this paper today that his organization stands steadfastly behind the policy of the Red Cross, realizing that divided responsibility in this direction will only lead to confusion and chaos, rendering a solution of the auto tramp problem practically impossible.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 8, 1930, page B4

    "Business conditions seem better here than in the East," J. W. Hicks, publicity director for the Byllesby Engineering and Management Corporation Standard Gas and Electricity Company, in this city from Chicago on a vacation trip, stated this afternoon. "I am surprised to find the depression has been felt so little here."
    Mr. Hicks is visiting Medford for the first time since his original trip here 11 years ago. Highway improvement all along the line and the amount of building done in Medford since that time, he stated, both amazed him.
    "I could hardly believe this was really Medford when I drove in last night. I had read about the growth of the city while in Chicago, but I couldn't believe it was so great until I arrived here," Mr. Hicks continued.
    Speaking of conditions in Chicago, he said, "They are not nearly so bad as they are represented. I have been there five years and I've never been around where the bullets were flying. The gangsters don't bother anyone outside their own crowd." He referred to figures recently published by the Prudential Life Insurance Company, which show Chicago ranks 39th in homicides considering her population.
    Plans for the world fair to be held there in 1933 are progressing rapidly, Mr. Hicks stated. The ground was broken for construction of the first building about a week before he left for the West. "We are expecting everyone to come to our fair," he added, "And they don't need to be afraid of the guns."
    Here to enjoy a little fishing and golf, Mr. Hicks will go on to San Francisco at the completion of his visit and attend the national electric light convention, then go to Los Angeles to join Mrs. Hicks and visit his parents for several weeks. He made the trip to Medford with Horace Bromley over the Redwood Highway.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 9, 1930, page 8

Volunteers of America May Use Former Luke Ryan Home As Local Retreat--Policy Told.
    A resume of past accomplishments in Oregon of the Volunteers of America, with an outline of the work to be carried on by the organization in this city with establishment of a welfare home in the former Luke Ryan house on [315] West Jackson street and a social center at 13 Fir Street, were given yesterday noon by Lt.-Col. Jessie F. Starks, commander of the Oregon battalion, at the luncheon at Hotel Medford, to which representatives of the various clubs and organizations of Medford were invited by Mrs. Ida N. Hayes, member of the advisory board of Portland, in this city with Col. Starks to organize a local post of the philanthropic society.
    "No Creed But Christ, No Law But Love," Col. Starks gave as the motto of the Volunteers of America, and cited various attainments of the organization to prove that the members have adhered to the motto. The projects which are segregated in Portland under the heading of home for underpaid working girls, day nursery for children of working mothers, home for deserted mothers and children and various other social welfare works, will be combined in this city.
No Fund Drive
    No drive for funds will be made by the organization in agreement with the plans of the Community Chest. When the Volunteers of America have proved to the local public, however, that they are doing a worthy and needed work, they will ask to be included in the Community Chest budget.
    "We do not feature our religious work," Col. Starks stated, "or force our beliefs upon the people we help. Within our organization are people of various faiths. We are not a denominational organization. We cooperate with the churches and clubs in accomplishing our objective. Our aim and method in life is to give people a chance. We do not believe in pauperizing them.
    "We hold few street meetings and do not play bass drums or use tambourines on the street. We do not believe in cheapening ourselves."
Mann in Support
    J. C. Mann, who was called upon to give his opinion of the organization and its work, stated that he would give the group his support and felt sure that the community would if a definite need for it could be cited.
    County Judge Alex Sparrow, in speaking of the need, referred to a danger of overlapping by the Volunteers of America and organizations existing here at the present time. He added, however, that he was sure the group could find plenty to do here if able to finance themselves without aid of the county.
    Hamilton Patton, president of the Community Chest, also cited duplications in charitable work now being done, but promised the aid of the Community Chest to the Volunteers of America when they prove they are fulfilling an actual need.
Gates Sees Need
    Care of children in broken homes and reorganization of families were then pointed out by C. E. Gates, as a need. After 18 years of contact with the charitable work done by organizations of Medford, he explained, he has come to realize that there is a need that all of them have left unfulfilled.
    "The children of broken homes are now shipped out of the county," he stated. "I am perhaps a bit sentimental about the situation, but I would like to see them kept here and I feel that the old Luke Ryan home on Jackson Street would be an ideal place for them."
    He suggested that the members of various organizations go through their attics and bring forth the toys and playground equipment their children have outgrown and donate them to the home.
Medford Center
    The speakers were introduced at the luncheon by Mrs. Hayes, who will head the organization of the home and social center in Medford. Col. Starks, who has been here during the past week, plans to leave today for Portland. With establishment of the post in this city, Medford will serve as center for the work of the Volunteers of America throughout Southern Oregon.
    Although no drive has been made by Mrs. Hayes or Col. Starks in this city, the sum of $1000 has been promised by individuals toward the purchase of the home chosen by the group.    
Medford Mail Tribune, June 12, 1930, page B6

    According to press reports, the American Bar Association Citizenship committee declares the Federal Farm Board program is a "vicious and unconstitutional attempt to debase our great commonwealth into a Soviet Republic" and "is foredoomed to failure."
    We don't believe many students of world politics will agree with this dictum. The Farm Board is trying to stabilize American agriculture and return prosperity to the farmers of this country. The cornerstone of this program at present is restriction of wheat acreage so that American production will more nearly correspond to the American market demand and the wheat price rise in response to fundamental economic laws.
    In other words, the Farm Board is trying to improve the economic conditions of the American farmer, particularly the wheat farmer. This effort may be doomed in failure, but it is AT LEAST AN EFFORT IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. And those organizations, whether bar associations, chambers of commerce, or self-seeking politicians, who are fighting this program of farm relief--and offering no substitute program to achieve a similar end--are doing more to encourage a spirit of Bolshevism in this country than either the Farm Board or the paid emissaries of the Russian Soviet Republic.
    For the seeds of Bolshevism in this country can only grow in a soil of unrest and discontent. And until something CONSTRUCTIVE and beneficial is done for the American farmer, this spirit of unrest and discontent will increase--the desire for some radical political action grow.
    Therefore, to claim the Farm Board program is encouraging Bolshevism is not only untrue; it is the very reversal of the truth. In fact, the Farm Board, in its sincere effort to improve the farming conditions, is doing more to discourage Bolshevism than any other government agency in the land.
    And those forces seeking to destroy the Farm Board, prevent the government from doing ANYTHING to better the condition of the farmer--and who at the same time offer no practical remedy of their own--are doing more to encourage Bolshevism than any other influence, in this country or any other.
    The Farm Board program may be doomed to failure, but certainly not because it is Bolshevistic--too radical--but because it is NOT RADICAL ENOUGH. If it fails, the reaction will not be toward measures less extreme, but more so.
    It can't be pointed out too emphatically that, right or wrong, the Hoover farm relief measure is the only definite program that has been advanced. Isn't it not only good sportsmanship but, under the conditions, the only sensible policy, to give it a fair chance; let the administration demonstrate its worth or worthlessness, instead of trying to overthrow it before it even has a chance to start?
    If the opponents of the Farm Board had an alternative program of their own, the conditions would be different. But we have yet to hear that either the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Bar Association, or any other organization, have informed a troubled world just how the job should and CAN be done.
    They attack the administrative program tooth and nail, but when asked just what they would propose, they maintain a discreet and suspicious silence.
    Criticism of the Farm Board program is perfectly proper; the more intelligent criticism the better, for through such criticism the program may be gradually improved. But the criticism thus far has been neither intelligent nor constructive--merely vociferous and destructive.
    It appears no more than fair that when the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Bar Association committee, or any other organization, demand the repeal of the Farm Relief Act immediately, they first explain what they propose to do to help the American farmer when this demand is granted.
    Certainly, only those who have some definite alternative program are justified in demanding the abandonment of any farm relief measure before there has been a decent opportunity to put the principles of that measure into effect.
Robert Ruhl, Medford Mail Tribune, July 21, 1930, page 4

Endurance Test by Boys Seeking Work in Chicago
    CHICAGO, July 19.--(AP)--A new form of endurance contest which may get its three participants somewhat eventually, but hasn't yet, has been going on now since June 1.
    Originally there were 52 boys of the Chicago boys' club corporation starting out on an "endurance contest" for jobs. Three boys are still enduring. Henry Schutz has called 78 business houses without luck. Victor Balinskas has asked for work at 41 places, and John Himber 32. All are 17 years old.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 29, 1930, page 1

    "Buyers' week is a good thing, for it serves to make better relationships; then if you have any kicks coming you know who to kick to," remarked W. A. Gates of the firm of Gates & Lydiard [Groceteria], general merchandise store operating in Medford. Depressions may be in other parts of the Pacific Northwest, but it certainly hasn't come to Medford. There is a bumper pear crop this year. There will be approximately 5000 cars of fruit shipped out, and the value of it will probably be more than the $5,000,000 received for the fruit crop last year.
    "Now, while the buyers for the canneries aren't purchasing or contracting now for the pear crop, the growers aren't bothered--they are not discouraged in the least. Why? The main reason is because they spent a lot of money in radio advertising in the East to exploit the Bosc pear, a kind which is grown commercially no place in the world except near Medford. The Bosc market for the east has improved so much--for the large, long pear is primarily for sale on fruit stands--that they are looking to the buyers of the East, who are making contracts now.
    "Yes, sir, things are good in Medford. The mills are running, and all is in fine condition in general."--The Oregonian.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 9, 1930, page 3

    The police department was busy last evening suppressing an embryo crime wave that began with two transient boys of Weed, Cal., Tarry Schaffer and V. Riley, stealing bread from a Colonial Bakery delivery wagon. They claimed hunger was the cause of the crime. No charge was placed against them and they have been released.
    Freddie Rackner was arrested for the theft of a diamond ring from the home of Mrs. C. O. Cline in Medford. He was apprehended 30 minutes after the theft took place. The ring was recovered, and no charge was placed against him. He is a magazine subscription solicitor and was alleged to have taken the ring after he is said to have gained his entrance into the dwelling to sell a subscription.
    Last night, the police arrested Florence Aller and Gene Austin, two local women, for the possession and selling of gin at a dwelling on Narregan Street. They were accused of selling gin at a certain price a drink, but the arresting officers were unable to find sufficient evidence on which to file a charge. The women were released this forenoon. The officers say they destroyed a number of empty bottles, seized a 12-gallon crock, an empty container that is believed to have held alcohol and quite a number of glasses.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 14, 1930, page 3

    This seems to be good writing weather. At any rate we are in receipt of another communication today which is not for publication but merely for the editor's information.
    The writer appears greatly exercised over tree sitters, and "the crowd of bums lining the curbs near the Chamber of Commerce building." Instead of picking on a "nice boy" sitting in a tree, Ye Editor is advised to "pick on the tramps and hoodlums who are disgraceful blots on the landscape of the civic center."
    We are always glad of editorial suggestions, but fear we cannot follow this one. As far as the nice boy in the tree is concerned, we are content to let human nature take its course. Moreover, in our opinion, that incident is closed--the play is played out.
    The hoodlums near the Chamber of Commerce are another matter and present a more serious, and more permanent, problem--namely the problem of unemployment. It is not exclusively a Medford problem, nor even a national problem, it is a worldwide problem.
    We have looked over the human exhibit at the Chamber of Commerce building several times. Some of them are pretty hard-looking customers. Others aren't. Many are simply pathetic--tired, discouraged, and unquestionably undernourished. They are near the Chamber of Commerce building simply because that happens to be the headquarters of the federal employment bureau. These poor devils aren't looking for publicity, or easy money, or charity--they don't even want to sit in a tree--they are looking for a job--any sort of a job that will allow them to keep body and soul together.
    Telling them to move on and be quick about it might improve the atmosphere and scenery of our civic center, but it wouldn't solve the problem. This country has its army of unemployed, and that army is going to move where there is a chance to work. This happens to be the hardest time in the Rogue River Valley, and if the present contingent moved on, there would be plenty of others to move in. Relieving the congestion here would simply increase it somewhere else. Until the unemployment problem is treated for what it is, a national problem, no community can escape its share of responsibility, or successfully throw off its burden.
    So we are not going to pick on these "bums" at the corner of Main and Front. We are merely going to repeat what we remarked several weeks ago that the unemployment problem is a real problem, and now is the time for every individual who intends to have some work done, to start on it, and do his share toward relieving the situation, not so much to benefit the transient or outside worker, as the unemployed at home.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 14, 1930, page 4

To the Editor:
    My heartfelt thanks to you for your splendid editorial in Thursday's issue of the Mail Tribune in defense of the "tramps and hoodlums" who have found refuge in the "civic center." The majority of these men are probably tramps from necessity, not from choice. I for one am glad to know that these men have found a place where they can be comfortable, at least as comfortable as men can be when their stomachs as well as their pocketbooks are empty.
    Telling them to move on would be another example of "man's inhumanity to man." How vastly better it would be for us to open a soup kitchen where these unemployed could be sure of at least one square meal a day.
    Jacksonville, Aug. 17, 1930.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, August 18, 1930, page 7

No Use for Floaters
To the Editor:
    In yesterday's Tribune an article appeared where a lady had a wonderful inspiration regarding the men congregated around the chamber of commerce building. Her heart seemed to bleed with sympathy regarding those men. Now no one denies that this is a time of slack employment throughout the entire country. I own a small eating place and have plenty of opportunity to come in contact with this class of men.
    They are, as a general class, a set of floaters, and why the people of any community should finance a man, or set of men, to travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific and back again is more than I know.
    Here is a typical case: A man came in the restaurant and was hungry. We gave him something to eat. Thirty days ago he had been at Wichita, Kansas, making $25 to $40 per week; had $65 in cash. He started west, used up the $65, left his car in California and hiked up here. He seemed to be surprised there was no job available.
    What this class of men will have to learn is that the rolling stone "no ketchum the moss," that it takes money to travel, in fact the government says 7¢ per mile for auto. Also that in times of depression one place is as good as another.
    Who was serving soup for Ezra Meeker, the '49ers, the pioneers that settled Kansas and Nebraska and withstood the hot winds, grasshoppers and 57 other pests? They were sturdy, self-reliant, with a definite purpose in view, namely establishing a home. They were not running from place to place, expecting to find a bonanza.
    The only people that ever accomplished anything are the ones that stuck to something for a long term of years.
    Medford, Aug. 19.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, August 19, 1930, page 7

    Endorsement by the Jackson County court of the proposed legislation of the Oregon Welfare Society making the residential law of this state, now held extremely lax, conform with the California statue on the same issue, will probably be made, as a curb on the constantly growing problem of the dependent transient, the automobile tramp, and the hitchhiker.
    The California law requires a year's residence in that state ere a person comes under the benefits of the poor law. In this state, three months to six months is required, and it is the purpose of the welfare society to have the next legislature revise the present law, until it is as stringent, if not more so, than that of the sister state.
    In a letter to the county court asking support, the welfare society claims that California officials "are diligent in seeing that dependents do not remain the year required for permanent residence." Jackson and Klamath counties are the chief sufferers from this policy.
    Commissioner Victor Bursell said that the matter would be called to the attention of the annual convention of the county commissioners in December.
    Despite the stress of the times, there have been fewer applications for aid from transients than in previous years. This is attributed to the broadcasting up and down the highways that Jackson County is a "hard county" with its indigent funds.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 20, 1930, page 3

    While not as marked as it had been, there is still a large labor surplus in Medford, it was reported by Chris Gottlieb of the local branch of the United States free employment bureau. He foresees some change in the condition next week when pear picking activities will be somewhat heavier. At the present time, there are at least three applicants for every available job. With school starting next week, quite a number of transient families are expected to leave for their homes in California and Washington, relieving the present condition to a considerable extent.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 25, 1930, page 3

    Following the attempted bank robbery at Central Point today, the four Medford banks, through their heads, announced they would take precautionary measures to prevent any repetition of the criminal adventure here. Guards will be stationed in the banks, along with the already established safeguards.
    The banks are the First National Bank, B. E. Harder, president; Farmers and Fruitgrowers Bank, Delroy Getchell, president; Medford National Bank, W. H. Gore, president, and the Jackson County Bank, T. B. Lumsden, president.
    Similar action will be taken by banks at Ashland, Eagle Point and other Southern Oregon points, it was indicated.
    The presence of a large number of transients in Southern Oregon, attracted here by the fruit season, and the reported start of construction work on Hill lines near Klamath Falls has heightened the watchfulness. In the ranks of the floating population are many undesirables.
    As a further protective step, the authorities will launch a roundup and all not engaged in work will be ordered to move on.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 9, 1930, page 2

"Bindle Stiff" Finds Aid in Group of Job Seekers
By Eva Nealon
    His pack appeared worn and dirty, but heavy as he moved slowly down the street this morning with worn soles dragging on the pavement. The face which showed beneath his cap, set low on his forehead, was expressionless except for lines of fatigue beneath his eyes. He approached a group of job seekers, gathered near the fountain by the Chamber of Commerce building.
    He stopped, mumbling to one, then another. No one heeded his plea. He started on down the street, readjusting his pack with a slight shrug of the shoulders.
    Then from the back of the small crowd a voice called "Hey!" The weary one turned as a man with weather-worn face and grimy clothes approached him and thrust a hand into a ragged pocket. He drew out a small coin and handed it to the "weary," who took it , mumbled, and started on down the street. The donor edged back into the group of unemployed.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 26, 1930, page 5

    The Volunteers of America will open a feeding station for the hungry, in connection with the mission and relief department, at 128 East Main Street at 8 o'clock tonight. Capt. Ethel Walsh, the officer in charge, is being assisted by Capt. F. W. James, who will supervise the feeding, and Capt. Mary James, who is to supervise the home for mothers and children, which will be opened soon under the direction of Col. Jessie F. Starks, state commander.
    A special musical program has been arranged, and Capt. Walsh will speak on the theme "Unto One of the Least of These."
    Refreshments will be served after the service. The public is cordially invited to attend.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 16, 1930, page 9

Lions Club Plan Taken Over by Local Groups--
Schrade Is President for Campaign.

    Promotion of the Business Confidence program introduced in Medford by the Lions Club was assumed today by the Central Civic Council at the joint luncheon of civic organizations held at the Hotel Medford. The program will be greatly amplified by the Civic Countil and will be carried on throughout the winter season.
    A definite program is being organized to reestablish business confidence in Southern Oregon. Officers elected to head the campaign are Larry Schade, president, and Ed White, vice-president. Mr. Schade will appoint committees to carry on the work within the next few days.
    Organizations represented at the "prosperity" meeting were Chamber of Commerce, Lions Club, Rotary Club, Kiwanis Club, planning commission, school board, American Legion and city council.
    Every effort will be exerted by these organizations, united in the Central Civic Council, to promote the return of prosperity and destroy all business depression that has been caused by the use of wrong psychology. The organizations are agreed in believing that conditions are not so bad as they seem and that increased buying in many lines could be brought about by the reestablishment of business confidence.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 24, 1930, page 7

    The autumnal rains falling today are beating a dreary tattoo on the roof for four Medford families who are waiting for "Father to come home with a job."
    There is no music in its pitte-patter or lashing of window panes for the four mothers, who are wondering what they will do when the days grow colder.
    In three of the families there are four children and in one, six. The four fathers have been without work since the close of the pear packing season.
    They are residents of Medford, not transients, and are willing to work, Miss Lillian Roberts of the local Red Cross chapter stated this morning while issuing a call for work.
    Part-time jobs of any nature are asked, and anyone who can give the men employment for a few hours a day of a few days a week is asked to telephone Red Cross headquarters at once.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 12, 1930, page 3

     With the fly top of their 1922 Ford flapping in the winter breeze, they are traveling on toward Southern California today, a father, mother and six little children, who arrived in Medford Wednesday from Sand Point, Idaho, sans funds, food and gasoline.
    A home and job await them in the south, the local Red Cross chapter was assured by telegrams from Southern California before funds were advanced to finance the roaming family's journey, Miss Lillian Roberts stated this morning.
    They have been buffeted from place to place for several weeks in their effort to get to Southern California, where the father's sister promises to see that the family is provided for.
    They had a legal residence in Sand Point, but Sand Point didn't want them, so the officials there financed their journey to the Willamette Valley. They ran out of money there and Eugene didn't want them. So Eugene sent them back to Sand Point. But Sand Point took another chance and financed their trip to Southern Oregon, the man told Miss Roberts without hesitating to admit the town's lack of desire to have them around.
    Miss Roberts telegraphed Sand Point but got no answer. She then telegraphed the sister in Southern California and after receiving promise of maintenance for the transient family there, she sent them on south today.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 14, 1930, page 5

Central Civic Council Given Permission by Council to Inaugurate Street Sale System
    The city government will cooperate with the Central Civic Council in giving the retail apple-selling plan by impoverished and needy large families a trial in the way of assisting such families to support themselves. The idea was first established in the East.
    The plan as evolved by the Central Civic Council, composed of two representatives from each service body of the city, and as presented before the city council by Larry Schade last night, is for the civic council to give a needy family a box of apples, which some adult member of the family is licensed to sell at 5 cents each to the public on a business district corner.
    The proceeds would go to enable the family to be self-sustaining until its head can obtain employment, if the plan works out.
Grant Request
    Therefore the city council granted Mr. Schade's request to give a free city license to sell apples at retail to three or four needy families, the temporary licenses to be given into the hands of the Central Civic Council to be placed by that body.
    The plan will first be tried out with only this small number of needy families, and selling will be done under police protection to prevent any other person than a member of the licensed family from selling apples that way at retail.
    The details of the plan will be further worked out by the Central Civic Council at a meeting within the next day or two, and Mr. Schade explains that the tentative idea held now by leading Central Civic Council members in the movement is to have orchardists donate the first box through the civic council to each family, for sale. There are 100 apples in a box, which at 5 cents each would bring the family $5.
Plan Worked Out
    However, out of the proceeds of the first box sold the council would hold out sufficient for the family to buy another box to sell--probably not to exceed $1.50, and so on with that family until it can become self-supporting through regular employment.
    Thus, beyond the donation of the first box there would be no public expense involved, except that spent by each person in buying an apple for 5 cents.
    If the plan works out successfully with these three or four families, it will be extended to include other needy families and gradually a great drain on general charity not only would be relieved, but the aided families would have the satisfying feeling of self-respect that in their need they were really helping themselves through first aid in getting on a self-sustaining basis.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 19, 1930, page 1

    An aid to the solution of the local employment problem is improvement work that is to begin soon at the Medford armory. There will be extensive roof repairs, and there will be considerable improvement work in the main auditorium. A sum exceeding $500 will be expended for the work.
    The labor will be performed by members of the local Oregon National Guard units in need of employment.
    The auditorium improvement work will carry out a color scheme in keeping with the lobby of the building and will be principally confined to the walls of the structure.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 19, 1930, page 3

Medford  Family Head Has Smile As Nickels Roll In
from Sale of Fine Apples

    "An apple a day keeps the doctor away"--also the wolf from the door for L. G. Calkins, one of Medford's most deserving un-employees, who is now selling big red apples in front of the Chamber of Commerce building. Mr. Calkins is the first apple vendor participating in the campaign to care for the unemployed by selling apples at five cents each. Others will be on duty soon.
   "I made nine dollars yesterday," Mr. Calkins said this morning as he smiled through the fog which covered the city with a dense blanket at an early hour. "I'm not going to do quite so well today, I'm afraid," he stated later when the shopping crowds failed to travel by his stand.
    Mr. Calkins is the father of six children and had been out of work for two months when the city gave him the apple stand to operate yesterday. He was out of work all last winter and all spring and summer, with the exception of a short run during the fruit season.
    "I used to be a salesman," he explained today. "But I lost my health, then my car and had nothing to do. I certainly appreciate the support the public has given me here." He rubbed his hands together in an attempt to warm them. "I sold five boxes of apples yesterday, which are being shipped to California. I was afraid I wouldn't make my salt, when I started in. I was mighty happy last night when I counted the money."

Medford Mail Tribune, November 21, 1930, page 7

Additional Apple Sellers Take Stand on Sidewalks
As Unemployment Presses
    Two additional members of Medford's unemployed joined in the apple vending business this morning and are stationed at the Jarmin and Woods drug store corner and in front of the J. C. Penney store, Larry Schade of the Central Civic Council announced at noon. The two men are C. H. Sutherland and Percy Beers. L. G. Calkins, the first to be placed on duty in this special phase of the campaign to care for the unemployed, is still selling the big red apples in front of the Chamber of Commerce building.
    The three men are fathers of families ranging from two to six children and have been without work for many weeks.
    The first two boxes of apples to start the new men out in business this morning were donated by Raymond Reter of the Pinnacle Fruit Company, and C. C. Darby of the Kimball Fruit Company.
    The men will probably exchange places with others as additional names are received at Red Cross headquarters from people who are in need and without employment.
    A call was received this morning from a man with a family of six, who has been without work for several months. He is able to do heavy work and is experienced in shingling and other carpenter work. Anyone planning to repair his home for the winter is asked to call the Red Cross office and give this man an opportunity to earn some money at his own trade.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 24, 1930, page 1


    The Volunteers of America are finding plenty to keep them busy these days, 167 men having been given hot vegetable soup, bread and coffee during the past week. Also a number of women have helped in the same way. Five families have been provided with groceries and clothing during the same period of time.
    Fifty-five articles of clothing have been provided free. Much credit is due many business firms for the splendid way they have assisted in the work.
    The public is asked to purchase tickets from members of the organization at 10 cents each, and in this way when a hungry man or woman approaches, he or she may be handed one of the tickets and directed to the Volunteers, where the refreshments are given them.
    A reading room is also in operation where men and women are protected from the elements.
    Meetings are conducted regularly in order that a Christian influence is brought to bear upon those who apply for aid.
    Employment is furnished whenever possible. Medford residents are asked to give clothing, food or money to keep this good work in progress. Phone number 908 or 1519.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 25, 1930, page 7

    With a list of needy families and persons obtained from the Red Cross office and families reported by members of the Girls' League, many boxes of food and clothing were being delivered today by the members of the social service commission of the senior high school league and their assistants.
    Enough food for several days is placed in each box, including flour, beans, bread, butter, meat, fresh and canned fruits and vegetables. All articles for the boxes were furnished by members of the organization, and canned fruit, oatmeal, nuts and vegetables donated by Mason-Ehrman.
    This work is under the supervision of Miss Maurine Carroll. One project in the clothing classes was the collection of clothing for children in several families where it was badly needed.
    Those in the league who were able to bring articles for the boxes were the only ones who were asked. Each of these students brought only one article. This is one of the annual projects of the league, and Miss Carroll stated today that it had never been so successful in previous years. The work was accomplished through small group meetings.
    Members of the social service committee are Marjorie Marshall, chairman; Dorothy Paley, Marjorie Gregory, Dorothy Willets, Winifred Law, Helen Wood and Louise Elrod. Those furnishing cars to deliver the boxes were Winifred Warner, Evelyn Grimmett, Edna Mae White, Marjorie Marshall, Winifred Law and Bernice Chapman. The Tiger Guard assisted in carrying the boxes.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 26, 1930, page 3

    Good news to housewives of Southern Oregon is the announcement that all wholesale and retail bakers have lowered bread prices, the changes to be in effect beginning Monday, December 1.
    The local bakeries will not in any way alter the quality of their products but will continue to furnish their customers with only high-grade products, according to statements of managers yesterday.
    In most cases the new bread prices are lower than they have been at any time during the past seven years.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 30, 1930, page 3

Operation of Rock Crushers During Winter Months to Help Situation--300 Idle in City.
    The county court took steps yesterday at a special session to decrease in whatever measure it could the unemployment situation in Jackson County by considering plans for operation of county rock crushers during the winter months to provide work for 25 or more men.
    Operation of the rock crushers will enable the county to lay in a large supply for the heavy graveling and oiling program next year. It is planned to operate two of the crushers while the third is in the machine shops undergoing repairs. Details of the plan will be decided at the regular session of the county court tomorrow.
    It is necessary for the gravel used in oiling operations to be washed, and it must thus be prepared for the oiling of the Applegate road from Ruch to Provolt.
To Store Gravel
    It is tentatively planned to operate the rock crushers in various parts of the county where road work is planned for 1931 and store the gravel there. No hauling will be done this winter, as it would rut the roads.
    County Judge Alex Sparrow said this morning that men employed under the winter policy would have to be bona fide residents of Jackson County and that it was hoped to secure some cooperation from the state highway commission in providing winter work.
    The continuation of work through the winter also prevents the laying off of a dozen men now employed.
    According to Chris Gottlieb, in a recent federal report, there are about 300 unemployed men in the city.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 9, 1930, page 3

Christmas Dollar Goes Much Further This Year;
Wholesale Prices Are Lowest Since Spring of 1916
    WASHINGTON--(AP)  The Christmas dollar promises to go further this season than it has for 13 or 14 years.
    In most places Dad's necktie, Johnny's shirts, Mary's hose and the family dinner will be cheaper.
    Government statistics indicate that the average wholesale price for all commodities is the lowest since the spring of 1916.
    Six months ago the average retail price for these commodities was lowest since December, 1917. Figures on retail prices will not be computed again until February, but statisticians of the Labor Department point out that the trend has been downward since last summer.
    Using 100 as the index number for prices prevailing in 1926, the wholesale price of all commodities dropped to 82.6 in October this year.
    Figured another way, the 1926 dollar had a purchasing power of $1.21 a few weeks ago. In October, 1929, the same dollar would buy only $1.03 worth of goods.
    Food, men and women's clothing, household furnishings, fuel and lighting cost less. Surveys made by business bureaus in some of the larger cities show a drop of as much as 20 percent in retail prices since 1929.
    The reduction in dresses is reported as ranging from 10 to 30 percent, of fur coats from 50 to 40 percent, of shoes from 8 to 23 percent and of hosiery from 15 to 30 percent.
    Men's suits and overcoats were said to have dropped in price from 9 to 20 percent.
    Poultry, beef, pork, lamb, potatoes, fresh fruits, coffee, sugar, butter and eggs range from 3 to 33 percent cheaper.
    Government statisticians say that while retail prices of commodities cannot be forecast accurately, the prospect is that living costs will remain low throughout the winter.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 9, 1930, page 7

Woman's Actions Cause Trouble in Handling Case--
Court Has Index of Nomadic Souls.

    Appeals for aid for indigents of the county were made today at the regular session of the county court, by individuals, including Fred Offenbacher of the Ruch district, who reported a case of destitution in his neighborhood. Two aged people--the man 70 years of age, and the woman past 50 years, and sick, were the subjects of his appeal. Offenbacher had given them the use of a house on his place and had given them food and medicine. He felt the county should lend a hand.
    It developed that the unfortunate pair had been under observation; that the wife had been placed in a local hospital for medical care, and by her own actions had made it necessary to remove her to the woman's ward of the county jail, and that the couple had returned to the Applegate district. Dr. B. C. Wilson, county physician, told the county court and Offenbacher, all had been done that was possible to do. The court promised to make another investigation and render aid if necessary.
Indigents Indexed
    The social welfare department of the county court is equipped with a complete record of the chronic indigents of the Pacific Coast who motor from place to place leading an impecunious existence. The records give their kin, and ere help is given, the relatives are first asked to assist.
    The indigent list of the county contains between 35 and 40 more names than for the same period last year. Some are victims of the times, while others are always unfortunate. It has required much thought and financial acumen on the part of the county court to make the indigent fund last out the year.
    Only minor and routine matters were before the county court today, including the signing of regular vouchers.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 10, 1930, page 3

Local Jail Is Haven to Bedless Men
    The rush of hungry, homeless men to the police station in quest of a place to sleep continues night after night. As many as twenty indigents, and always at least eight, are allowed to sleep in the city jail, police say. In the jail the unfortunates at least find warmth, blankets and a place out of the rain.
    Police believe that it is wiser to permit the down-and-outers to slumber in the jail, rather than have them wandering about the streets of the city all night.
    Most of the men are not criminals in any sense of the word, just hungry, dirty, unfortunate men in search of a place to earn a living. As it is, they get little out of life, and suffer the utmost in misery, in so-called prosperous America.
    It is said that Medford sees little of the vast number of unemployed throughout the nation, as most of the unfortunates travel by the other railway line through Klamath Falls, and into California.
    Last night an aged married couple entered the police station in search of something to eat and a place to sleep. They had walked the streets for hours, and had found no aid. Finally, as a last resort, they went to the police station. They were traveling from California to the home of a relative at Burns, where they expected to be allowed to pass the winter. Hitchhiking along the Pacific Highway had proven a slow mode of travel for the unfortunates.
Medford Daily News, December 14, 1930, page 5

    Children in the Medford grammar schools who would not otherwise have a very pleasant Christmas are being entertained at the senior high school tomorrow afternoon by members of the Girls' League.
    Girls will go to the four schools after the children in cars, accompanied by members of the Tiger Guard. They will also be taken to their homes following the entertainment.
    A program, to include two selections played by the Girls' League orchestra, a reading by Maxine Hagen and a tap dance by Jane Antle will be given for the children. Each child will also be given a toy as well as candy and nuts. A Christmas tree will be placed in the gym, and Santa Claus will give out the gifts. Members of the Boys' Association aided in supplying the gifts.
    In the evening the members of the league will have a party, rummage sale and bazaar. The G.A.A. also is cooperating in the sales. Each class will put on a short skit, and dancing with music by the Girls' League orchestra will be enjoyed.
    Members of the orchestra are Louise Osenbrugge, Helen Wilson, Margaret and Winifred Warner and Mary Chambers.
    All money taken in at the sales will be used for relief work by the league throughout the school year.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 16, 1930, page 3

Thirty-Five Now Employed Under Plan of State Road Commission to Aid Unemployed.
    Employment of jobless men upon state highway widening work, in accordance with the policy adopted by the state highway commission last week, is now underway in Jackson County, and 35 men, registered with the county court, were referred to the local office of the state highway commission.
    It is the intention to employ as many men as possible, the qualifications being that all who seek work are married men, or single men with dependents, and that they be bona fide residents of Jackson County. No employment will be given to non-resident jobless, according to County Judge Alex Sparrow, who regards the situation as "a case of each county looking out for its own."
    The wage is $3 a day for eight hours, and all the work is with a pick and shovel. It consists of widening and leveling a strip on each side of the Pacific Highway.
County Among First
   Other western Oregon counties will take similar action, but Jackson County is among the leaders in putting the policy in effect. It is expected that the work will last until spring opens.
    All the men employed are required to register with the county court, stating their age, number of children and other data.
    A dozen workers were recommended by the Red Cross.
    "The wages paid are not much, but it will enable the deserving to earn some money for their needs and to make Christmas cheerier at their houses," said Judge Sparrow. "The plan is not in accordance with economy, but is one of necessity and to alleviate as much as possible present conditions."
     It is expected there will be more than 100 local men employed on the work.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 16, 1930, page 6

Twenty-Five at Work in County Since Monday--
Must Be Residents of Jackson County.

    Registration of unemployed men of Jackson County, for work on the state highway widening projects, initiated as a means of furnishing relief, continued briskly today, with close to 30 men registering with the county court.
    C. H. Armstrong, resident engineer of the state highway commission, reported that about 20 men had put to work since Monday, neediest cases receiving preference. At present the work is not thoroughly organized, but the state highway commission is working on a systemized plan.
    It is planned to place the men at work on both the Pacific and Crater Lake highways in Jackson County, widening the narrow places. Similar work has started in Douglas and many of the Willamette Valley counties.
    One ironclad rule is being adhered to in assigning work: Those employed must be married men and bona fide residents of Jackson County. Single men with dependents will be given consideration after married men with dependents have all been cared for.
Transients Refused
    Two single men, who have been residents of the county since last May, were denied their applications. A number of transient laborers met the same refusal.
    "The single man gets just as hungry as the married man with dependents," said County Judge Alex Sparrow this morning, "but he has no hungry children. He has nobody to hustle a meal for but himself.
    "We are not going to provide work for transients. The county judges and highway commission specifically agreed to this. They felt that transients should have remained at home in the first place. The present depression will be something of a blessing if it weeds out part of the auto tramps. I have hopes that a few, after they have starved all winter, will have sense enough to settle down and go to work, and not spend their last dollar for gasoline."   
Medford Mail Tribune, December 17, 1930, page 7

    Seven more days till Christmas and there's going to be a Santa Claus. But 13 families of Medford are not yet assured of a glimpse of the old boy's whiskers, it was announced today at Red Cross headquarters.
    Anyone who wants to make the holiday legend come true for the children in these 13 families may secure their names at the Red Cross.
    The people of Medford are responding to calls this year with more than usual enthusiasm, Mrs. Murrey of the Thrift Shop stated this morning, and so-called hard times are not expected to penetrate Christmas stockings.
    Work has been furnished 15 men through the Red Cross office in the highway construction project between Medford and Ashland.
    The Thrift Shop, however, is in need of underclothes, shoes and coats for children in sizes six and eight. If anyone can donate these clothes, they will be greatly appreciated. If not, the clothing will be bought by the Red Cross, as the children must have them immediately.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 17, 1930, page 7

    It is interesting to note that Jackson County is first in the state to take advantage of the winter road working plan for the benefit of the unemployed.
    This is in harmony with Jackson County's reputation of leading the state in every progressive movement. Jackson County led the good roads movement in Oregon, constructing, at its own expense, the first unit of the Pacific Highway.
    It has consistently led the state in the public health movement, establishing the first comprehensive unit. It has led in the sale of Christmas seal for many years, it leads the commonwealth in Grange activities. It was one of the first counties to adopt apple selling as a help to the unemployed; there is not a progressive, constructive enterprise in the state in which it has not taken a leading part.
    The people of Southern Oregon can well be proud of being residents of Jackson County. For 20 years it has been at the head of the procession; it is still at the head, and promises to retain that position indefinitely.
    The situation calls attention once more to the fact that while this section has many valuable resources, the greatest of all lies in the quality of its citizenship.

Medford Mail Tribune, December 18, 1930, page 4

    With the overwhelming victory for the high school bonds, awarding of the contract for the new Cottage Street bridge, and the county road work program, there should be no serious unemployment problem in Southern Oregon this winter.
    Both city and county officials are insisting that local labor be given the preference, married men or single men with dependents be engaged first and that floating labor receive the least consideration.
    This is a wise policy. Meanwhile there are two local events which work in with this program and deserve the heartiest public support.
    One is the Elks Christmas tree tonight, which is a private affair, but because of the large membership involves every section of the city and county. The other is the Community Ball Saturday night, for the benefit of the Community Chest.
    It is hardly necessary to urge members of the Elks to attend this Christmas tree; they always do, and this year the contribution to Christmas cheer promises to be greater than ever.
     The Community Ball should be a gala event on the holiday social calendar, and those who are unable to attend can help a worthy cause along by purchasing tickets.
    Strong local support for these two events, with the program already outlined, should render any serious suffering or want in this part of the state, during the winter of 1930-1931, impossible.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 18, 1930, page 4

Jobless Men Live Outdoors Near City's Environs
    Hungry, jobless, homeless, sleeping under the drab December skies, shaving under the grey morning light, washing in water flaked with ice--that is the fate of hundreds of unfortunate men this winter. An even twenty men were observed yesterday grouped around inadequate fires near the Owen-Oregon Lumber Company mill, and close to the railway tracks.
    Apparently, in spite of their misfortunes, the men desired to remain neat and clean, because several of them were washing. One was shaving a heavy beard. His barber shop was the wide expanse of territory; his mirror an old tin can.
    Only one of the unfortunate wanderers possessed an overcoat--the rest were insufficient garbed.
    The men were of all ages, ranking from time-worn unfortunates of sixty to youngsters that should be attending high school and turning out for sports. Instead, they are putting up a losing fight against life.
    The men were engaged in trying to cook very meager food over a fire. There was no protection from the icy December winds.
    The twenty did not represent all the unfortunates that passed the night in that locality. Many of them had drifted on south when morning gave a slight respite from the winter chill. Many more of depression's victims slept on hard bunks at the city jail. However, to them the jail is heaven after the cold ground.
    Medfordites having warm, comfortable homes and many blessings during the Christmas season can feel doubly fortunate in that they are not suffering as manifold thousands are in the United States this winter.
Medford Daily News, December 20, 1930, page 3

    The Jackson County Bank broke forward to the new year with the greatest feeling of optimism--a new year with new opportunities.
    It is generally conceded that we are passing through a period of business depression throughout the entire world, and it is natural to expect that our United States would experience in many respects this depression.
    The most gratifying feature of our experience has been the continuing friendship evidenced in many ways by those with whom we come in contact.
    We welcome the New Year in a spirit of hope and confidence, and we wish that it may bring to all health, happiness and a full measure of prosperity.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 31, 1930, page B1

    The progressive growth and development of Medford in the past year, both numerically and financially, is reflected in the local post office receipts, the compiling of which has just been completed by Postmaster Warner, and which show a gain of a little over 10 percent over the receipts of last year.
    The receipts for the year just ended were $102,178.66, and the receipts for the year 1929 were $92,641.88, making a gain of $9,536.78.
    The receipts for the month just ended, $11,407,25, were the largest for that month in the history of the Medford post office, being $586.46 more than the receipts for December a year ago, which up to that time had held the December record.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 2, 1931, page 6

Four Crews on Duty in Effort of County and
State to Relieve Unemployment Condition.

    Close to 400 names are now listed on the unemployment register of this county for emergency road relief work, according to Victor Tengwald, clerk of the county court. Seventy men are now employed and are rotated weekly, giving each worker $18. Four road crews are engaged, one out of Ashland, two out of this city, and one out of Rogue River. It is expected that the work will last well into the month of March.
    Weeding of the undesirables from the list has started, and there have been less than a dozen unworthy cases found.
    One worker showed up the day after Christmas in an intoxicated condition. Another was found to have an income, "and not in as serious financial condition as his statements would indicate"; another claimed dependents when he had none, one was indolent, and two or three were agitators.
Some Unable Work
    Two or three were found physically unable to work, but with a great willingness to that end. They were Red Cross charges.
    Several who sought emergency work, to "kill time," have been denied registration. Investigation showed they were not in distressed circumstances.
    Several workers reported at the registration office last week and today from outlying districts, under the impression that the emergency was general throughout the county.
    The county is employing about 80 men in the Prospect and Butte Falls districts clearing right of way, widening grades, and doing other work that can be done this winter, out of funds of the district in order to furnish employment. This work will be continued as long as the funds last.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 5, 1931, page 8

     SALEM, Ore., Jan. 10.--(AP)--Eight hundred and fifty-eight more men were put to work on the state highway relief program during the past two weeks, the highway department count for the period ending January 6 showed. The total gave 1908 men now employed and 75 crews operating over the state.
    In addition to these figures, 265 men have been absorbed in regular maintenance patrol crews, and 26 men are working in regular extra gangs with machine equipment.
    The majority of relief workers are employed on alternate shifts of three days. Much of the emergency work consists of clearing brush and trees on rights of way, grade widening, ditching and other operations.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 10, 1931, page 1

    Needless to say, this is a trying season for those engaged in the fruit industry. Even the citrus fruits, which held their own well during the early part of the season, are now selling at prices below handling and transportation costs. Apples have held their ground fairly well but pears, tangerines, oranges and grapefruit have faced declining markets from the beginning and no one is optimistic to the extent of saying that the bottom has been reached.
    Growers, shippers and other agencies generally attribute the present low prices to the economic depression which began a little more than a year ago. Undoubtedly, much of the difficulty can legitimately be laid to this cause, but the fruit industry must not lose sight of the fact that there are other factors involved and that these will have to be given serious consideration in the future.
    Taking pears as an example, the figures of the Bureau of Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture show that pear holdings on December 1st of this year were approximately sixty-one percent greater than they were on the corresponding date last year. Shipments of Bartlett pears from the Pacific Coast were approximately twice as great in 1930 as they were in 1929. One who studies these figures cannot escape the conclusion that a serious situation was at hand even had normal economic conditions prevailed. It is hardly conceivable that the present demand for pears, even backed by good buying power, could have taken care of so large an increase in tonnage from one year to another.
Henry Hartman, "Bartletts, Drpression Hurt Trade," 
Medford Mail Tribune, January 11, 1931, page B3

    A report issued today by the Volunteers of America for 1930 shows that since the soup kitchen was opened October 17, a total of 2154 free meals have been served, beds furnished 106, and 1054 garments given free. Twenty-four families have been helped.
    All help by people of Medford has been appreciated. The Volunteers have religious service on Thursday, Saturday and Sunday evenings at 8:15. Everyone is welcome. The hall is located at 129 East Main above the Toggery. Captain F. W. James is in charge.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 13, 1931, page 9

Federal Aid in Unemployment Situation Will Put Many Additional Workers on Applegate and Lake Creek Projects.
    Federal aid to the emergency employment situation in Jackson County will get underway next Monday, with the establishment of camps for forest road work at French Gulch in the Applegate and at Fish Lake. Six men are now stationed at Fish Lake and six more will be added next Monday. Six men will be used at the French Gulch camp.
    As winter passes and conditions improve in the forests, additional camps will be established.
    The Forest Service workers will be assigned to work through the office of the county judge, Victor Tengwald in charge, and will be rotated as are highway workers.
Married Men First
    First preference will be given to local married men, and able-bodied, owing to the nature of the work in the mountains. They will clear and grub right-of-way and do any Forest Service work necessary.
    In the Fish Lake camp the men will do labor in connection with the Lake Creek market road.
    The Forest Service workers will be assessed $1 per day for board, and will be furnished sleeping quarters, but must provide their own bedding. They will be furnished transportation by the Forest Service to the camps.
    Seventy men are now employed on the highway relief work out of this city and Ashland. They are rotated weekly. To date, the emergency work has proved of high value in tiding laborers over the dull season and is reflected in a decrease in local depression talk.
    The emergency work is expected to last until the middle of March, when spring work in the field, orchard and forest will again be under way.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 15, 1931, page 3

Jackson County Lags in Response to Red Cross Plea--
$1800 Quota Far from Realization

    WASHINGTON, Jan. 17.--(AP)--The Senate today approved the $25,000,000 appropriation for Red Cross relief work. There was no record vote.
    Will Jackson County answer the call for relief of little children, mothers and fathers, who are facing starvation in 21 states of the Mississippi Valley?  is the question facing local Red Cross workers today who find that only $236 of the $1800 quota for Jackson County has been raised.
    "Yes," is the answer J. C. Thompson, chairman of the Jackson County Red Cross chapter, gave when interviewed this afternoon.
    "Jackson County has always responded to the call for suffering people. It is impossible to believe that people who will feed the Chinese, starving Europe, Armenians and hosts of other foreigners in distress will not feed their own countrymen, who are facing starvation because of a 100 percent crop failure in the Mississippi Valley. Families are being herded into schoolhouses there, several families to a room. Hundreds of thousands have no other food than corn, which they pound into a flour and from this make bread.
Situation Grave.
    "The situation has become so grave that the Red Cross was last August called upon to take charge of the situation. It has already expended in the neighborhood of $1,800,000 in this relief work and given relief to 405,000 drought sufferers.
    "When it became apparent that the Red Cross relief fund of $4,500,000 would not be sufficient to take care of the demands, as they will continue through May, 1931, at least, President Hoover issued a proclamation calling on the American people to subscribe, through the Red Cross, to a fund estimated by experienced Red Cross directors to equal a minimum of $10,000,000.
    "Jackson County's share was placed at $1800," Mr. Thompson continued. "Of that amount only $236 has been raised. Ashland has contributed $23 and Medford $213, of which latter amount $200 was taken from the Community Chest $500 emergency fund.
    This means that the people of Medford have, so far, given in actual subscriptions only $13 to this call for relief.
Appeal to County.
    "We are making an appeal at this time and hope the residents of Jackson County will respond promptly so that it will not be necessary to put on a drive to procure our quota. Let it be remembered 'Jackson County never falls down.'"
    A list of places in various sections of the county where subscriptions may be left was named by Mr. Thompson as follows:
    John Pernoll, Applegate; V. O. N. Smith, Ashland; E. C. Faber, Central Point; Andrew Hearn, Phoenix Merc. Co., Phoenix; Fred O'Kelly, Gro. Store, Rogue River; First National Bank, Medford; J. G. Hibbard, Butte Falls; H. D. Reed, Gold Hill; Mrs. D. H. Ferry, Gold Hill or Foots Creek; Mrs. J. Terrill or Mrs. H. B. Jordan, Talent, Brown Bros. Store, Eagle Point; Citizens' Bank, Ashland.
    Difficulty encountered in impressing local people with the extent of the tragedy which has stalked into the homes of the Mississippi Valley was emphasized by Mr. Thompson, who pointed out that although crops have sometimes been poor in the Rogue River Valley and prices low, a complete crop failure such as has visited the 21 needy states has never been experienced by Southern Oregonians.
Must Raise Fund.
    Families and droughts are associated with Biblical stories alone by many people who have never suffered hunger. But conditions within the United States now rival those described at Sunday school, and the relief fund will have to be raised if workers are forced to carry on a house-to-house canvass.
    "With the exception of one time, we have never been forced to go out on special calls to raise a relief fund in Jackson County," Mr. Thompson concluded. "The money has always been volunteered, and we believe that it will be this time as soon as people realize the seriousness of the problem which is facing the drought region."

Medford Mail Tribune, January 17, 1931, page 1

Eighteen Dispatched to Fish Lake and French Gulch Sections for Preliminary Labor.
    By the end of the present week, emergency relief work in this county will have furnished six days of labor to 350 unemployed. There are 210 registered with the county court yet to be furnished employment. The men receive their pay when dismissed, the state highway commission making provision for prompt payments.
    Federal relief in this county got underway this morning, with the dispatching of 18 men to Fish Lake and French Gulch, on a Forest Service detail. They will be replaced next Monday. The men are engaged in clearing brush for roads and trails and performing other forest work.
    The men are charged $1 per day for board and furnish their own bedding, quarters being provided.
    In the Fish Lake district, work will be done on the Lake Creek market road, the county grading and graveling the right of way next summer.
    According to Victor Tengwald, secretary to the county court and in charge of registration, the emergency work has reduced appeals for help locally and provided workers with funds for food and necessities to tide them through the winter.
    It is expected that the highway emergency work has sufficient funds to maintain the work until the middle of March.
    Sixty-five men were sent out this morning as replacements.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 19, 1931, page 3

     Difficulties found most common by Jackson County homemakers in feeding their families, according to a survey made through the home demonstration agent's office preparatory to the opening of the Homemakers' Economic conference, were told yesterday by Miss Lucy Case, nutrition specialist from Oregon State College, who met with a special group of farm women at the city library Friday and Saturday.
    Those which were reported by the majority of women were: vegetables not available, cost of foods, family likes and dislikes, and planning of meals.
    Sixty-two percent of the Jackson County families who answered the questionnaires reported sickness or physical defects in their families, directly or indirectly connected with feeding. Of these defects, defective teeth and frequent colds were in the highest number.
    The next in percentage were constipation and overweight and headaches. Underweight and indigestion were also reported by 10 percent.
    The preliminary conferences were completed yesterday at the city library and Miss Madge J. Reese, national field agent in home demonstration work; Miss Claribel Nye, state leader of the home economics division; Mrs. Harriet Sinnard, clothing specialist; Mrs. Zelta Rodenwold, home management specialist, who have also been in this city, and Miss Case left to return to Medford February 6th for the opening of the county conference.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 25, 1931, page 3

Local Labor and Material Specified in Contracts--Statement by Board Defines Status of Workers--Will Issue Cards.
    The school board, through a statement released today by Supt. E. H. Hedrick, again reiterated its determination to use local labor and materials insofar as possible in constructing new school buildings which will go to bids within the next few days. Clauses requiring this are being written into all contracts. Local labor is defined in the school board's statements as follows:
    "First--Persons actually having residence within the limits of school district No. 49 on December 1, 1930.
    "Second--Persons who may move into school district No. 49 after December 1, 1930, providing such person or persons have become actual home owners within the district.
    "Third--Persons who own real property within the limits of school district No. 49 on which he or she is liable or subject to pay a tax, even though such persons may not actually be living within the limits of the school district.
    "All persons employed by any contractor or other person to do work or perform service in connection within the erection, alteration or equipping of any school building within the school district will secure such employment only upon presentation of a card obtained from the office of the school board identifying him as local labor, and no contractor or other employer shall engage any person for employment in connection with the construction or equipping of any school building unless such person shall first present a labor identification card secured from the school office.
    "A local labor identification card will be issued by the school office to any person qualified to hold one. Persons not known to the school office must be identified by someone who is known to it. The cards are not transferable and may be revoked at any time if secured by misrepresentation or if the status of the holder changes. The possession of a local labor identification card does not guarantee employment to anyone but is necessary before employment may be secured. When equally competent, available and willing to work married men with children will receive first consideration when employment is given by the school district.
    "If, in the course of the construction of the school buildings, it shall appear to the contractor that outside labor should be brought in either because of a shortage of home labor or because of the need of some special type of labor which cannot be supplied within the school district, such contractor shall appear before the school board or its representative and make his showing. If in the opinion of the school board the contention of the contractor is justified, the board will either supply the labor locally or allow the contractor to bring in the needed labor. Each and every laborer or employee brought in from the outside, however, must be approved by the school board for cause and a record kept in the school office of all such employees, open to inspection by any citizen of the school district.
    "The school board of district 49, Jackson County, Oregon, further announces that on all bids on work or materials needed or to be used in the construction or equipment of its school buildings, that it will favor local contractors, merchants or tradespeople by granting to them on any and all bids entered in competition with outside bidders a margin of 5 percent of all the lowest bidders' bid, or such an amount thereof as may be necessary to throw the bid to the local man.
    "In its effort to favor local labor, local contractors and local materials, the school board surrenders none of its prerogatives. It will not be unmindful of the interests of the taxpayers nor its highest duty to the schools.
    "In the case of 'holdups' or what the board considers unreasonable demands, or prices, or conditions imposed whether on the part of labor, local contractors, or local furnishers of material, the board reserves the right to revoke promptly any or all favor clauses in this statement of position which are being abused, and throw the matter open to outside competition on an even basis, if that should become necessary to protect the proper interests of the taxpayers and the schools."

Medford Mail Tribune, January 28, 1931, page 7

    Medford people are more optimistic concerning the immediate future than any other people of the Pacific Coast, according to B. Scott, acting secretary manager of the White and Sugar Pine Manufacturers' Association, who is in this city from San Francisco, calling on Southern Oregon lumber mills.
    "This is a wonderful country anyway," Mr. Scott stated yesterday afternoon. "A business trip to Medford is always a pleasure trip.
    "Pessimism is giving way to optimism in most sections, "Mr. Scott further stated, "although the change is very slight. The upward trend started in November."
Medford Mail Tribune, January 28, 1931, page 7

    The wage cut announced yesterday by the county court for county road departments employees includes all workers from skilled help to common labor. The cut ranges from 10 to 25 percent and is effective beginning February 1st. Forty workers are affected at the present time, and in the summer when road operations are at their height will affect close to 200 workers.
    The cut, which also applies to field deputies in the assessor's office, was adopted at a meeting of the county court Monday and was made following a demand for economy filed by organizations and taxpayers from all sections of the county.
    Owing to a reduction in road tax receipts, delinquencies and other causes, it was necessary to economize. It was a case of that, or laying off the workers.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 29, 1931, page 9

    The Owen-Oregon Lumber Company has resumed curtailed operations on a three-day-a-week basis, and will govern future operations by demand for lumber.
    The plant is now using a single shift of workers, three days a week, in the planing mill, sawmill, and on the railroad.
    Fifty percent of the help is now engaged in mill and office, and 50 percent of the normal cut of lumber is being made.
    If trade conditions justify, the plant will be placed on a full-time basis.
    None of the logging camps of the concern are in operation, and are not expected to start until March 1, and not then unless improvement is noted in lumber market conditions.
    The plant is now sawing its reserve supply of logs, at the loading stations int he woods and in the mill pond. Medford Mail Tribune, February 9, 1931, page 1

    Cooperating with the new effort to reduce the cost of living to coincide with the general conditions of the times, Gates and Lydiard announce today that the Economy Groceteria will sell bread for five cents a loaf as long as present low costs prevail.
    The loaf offered for five cents is the regular one-pound loaf and will contain the same ingredients used in the Groceteria bread in the past.
    This effort of the local merchants to reduce the price of bread is being made in order to enable the people to continue with a satisfactory diet in spite of low prices paid for their products.
    Five cents will be the everyday price as long as material can be obtained at present prices.

Medford Mail Tribune, February 13, 1931, page 6

    To the Editor:
    Double employment, or to employ a married woman if her husband has a job, is the greatest menace to our employment question. Take any department you wish. City, water, schools, county, stores, banks, hotels, highway, telephone, power, light, judiciary, state or government. They all employ women and a good percent of them have husbands. These women are capable, no doubt, but there are men just as capable that are walking the streets of our little city looking for work--any kind of work. They are heads of families and should have work, while so many of these married women are needed in their homes. We all know that the great war brought on these conditions. Mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts were ready and willing to step into the men's work when they were called by their country. But when it was over and the men returned to work, did the women step aside and go home to their household duties? No indeed, they still feel they must go out and work and what about the men? They must do housework or be idle. Now don't misunderstand me, I think widows or women whose husbands are unable to work, of course, are the heads of the families. But I also think that any job that is paid from taxes, at least, should be refilled at once with the head of a family and in that way unemployment could be relieved more than any other way. There is entirely too much of this one-sided business going on. Hundreds of families where both the husband and wife have good jobs and maybe their next-door neighbor is in real need. Something is wrong and something must be done about such conditions, because fathers with families and no work are just about at the end of endurance and are not going to stand at attention much longer. Let's hear what others think that are in the same boat I am in. No work and a family to keep. Thank you.
    (Name on File)
Medford Mail Tribune, February 14, 1931, page 4

Why Not an Equal Distribution of Economy?
    To the Editor:
    The county court, in its economy budget, announces a cut in the wages of the men who do the hardest labor for the smallest wage, most of them being men of families, with the responsibilities of the average family man at least, which caused us to wonder why, if economy is necessary, there should not be an equal distribution of such an enforcement, whereby all employees would be treated alike and the burden not carried by the above mentioned, who are certainly no more able the bear it than the others?
    We mean, for instance, the office employees, many of whom are unmarried, and all others who draw full wages during this period of depression.
    Although they know nothing about it, evidently, from experience as they are immune. We believe in any law or enforcement that treats everyone alike but believe it unfair to compel the laboring man to ride the goat, while the swivel chair and high collar employee rides in the auto.
    Why not an economy budget that treats us all alike and evenly distributes a burden we should all be willing to share?
    Would it not be more fair?
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, February 17, 1931, page 4

    A letter received today from Charles W. English, who is vacationing in Los Angeles, tells an interesting story of the popularity of Medford apples in the southern city.
    The letter reads: "This was 'Medford Day' in Los Angeles all right. Downtown on every corner there were one or two boxes of real apples on sale and in big black letters on the side of each box was stenciled 'Medford, Oregon' and on the end of the box, 'Packed by C. A. Knight.'
    "Apples have been on sale here for some days past, as in many cities, by the unemployed, but in passing along I noticed the quality of same and found them of different varieties and from a number of different apple-growing sections.
    "But today all boxes I saw on sale at each downtown corner were fine big Spitzenbergs in finest of eating condition, evidently just out of cold storage and all from Medford, C. A. Knight pack. I was struck by the fact that all were so uniform in size and quality. I think Knight is in San Diego now. He would step high if here today to walk up and down the main business streets and see this fine display of real Spitzenbergs, all from Medford, packed by himself.
    "Speaking of the name 'Medford, Ore.' being stenciled so plainly on the sides of these boxes," Mr. English continues, "I think it would be a good idea for all the packers of apples to do the same. It is a good advertisement for the district."
Medford Mail Tribune, February 17, 1931, page 9

    Medford High School has been selected to furnish the queen for the prosperity parade on March 4 and to rule over the ball in the evening.
    Regular voting procedure as followed in the annual student body elections will be used. Class presidents and a committee of students will each pick three nominees from each class. These will be submitted to the student council and one final choice will be made for the queen.
    Selection is to be made the forepart of next week, and the voting will come about the middle of the week. All student body ticket holders will be allowed to vote toward the selection of the queen.
    The Active Club has offered a $5 prize to the high school organization or class which enters the best float in the prosperity parade, and it is expected that a number will compete.

Medford Mail Tribune, February 19, 1931, page 4

A Farmer Protests
To the Editor:
    It is interesting to note that a year or so after wheat prices dropped out of sight the bakers have condescended to lower the price of a loaf of bread. Yet they are still making a profit!
    Bakers, together with butchers and candlestick makers, to say nothing of the other merchants and other forms of business, carefully figure out the cost of their raw material, stocks or what have you, then add their overhead, interest, etc., then slap on a good-sized profit and fix the price of their finished article accordingly.
    That is business! Unless they followed this procedure they would have to quit business.
    Yet these same business men expect the farmers to buy their bread, clothes, groceries, and necessary fertilizers and seed to say nothing of high-priced "labor-saving" machinery, automobiles, and so on ad infinitum, when he is selling his produce at a loss.
    For instance: the cost of the feed alone that is necessary for the production of a dozen eggs costs the average farmers, with the average flock, eighteen cents! This does not count the cost of raising the hen from a baby chick. Neither does it count interest on investment and not one cent for the farmer's time spent in caring for the hens!
    And at the present time, farmers are getting from nine to fourteen cents a dozen for their eggs! A loss of from 22 to 50 percent on each dozen sold.
    Anyone who can do simple arithmetic may figure out just how many dozen eggs a farmer will have to produce before he can buy a new auto--or even a dog license!
    What is more to the point, how long can he keep on producing without calling on the Red Cross to feed his family?
    It isn't only eggs. Wheat costs $1.50 a bushel to produce and is selling around 60¢.
    Pork costs 10¢ a pound to raise and is selling for seven cents.
    According to the Oregon State College, it costs 50¢ to produce a pound of butter and it sells for 35¢.
    If it is fair for the farmer to operate at such a huge loss, why wouldn't it be fair for the business men to do likewise?
    Unless there is a readjustment soon, there will be neither farmers or business men, for the former will die of starvation and without the farmer to feed on the business men would last long!
    "A FARMER"
        (Name on file.)
Eagle Point, Ore., Feb. 23, 1931
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, February 25, 1931, page 10

    Plans for Prosperity Day, Wednesday, March 4, the date chosen for the annual spring opening in Medford, will be announced to the public of Southern Oregon on the streets Saturday, Monday and Tuesday evenings, Activians who are sponsoring the Prosperity parade and ball announced today.
    Four well-known young men will appear in the announcement feature, which will be repeated again Wednesday evening prior to the dance at the Oriental Gardens. These men are John Niedermeyer, Kenneth Fennel, Ray Riley and Lee Bishop.
    They will ride through the streets of Medford in a Buick sport model roadster, to be furnished by the Scherer Motor Company, and will voice the plans for Prosperity Day through a large megaphone. A riot of noise will be displayed during the first show period. After the racket has conquered the attention of the city, Lee Bishop will do the leather lung stunt through the megaphone.
    This program of advertising will be presented in addition to the newspaper and radio publicity planned to promote the gala day in Medford.

Medford Mail Tribune, February 26, 1931, page 2

Emergency Relief Provision Will Be Unneeded As Spring Employment Begins, Is Belief.
    Emergency relief work in Jackson County will be at an end by the middle of March and the work of tapering off the employment has started, according to Victor Tengwald, county court secretary, in charge.
    Beginning next week the road crew will be cut to 50 men and there will be no further rotation of workers. The week following the force will be cut further. The main employment is completing the work underway.
    Similar steps will be taken next week by the Forest Service, which will cut its camp forces at McAllister Springs, Fish Lake and French Gulch to 25 men.
Forestry Jobs Soon
    The Forest Service will start spring operations in April, when there will be a few permanent positions available.
    The emergency relief work has provided short employment for more than 800 men in the county and tided them over the January and February lull.
    With federal, state, county and city work underway and a general opening of work throughout the Pacific Coast, the worst is over for this year. Many are already planning on departing for government projects around the West, particularly the Boulder Dam site, where there is already a surplus of labor.

Medford Mail Tribune, February 27, 1931, page 1

Fashion Revue To Start and Dance To Conclude Prosperity Celebration on Wednesday.
    Plans for the annual spring opening and Prosperity celebration, which will be a gala event of Wednesday, were shouted from housetop to hilltop last night when the Activians, who are sponsoring the prosperity parade and ball, drove through the streets of Medford in the Prosperity car, announcing the program through megaphone.
    Beginning with the fashion revue, which will be the first of the day's festivities, they forecast all the happenings for March 4th.
    The fashion revue will open at the Holly Theater at 1:30 o'clock. It will be followed at 3:30 by the Prosperity parade. At 7:00 o'clock the windows of local stores will be unveiled as the leading feature of annual spring opening, sponsored by the retail trade division of the chamber of commerce. At 7:30 a very important announcement will be made at the Chamber of Commerce building, and all persons who shop in Medford are urged to be present.
    The opening will be followed by the Prosperity ball, which will be the grand finale of the hilarious day. Miss Bernice Rinard, elected Prosperity queen, will reign at the dance and will head the parade in the Prosperity float.
    The Activians expect at least 60 floats to be entered in the parade. Old Man Depression will be there, represented by Keith Fennel, Gloom by Darrell Huson and Pessimism by Harold Larsen.
    Following the parade a ceremony for burial of Old Man Depression will be held on the Southern Pacific lot, with Victor Tengwald performing the last rites.
    To keep the celebration in the minds of the people a broadcast will be featured over the Mail Tribune-Virgin station, KMED, between 8:00 and 9:00 o'clock tomorrow evening. An interesting program has been planned with music by Elwood Strader's orchestra, the same group that will play for the Prosperity ball.
    A large crowd from all sections of Southern Oregon is anticipated for the full day's program, beginning with the fashion revue to be sponsored by the Business and Professional Women's Club and ending with the dance at the Oriental Gardens.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 1, 1931, page 6

Wednesday Program Starts with Style Show--
Miss Prosperity Leads Parade at 3 P.M.

    Wednesday, spring in all her willowy loveliness will make her official debut in Medford. And the day will be filled with festivity, honoring the arrival of the year's most favored season. For to the annual spring opening, sponsored by the retail division of the chamber of commerce, will be added the prosperity celebration planned by the local Activians.
    The first event of the day will be the fashion revue at the Holly Theater, beginning at 1 o'clock. The revue is being sponsored by the Business and Professional Women's Club with the cooperation of the merchants. Lovely mannequins will appear in the newest creations that grace the spring season. Striking color combinations, which Paris is talking about, will be presented to Medford femininity in their most winning adaptations.
Lively Colors
    Deep blues and corn yellows, jade green and pink, white, the all-hour favorite; new hues of rose, brown and violet, all colors of the rainbow span--Paris insists must take the place of the drab shades, formerly favored, and they will all be represented in the local fashion revue.
    Mannequins who will appear in the showing are: Lois Lindsey, modeling for Jacque Lenox; Margaret Hensley for Adrienne's; Donna Cooksey for J. C. Penney Co.; Mrs. O. C. Failing for M.&M.; Thelma Moore for Mann's Department Store; Mrs. C. T. Baker for Ethelwyn Hoffman; Margaret Childers for Cinderella; Mildred Willett for Burelson's;, Jean Lynch for Breier's; Betty Roberts, Montgomery Ward; and the little Misses Betty Baker, Joyce Sims, Nancy Swem and Beverly Jean Whitman for Needlecraft.
    Announcements will be made by Mrs. I. E. Schuler.
Parade at 3 P.M.
    At 3 o'clock the Prosperity parade, with Miss Bernice Rinard reigning as queen, will pass through the main streets of the city. The Activians anticipate a lineup of at least 60 floats for this event. Old Man Depression as well as Prosperity will be present. Then there will be gloom and Pessimism en route with Depression to an early grave.
    The last rites for Old Man Depression will be read by Victor Tengwald on the Southern Pacific lot following the parade. Other stunts will be presented and at 7 o'clock the crowds will meet at the Chamber of Commerce building to await an important announcement.
Unveil Windows
    At 7:30 windows of local shops will be unveiled to display the most beautiful showing of spring apparel ever brought to Medford from the fashion markets.
    The annual opening will be followed by the Prosperity ball at the Oriental Gardens, which will be a grand finale for a gala day. Added features of the day will be announced on the street and from station KMED by the Activians tonight.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 2, 1931, page 1

Annual Spring Opening of Stores, Unveiling of Windows, Prosperity Parade and Ball on Program--Depression 'Hanged.'
    Prosperity reigns in Medford today. And Southern Oregon is preparing for a gala night with the unveiling of shop windows for the annual spring opening at 7:30 o'clock, and the Prosperity ball at the Oriental Gardens at 9:00 taking high honors in the program schedule.
    Visitors and shoppers from all sections of the valley have been arriving since morning. The streets were crowded this afternoon when the Prosperity parade, sponsored by the Activians, moved through the main sections of the city. There were more than 100 floats in the lineup, representing all leading business houses, organizations and institutions of the city--the largest and most colorful parade sponsored in Medford for several years.
Queen on Float
    Leading the long and varied line was the Activian float, "Prosperity" with Miss Prosperity, Bernice Rinard, queen of the celebration, seated on a brilliant throne with modernistic background. Seated beside her were two dainty pages, Dale and Gale Beebe, dressed in bouffant spring frocks. Announcements of the Prosperity ball at the Oriental Gardens tonight, at which Miss Prosperity will be crowned, were distributed through the streets.
    Old Man Depression, Gloom and Pessimism were also in the parade wending their way toward an early grave, which was realized on the scaffold on the Southern Pacific grounds following the parade. Last rites were performed by Victor Tengwald along with many interesting features of entertainment, which are still in progress.
    Balloon sales on the streets are adding much to the color and hilarity of the occasion, which has many of the characteristics of "circus day."
Dance Tonight
    Tickets are selling rapidly for the dance tonight, which will follow the official unveiling of windows, and a record crowd is anticipated.
    Previous to the unveiling of windows an important announcement will be made at the chamber of commerce building, and all persons who shop in Medford are urged to be present.
    One of the leading events for the evening's program is the balloon dance to be featured at the Prosperity ball. Many surprises are promised which will eclipse the festivities of the afternoon.
Parade Lineup
    The following line-up for this afternoon included the following floats:
    Mayor and chamber of commerce
    Boy Scouts
    Fire Department
    Rotary Club.
    Girl Scouts
    Business and Professional Women's Club
    General Depression and Cohorts
    High school band
    Prosperity float
    Boys' League
    Pantorium Cleaners
    Peoples Electric
    General Petroleum Corp.
    Girls' League
    Medford Tent and Awning Co.
    O. V. Myers Co.
    Standard Oil Co. of California
    Boys' Carpenter Club
    Scherer Motors
    Montgomery Ward & Co.
    Gold Seal Creamery
    Senior Class
    Gilmore Gasoline Co.
    Gates Auto Co.
    KMED and Palmer Music House
    L. C. Newman Co.
    City Cleaning and Dyeing Co.
    Girls' Pep Club
    M.M. Department Store
    Junior class
    Pierce Allen Motor Co.
    Richfield Oil Co.
    John Cupp Furniture Co.
    Latin Club
    Domestic Laundry
    Medford Electric Co.
    Sophomore class
    Pay 'n' Take It
    Southern Oregon Electric
    Union Oil Co.
    Freshman class
    F. E. Sampson Co.
    Medford Furniture Co.
    Hubbard Brothers
    Mead-Furch Co.
    Lewis Super Service
    Niagara Spray and Chemical Co.
    Maytag Co.
    Heath's Drug Co.
    Dance Float (Activians)
    Fox Craterian and Rialto Theaters
    Holly Theater
    High School Commercial Club
    High School Dramatic Club
    Maytag Shop
    Riding academy
    Snider's Dairy and Produce Co.
    Smith and Watkins
    Economy Cleaners
    Eden Valley Nursery
    Cander Motor Co.
    Crater Club

Medford Mail Tribune, March 4, 1931, page 1

Rosy Year Ahead As Building Program Opens--New Schools and Courthouse Head List--Industrial Outlook Splendid.
(By Ernest Rostel)

    In connection with the Prosperity celebration in Medford today, marked by the hanging this afternoon of "Old Man Depression," a recapitulation of activities in store for Medford and vicinity reveals what is expected to be one of the bright years in local history. Plans are underway for quite a number of projects; work has already been begun on several and is well under way on others.
     While unemployment may present a problem at present, road projects, a revived building program and the possible establishment of new industries by the time summer has arrived are expected to overcome the present situation.
Big Park Program
    Information has been received by Superintendent E. C. Solinsky of the Crater Lake National Park that the sum of $400,000 is to be expended for the construction of the first unit of the new rim road around the lake. It had been expected that the appropriation by the government would be in the neighborhood of $250,000, but with the larger amount, plans will be underway for the employments of hundreds of men during the entire summer. This work will probably start in early June, as soon as melting snow permits, and will continue until late fall when weather will prevent further labor. It is probable that at least 200 men will receive work during the entire time.
    This is all in addition to the regular maintenance work on roads and trails, representing expenditure of approximately $107,000. The sum of $100,000 will be expended for minor road and trail construction and in the control of pine beetles within the park. However, applications for labor are not to be received until a short time before the work actually starts and must be made with the contractor in charge. The employment of the big rim-laboring crews will bring Medford business, inasmuch as supplies must be purchased in Medford or Klamath Falls.
Labor Outlook Rosy
    In all, the future outlook for the laboring people for summer and fall work appears rosy, when plans of the state highway commission are taken into consideration. Large crews of men are to be employed in connection with the four miles of new paving between Medford and Central Point, eliminating four or five curves and making the distance shorter between the two places. The new highway will have a straight route from a point near the Owen-Oregon Lumber Company logging tracks to the present highway route near the J. G. Love orchards at the south Central Point city limits.
    The highway commission has extensive plans for the improvement of the Green Springs Highway, leading from the Klamath Junction with the Pacific Highway to Klamath Falls. This road is to be widened and greatly improved, giving employment to a large number of men. Considerable improvement work is also planned for the Pacific Highway over the Siskiyou Mountains and will represent a large outlay of money. However, definite plans for this work are not available at the present.
Highway Work Planned
    Furthermore, the state highway commission is planning the improvement of all smooth-topped highways, with the application of material to minimize skidding danger in wet weather. Plans are also under way for the further widening of the Pacific Highway from Talent to Ashland, beginning at the point where construction crews stopped widening operations last year. Their work resulted in the highway being widened four feet from Medford to Talent and a new skid-proof surface.
Million-Dollar Program
    In Medford a building program of one million dollars is expected and is already underway with the beginning of construction of a new high school on Oakdale avenue and a new grammar school on Peach and Fourteenth streets at an approximate cost of $275,000, providing employment for quite a number of local men. Other school buildings in the city are to undergo the usual repairs and improvements.
    While just outside of the city limits, the probable construction of the new Motour hotel on the Earhart property near the end of South Riverside Avenue will represent an outlay of $100,000 and will directly affect Medford. It is to be a complete motor inn and is one of several planned up and down the Pacific Coast at specific points.
New Court House Soon
    Next summer is expected to see work begin on the construction of the new Jackson County courthouse on the present site of the Washington School on West Main Street. It is to cost between $250,000 and $300,000 and may be one of the most attractive public buildings in the state. Considerable employment is seen there that will cover a period of months.
    The possibility of a new office building at a cost of $200,000 or more continues to exist, and it is thought that it may be constructed this year, but no definite announcement has been made. A pending Treasury Department bill provides $85,000 for a second federal building in Medford. This is in addition to the repair work amounting to several thousand dollars, already being done on the present federal building, the interior of which will be repainted and oiled late this spring.
New Houses Going Up
    The city building department reported today that 31 dwellings, all of a high type, are under construction in Medford. It is fairly safe to expect as many more to be constructed before the year is over. There are tentative plans for new apartment houses and business structures.
Fruit Horizon Brightens
    The fruit industry, important in general prosperity of the community, is looking forward to a good year, and concerted efforts are to be used in advertising the Rogue River Valley pears in the East, encouraging further consumption of the fruit which has made this section famous. While it is still early to predict crop possibilities, the yield is expected to be up to average.
    The Standard Seasoning Society, operating a plant in Cottage Grove, announced yesterday that Medford continues to hold a good chance for the establishment of its second plant in Oregon. The plant would represent an outlay of at least $700,000 and employ quite a number of men. Several Medford citizens are to be in Cottage Grove tomorrow to discuss further plans for the company's coming to this section, which has undergone thorough investigation by the company for adaptability for plan needs.
Deep Harbor Looms
    Another bright spot in the future for Medford and Southern Oregon, connected in this case with the Northern California district, is the work that has been accomplished in the construction of the Crescent City harbor. Late reports say the project has met the approval of the United States army board of engineers and before the year is over, possibly during the December session of Congress, the work to complete the harbor will be recommended. This will represent an expenditure of four million dollars and will give Crescent City a harbor of which it has dreamed for the past 40 years. Development will naturally follow the completion of the harbor, encouraging the general progress of Southern Oregon, the "Inland Empire."
    The local lumber industry is now operating on a curtailed schedule, but with the improvement of market conditions, the industry will operate with greater impetus, cutting as much lumber as possible, in keeping with the demand.
Mines Developed
    The mining industry is showing development, and mining activity this spring, when water is available, is employing quite a number of men. Coal mine development in the Roxy Ann section is also progressing and recently over 400 feet of tunnel was driven in one mine, which has already made contracts for its output.
    The dairy, poultry, cattle and farming endeavors are looking forward to a good year, and a number of dairies are making improvements on their properties.
    Local business houses are optimistic over the future, and some are planning expansion programs.
    Reports from Ashland indicate that city is looking forward to a prosperous era, and it is pointed out that six new business houses have opened there during the past month or so. A new $30,000 gasoline concern is now completing construction of property. The fruit and produce concern, which formerly operated here, is to reopen for business soon to provide for demands for residents of that district.
    In Medford, City Engineer Fred Scheffel said today several paving projects are under consideration and will include the paving of Apple Street and a portion of Court Street.
    The closing of the Rogue River to commercial fishing is pointed as being a great factor in further popularizing the river as a fishing stream, attracting tourists, encouraging sale of angling supplies, construction of new river cabins, this stimulating business from the angling and recreation viewpoints.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 4, 1931, page 1

Relief Jobs Possible Until Third Week of March
for 35 or 40 Men, Is Local Report

    Emergency relief work on the county highways will officially close next Saturday, but there is a bare possibility, according to word received this morning by the local office of the state highway commission, that employment of 35 or 40 men will continue through the third week of March. Definite orders on this situation will be known within the next two days.
    The Forest Service camps, which have been furnishing relief employment on a rotating basis, will be placed on a permanent basis next Monday. They will provide work for 40 men throughout the Forest Service season. The federal rule is to give preference to married men with families.
Many Men Aided
    Emergency work in Jackson County, according to Victor Tengwald, secretary of the county court, has furnished a week's work to 1,096 men with families or dependents. Of this number 820 have been employed by the state and 276 by the Forest Service.
    The state work started December 18, and the Forest Service work January 11. Approximately $20,000 has been expended in wages alone at $3 per day. Of this total, $11,760 was disbursed by the state and the balance by the Forest Service. This amount does not include money expended for material, etc.
    The emergency work was a godsend to many and lessened the tension of unemployment in this county.
    With the close of the emergency work employment, many of the workers will be released for other jobs now appearing on the labor horizon with the opening of spring activities.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 10, 1931, page 4

    The Crater National Forest headquarters here made the announcement today and asked that it be stressed that the Forest Service not only now has all the men it wants for some time to come, but also has a big waiting list of applicants for employment.
    "It will be a kindness to have this situation widely spread among the unemployed men needing work," said Miss Janie Smith, chief clerk of the Crater forest headquarters in the federal building, this noon. "Applicants are just running us ragged, as word has gotten around the city and valley that we are in need of men. I understand that such an erroneous announcement was broadcast over the radio last evening, with the result that many disappointed unemployed men flocked to our quarters today."
    The Crater National Forest in hiring men for work has all along given preference to married men with families, as much as possible.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 11, 1931, page 4

    Marking one of the most striking general reductions in passenger fares effected by any railroad serving the Pacific Northwest since the war, Southern Pacific today announced cuts ranging from 15 to 20 percent on its one-way and round-trip fares between Portland, Willamette Valley points and Southern Oregon, effective March 15.
    New rates will apply from all stations Portland to Eugene, inclusive, to Southern Oregon points via the Siskiyou line, and from Ashland to and including Creswell to Eugene and all points north. One-way tickets will have a limit of 10 days; round trips, 60 days; stopovers permitted.
    "Southern Pacific is determined to regain the local passenger business it has lost due to the highways during the past few years," J. A. Ormandy, passenger traffic manager, said. "The pronounced success which has attended our 'Dollar Day' and other special sales events leads us to believe people generally prefer to travel by train and these new fares are intended to stimulate that trend. We are putting in these reduced rates for a six months experiment."

Medford Mail Tribune, March 12, 1931, page 6

Federal Emergency Work Concluded Saturday
As Camps Placed on Permanent Basis.

    Emergency relief work on Jackson County roads is being continued this week on a reduced basis. A force of 25 men is engaged in the Blackwell Hill district and will finish up the odds and ends. The relief work will end next Saturday.
    Federal relief work also ended Saturday, and the Forest Service camps were placed on a permanent basis this morning for the summer season.
    A force of men, a fleet of trucks and a steam shovel are engaged in widening the Trail-Eagle Point unit of the Crater Lake Highway. The steam shovel is gnawing at the hills at the Butte Falls juncture, and the trucks are distributing the dirt in both directions. It is planned to make a straight shoot in this section, eradicating four curves.
Wait on Weather
    Operations will start on the county road program for the year as soon as weather conditions will permit. The state engineer of the market road department recently inspected and approved the Lake Creek, Dead Indian and Sams Valley market roads. The Forest Service will cooperate in building a portion of the Dead Indian and Lake Creek roads which both tap the Lake o' the Woods country.
    Preliminary operations have begun on several of the special levy roads. Gravel has been stored and stakes driven for the widening and smoothing of the Little Applegate road.
    The past week the road scrapers have been busy on roads on the floor of the valley getting them in shape for spring traffic.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 12, 1931, page 6

    The Active Club, in regular meeting last evening at the Hotel Holland, enjoyed as an unusual feature moving pictures of the prosperity parade, held here March 4, and sponsored by the club. Horace Bromley, through the courtesy of the California-Oregon Power Company, presented motion pictures of the line of march, a number of the floats and the burning of "General Depression."
    Leonard Hall of Medford took several hundred feet of pictures of the parade, and the films will be sent to different Active Clubs along the coast for showing, thus directly aiding a good will toward Medford and Southern Oregon.
    During the course of the evening, several new members were announced. Speeches by Pat Riley and Ralph Bailey were appropriate to St. Patrick's Day.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 18, 1931, page 2

    The city council last night ordered darkening of the Main and Riverside welcome sign as an economy measure, following recommendation of the citizens' budget committee. The sign, which cost $36.50 per month to illuminate, may be later replaced by a neon affair.
    The city council last night also started the ball rolling for a new lighting system for Main Street, voted to sell $46,000 worth of improvement bonds covering various street and sewer improvements, passed a number of ordinances relating to individual property settlements and to build a new trunk sewer on Siskiyou Heights, and transact much other business.

"New Light System Is Held Need," Medford Mail Tribune, March 18, 1931, page 3

    For the first time in many years receipts of the Medford post office for March, amounting to $7011.91, showed a 2 percent decrease over the receipts of the same month of a year ago, and consequently also made the receipts of the past quarter a little less than those of the corresponding period a year ago.
    This small monthly decrease breaks the bright and shining record of Medford since the general business depression began months ago, as notwithstanding many post offices in all parts of the country, including the Pacific Coast section, showed much decreased receipts in January and February, the local post office receipts continued to show an increase.
    Even now it is predicted that when the March returns are in from all the post offices, the Medford post office, with its 2 percent decrease, will continue to stand out conspicuously and show that business in this city is better than in most places in the far west or coast section.
    But Postmaster Warner is almost brokenhearted at this small crimp in the onward record of Medford post office receipts, and after several days close figuring finally gave up the job as a bad one this forenoon and reluctantly announced the news. However, he at the same time explained that the small decrease was due to acts of providence over which he had no control--and confidently declared that the break in the record would be amply made up by big increases from now on--barring local earthquakes, cyclones, floods and Kiwanians or other social service eruptions.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 2, 1931, page 8

Petition to County Court Asks Road Jobs in District Be Given to Unemployed Home Residents
    Male residents of the Rogue River district to the number of 30 have filed a petition with the county court asking "why men are brought from Central Point and Gold Hill to do work on the roads which we need ourselves." The county court will take the necessary steps to rectify the condition.
    The Rogue River workers hold that inasmuch as the work is in their district they should be given first opportunity. The petition sets forth that they need it as much as residents of other districts.
    The work extends from Rogue River to the Josephine County line and only a small number of men are employed.
Have Home Policy
    It has been the policy of the county court and county engineer, as far as possible to give work to those living in the districts where work is underway.
    Three rock crushers will be in operation next week, grinding out gravel for road projects the coming summer, and work has started on a number of special levy roads.
    Approval of the Williams Creek cut-off, by the state highway commission yesterday, fits in with the 1931 road plans of the county, calling for the expending of $5000 for the oiling of Big Applegate road from Ruch to Provolt this summer. It is a unit of the Williams Creek cut-off. Funds for the oiling were voted by the Ruch district in a special road levy.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 3, 1931, page 7

Weary Medford Youngster Plods Late with Papers To Aid Family Food Fund
(By Eva Nealon)
    Swaying beneath a load of papers, which reached from hip to armpit, a little boy of eight appeared at a west side door last night just before the clock struck nine.
    Introducing himself with a yawn, he leaned against the sill and inquired in a drowsy voice: "Want a paper?"
    Looking over his pack, devoted to the Portland press, the lady of the house replied: "We get them both."
    "Oh," he yawned again and rested one worn-out shoe upon the other in a renewed effort to brace himself against the sill. The lids were drooping over his large dark eyes.
    "What's the matter?" the lady of the house continued.
    "Just got tired feet," he answered with sleepy nonchalance, his mouth opening into still another yawn.
    "Why aren't you at home this time of night?"
    "Have to sell my papers," he clasped them to his side again. "Started out at 6 o'clock, walked about a thousand miles."
    "Where do you live?"
    He named a number in the outskirts of the east side.
    "Have you any brothers and sisters?"
    "Eight of us."
    "What does your father do?"
    "He doesn't do anything."
    "What do you do with your money?"
    "I put it in the bank and he buys grub with it. Guess I better be going on," he untangled his feet and steadied the papers on his hip.
    "I'll take one," the woman handed him the money.
    "Thanks," his smile grew into a yawn.
    "Do you know how to get home?"
    "When I get out where I can see," he blinked and resumed his shuffling down the street.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 10, 1931, page 6

    The United States department of immigration has filed a request with Jackson County for a survey of aliens, held in jails, poor farms, county hospitals, state prison or other public institutions, and indigents or otherwise public charges, to the end that in due time they may be deported to their native lands.
    Prompt action is urged, as the immigration department figures that a large item of tax expenses is due to aliens in public institutions.
    The federal ruling provides that if an alien indigent or criminal has become such within a five-year period or longer, he is subject to deportation.
    The survey is nationwide in extent and is part of a general plan to cut down undesirables of foreign extraction. The Jackson County list will be small.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 13, 1931, page 8

Pitiful Plight of Medford Family Disclosed by Visit of County Health Officer
(By Eva Nealon)
    Gazing about the four walls of his room with large brown eyes, whose expression never changes--Charles, 8-year-old son of a Medford couple--lies at the Sacred Heart Hospital worrying not about his bronchial pneumonia, nor the fever which is stealing still more pounds from his emaciated little body.
    For the same condition, which limits the expression of his eyes to one tired stare, also robs Charles of ability to realize danger. So he smiles on, with his lips, unmindful of the congested chest over which his skin is so tightly drawn.
    He folds his long, scrawny arms over the pneumonia jacket and rests his head on his pillow. The bed is comfortable and Charles was sleeping on a hard bed between mother and father when Dr. B. C. Wilson, county health officer, removed him from his home to the hospital last weekend.
    His six little brothers and sisters are sleeping in the attic and on the floor. For they are not ill and two of them, like Charles, would scarcely realize it if they were.
    When spoken to the little boy opens his mouth wider to mutter an undistinguishable word and to display another defect in his makeup--two rows of decayed teeth, worn to the gums.
    He used to have eight brothers and sisters; two of them have died. Charles may recover from the pneumonia and hunger which are threatening his life, and he may not, Dr. Wilson said this morning. But whether he does or doesn't, he will never worry about the job his father doesn't have, the barren walls of his home, nor the lack of food in the cupboard. Nature has seen to that.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 14, 1931, page 3

Hitchhikers Forbidden to Solicit Rides on Highways--
State Constabulary Will Be Kept Busy

    The new state traffic law, effective June 6, providing that it shall be unlawful for any person to stand in a roadway for the purpose of soliciting a ride from the driver of any private vehicle, will have its drawbacks in enforcement. The law, passed by the last legislature to curb the practice of the small army of homeless transients picking up rides along the highway, is apt to result in quite an increase in jail population if arrests are made as soon as the law is effective, officers say.
    The principal burden of enforcement will devolve upon the shoulders of the new state police, to be organized in August, and until then it is likely local state traffic officers will carry on an educational program warning tramps and hitchhikers to forsake the habit of standing by the road and flagging motorists.
Hard on Itinerants
    A local driver, upon picking up a transient yesterday for a few miles' lift, told the hiker of the new law. The man said he was 77 years old and said the highway was his only means of transportation.
    "What next are they going to legislate against us on whom fortune has frowned. I used to be an iron moulder but advancing years caused me to be cast aside and now I'm trying to do any kind of work I can find," he said on commenting on the information.
    "I wish the law was in effect now so they would place me in jail with the assurance I would have two or three meals a day and a place to sleep. I have nobody in the world in the way of kin or friends," he continued, "and jail would be a good place for me. Many of the men looking in vain for work feel the same way about it as I do."
Law a Protection
     He was told the law was passed as a protection for the motoring public against the type of tramps who accept rides and in many cases rob their good Samaritans. In other cases, stopping to pick up transients along the highway has caused serious accidents.
    In reply the white-haired transient, who appeared neat despite his ragged clothing, deplored the condition and condemned those men who made it hard for the respectable "tramps" to get along in the world. He carried no roll of blankets and had no topcoat. He said he spent most of his nights in the open by a camp fire and begged for his food, but was always in search of work.
    He did not know why he left Los Angeles, as he knew conditions were just as bad in the north but thought if he saw some small town this side of Portland he would just stop there and wait for something to turn up. Hiking does not agree with his 77 years. If the new anti-flagging law was in effect, he said, he could go to jail without committing any serious crime.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 22, 1931, page 1

    Despite announcements by the California Oregon Power Company that only local labor would be employed on their proposed power unit extension near Prospect, consisting of a canal between the north fork and the south fork of Rogue River, close to 200 transient laborers have gathered in that vicinity, in the hopes of securing work. Many are camping near Prospect.
    It will be two or three weeks before actual construction work is started, as there is a large amount of detail and engineering work to be completed.
    A number of motorists to the Prospect district over the weekend reported "you can find a car from almost every state in the union in the brush." A number of families are included.
    The labor is the usual transient "floater" type and flocked to the Prospect area with the news that construction work was soon to be under way. Many of the workers are from the Klamath and Portland districts, and some have wintered in Southern California.
    The California Oregon Power Company was averse to making any announcement of its plans for fear of attracting surplus labor, and specifically stated that in accordance with established custom it would give preference to Jackson County working men.

Medford Mail Tribune, May 11, 1931, page 2

    When Medford business men visit other parts of the state and are interviewed by reporters of whatever city they are in about conditions here, they are able to wax eloquent on the big building program of this city and vicinity, as witness the following:
    There is a great deal of building work going on in Medford, says L. Niedermeyer, of that city, who was in Eugene Wednesday. Two new school buildings are being erected and work will start this summer on a courthouse to cost a quarter of a million dollars. Other buildings are contemplated this year.--Eugene Register Guard.
    An extraordinary amount of construction work is providing payroll for Medford and its trade territory, according to Howard Scheffel, insurance man of the Jackson County city, who was at the Heathman Hotel yesterday. As a member of the school board, Mr. Scheffel is helping to direct the completion of the $350,000 building program of the Medford school system. Work on the new $265,000 courthouse is to be started July 1. Other projects mentioned by Mr. Scheffel were the enlargement of the hydroelectric plant of the California Oregon Power Company at Prospect and the construction of the Crater Lake rim road.--The Oregonian

Medford Mail Tribune, May 15, 1931, page 5

    Emergency relief work in Jackson County past winter--state and federal--entailed a total expenditure of $59,120.47. The state highway commission spent a total of $23,931.47. Of this amount, $19,113.46 was for labor, $3,523.18 for tool and rent of machinery, and $754.83 for material.
    The federal government expended $35,279, $13,020 of the amount being for labor and $22,709 for material, goods and equipment. The work was carried on in the forests and consisted chiefly of trail building and making ready for the summer work.
    The figures are contained in a report filed by Victor A. Tengwald, secretary to the county court.
    The work furnished employment for close to 2000 Medford and Jackson County residents last winter, and tided many of then over a period of stress.

Medford Mail Tribune, May 16, 1931, page 2

    The labor bureau is no longer located in the Chamber of Commerce building and Lee Garlock, district manager of the Oregon State Motor Association, wants people of Medford as well as those of other localities to remember the fact, he stated today after being interrupted by repeated inquiries concerning jobs.
    Each day he is bothered by an increasing number of persons seeking employment, he said this morning, and many of them are directed to him by local citizens who should know better.
    The labor bureau is now located on the second floor of the city hall at the corner of Sixth and Front streets.

Medford Mail Tribune, June 1, 1931, page 2

    Small signs of returning prosperity bloomed today around the courthouse in word and deed.
    The sheriff's office reported for the morning, applications for new 1931 licenses from county and city residents for three brand-new automobiles--two Fords and a Pontiac.
    County Judge Alex Sparrow made the prediction that the coming fall and spring would see more new colts in the pastures and the corrals than at any time in the past 10 years. He said this was a "drift away from gasoline on the farm and that the small farmer was beginning to realize that horse-power was better and cheaper that bull-tractor power."
    The county judge sees a decided increase in the horse population of the county the coming year.
    Another item was the fact the applications for county aid were less than in May, 1930 and that there were fewer transient indigents than a year ago this time. The county court assumes the latter class either have work, or remained at home this spring.

Medford Mail Tribune, June 2, 1931, page 4

    Because of his assertion that he made and sold beer to support his family, including several children, H. A. Smith, who resides on East Jackson Street, was given a sentence of 30 days in jail in Judge Taylor's court yesterday afternoon and then was paroled on condition that he will observe all laws in the future.
    He had pleaded guilty to the charge of possession of 58 bottles of homemade brew. The parole was given in order for him to obtain work, as with him in that the family would be without support.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 16, 1931, page 4

U.S. Employment Agent Gottlieb Warns Against Worker Influx--
Many Being Turned Away Daily

    "The local supply of help is ample to handle all work during the season" is the general report from districts and localities throughout the state concerning employment and, according to Chris Gottlieb, manager of the local United States employment bureau, the same statement also holds true in Medford.
    "There are between fifty and seventy-five people come to my office every day in search of work, and I have to turn them away," he said this morning. There are 350 unemployed registered with the Medford branch, and hundreds make their appearance without filling out the registration cards.
2800 in Fruit
    Approximate estimations made by Mr. Gottlieb show that during the fruit season when the work is well under way close to 2800 people are employed in the valley. This number, however, can easily be found in the locality.
    Mr. Gottlieb stressed the fact that the unemployed in the valley will be sufficient to care for the needs, and that only local people will be employed when the work starts.
    The table made out by the local office for the number of fruit workers includes 750 pickers, 400 packers, 1000 sorters and wipers, 300 as trucksters, labelers, receivers, checkers, roustabouts, stampers, car loaders and pressmen, 130 box makers, 75 truck drivers and swampers, and 100 for miscellaneous jobs.
Many Jobless
    Seasonal report issued from Portland shows in that city that 17,655 unemployed are registered, and there is now more than sufficient help for the work. The small town of Newberg, located near Portland, has 750 listed. About 300 are without work in The Dalles, where wheat, alfalfa and hay are being harvested, and cherries are being picked. Similar reports have been filed from practically every employment office in the state, according to the statement issued.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 19, 1931, page 8

    Leander Blackwell, a white-haired man of 89 years, who lost two sons in the world war, and has no kith or kin, appeared before the county court this morning and asked for aid. He will receive assistance from the Red Cross and will be sent back to Dunsmuir, Cal., where for many years he was the leading shoemaker. He has been in this city and county for two weeks and now the room rent is due. The meals have been irregular, he told the county judge. He also informed the court there had been fairer days in his life.
    Blackwell, a man of apparent education, in the course of a conversation revealed that he had an intimate knowledge of scientific questions and scripture, and could even discuss the Einstein theory volubly. He had been a miner and claimed to be able "to locate precious metals by mental vibration."
    The applicant for aid claimed he had "been in and out of Oregon since 1881," and "chased Indians in Arizona when they needed chasing." He said he had delivered lectures on scientific questions to small groups," but had never attempted "to capitalize my ability along those lines."
    Blackwell's plea was one of half a dozen presented to the county court today for aid.

Medford Mail Tribune, July 2, 1931, page 7

    Although figures released yesterday by the secretary of state show a pronounced increase in registration of non-resident motorists in Oregon this year, Medford is still falling below last year's record, Lee Garlock, local manager of the Oregon State Motor Association, stated this morning.
    During June, last year, 811 cars were registered at the Medford office. This year the total for June was 696. For the month of May a decrease of 200 was realized. Mr. Garlock believes that the location of the office accounts for much of the decrease. In Ashland and Grants Pass, where important increases have been reported, the offices are now located on the highway.
    Travel seems to be on the pickup this morning, Mr. Garlock said, and he is anticipating a better record for July.

Medford Mail Tribune, July 8, 1931, page 3

    Close to 700 men are now employed on the Prospect tunnel and flume project of the California Oregon Power Company, and a recapitulation of the workers shows that only six are non-residents of Jackson, Josephine or Klamath counties. A large proportion are married, have families and are taxpayers.
    A checkup of the autos showing ten with foreign licenses was made by the power concern, and it was revealed that eight of these belonged to tourists and one to a resident of Jackson County who journeyed to Montana last winter and is trying to use up his Montana license.
    It is expected that the laboring force will be increased soon, in order to complete as much of the work as possible before winter sets in. The work will be carried on as long as weather conditions will permit.
    The woods adjacent to the work are full of campers and include many local families who are enjoying the novelty of tent life in the open.

Medford Mail Tribune, July 10, 1931, page 7

    Conditions look better in Oregon than in any one of eight other states visited by Mr. and Mrs. C. B. Arnold on a recent motor tour, they announced this morning following their return from a six weeks' vacation, during which they traveled over 7000 miles.
    California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oklahoma were included in their itinerary, and they found the weather dry and hot and times "hard" in all of them.
    Deserted shacks in great numbers were viewed in Montana, where the water scarcity is taking on a serious nature. In Oklahoma, farmers who have raised bumper crops of wheat informed Mr. Arnold they will not realize enough money at 28 cents a bushel, the present price, to pay for their seed.
    Several ranches in New Mexico had an almost prosperous look, but the agricultural regions of other states visited formed a sad picture, the Arnolds said today, and they are mighty glad to be back in Oregon.
    They were accompanied on their trip south by Misses Lucille Wright and Alice Snider of Eugene, who attended the meeting of the National Teachers' Association in Los Angeles. Miss Wright joined them again in Denver for the return trip.

Medford Mail Tribune, July 22, 1931, page 2

    Plans for sponsoring a soup kitchen, which present conditions indicate will be much needed this coming winter, were considered today by members of the Lions' Club at the regular luncheon at the Hotel Holland. It was decided to appoint a special committee to study the situation and possibilities of operating a kitchen in this city. Reports were made by Lions B. G. Harding and Carl Swigart regarding the subject.
    Lion Earle Davis, who was drafted into the position of program chairman, entertained the club with an article devoted to television, published in the Electrical Merchandising magazine.
    Approval of action taken by various groups of the city to oppose the proposed 15 percent increase in freight rates was expressed by Lion M. B. Jarmin, as chairman of the interclub committee. He informed the Lions that all service clubs join the Lions in their opposition to the railroads' proposed increase.
    An attendance excelling that of the past several weeks was reported and club members urged to better the record established today.
    Lion President G. W. Newberry opened the meeting with an intensive drill practice centering around the motto of Lionism.
    W. A. Holloway, the newest cub, was introduced today by Lion Verne Shangle. Mr. Holloway is owner of the Reliable Grocery.

Medford Mail Tribune, July 22, 1931, page 5

Cigarettes Are Blamed
To the Editor:
    According to report, the city is preparing to run a soup kitchen this winter--fine advertisement.
   Now all these bums that will call for help are smoking cigarettes, no matter how hard up they are, in spite of the fact that their family needs the money they spend on cigarettes. The average smoker will smoke at least one package a day, 15¢, $1.00 a week, $52.00 a year. Now, if there is a worthy person, one that has not become destitute from his bad habits, fool deals and general cussedness, has been thrifty and saved his money, I will help him. I have failed, however, to find one single case where it has not been their own fault, and when pinned down they admit it. They will have to furnish proof of what brought them where they are.
    Medford, July 23.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, July 24, 1931, page 6

Toil Needed to Carry Country Back Toward Prosperity Says Store Magnate at Forum.
    It is not the times but the will to work that determines business success. The country is anxious for prosperity, ready to respond, but seeks a definite and authoritative leadership, is the message J. C. Penney, founder and chairman of the J. C. Penney company, who is in the west for the opening of the new Penney store in Seattle, brought to Medford today in his address before the Forum luncheon at the Hotel Medford.
    "The Job Ahead Is One of Working Our Way Back" was the subject of his address, heard by more than 180 businessmen and farmers of Medford and the Rogue River Valley.
    "The time is ripe when we must pick up the working tools we dropped to chase the rainbow. It is the pick and shovel of individual industries that prosperity is searching for," he declared, placing much emphasis upon the word "working."
Bolger Presides
    W.S. Bolger, manager of the local J. C. Penney store, presided at the Forum luncheon, one of the largest ever held in Medford, and introduced the speaker and other guests. Among them were Fred H. Reese, representing the Portland chamber of commerce; Don Raymond, soloist of the Fox Theaters, and Joan Ellis, who entertained with a group of songs, and Mrs. Archie Holt, pianist.
    Mr. Penney arrived in Medford this morning from Crater Lake and will meet this evening with Mr. Bolger and the entire staff of the local J. C. Penney store.
    Men of today are facing a real tax on their business courage and ingenuity, he warned his listeners, as if challenging them to meet the demands of the age.
    "We can ascribe the lack of prosperity to the fact that the German war debt and reparations payments are upsetting European finance; that people have stopped wearing wool and, therefore, the wool industry which has been a mainstay of industrial life is gone and nothing has been found to replace it. You can lay it to politics, to the operations of Wall Street, or to any of thousands of potential causes which come to our mouths very fluently," Mr. Penney told his audience.
    "It is my firm belief that success picks no favorites, and under present conditions I believe that every man in business is as near to an equal starting line as almost anyone else you can mention."
    Deploring the present lag in spending, maintained under the guise of thrift, Mr. Penney said, "There never was more money lying idle in this country than there is at the present time. This idleness shows up in relation to the earning power of money the same way that idleness shows up in individuals. Idle money is cheap money and has never been so cheap as at the present time.
Too Many Pessimists
    "Too many of us are acting so much as a mirror for the present disturbed business conditions, that we are unconsciously forcing this same picture in the minds of many people who had no conception of how bad things really were, until we passed our picture to them."
    If sales are 20 percent off now, Mr. Penney explained, they can be brought back to normalcy by increasing the expenditures of everyone 25 cents a day.
    Turning again to the necessity for hard work, he said, "There is a powerful thing about work. When a man is really busy, when he is certain inside himself that he is worth carrying on his own payroll, when he can look at himself as an employee of himself and say, 'There is a man I want to hang on to,' he has very little time to find fault with his neighbors or to instill gloom.
    "During the past two years, or since the start of the present trouble when 'hard work' has replaced 'high hopes' as the code word for business advancement, there has been too great a tendency for criticism of our neighbor and too little attention to close analysis.
Animosity in Taxes
    "Some of the animosity which first expressed itself in personal challenges directed toward honesty, faithful  performance of citizenship's duties, and the like, has translated itself into attempts on the part of legislators to set up discriminatory tax regulations.
    "Just as the consumers were the first and last to pay the price of personal animosity among merchants in one community, they will be the ultimate people to pay the costs of legislation designed to restrict the development of retail selling.
    "The country as a whole," Mr. Penney declared, "is anxious for prosperity. It is looking for constructive rather than destructive suggestions. In general, it is satiated with the inability of politics to properly analyze the present situation and supply correctives.
Up to Businessmen
    "If we have restricted certain of our markets by unwise regulations, it remains for the hard-working businessman who can point to his own efforts as sufficient indication that he is doing his best to see that corrections in those regulations are made.
    "I have always had the utmost belief in courage in salesmanship. It has been the practice among the men in our organization to look to themselves and not to their merchandise if they found their stocks were moving slowly, or that business was not moving ahead at the proper rate.
    "Profits remain in just as full volume as they have ever existed in the past," Mr. Penney said in conclusion, "but they remain for the man in the business world who trains his business muscles to do the best job with the pickax and shovel of real salesmanship. The job ahead of us is a working job."

Medford Mail Tribune, August 3, 1931, page 1

    The county court has announced its intention of employing, "as far as humanly possible," only Jackson County labor and Jackson County material in the construction of the new $265,000 courthouse.
    W. H. (Moose) Muirhead, manager of the Beaver-Portland Cement plant at Gold Hill, conferred with the county court this morning relative to using home-produced cement and was given assurances. Between 7000 and 8000 barrels of cement will be required. This will furnish five or six weeks' work for 125 men living in the Gold Hill district, most of them men of families and taxpayers.
    It was also stated by the county court that bona fide evidence of residence in this county would be required and would be a specific clause of building and material contracts.
    J. G. Link, architect, stated this morning that the final plans for the structure were well under way and would be completed by September 10. He said contracts would be let by October 15, and actual construction work started as soon thereafter as possible. This will fit in with the previously announced policy of the county to provide winter employment for Jackson County workers.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 4, 1931, page 3

Willing to Work But Can't
To the Editor:
    I have been and am now a subscriber to the Mail Tribune, and haven't asked the privilege of expressing my views on this depression, or whatever you may call it. But after reading all the views of our so-called wise men, or in other words, men of great business ability, like Henry Ford and many others, and our great president Herbert Hoover, and last of all, the recent speech of J. C. Penney, "A Will to Work." As a common working man and Christian and minister of the gospel, I feel it my Christian duty to speak up in defense of my class, the working class, of decent American citizens. Now let me rebuke Mr. J. C. Penney, and others, for their insult to honest working citizens. There are hundreds of honest citizens in our fair city of Medford willing to work and anxious to work, walking the streets discouraged, hungry, wives and children at home just existing, house rent unpaid, water bills piling up.
    I am $35.00 behind with my own bills and am anxious to pay up. I have a will to work, with pick and shovel, or pick pears, or any kind of honest toil, and have worn out one good pair of shoes I bought from J. C. Penney company, looking for a job. With an overproduction of wheat, fruits, and lumber and most everything that mankind needs, and millions of our honest citizens willing to work, and no jobs, will Mr. Penney, or anyone else of our wise men, use some of their surplus wealth to even create a pick and shovel job. And Mr. Ford, with his billions of dollars, laying off thousands of men. Will he show us the jobs?  And our dear Mr. Hoover, will he please show some concern about the financial plight of millions of red-blooded Americans, as he does for poor Germany. Remember, I am a Republican, but progressive.
    Thanking you for space in your paper.
    435 South Fir Street.  
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, August 4, 1931, page 4

    The opening of the pear picking and packing season early this week has resulted, as usual during the annual fruit harvest, in giving the Medford business section a livelier appearance, and inculcating a more optimistic spirit among business men and other citizens, because of the many hundreds being employed in the fruit industry. The financial benefits will begin to be felt when the first payday comes tomorrow.
    However, despite the warning sent out all over the Pacific Coast for itinerant workers or other unemployed men to keep away, as Medford and the valley could well furnish sufficient home help, many unemployed men have found their way here this week and are standing around in hopes of getting fruit harvest employment or work in fighting forest fires.
    That accounts for so many, mostly young, men being seen congregated at the corners of Front and Main streets, the east side of the chamber of commerce building, and other places in the business district.
    Their presence is not so notable in the afternoons and late forenoons as they seek shady spots, but in early forenoon and the evenings they are out in full force on the streets, their numbers augmented by a number of employed fruit workers and unemployed local men. The erstwhile dwellers in the city come from all parts of the Pacific Coast, and from various other parts of the nation.
    For the most part they are well-appearing men, some of them fairly well dressed, who are down in their luck at least temporarily, and are willing to take any kind of work. The reason they congregate about the chamber of commerce building and at the corners of Main and Front streets is that it is well known among them that those locations are handiest to be at whenever any men are being sought by employers for work, or by forest officials seeking emergency fire fighters.
     Eleven men were picked up last evening for fire fighting, and word of this flew around the city like wildfire, resulting in hundreds congregating at the waiting centers in case more fire fighters should be wanted.
    The waiting unemployed men are very orderly and naturally having nothing else to do but talk as they wait, many impromptu street debates follow on various subjects.
    For instance, this forenoon a crowd of fifty congregated at the northwest corner of Main and Front streets, blocking the Main Street sidewalk, in an earnest discussion of rattlesnakes. Word was sent to the police station and Officer George Prescott went to clear the assemblage away from the sidewalks.
    Upon arrival he merely walked into the crowd and said: "Boys, you had better go and hire a hall." At once the crowd dispersed without showing a trace of resentment.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 7, 1931, page 3

    We agree with "W.B.C." in Wednesday's "Letter Box" that the excavations for the new county court should be done by hand labor instead of by machine.
    There would be comparatively little money involved. But every bit of gainful employment this winter is going to count. And during the depression, the more men on any job and the fewer labor-saving machines, the better for all concerned.
    We are glad to say that the County Court shares this view and has officially informed the Mail Tribune that as far as it is practically possible, all county work will be arranged to provide the maximum amount of employment for the maximum number of local people.
    Even if such a policy should increase the total expense of public work--which is doubtful--it would be justified, for it would combine public improvement construction with the most economic and desirable method of unemployment relief.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 7, 1931, page 4

Medford and Valley Residents Find Doors Closed with California Autos Parked--Cases Cited
    Great diversity of opinion regarding the percentage of California labor hired in fruit packing houses of Medford is being voiced in this city today. Few agree as to the exact number from the southern state employed, but the prevalent decision states that "fewer local people have obtained work this season."
    An investigation of the situation has not been made by the county court, showing a 95 percent hiring of local labor, contrary to yesterday's statement, County Judge Alex Sparrow announced this morning. The county court, on the other hand, is thronged with unemployed, who have been unable to obtain work at the Medford houses.
    Survey made by the state police department of autos owned by members of the packing house crews showed 40 percent of them carrying California licenses, J. O. Brien of the force reported this morning.
    These employees have obtained permits, which are good for three months, and cost them nothing. This fact is deplored by many workmen calling at the county court. Especially by those who have been unable to purchase Oregon licenses for their cars, because they are out of jobs.
Case Cited
    E. L. Hyde of Central Point, a resident of Jackson County for 10 years, comes in the latter classification. His car was taken from him at Jacksonville a few days ago because he had not purchased a new license. He has a family of nine and has been refused all types of jobs in the fruit harvest.
    D. O. Garrison of French Gulch was cited this morning as another one of the several hundred worthy men calling at the county court for aid. He has gone to every packing house in the city and obtained nothing. He is a large man, physically fit and anxious to work. He walked 25 miles to his home Saturday night to take the groceries, purchased through aid to the court, to his family.
Willing to Work
    These men are willing to do any type of work, Judge Sparrow said today, and like the others who crowd the court have been residents of Jackson County for many years.
    The county court has spent in June more than half the budget allowed for the coming year for caring for these people, Judge Sparrow also stated.
    The court now faces the most demanding months of the year with the budget more than half depleted and local men still out of work.
    "The court wants these people employed so the county won't have to feed them," Judge Sparrow concluded.
    The county is now helping only those people who have been residents of the county for a year and of the state at least three years. In spite of that fact the budget, allotted to care for this need until December 31, was more than half exhausted in June.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 11, 1931, page 1

    No definite action has been taken by the county court relative to the wage cut of 10 percent for all county employees and departmental heads.
    The county court takes the position that any wage cut should affect all and no special group, and, unless all elected officers voluntarily agree to a slash, none should. Some of the elective officers are willing to accept a reduction, and others are not, and there the matter stands. A conference was held last Friday between the county court and elective officers, whose salaries are fixed by law, but no decision was reached. No county officer's salary has been cut.
    Elective officers in Coos, Klamath, Clatsop and Harney counties of this state have voluntarily accepted salary cuts, and it was suggested by local officials that a similar step be taken in this section.
In Talking Stage
    County Judge Sparrow characterized the situation this morning as "in the talkie [sic] stage."
    The county judge also said that he had attended a meeting of the Pomona Grange at Central Point recently, when economy was the main subject under discussion, and that he had urged "economy straight down the line," but had not mentioned county workers as special targets.
    The county court and county officials are still discussing the proposed cut.
    Some county officials argue that the amount saved by the proposed slash would not "be enough to worry about in the tax levy," while reducing the buying power of the community appreciably.
    The same question was last up for discussion in 1921, when a panic threatened and economy became a burning topic.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 11, 1931, page 5

    Widespread approval of the plan for giving the cull pears from local packing houses to the poor was voiced by numerous fruit growers, packers, and others today. The plan to utilize the fruit which is ordinarily thrown away was given in a Mail Tribune editorial Sunday.
    The Mail Tribune believes that hundreds of local families would be thankful to receive the pears for canning and making preserves. With sugar at the lowest price in years, the canned fruit would serve many during the winter.
    Attempts to devise a plan for distribution of the fruit is now underway. Local welfare organizations including the Red Cross will be asked to aid in the distribution as soon as the system is devised.
    As pointed out by Hugh W. Hamlin, manager of the Big Seven plant, early fruit will have to be handled soon or the pears will have become too ripe for canning. Some of the packing houses which have already disposed of their Bartlett culls announce that they will be glad to donate their winter pear culls. These are rarely used by the canneries, although housewives can many of them.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 17, 1931, page 1

    Packing house managers and shippers throughout the city and valley are rallying to the plan for giving the cull pears and apples to needy families as proposed this week by the Mail Tribune. A check of the many packing houses today revealed that large quantities of Bartlett pear culls of good quality are now available at the plants.
    The plan is to benefit families which would otherwise be forced to go without the fruit this winter. The tons of Bartletts are now ready for canning, making preserves and for the many other uses to which they can be put for winter consumption.
    The packing houses urge that all persons wishing to obtain the fruit bring their own sacks. They also request that persons capable of handling the fruit themselves call. It will be impossible for the workmen to devote their time to putting the pears in cars or trucks inasmuch as they are being given away without cost.
    The plan of disposal will make it possible to utilize tons of pears and apples which are otherwise hauled away to garbage dumps. Apples will not be ready for several weeks. Late pear culls will begin to accumulate at the plants next week, it is expected.
    Bear Creek orchards have Bartlett culls at the present time that they are willing to give away, providing the people furnish their own boxes.
    Pinnacle packing houses have Howells and winter pears which they are glad to give.
    Westerlund orchards have announced their willingness to give away all of their culls, which are at the Myron Root packing house.
    Medford Fruit Company will give away all culls, providing they are taken from the plant by truck so that workmen will not be inconvenienced.
    Big Seven houses have winter pear culls which they are willing to give.
    Kimballs report that although they have no culls on hand at the present time, they will be glad for the needy to come to the packing house for them, as soon as some more are on hand.
    Sgobel and Day reports they have a large supply of culls and are quite willing to give them to those who come to the packing houses with their own boxes.
    Palmers Corporation has only a few culls at the time which are available, but are glad to give them, and will also contribute culls when other varieties are being packed.
    Southern Oregon Sales, Inc., have disposed of all Bartlett culls, but will give away culls of later varieties of pears and apples.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 19, 1931, page 1

    Frank Fay Eddy, formerly special and editorial writer on the Albany Democrat-Herald, arrived in Medford today, and will spend some time here preparing an illustrated article on Medford and the Rogue River valley for the October number of the Oregon magazine published for many years by Murray Wade of Salem.
    Mr. Eddy recently left the Albany paper and is now associate editor of the magazine, which the publishers plan to make a genuine state periodical with a circulation throughout the Northwest. Mr. Eddy, familiar with business conditions all over the state, said that he had heard Medford was in better shape that most places on the coast, and remarked that after looking over the town and talking with business men, he was convinced this was true.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 20, 1931, page 3

    Guy W. Conner has announced that anyone wishing cull pears may have them by coming to the packing house of the Medford Fruit Company, and furnishing their own boxes. This information was forthcoming following the publication of a list of packing houses willing to aid the poor by giving away culls.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 21, 1931, page 9

Thanks for Editorial.
    To the Editor:
    I wish to thank you in behalf of the board of directors of the Community Chest for your very fine editorial in the paper Sunday, August 23, entitled "A Word to the Unwise." The sponsors of the Community Chest in the past, who have been the most active in its support, have been the leading business men in the community. Its operation has not been limited to Medford, but has taken in the outlying territory. There have been many, as you point out, who have perhaps not understood the purpose of the chest. For this reason they have not contributed as generously as they might have, and in some cases not at all. We believe this results from a misunderstanding rather than from the fact that they are poor business men.
    Governor Meier is endeavoring to meet the unemployment situation in as efficient a manner as possible, and it is the intention of the chest this year to work closely with the local committee appointed by him.
    The primary purpose of the Community Chest is to raise necessary funds efficiently and to supervise the various units participating therein to see that the funds are expended efficiently.
    We agree with you that the need is greater than it has ever been, and that we are in fact faced with a crisis. If the business men of this country do not realize that some provision must be made for the unemployed, it is entirely probable that it may result in their having no business.
    Thank you again for your very timely editorial.
Very truly yours,
        By Hamilton Patton, President.
August 24, 1931.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, August 24, 1931, page 4

Our Hayseed Complex
To the Editor:
    "I don't care how big a man is, if you comb his hair long enough you will find a mite of hayseed somewhere."
    Uncertainty of employment, lower wages, high cost of living in the cities are some of the factors tending to make us aware of our "hayseed complex" while good roads, electricity in the country, the radio and the automobile have made the country more desirable.
    A man with his family on a small acreage does not have to produce a large "exportable surplus" in order to get by. If he has part-time employment he is relatively more prosperous that the city man, even though the city man may have more continuous employment. A man on a small tract of land soon has it paid for so has little, or no, rent to pay and can raise a good part of his own living. When out of employment he has a job improving his own place.
    This may be the answer until we are able to figure out with greater "mathematical exactitude" just how continuous employment can be furnished for everyone in a completely industrialized state.
    Our leading statesmen are beginning to realize the necessity of this stabilizing influence and are planning in every way possible to encourage home ownership of this kind.
    My prediction is that the next two years will see a greater exodus from our large cities to the country. Real estate boards and chambers of commerce throughout the country already realize this movement is under way and are encouraging it in every way possible.
    Mild winter climate--pleasant summers--good roads and schools already developed--cheap and abundant water for electric power--great forecasts of fine timber furnishing cheap fuel and cheap building materials--abundance of water for irrigation when our irrigation projects are completed--one hundred thousand acres of good land suitable for gardening, sheltered by surrounding hills and mountains, makes the Rogue River Valley in Jackson County the most ideal place in the world for suburban development.
    The immediate problem pressing us for a solution is how to complete at once our irrigation projects. This alone stands in the way of the immediate subdividing of our large farms into small tracts of land, that would become immediately desirable.
    This is a great country.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, August 24, 1931, page 4

Thinks Capitalism a Failure
To the Editor:
    It seems to the undersigned that you attach too much importance to the Lindbergh's joy ride to Japan. In your issue of the 17th inst. you make it the occasion for pointing out the superiority of capitalism over socialism. "Had Mr. and Mrs. Lindbergh," you say, "been born in Russia they could never have played their present roles. 'Slim' . . . would never have been financed to make that epoch-making flight to Paris." Perhaps not. But is your comparison a just one? American capitalism is over a century old, Russian socialism--about to begin.
    Pretty much everywhere under capitalism the desires of man cross, collide and result in mutual ruin; hence its inevitable collapse. In Russia, for the first time in history, a movement has been launched to coordinate the social forces--i.e., the collective desires of man--for achieving dominion over nature to the vast betterment of all. So after a century of such activity, every Russian worker might be financially able to pull off an advertising stunt like that of Lindy's.
    Charles Augustus may be a typical member of our bourgeois and Anne a typical member of our money aristocracy, as you hold. However, the opinion is strong that they assay far above the typical members of these estates. Such members do not take such risks for so little. But the spending of wealth so foolhardily while millions of their countrymen are suffering the deprivations of the damned indicates a serious psychologic shortcoming of their natures.
    In this respect they truly typify the attitudes of their respective classes.
    Gold Hill, Aug. 24.
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, August 24, 1931, page 4

    The county court in its session Monday pored over budget estimates as submitted by the various county officers and found that the expenses had been pruned to the line, with an estimated saving of close to $11,000. Purchase of supplies, elimination of extra help by reduction of working forces, upkeep of machinery, such as typewriters, comptometers, traveling expenses and postage, telegraph and telegraph bill, are the main items slashed.
    There has been no cut in salaries, which are set by law. A voluntary ten percent reduction was suggested, but some of the elective officers failed to acquiesce, and the county court refused to sanction a cut that did not include all.
    One expense scheduled for a drastic reduction is the maintenance of the old courthouse at Jacksonville, now used only for public meetings, but having a light, water and fuel bill and a janitor.
    The coming year, according to the estimates of the county clerk, will see a heavy decrease in the county receipts--about $20,000. Expense cuts to date are about half that sum. The decrease is attributed to the reduction in the O-C tax refunds, tardiness of taxpayers occasioned by taking advantage of the eight percent interest penalty for delinquent taxpayers and the economic stress.
    The county court expects to name a budget committee before the first of the month to act with them in formulating the 1932 budget. They will start their work a month earlier than usual because of the need of retrenchment.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 25, 1931, page 7

C. of C. Survey Finds Conditions Better Than Usual for Local Workers--Fruit Shortage Vital Factor
    The Chamber of Commerce committee, composed of B. E. Harder, banker, W. A. Gates, merchant, both of this city, and John Anderson, farmer, Central Point, completed its report yesterday on its investigations of the local fruit labor situation.
    The report finds that 1253 people are employed in the Medford district packing houses, skilled and unskilled labor. In the general labor section, the report states that only 11 percent is outside labor, and in the skilled labor division, 20.5 percent is outside labor.
    The committee finds that conditions this year "are much better than usually prevail in the fruit industry here," that the condition "is not as bad as advance reports indicated," that the Red Cross reports a dwindling of the complaints," and that complaints "of local people, previously employed in the fruit, unable to secure work this season, "may or may not be traceable to a surplus of outside labor, but is more possibly a result of a shortage of fruit this season."
Autos No Indication
    The report further states:
    "A survey of the number of cars with foreign license plates parked adjacent to the packing houses would indicate a higher percentage of foreign labor than shown in the foregoing figures, in some cases running as high as 40 to 50 percent. This probably is not an accurate indicator of the situation, as many of these cars belong to people maintaining a residence in this district who have been in California the past two or three months seeking employment in the fruit industry there."
    The committee suggests no remedy, and states that the packers have shown an attitude of helpfulness, and a desire to employ local labor whenever they can consistently do so.
   The report in full is as follows:
Board of Directors,
    Medford Chamber of Commerce.
    Your committee appointed at the last meeting of the board to make an investigation of the various packing houses located in the Medford district to determine, if possible, the amount of outside help employed in handling the present fruit crop as compared with the amount of local help used, has made its investigations and submits the following report:
    We have found that out of a total of 1258 persons employed in the packing houses in the Medford district, 1111 are local people and 147 have been employed from outside sources, indicating that of the general labor employed in the packing houses, 11.7 percent are out-of-state employees. In the division of skilled labor, the percentage is higher; of the 428 persons employed as skilled labor, there are 331 local employees and 97 out-of-state employees, a percentage of 20.3 percent outside labor.
Short Crop Factor
    In the opinion of your committee, this is not an abnormal condition, but rather it is much better than the conditions that usually prevail in the fruit industry here. In its studies, the committee has found that under normal conditions there are approximately 3000 persons employed in picking, packing, handling and shipping the Medford fruit crop. Under the conditions that obtain this year, and due to the shortage of the crop, the number of necessary employees has been naturally reduced, and that condition has led to a majority of the complaints received by the county court, Red Cross, and other local organizations. Your committee has been reliably informed by the local offices of the U.S. federal employment service that normally there are not over 1000 persons in the Medford district who can be counted upon year after year to offer their services in harvesting the fruit crop, and that at least two-thirds of the normal labor demand must be recruited from outside sources. This condition is not true this year, as seen from the foregoing figures.
Skilled Labor Required
    It is further noted that from the standpoint of the packer and grower, a highly perishable product is being dealt with, which must be handled speedily and efficiently lest a great part of its value be lost. Packers have stated that it is most difficult to obtain efficient local fruit packers in large enough numbers to handle the necessary work, and thus again outside assistance is an absolute necessity.
    Statements from practically every packing house manager interviewed during the course of this investigation indicate that the packer is keenly aware of the situation and is doing everything in his power to use local labor whenever and wherever possible. In a few cases, the manager does not exercise any direct control over the packing operations, which are being done by contract, but even in these cases, contract packers have indicated an attitude of cooperation.
Complaints Dwindle
    A majority of the complaints regarding the situation have come from people who have been employed in the fruit in previous years, but who have been unable to secure employment this year. This condition may or may not be directly traceable to a surplus of outside labor being employed, but is more possibly a result of the shortage of fruit this season. The local headquarters of the Red Cross states that numerous complaints were received prior to the beginning of the picking season, but that there has been a noticeable reduction in the number of complaints during the past 10 years.
    A survey of the number of cars with foreign licenses parked adjacent to the packing houses would indicate a higher percentage of foreign labor than shown in the foregoing figures, in some cases running as high as 40 percent to 50 percent. This is probably not an accurate indicator of the situation, as many of these cars belong to people maintaining residences in this district, who have been in California for the past two or three months, seeking employment in the fruit industry there. It is certain that a lack of employment in Medford for the past four months has caused a certain amount of this procedure.
Reports Exaggerated
    In the opinion of your committee, the condition is not as bad as advance reports have indicated, and we do not believe that there is a great amount of experienced local labor which is not able to find employment in the fruit industry. Of course, there are undoubtedly isolated cases where persons who have been successful in securing employment in previous years have been unable to obtain that employment during this current season, and we do not believe there is any action which can be taken by the chamber of commerce other than that already taken in urging upon those engaged in the fruit industry to use local help whenever possible; as stated before, the employers have indicated an attitude of helpfulness and the desire to assist in solving this community problem insofar as they can without impairing the efficiency of their plants and without involving a loss due to delay in handling.
Wages Are Cited
    A byproduct of the labor investigation is shown in the results of your committee's findings pertaining to wages paid in the various packing houses, and although this was not designated as a part of your committee's duties, it might be well to outline, briefly, wage conditions as they have been found. Wages for common floor help in the packing houses vary from 30¢ to 40¢ per hour; one organization is paying as high as 65¢ to 70¢ for skilled labor, but the majority of the institutions are paying from 50¢ to 60¢ per hour; packers are paid from 5¢ to 6¢ per box in a majority of the packing houses.
    Your committee wants to take this opportunity to thank those concerns in the fruit industry for their assistance in making this survey; the investigation was made in the following packing houses:
    American Fruit Growers
    Bardwell Fruit Co.
    Bear Creek Orchards   
    Big 7 Fruit Distributors
    Del Rio Orchards
    Growers Exchange, Inc.
    Kimball Fruit Co.
    Medford Fruit Co.
    Newbry and Sons
    Palmer Corp.
    Pinnacle Packing Co.
    Rogue River Co.
    Sgobel and Day
    Southern Oregon Sales, Inc.
    Suncrest Orchards
    H. VanHoevenberg.
        Respectfully submitted,
        B. E. Harder, Chairman,
        W.A. Gates,
        John Anderson.
August 26, 1931.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 26, 1931, page 1

    A check made of the various packing houses in the city who last week expressed willingness to give cull pears to the poor people who called for them showed that many had been to the majority of the fruit houses and obtained the pears.
    The Bear Creek Orchards reported that they had given away about 200 boxes, and a large number of people are still calling for them. The late varieties of pears now coming on are expected to furnish more culls.
    The Pinnacle houses report that between five and six hundred boxes have been given by them.
    Medford Fruit Company officials say that quite a number of loads have been hauled from the plant, as well as many individuals bringing their own boxes.
    Although the Big Seven manager announced his cooperation in giving away the cull fruit, very few have appeared at the plant. Kimballs and Sgobel and Day companies have given large quantities of pears, but estimates were impossible.
    An approximate number of boxes was not available at Palmer's corporation, but a report was made that everyone who called had been given all the pears he wanted.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 27, 1931, page 3

Sparrow, Harder, Meeker Named As Emergency Committee at Meeting of Various Charity Agencies.
    Centralization of all relief work in Medford for the coming year to be carried on by various agencies under the leadership of Governor Meier's emergency employment committee was effected yesterday evening at the meeting of the board of directors of the Community Chest, other relief organizations and representatives of the city and county governments in session at the chamber of commerce.
    The local emergency committee is composed of County Judge Alex Sparrow, B. E. Harder and Clarence Meeker.
    All organizations agreed to work through this committee and pledged their support to the plans under consideration.
    It was the consensus of opinion that as much relief work as possible should be provided by city, county and state governments. It was urged that city and county budgets be made to provide for as much emergency work as possible.
Urge Road Work
    A motion was passed appealing to the state to continue highway improvements and construction of county roads during the winter, using as much hand labor as practical. It was especially urged that the construction on the Green Springs roads be completed.
    The Community Chest will be expected to care for the relief work which cannot be covered by the government agencies.
    A committee was appointed to work out a new budget for the Community Chest. Members are J. C. Mann, W. W. Allen, H. A. Thierolf, Dr. James C. Hayes and John Orth.
    The Salvation Army, which withdrew from the Chest last year, is expected to apply for membership.
    The chest board of directors, members of the governor's committee, Mayor E. M. Wilson, representatives of the Red Cross, Salvation Army, Boy Scouts, Central Civic Council, women's clubs and press attended yesterday's meeting.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 28, 1931, page 1

    Resolution for adoption of a petition demanding reduced telephone rates, stating that unless such rates are granted, telephones will be removed, will be presented at the meeting of the Central Point Grange Friday evening.
    The resolution, drawn up by the Home Economics Club of the Central Point Grange, will also be presented before Granges of the county where members are dissatisfied with prevailing telephone charges.
    In was inspired, according to reports of the club, by the people who are members of the Central Point Grange but served by the Medford telephone system. The $2.50 monthly charge is considered too high.
    A recent report in the Grange Bulletin tells of the adoption of a similar resolution by the North Dakota Granges, where, the Home Economics Club points out, the rate is now only $15 a year. A threatened increase to $18 caused the farmers to remove their telephones until the satisfactory rate was granted.

Medford Mail Tribune, August 31, 1931, page 2

    "Early Settlers' Good Will Checks" do not point to the people who have made their home in Medford for some years, but those who are going to settle their accounts early. Business people of the city who are willing to make early payments on their accounts are buying the checks, each worth $5, which have been issued by the Medford Lions Club. They are redeemable at the Jackson County Bank.
    The "paper money" was printed through the courtesy of the Medford Printing Company and is being circulated by members of the local Lions Club.
    Before the money is redeemable it must have been used 25 times in payment on some debt or account, which, it is hoped, will stimulate the settlement on these outstanding debits, according to the plan.
    George W. Newberry, president of the club, spent yesterday afternoon in putting the idea into effect and sold a number of the bills early in the afternoon. Among business men who accepted the idea were Mayor E. M. Wilson, O. C. Alenderfer, president of the Chamber of Commerce; D. G. Tyree, manager of the investment department of the Copco; Alfred Johnson, local Standard Oil manager; Dr. D. A. Chambers, secretary of the Medford Rotary Club; Carl Y. Tengwald, secretary of the Medford Kiwanis Club, and E. L. Knapp, business manager of the Medford Mail Tribune.

Medford Mail Tribune, September 13, 1931, page 8

    A lower budget, but one which includes increased funds for relief work, was announced yesterday evening following the meeting of the Community Chest board and representatives of all organizations to be included. The total is $21,035.
    The Salvation Army was brought into the chest and allowed $3000 in the budget. This same amount was deducted from the non-relief organizations, making the entire budget $50 under last year's figures.
    The directors were unanimous in the opinion that all possible money must be delegated to relief during the coming season. The largest cut was taken by the Boy Scouts, whose budget was trimmed by $1250. The Y.W.C.A. was reduced $750, the Health Association $450, the Girl Scouts $340 and overhead was cut $200.
    The Red Cross was given a slight increase over last year, the total for the coming season being $6775.
    Other organizations in the budget will receive the following:
    Health Association, $1250; Y.W.C.A., $2250; Girl Scouts, $1360; Boy Scouts, $3250 and Salvation Army $3000, making a total institutional allowance of $17,885.
    An emergency fund for $2350 was included in the budget and $800 allowed for overhead and shrinkage.
    J. C. Thompson accepted the appointment as chairman of the chest drive for this year and will announce definite plans at a later date.

Medford Mail Tribune, September 22, 1931, page 2

    Possible plans that the Allied Social Workers' Association might use in its campaign of welfare work were presented to members of that organization this noon by County Judge Alex Sparrow, chairman of the governor's committee for Jackson County. The luncheon meeting at Hotel Medford was presided over by Rev. Claude B. Porter, president.
    Included in the suggestion made by Judge Sparrow was the use of scrip for any work that might be done. It was definitely decided that aid from the welfare workers could only be given to residents of Jackson County. All those who are able will be required to work for the food and clothing they obtain.
    Hamilton Patton was named chairman of the committee to gather the produce and clothing. He is to be assisted by Ensign J. R. Pack of the Salvation Army and Oscar E. Hoover. This committee will cooperate with the Red Cross and the Salvation Army, according to President Porter.
    B. E. Harder and C. A. Meeker, also member of Governor Julius L. Meier's committee, spoke briefly in support of the plan outlined.
    J. C. Thompson was asked to present to the association at its next regular meeting definite plans of the Community Chest and the standings of the groups represented by the Allied Social Workers.

Medford Mail Tribune, September 25, 1931, page 3

Local Welfare Organizations Adopt Program for Start Within Week--
Farm Produce for Labor Scrip

    Plans to set in motion at once the Medford plan for jobless relief, as adopted by the Community Chest and welfare organizations, have been completed, and it is expected that it will start to function on a substantial scale within the week.
    Exchange of labor for farm produce and foodstuff is the chief purpose of the plan, as means of providing food for those unable to secure cash-remunerative labor. The farmer in need of fall work brings to the warehouse grains, vegetables, fruit, eggs, milk and wood, and receives a warehouse receipt for same. The market value of the produce thus received will be determined by a committee of businessmen, and paid to the farmer in scrip, good for labor at a moderate wage. The wages and the produce prices will be posted and published. The scrip, in the hands of the worker, can be exchanged for the foodstuffs and produce.
Delivery Warning
    Warnings have been issued to farmers to deliver their produce only to the accredited collectors, or deliver in person at the warehouse. Reports have been filed that already men have asked for produce, representing themselves falsely as agents of the Community Chest. To prevent deception, it is suggested that farmers first advise the committee they have produce to deliver, and afterwards make arrangements for delivery.
    The plan, it is felt, will be beneficial alike to the needy and the farmer by affording a medium of exchange. The worker is enabled to provide for self and family in times of stress, and the farmer is enabled to secure needed labor. The plan was fostered that none willing to work might suffer.
    No supplies, the committee announces, will be issued from the Community Chest to those unwilling to work.
    The plan, starting at this time, dovetails with the opening of fall work on the farms.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 1, 1931, page 1

    J. M. Dever, attorney for the state highway commission, on a visit to the city today conferred with the governor's relief committee for this county, this noon, and later with the county court, on relief road work in this county the coming winter. County Judge Sparrow is chairman of the governor's committee. General details were discussed.
    The allocation of the state highway funds, voted Thursday, has not been made yet, but will be forthcoming within a week or ten days. No wage per hour has been fixed for emergency road work by the state.
    No definite selection of the road work to be undertaken has been decided upon, but it is expected that the major portion of the funds will be expended on either the Green Springs mountain road, or straightening the Pacific Highway over the Siskiyous.
    A portion of the funds will be set aside, probably, for relief work on some of the secondary roads in the north-central part of the county, so as to distribute the funds and the employment.
    The county court has instructed the county road engineer to prepare plans and specifications for the road improvements, so when a definite choice is made there will be no delay on that score.
    It is expected that relief road work will be underway by November 15th, at the latest, and probably sooner.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 2, 1931, page 1

    The governor's committee for relief for Jackson County, composed of County Judge Alex Sparrow, Ben E. Harder and Clarence Meeker, will send out a circular letter within the next few days outlining plans.
    All municipalities and Granges are requested to form subordinate relief committees to act with the central committee in the handling of any cases of distress, and to investigate and report cases in their district.
    The governor's committee expect to receive a sum from the state highway commission for emergency road work, the amount not yet determined. The money thus received will be expended at a low wage scale, and under the scrip system. Community and Grange relief leaders are requested to get in touch with Dr. D. A. Chambers, who evolved the idea of a central warehouse where the farmers could exchange their products for labor.
    A meeting between the governor's committee and the county committeemen, as named by the Granges and municipalities, will be called shortly after their formation has been completed for a general discussion of relief plans and the distribution of labor.
    The relief plan is in accordance with the plan approved by the governor's committee and will be uniform in all counties of the state.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 7, 1931, page 7

    Minimum wage scales for labor on the new $265,000 Jackson County courthouse were fixed yesterday afternoon by the county court and advisory committee, as follows:
    For common labor, 40 cents per hour.
    Skilled labor, 62½ cents per hour.
    Brickmasons, $1 per hour.
    Contractors can pay any wage scale they desire above the minimum scale, but not below it.
    The plans of the courthouse were adopted and the specifications, with minor changes, approved.
    The county court will advertise for bids for the work the coming week and set a date for the opening of the bids and the awarding of contracts. Actual construction is expected to start early in November.
    Bids for material will be asked, and brick supply concerns of the Pacific Coast have submitted samples and prices, including local supply men. Terra cotta samples and prices have also been presented, and the choice of facing material depends on the cost.
    The contracts for construction will contain an ironclad clause designating that Jackson County labor be employed, with preference to men of families and taxpayers.
    The opening work will be the excavating of the site and the draining of same.
    It is expected that all the preliminary work, including the assembling of material, will be completed the coming winter, depending on weather conditions. It is estimated that the work will require a year, and the courthouse be completed and ready for occupancy by January 1, 1933.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 10, 1931, page 3

All Must Register and Contractor to Hire Only Men Certified by County--Minimum Wages Are Set
    Details of the plan for the employment of Jackson County labor in construction of the new county courthouse are being worked out by the county court and Citizens' Advisory Committee. The local workmen's clause will be made a part of the contract and designated as "Addendum No. 1."
    All courthouse construction workers, under the plan, must register and must present an eligibility card to the contractor before securing employment. The card will contain data relative to age of the applicant, married or single, number of dependents, taxpayer and home owner, occupation, and length of residence in this county.
    The county will provide all laborers and mechanics, eligible for employment, but the contractor will have the right to hire and fire and the county court will have no connection whatsoever with this phase of the work. No worker shall be employed unless he presents a card signed by the county.
Provides for Experts
    It is also provided that no laborer or mechanic shall be employed who resides outside of the county, except by the special permission of the county. This covers the employment of experts and special artisans.
    The financial and physical condition of the worker will be taken into consideration and care taken to see that none are employed who have small incomes or seek jobs "just to keep busy, and not because they need them."
    It is expected that when the registration starts, there will be a rush of applicants.
    The minimum wage scale, as recently adopted by the county court and Citizens' Building committee, will also be embodied in the contract, and is as follows:
    Common laborers, 40 cents per hour; skilled labor 62½ cents per hour, and brick masons, $1 per hour. The contractor can pay above this scale if he desires, but no less.
Clause Quoted
    The full extent of the workmen's clause, wherein the owner as mentioned is the county, is as follows;
    "Distinct preference as to employment shall be given local laborers and mechanics, and no laborer nor mechanic who resides outside of Jackson County shall be employed by any contractor, except by special permission of the owner in each case. The owner will provide all laborers and mechanics eligible for employment with labor identification cards, and no laborer nor mechanic will be employed by any contractor who does not first present to the contractor such a card signed by the owner.
    "Each contractor will submit to the owner with his bid the number of foremen or others needed by the said contractor in a directive capacity. In case it shall appear to the contractor as the work progresses that there is a shortage of local labor; skilled or otherwise, or in case of strikes or unreasonable conditions imposed by local labor, said contractor shall appear before the owner with this representation. If the owner shall find this to be true, he shall take immediate steps to allow the contractor to bring in from the outside such laborers or mechanics as may be necessary to do the work in question."

Medford Mail Tribune, October 13, 1931, page 5

    Another burial for Old Man Depression's remains is being planned. The Lions' Club will officiate this time, for the members are going to be shown that "there ain't no depression" tomorrow, according to stories circulating about the city today, relative to program plans.
    Figures, statistics and testimonials will be presented as proof. The program is in charge of Lion Clayton Isaac, chairman. His assistants haven't been named, but there are several of them.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 13, 1931, page 5

Hard Times?--Local Folk Remember Real Hardships
    Grasshoppers flying, flying. The sun obscured by their wings for several days. All crops eaten up. Those were hard times when Delroy Getchell, president of the Farmers' and Fruitgrowers' Bank, was a little boy back in Minnesota.
    "The state of Minnesota repudiated; couldn't pay its obligations. Times aren't hard now!" Mr. Getchell exclaimed, when interviewed yesterday. "There's plenty of money in the banks, plenty in reserve. The only trouble is, people are waiting for a lower level to start building, spending it.
    "If people would spend money on things they need, things that should be done, the so-called depression would he broken in 30 days. Times aren't hard now. People just think they are.
    "Why, when I was a little boy, they killed the grasshoppers. New crops grew and the state of Minnesota carried on. Then came a cyclone--a real one, too. It killed 68 people, injured many and swept the Mississippi River dry between St. Cloud and Salt Rapids. Times were really hard then."
    They were also hard when Mrs L. O. Caster's father, T. B. Ellison, came here from Missouri with 25 cents in his pocket and five children to feed. "But he didn't complain about it," Mrs. Caster, in from Eagle Point to shop, told friends yesterday. "He had traded for a place near the 401 Ranch. What we didn't have we went without. Put up our own meat, raised cane, made sorghum, butter and bread. We didn't have any spending money and didn't go any place to spend it."
    "Those were the days when women wore red flannels and black corsets," C. I. Hutchison, local merchant, contributed. "They didn't spend 25 cents then where they spend dollars today. Had they gone in for any luxuries their troubles would have been mountains, where we have molehills. It is all a state of mind."
Medford Mail Tribune, October 14, 1931, page 1

Beans, Bacon and Spuds Fine Meal in Hard Days
    "I've seen the time when men begged to work for their board. Fifteen dollars a month meant good wages, and a lot of fellows worked for $10. We didn't exactly call times hard either," D. W. Beebe, rancher of the Agate district, and Henry Maury of the west side, remarked yesterday afternoon, recalling the old days, while congregating on the corner of Main and Central.
    "I've hired a lot of men for $15 a month, when I could have got them for $12," Mr. Maury added, "and I know a local farmer who got a man the year 'round to operate an engine from sunup to sundown for $10. There weren't any eight-hour, or any ten-hour, working days then. It was a daylight proposition, and they usually found something for a fellow to do after dark. There were always chores. If people were as economic now as they were then, they'd certainly get along."
    Beans, bacon and potatoes constituted a good meal with a little sorghum on the side to soak into the homemade bread.
    "And there was always a pit filled with vegetables buried for the winter, nothing fancy in cans," Ed Andrews, who knew "hard times" in Minnesota, volunteered. "We ate pork and potatoes, started working at four o'clock in the morning and stayed with it till the sun went down. People didn't go around begging either. We had more fun on fifty cents than most of the kids have on a $10 bill."
    And when the grasshopper catastrophe came along, Ed and the Wakefield boys, who also came here to reside, got rich catching the bugs.
    "Jack and Del, brother George and I got three dollars a bushel for catching 'em. The county paid for the work. That was three dollars a day and that was a fortune in about 1880. We cleared up the crop," Ed concluded, "and I'm still having a good time."

Medford Mail Tribune, October 15, 1931, page 1

    The following motion, carrying the unanimous vote of all the directors present at the regular meeting of the board of directors of the Medford Community Chest, Inc., was submitted to the county court, city council, and city and county budget committees.
    "The Medford Community Chest, recognizing that there is to be a need for relief work during the coming winter, pledges itself to do everything possible to raise the necessary funds by private subscription, but it is the belief of this organization that it is incumbent upon the state, county and city to create emergency funds adequate to take care of the situation which cannot be handled by private agencies.
    "It is the recommendation of the Medford Community Chest that the first item in the county budget for the calendar year 1932 be an emergency fund to be used for the purpose of supplying relief employment, if necessary; and it is further recommended to the county court of Jackson County that in the creation of a budget for the coming year various other items to be reduced sufficiently to provide for such an emergency fund, without causing an increase in the present tax rate.
    "We have been informed that the county budget committee is receptive to the idea of the creation of an emergency fund, and it is suggested that if such a fund is recommended by the budget committee that the county court approve such recommendation."

Medford Mail Tribune, October 18, 1931, page 8

    "The rich are getting richer and the poor have reached bottom." That was the way W. A. "Peoria Bill" Gates summed up his observations of conditions in the Middle West, upon his return here this morning.
    Drastic cuts in wages, with retail prices still maintaining a much higher level than is known out here, is another condition noted by Bill, who admitted that he was considerably depressed by the attitude of people in the commercial districts.
    "There is a haunted, driven look in their faces that one doesn't get out here at all," he explained. "Men and women hurrying on to work, indifferent to the world around them. In fact they act as though they were afraid to look to right or left for fear of encountering something they don't care to face.
    "There is apparently no prohibition law in effect throughout the Middle West," said Bill, who in one city (name not divulged) observed a large brewery running full time, with whistles announcing the hours of various operations.
    "However, the general expression is 'times are pretty bad, but we're better off in our town than they are other places,' which indicates that they probably could be worse every place," he said.
    While in Peoria, where he visited two brothers and a sister, Bill had the experience of listening to a soapbox orator, whose fluency in language, he said, far outweighed his mental equipment. He was one of the many communists said to be gaining support in the coal mining areas of that state.
    At practically every railway station, according to Bill, passengers who get out to enjoy a breath of fresh air were surrounded by hoboes and others begging for money. This condition, he said, was less existent in Oregon than other states, which was one of the many reasons he found the "climate" better here than elsewhere.
    Besides his own relatives, Bill visited relatives of Mrs. Gates in Pekin, Illinois, as well as numerous friends throughout the state.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 28, 1931, page 2

    "There is no unemployment in the West comparable to that which exists in the East," declared C. K. Warne, head of the Spokane Community Chest and special advisor to the Medford organization, who spoke before a gathering of local officials and workers at the Hotel Medford this noon.
    Mr. Warne, who has just completed a tour over the western territory comparing notes with the reports sent him from the other nine sections of the United States in regard to unemployment conditions, brought out the fact that the task here was an easy one. Concerted effort and a spirit of cooperation will solve the problem for Medford, he said.
    The speaker, who has been temporarily released from his Spokane, Washington position to serve in the nationwide welfare and relief mobilization, has been assigned as field director for Region No. 19, which includes Montana, Arizona, Utah, Washington, Oregon and California.
    At the noon luncheon, specific plans were outlined for the local Community Chest drive, which will open here Tuesday with a rally breakfast at the Hotel Medford. Hamilton Patton, president of the local organization, J. C. Thompson, chairman of the drive committee, and the captains of the various service club teams were present.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 30, 1931, page 3

    Owen D. Young, chairman of the committee on mobilization of relief resources of the president's organization on unemployment relief, describing the cooperation pledged by the different agencies says:
    "There is to be no campaign for a national fund of any character in this emergency. Communities throughout the country will make provision for their own needs, and the funds they raise will be administered and distributed where they are raised. The mobilization committee will not engage in these local campaigns. It will give them aid of a national character that local communities could not enlist for themselves--advertising on a national scale.
    "I am glad to say that this aid will be given to us without cost. Accordingly, not one cent of the money that is given to local funds will be used to meet the expenses of this nationwide program.
    "Newspaper and magazine publishers have offered space in their publications, and the heads of national advertising agencies in New York and Philadelphia are preparing copy."
    Posters for use in the Medford area have already arrived, according to information received today from C. L. MacDonald, local representative of Foster & Kleiser Co., and will be placed soon.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 31, 1931, page 3

    C. E. (Pop) Gates, ex-member of the state highway commission, is telling this one: "These people who croak about depression make me sick and they are making business sick. It's just like what Jonah told the whale. The whale had swallowed him and then got sick. Said Jonah to the whale, 'You old fool, if you'd had sense enough to keep your mouth shut this wouldn't have happened.' If more people would keep their mouths shut and tend to business this depression would be over before we realized." Mr. Gates was in Portland for the dinner tendered his former colleague on the highway commission, H. B. VanDuzer. He reports that conditions are good in Medford and that the pear growers are getting good prices for their fruit. The community chest campaign is about to start in the Southern Oregon city. Mr. Gates was at the Imperial Hotel.--Oregonian.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 4, 1931, page 4

Road and Indigent Funds Should Be Reduced, Is Reported View Governor's Group--Action Tomorrow
    Work of the county budget committee yesterday marked time, due to the failure of the governor's tax committee, of which W. H. Gore is chairman, and Assessor J. B. Coleman and Fred C. Homes of Ashland, associate members, to file their recommendations, per schedule. The governor's committee is also acting with the chamber of commerce committee. The recommendations are due to be filed tomorrow.
    According to reports the governor's committee will recommend drastic cuts in the indigent funds of the county--urging that the fund for the care of the unlucky and unfortunate be cut 75 percent from last year, and the road fund cut to the bone, leaving the minimum amount for maintenance of established routes.
Indigent Fund Vital
    Due to the times, the indigent fund is one of the most vital, and has been drained heavily. Certain portions, such as the widow's pension, are compulsory, under the state law, and must be provided for.
    Despite the purported recommendation for near abolishment of the road fund, three districts--Trail-Eagle Point, Butte Falls, and Prospect--have filed requests with the county court for the calling of special road elections to vote special levies, and daily requests are received for improvement of county roads, particularly routes over which school buses travel and fruit is hauled. The roads on the floor of the valley, radiating out of the cities, are in fair condition, but the rural roads are different. The recommendations also call for suspension of operations on the Dead Indian market and the Lake Creek market road, both of which would tap the Lake o' the Woods.
Reverse Attitude
    The present attitude is a complete reverse of last year, when all but one of the county road districts called for special road levies, and a petition for the west side highway establishment was rejected by the county court, over objections of the backers. The west side highway, as proposed, would have extended from the top of Blackwell Hill to a point near the Hollywood orchards of the Jacksonville Highway. The road plan was rejected by the county court on the grounds that the terrain was already amply served by the Pacific Highway. It would have traversed some of the richest farm land in the valley, with a high cost for right-of-way.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 4, 1931, page 12

The Smiths of Medford
    A case is reported at Medford where a man and his wife took to making and selling beer in order to provide food for their family of five children ranging in ages from 1 to 18 years. It was the second time up for the man, Smith. When the court lectured him against violating the law because of bad example to the children the wife and mother interjected: "What are you going to do when you're hungry? When you are unable to get work and your family are hungry you are willing to do most anything."
    The man and his oldest son, it developed, were behind three months house rent and were trying to work out the bill by cutting wood for the owner at Jacksonville, walking the entire distance back and forth daily. When arrested Smith had seven cents and no fuel in the house. He had worked for nine years in a woodyard but lost his job several months ago.
    Now here is a concrete case which would excite the pity of the most stony-hearted. Even if the man had forfeited the respect of society either through law-breaking or downright worthlessness the plight of his family deserves consideration. The mere fact that he resorted to beer-making is only an incident. When men are desperate they resort even to crime to get relief. Jean Valjean’s theft of the loaves of bread is a classic in literature as it represents one of the occasional extremities of life.
    But there is no need or should be no need for men to violate laws, whether the prohibition law or the laws protecting property, that they may live. Medford for example is now raising a charity fund of some $21,000 which will take care of such needy cases as the Smiths. Bend started out to raise $6000 and expects now to raise $10,000; and that in a community which is chiefly dependent on one industry, lumber, whose ailment is well known. Other cities and towns are now engaged in similar projects. Salem will soon be raising its funds. There can be, there will be, no stint in giving.
    What happened to the Smiths at Medford? Well, the sentences were suspended and the judge and the assistant district attorney said they would set out to find employment for Smith so he could support his family decently. No one will condemn such administration of justice. As communities we have two duties: charity for those in immediate need; [and] provision for employment for those who are out of work.
Statesman Journal, Salem, November 5, 1931, page 4

    Initial steps towards the establishment of emergency relief work on roads of the county was started this week by the county court, with the dispatch of 15 workers to the Greenspring Mountain road, and the same number for maintenance work on the Crater Lake Highway in the Eagle Point-Trail district. The present small crews were sent out to make preliminary arrangements and prepare for the day when the work is under full swing.
    There will be a meeting of the state highway commission, also the county judges of the state, next Wednesday, November 12, when details of the emergency road work in the state will be considered, and the amounts of money each county will receive for emergency road work will be apportioned. Nothing definite will be known until after this meeting. No further workers will be sent out until after this decision is reached.
    Up to last night a total of 451 men in this county had registered with the clerk of the county court for employment on road work and the new courthouse. Each has a card which he must present ere employment is granted. This morning 25 men registered, and the grand total is expected to be between 500 and 600.
    This city leads the list of registrations with 289, Ashland 77, Gold Hill 6, Rogue River 3, Talent 17, Central Point 20, Jacksonville 11, Phoenix 14, Butte Falls 3, Beagle 1, Eagle Point and Trail 17, Prospect 1, Brownsboro 1.
    It is expected that the emergency road work will be under way early in December, so the workers will have money for Christmas cheer.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 5, 1931, page 5

Drive Will Continue Until $21,035 Is Raised--Prospect Cards and Solicitations to Be Rechecked
    The city of Medford was still several thousand dollars short of her goal for this year's Community Chest drive when the Mail Tribune went to press this afternoon. The total was nearing the $16,000 mark, and the quota to be raised is $21,035. The enthusiasm of the more than 80 workers in the field, however, had not been dimmed, and all prospect cards will be rechecked and solicitations repeated if the goal is not accomplished tonight.
    The imperative need for accomplishing the goal this year is emphasized in the report received by Hamilton Patton, president of the local chest, from Will H. Hays. Unstinted generosity this fall and winter on the part of all who have either wages or wealth is demanded in the report.
Plea to Job-Holders
    "If the job-holding rest of us do not tide friends, neighbors and friendless over the emergency," the report reads, "we must confess to even more frozen hearts than frozen assets in these United States.
    "Two persons out of three bleating about depression are wincing at wounds that their incomes have not yet received--adding pessimism to a condition which has not in the slightest encroached upon their standards of comfort, their means or their spending capacity. Money that isn't helping to produce goods, sustain trade or help a neighbor is a slacker and unfit to bear the mint-mark of the United States.
    "Borrowing a phrase from 1917, 'What answer will we be able to give our youngsters when they later ask about the part we played in this battle against despair and depression?'"
Medford Mail Tribune, November 7, 1931, page 1

    Medford Boy Scouts, in full uniform, today are calling at the homes in Medford, giving out little pamphlets which point out the necessity of cleaning up houses and yards. This campaign, sponsored by the Community Chest, is a drive to give local people in need of and deserving employment a chance to do odd jobs.
    Lawrence Pennington has been appointed in charge of the campaign, and assisted Scout Executive Oscar E. Hoover in organizing the scouts into groups with captains to see that all homes receive the circulars.
    People having odd jobs to be done about the premises are requested to call the central labor bureau, 104-J-3, where names of worthy people will be given out.
    As tomorrow is a holiday, when families will be together, they are asked by the committee in charge of the campaign to talk the matter over and come to a decision as to what work can be done.
    Boy Scouts who are aiding the chest are Frank Hull, Raymond Erickson, Robert Littrell, Robert Purucker, Dan Hull, Emerson Gould, Don Elliott, Lloyd Herron, Bud Thierolf, Ted Taylor, Earl Meiling, Jack Thompson, Ed Carter, Dorr Barrett, Hubert Santo, Clifford Clegg, Don Price, Elmer Wright, Bill Porter, Russell Jordan, Floyd Loomis, Robert Root, David Moore, Robert Hinman and George Cox.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 10, 1931, page 1

Lion's Plan May Curtail Panhandling in Medford
(By Irva Fewell)
    In a cheery, well-lighted room finished in pale green, with shiny white oilcloth covering the tables, and attractive bouquets of fall garden flowers set here and there, hungry men in Medford receive food--if they are willing to work hard at the woodpile for 15 minutes.
    The kitchen, where substantial servings of meat and vegetable stew, bread and coffee are served every day, is located in the basement of the Salvation Army building on North Bartlett Street and is being sponsored by the Medford Lions' Club to rid the city of professional beggars. Meals are served from 7 to 9 in the mornings and from 4 to 6 in the evenings.
    Only those who will work for 15 minutes cutting, sawing and stacking wood, however, are fed. The project has been put into motion by the local service club to eliminate from the community beggars unwilling to work, according to George W. Newberry, club president.
    Several Lions' Club members have small books of 10 tickets, which have just been issued, and each one is good for an opportunity to earn a meal at the kitchen, which was opened the first of the month. The tickets are given "panhandlers" instead of coins.
    Reports have been made by Lions that fellows on the streets asking for money, who claimed they were hungry, refused to accept the tickets.
    One club member told of distributing 10 of these stubs, giving them to men who asked for money. A check made with the kitchen revealed that only three reported for work, in order to receive food.
    Police will be asked by the club to cooperate in the elimination of professional beggars in Medford, and those who will not split wood for desired aid.
    Plans will be perfected at a meeting this evening of the Lions' committee of aid for the working out of a plan to put in common use the tickets entitling men to work for meals. Carl Stuart is chairman of the group.
    Business men who have been told about the checks to be given, instead of money, Mr. Newberry said, seem convinced of the adaptability of the plan. However, it is not necessary for a man to have a ticket to earn food, it was pointed out.
    Ensign J. R. Pack of the Salvation Army is cooperating with the service group, and is in direct supervision of the project.
    Although the kitchen has been in operation for only a short time, it seems to be proving a success, Ensign Pack stated. An average of between eight and ten persons are fed daily. The woodpile, located directly in back of the Army headquarters, is kept in order by the workers. The wood is used to cook the food in the kitchen and is hauled to the grounds by the Salvation Army.
    President Newberry declared that "the purpose of the project is to help every person willing to work and show he is on the level, and to discourage the beggars. The woodpile gives him a chance to prove what he is."
Medford Mail Tribune, November 10, 1931, page 3

    Plans have been made, by the Oregon-Washington Pear Bureau, for Northwest pears to be sold the coming winter in eastern cities by the unemployed as a means of increasing small sales, according to a report made this noon at the regular meeting of the Rogue River Traffic Association. Pears and apples are adaptable for this style of sale and find a ready response.
    Good results to date have been obtained from the pear advertising campaign now under way in the East, and the present condition of the pear market is attributed in a large measure to this drive. New York and Chicago have been liberally posted with large lithographs, setting forth the excellence of the Boscs. At the present time, pears are enjoying a strong sale, with apples and oranges showing "in the red."
    Raymond R. Reter, president of the traffic association, leaves today for Seattle where he will attend a meeting of the directors for the purpose of formally incorporating.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 12, 1931, page 1

Those in Distress May Obtain Relief--Cases Should Be Reported--
No Drive for Unemployed Planned

    Pledges to the Community Chest approximate $19,000 today, according to the latest report from Hamilton Patton, president, and contributions in the form of money, supplies and services are still coming in. Although the $21,035 goal has not yet been attained, anyone in distress can be cared for by applying at the Salvation Army, Red Cross headquarters or registering at the labor bureau. Anyone who knows of persons in dire need is asked to report the cases to Chest headquarters.
    The $19,000 estimate includes the quota from the schools which has not been received and $900 in pledges for supplies and service made by local doctors and merchants.
No Jobless Drive
    There will not be a second drive for the unemployed, contrary to a report heard about town yesterday. All relief work will be carried on through the same agency.
    Two persons are continuing the re-checking of prospect cards today, and names of many people who contributed last year and have not this year are being found. Many of these people have not been called on but will be before the renewed drive is completed. Anyone who has not been solicited will be given the opportunity to contribute to this cause before the campaign is closed.
    The 10 percent tickets to be issued donors for direct charity work are being printed and will be ready for distribution as soon as the drive is over. Anyone interested in extending aid in this way is asked to call for tickets at headquarters. These tickets will be issued to the extent of 10 percent of the contribution to the Chest.
    The warehouse, where supplies will be received and distributed to the needy, will open Monday morning. All persons who could not give cash or pledges are asked to bring whatever they can contribute in the way of supplies or clothing to the warehouse.
    When the budgets are properly arranged for county and city, Mr. Patton also stated, there will be plenty of money available to care for any extra relief work which may arise.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 13, 1931, page 1

    Members of the Medford Rotary Club were up at an early hour this morning. Clad in overalls, they were busily engaged in unloading two big truckloads of potatoes for local relief work. The two truckloads constitute only a part of a total of 720 sacks of "spuds" purchased by the Medford Rotarians and donated to the Community Chest to help the needy this winter. This means a total of 72,000 pounds of potatoes to feed worthy families, and it is expected that this big donation will assist materially in relieving the local situation.
    The Rotarians enjoyed their work and handled the heavy sacks of spuds like professional longshoremen. Moving pictures and photographs of their activities were taken by Rotarians Horace Bromley and Bert Peasley for early showing here.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 14, 1931, page 7

Lions Roar Over Stew at New Relief Kitchen
    At the same tables where black and white, worthy and unworthy, constituting the great army of unemployed, each day rub elbows before a bowl of beef stew, members of the local Lions Club met for luncheon today noon.
    The green-and-white relief kitchen, recently opened on North Bartlett, resounded to a hearty roar as they expressed their appreciation of the effort Ensign J. R. Pack and other members of the Salvation Army have exerted to make the club project a success.
    The same menu which greets the eyes of the hungry weaving in and out of the army headquarters was prepared for the roaring Lions. The Salvation Army lassies served the meal and the club members agreed it was well worth working for.
    During the early part of the luncheon period the Lions were entertained with singing and whistling solos by Miss Ellow Mae Wilson, broadcast on the Littrell radio hour. The radio at which Floyd Rush officiated in the kitchen was furnished for the occasion by Clayton Isaacs. Miss Wilson was accompanied by Mrs. George Andrews at the piano.
    A report made to the club by Ensign Pack showed that 372 meals have been served through the kitchen since it opened October 29. A view of the kitchen during meal time, he told the club members, offers a wonderful cross-section of life. The diners range from college men to beggars, but all except cripples are forced to work for the food they receive. Many of them are on the tramp, but glad to work for some stew. They range in ages from 'teens to nineties, one of the oldest to call this week being a colored man nearing the 100 mark. One of two negro boys who called after working hours last night and promised to return to work for rations this morning "became very ill when he visualized the woodpile," and Ensign Pack quoted his pardner as saying, "decided he didn't want any breakfast."
    Meals are served at the relief kitchen from 7 to 9 a.m. and from 4 to 6 p.m. Mrs. McKeene, who exhibits a motherly smile for all, does the cooking. Mr. McKeene
supervises the work and Ensign and Mrs. Pack and other members of the Salvation Army care for other needs.
    The Lions Club committee, headed by Lion Stewart, was congratulated by Ensign Pack for the splendid work done preparatory to opening of the kitchen and the following firms and individuals thanked for donations: Medford Furniture and Hardware, Davis Transfer, Dr. B. R. Elliott, Peerless Meat Market, Rogue River Meat Market, Pay 'N Takit, Gates and Lydiard, MacMarr, Mrs. Alice Applegate Sargent, J. C. Penney and Co., McCrady's and Pacific Fruit and Produce.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 18, 1931, page 1

   Hamilton Patton, chairman of the Community Chest, today issued a second urgent appeal to the people of Medford and Jackson County to assist in giving worthy people work--particularly in the matter of odd jobs around the homes in the direction of an emergency cleanup campaign.
    "Our latest survey," said Mr. Patton, "shows there are approximately 1000 men in the county now out of work. Two-thirds of them have families to support. Up to date, in answer to our first appeal, the people have only given about 25 hours of steady work."
    "I don't believe the people realize the seriousness of the situation. The drain upon our Community Chest is tremendous. We must have outside help. So I again appeal, to all residents, to have cleanup work done now. If they will call up the Central Labor Bureau, phone 104 J-3, they can get good workmen at once--they can have necessary work well done and at the same time give relief to worthy families who must have it--not at some future time, but now!"

Medford Mail Tribune, November 19, 1931, page 1

    Up to last night, the unemployment registration in Jackson County reached a total of 991 men, apportioned by city and districts as follows:
Gold Hill and Rogue River--30
Central Point--44
Eagle Point and Trail--36
Prospect and Butte Falls--22
    The registration this week has been the heaviest of the year, with more than 200 applicants.
    Emergency relief work in this county will not get under way until the county court ascertains definitely how much state highway funds will be apportioned. The sum is now placed at $25,000, which will be inadequate to provide work for even those in dire need and with dependents.
    Twenty-five men were dispatched this week to work on the Greenspring Mountain road and 15 on the Crater Lake Highway. In every instance, the workers were fathers with three or more minor dependents. The work will be rotated among this class, in order that the meager available funds will be spread far, and necessarily thin.
    The county court, in dispensing relief work, will check closely on each case. Some of the registrants are known to have ample shelter and full cupboards, but seeking work. A ban has also been placed on high school boys willing to work to escape school routine; men with pensions or private incomes, and those seeking work to "kill time." This list is not large, and a high percentage of the cases are worthy.
    The state highway commission is expected to take action next week, relative to the allotment of funds for emergency work.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 19, 1931, page 7

    The Jackson County budget, as framed by the budget committee at a session this morning, calls for a total levy of $412,870.14, which includes an estimated state tax of $100,000. It represents a reduction of $35,347.41, or ten percent less than last year.
    The amount for county levy last year was $348,217.55, with a state levy of $102,211.96.
    The budget as it now stands makes no levy for the general or market road fund, but anticipates that their maintenance will come from receipts from gasoline and license fees.
    Twenty thousand dollars is allowed for unemployment relief, with legal technicalities to be adjusted relative to its immediate use and designation on the budget. $15,000 is provided in the emergency fund for road needs.
    The budget committee, Ben Harder chairman, will meet with the chamber of commerce tax committee today to further discuss the budget, and any changes ordered.
    Much of the morning session was devoted to discussion of the legal phases of the budget and its appropriations, some of which are securely hedged about by state laws.
    Some of the budget committee felt that the 10 percent slash was not enough, and others declared it was more than expected.
    A public hearing will be held on the budget the first week in December as required by state law.
    After the public hearing, the next step will be the formal signing of the budget, which promises to be a moot point.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 25, 1931, page 1

    "It seems that the dire situation for the remainder of the winter and next spring, and even now, must be blasted into a portion of the general public to enable them to realize that much more money must be raised to relieve the local unemployment and misery situation," said Hamilton Patton, president of the Community Chest fund, who, flanked by Jack Thompson, chairman of the Chest drive fund and also of the Red Cross, attended the city council meeting last night to plead with the councilmen to make sure that that body's contribution of $1000 placed in the city budget for next year will be forthcoming for the fund.
    "While some Medford people have given or pledged liberally, and the general run of those employed or otherwise able to do so have pledged what they can afford, yet there are many slackers," continued Mr. Patton, who also not only asked that the city council's $1000 be paid in cash as soon as available, but that the council make use of its $12,000 fund for streets and roads in the budget for next year this winter.
    "The Chest needs cash and lots of it. You can readily see this when you consider that the bulk of the Chest money is to be paid monthly, or quarterly, thus stringing along for a year, but the absolutely necessary relief work is going on now and will greatly increase. We can't get away from this. It must be met.
    "The cash now on hand, or that which is beginning to come in slowly during the next twelve months from the monthly or quarterly payments, will soon be exhausted.
    "Unless we have much more ready cash the needs for relief of actual misery and poverty will soon outstrip the available cash on hand for the purpose. Thus it may happen in a few weeks hence that because of lack of money immediately available the Chest may have to shut down relief work entirely in several important features until more of the subscribed Chest fund comes in."
    Mr. Hamilton stressed the point that the city council by expenditure of the $12,000 item placed in the budget for streets and roads next year, as soon as possible this winter, will greatly aid in the Chest work by this money giving employment or partial employment to many men, thus enabling the Chest to have more money available for relief.
    Both Mr. Patton and Mr. Thompson assured the city officials that if they so desired, not a cent of the $1000 given by the city to the Chest would go to the character-building organizations. The council could stipulate, they said, that the $1000 be paid in for the Salvation Army or the Red Cross, which is a charity semi-relief agent for the city government, or to be divided between them. Any way to make sure that the $1000 be left in the budget and made available as soon as possible.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 25, 1931, page 2

Mother Wants Boys Aided
To the Editor:
    What can we do for our boys? No work, no money, and no place to go to spend an evening without money.
    There is a bunch of boys wandering around in town, not bad boys, but full of energy. Boys of parents who are not affiliated with any church.
    If the boy could find a little recreation at times. Why not a junior community chest?
    Food kitchens and all are fine, but oh for a place of amusement for our boys.
A Mother  (Name on File)
"Communications," Medford Mail Tribune, November 29, 1931, page 8

Cutting in Half of Levy for Library Rouses Taxpayers--
Public Hearing Is Set for December 21.

    The county budget committee yesterday completed its preparations for the coming year, and the first publication of the budget as prepared will be tomorrow. The date for the public hearing with Ben E. Harder, chairman, presiding, has been fixed for Saturday, December 21. The budget will be ready for turning over to the county assessor early in January.
    The budget calls for a reduction of $36,572.05 over last year. The reduction in the state tax is estimated at $100,000 less than last year, or $92,211.96, making the total reduction, state and county, $128,784.01.
1930 Budget $348,383.15
    The total amount for the 1930 budget was $348,383.15; and this year $301,811.10. The total state apportionment last year was $198,211.96. It has not been compiled for the present year, but is estimated at close to $100,000.
    The total state and county amount last year was $540,595.11; this year $411,811.10.
    The county reduction amounts to 10.1 percent less than last year. The chamber of commerce budget committee, headed by W. H. Gore, urged a 40 percent cut.
    The budget committee followed closely the recommendations, but found in many cases like school funds they encountered rigid state laws. In the funds for the care of the poor, the chamber committee recommended a cut, and the budget committee allowed a slight increase, holding that the time augured more needy.
Library Reduced
    The levy for the county library fund was cut in two, to .2 of a mill. A petition was filed with the county court yesterday by Jacksonville citizens protesting against the cut as too drastic, and letters were received from taxpayers protesting the decrease. The county library slash is scheduled to be an issue at the public hearing.
    County districts, now reached or tapped by the proposed market road, for which no levy was budgeted, also plan to protest against the action, it is understood.
    The budget committee provided for a .6 of a mill levy for general roads, which will raise about $20,000, which will be used for emergency relief work on the roads.
Levies About Same
    The first of the city, school and road levies for the year have arrived at the assessor's office for extension on the tax rolls and will be added to the state and county levies. According to Assessor J. B. Coleman, they will be about the same as last year. The budgets show that some of the districts have reduced their school allowance, increased their road budgets and vice versa, and that when all added up will total little, if any, less than last year.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 29, 1931, page 9

    The county court expects to take action the coming week, looking towards the launching of emergency relief work in this county, with county funds and financial aid assured by the state highway commission. The amount is problematical, but Jackson County expects to be apportioned $20,000 from the state funds, and will raise a similar amount by .06 of a mill levy in the new budget.
    About 40 men are now employed on preliminary emergency road work on the Crater Lake Highway and the Green Springs Mountain road. These men all have three or four dependents and are among the most urgent cases.
    In dispensing the emergency road work, the county court will do so, as far as possible, in accordance with the need of the applicants and the number of dependents. A checkup of the 1000 or more applicants will be made. County officials said that in a cursory examination of the application blanks they had found many, who while possibly lacking finances, had a full cupboard and shelter, and were able to weather the stress far better than others, who paid rent, and by force of circumstances had been unable to lay by a store of food.
    A policy will be worked out within the next few days, whereby the relief will be apportioned equitably, under the same rotation as last winter. It is hoped to have the work under way in time for the workers to have a measure of Christmas cheer.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 29, 1931, page 12

    Forty-five men were sent out this morning on emergency relief work on the Crater Lake Highway and the Green Springs Mountain road, and the two gangs will work until Saturday. All the men sent out today have dependents and were given work after a close check. No work is granted unless the applicant has a card.
    The county is now giving as much work as possible, with the limited funds at hand, and expending every dollar where it will do the most good.
    The $20,000 for emergency relief work included in the budget will not be available until after the first of the year. No money has been received from the state highway commission, Jackson County's share being estimated at $25,000. When the state highway fund will be available is unknown.
    Preliminary work of the excavation for the new courthouse started this morning, two steam shovels being on the job. This work will not take over two weeks, including the installation of drainage pipe.
    It is expected that work on the main construction will start shortly after the first of the year. The county court and citizens' advisory committee will hold sessions at an early date to decide on the alternative bids.
    The courthouse work is expected to employ between 50 and 75 men regularly, chiefly skilled labor until completed in six months.

Medford Mail Tribune, November 30, 1931, page 3

    Letters voicing a vigorous protest against the county budget cutting the levy for the county library fund from .02 of a mill to .01 of a mill continued to reach the county court today. All the protests came from residents of country districts, and Gold Hill, Butte Falls, Eagle Point, Rogue River, Jacksonville and outlying settlements.
    The matter of restoring the levy to its original .02 of a mill will probably be aired at the public hearing on the budget to be held Saturday, December 21. Any change rests with the budget committee. The Medford Chamber of Commerce tax committee, W. H. Gore, chairman, in its recommendations asked that the county library levy be eliminated entirely. The budget committee split the difference. The .02 of a mill levy raised $7,929.
    Proponents of the county library levy, in their letters and petitions, set forth that the branch libraries maintained throughout the county are a source of enjoyment and instruction to residents, and mean as much to the rural areas as the movies do to the cities, and that they are liberally patronized the year around by young and old, and are a part of the rural school system.
    Letters protesting the slash have been received from the Parent-Teacher Council, the Gold Hill Chamber of Commerce, the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, business men and heavy property owners and prominent women of the county.

Medford Mail Tribune, December 1, 1931, page 5

    In accordance with the suggestion of J. M. Devers, attorney for the state highway commission, the county court at an early date will appoint a "willing-to-aid" committee. The object of the committee is to give advice to wage-earners who by reason of the stress of the time are temporarily unable to meet payments on their homes and articles bought on the installment plan. The county court is considering the personnel of the committee. An effort is being made to secure men versed in the ways of the law, business and finance.
    The Devers letter explains that at present there are many residents of the state who, by reason of unemployment, are unable to make any payments and are in danger of losing their homes. Attorney Devers holds that in many instances advice and sound help will enable the homeowners to tide over their difficulty. The letter sets forth that "the home owner is potentially the best type of citizen, and should be assisted, as an integral part of the social fabric."
    "Willing-to aid" committees will be named in all the counties of the state and are expected to be in operation at an early date.    

Medford Mail Tribune, December 1, 1931, page 5

    A miner by the name of Ross, a recent arrival in these parts with his family of three children, was detained Friday by game authorities, charged with possession of venison out of season. He abided in an abandoned upper Applegate cabin, and all the food in the larder was the illegal deer meat. The officers came upon Ross and his flock by accident, while investigation a stock killing case.
    District Attorney Codding, after hearing the facts in the case, directed that Ross be allowed possession of the deer meat--even if it was out of season--and through the Red Cross, he was given other food to go with the venison. Then he was taken back to the cabin, to resume his pocket-hunting and panning for gold.

Medford Mail Tribune, December 6, 1931, page 12

    The chamber of commerce tax reduction committee, William H. Gore, chairman, and members of the county library board met at the chamber of commerce last night and discussed the slash in the county library levy in the budget from .02 of a mill to .01 of a mill. Rural districts of the county protested the cut. As a result of the session, it is understood that the chamber of commerce committee will recommend that the library fund levy be restored, but that it be deducted from other levies.
    The chamber of commerce-Gore committee, at the public hearing on the budget set for Monday, December 21, will urge that the budget be left as advertised, and that the state law allowing for a 10 percent additional levy be unused. The budget is advertised at approximately $311,000, so it could be raised approximately $11,000.
    At the public hearing, each item of the budget will be read separately and discussed. It is anticipated that practical abolishments of the market road fund will be the storm center. Sentiment is reported as increasing in the county districts and Ashland that this is too drastic action. The Dead Indian road, out of Ashland, and the Lake Creek market road, in the east portion of the county, and the Sams Valley road on the floor of the valley, are the chief routes affected. It also cuts into a source of employment in the summer and fall for the menfolk of the rural areas, and they have felt it heavily this year.
    One of the arguments advanced is that Medford now has all the roads paved and otherwise desired, and is therefore not solicitous for other sections.

Medford Mail Tribune, December 8, 1931, page 5

    According to statistics compiled by Victor Tengwald, secretary of the county clerk, 1300 residents of Jackson County have registered for work on the new county courthouse and the emergency relief work. This is more than a 200 increase over the number registered two weeks ago. The present figure is expected to be increased.
    Since the last compilation of figures, the Ashland total mounted from 117 to 317, an increase of 200. In the other districts and this city the number remains practically the same, and are as follows:
    Central Point…………………60
    Eagle Point-Trail…………….55
    Gold Hill………………………40
    Assignment of men for next week's emergency road work on the Crater Lake and Greensprings routes and the Gold Hill district have been completed. Fifty-five men, all with three or more minor children, will start next week, the same number as now employed. This is all that can be assisted because of the limited county funds available. When the state highway commission will make available funds recently voted is not known, but they will probably not be released until after the budget-making throughout the state has been completed, January 1.
    A check of the financial and food conditions of all applicants are made by county and civic agencies before any of the present small amount of labor is granted.
    Work on the new county courthouse is expected to be in full swing by February 1. It is expected the number of employees on this job will range from 50 to 75 men, chiefly skilled workmen.

Medford Mail Tribune, December 10, 1931, page 12

December 18, 1931.
    The following barber shops are meeting all prices from this day on. Haircut, 25¢.
Roy's Barber Shop, 17 N. Bartlett.
E. G. Roseborough, 36 S. Central.
D. P. Peterson, Jackson Hotel Barber Shop.
Carl D. Bowman, 106 West Main.
Hugo Daley, Nash Barber Shop.
N. W. Slusser, 113 East Main.
C. T. Noe, 10 N. Riverside.
Ira Davis, 425 E. Main.
Jos. M. Dunn, Cottage Barber Shop, 7 So. Riverside.
Fry & Stephenson, 14 N. Front St.
I. A. Spencer, Berrydale Barber Shop.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 20, 1931, page 3

The Other Side of the Depression
    Another week and Old Man 1931 will depart forever, to the great relief of a harassed and groggy world. "Good riddance to bad rubbish'' will be the popular verdict.
    But like most popular verdicts it isn't entirely true. The law of compensation works with years, as it does with other things. And if it isn't generally recognized now, it will be eventually, that the dark year of 1931 had its rays of sunshine.
    Like a major operation the deflation of 1931 was painful, but the patient has survived, the maladjustments have been corrected, the poisons eliminated, and a period of better health, greater happiness and prosperity is just ahead.
    The present situation of the Owen-Oregon Lumber Company provides an excellent example in the local field. As a result of the depression, it now appears likely that this company will resume operations, under more favorable conditions than ever before.
    It took the body-blow of 1931 to bring this about. The closing down of the mill brought home to the people of this community what it meant to THEM.
    As a result the local support and assistance that were lacking in the golden days of '29 will not be lacking in 1932. An excessive tax burden will be reduced. Local consumption of Owen-Oregon products will be increased. And even more important the quality of lumber in Medford and Southern Oregon will be raised--the cost to the consumer lowered.
    Mr. Owen declares Medford lumber dealers have shipped in inferior grades, and maintained an excessive scale of prices. This statement has been publicly confirmed by a member of the Chamber of Commerce committee named to investigate the situation.
    This is a serious charge. If true, it not only worked a great injustice upon the Owen-Oregon company; but upon the people of Southern Oregon.
    Whatever the final outcome, this much is certain--thanks to the black year of 1931, such a condition will not exist again.
    What is true here is true in general, all over the world. The destructive forces of 1931 were terrible. But sunshine always follows the storm, thunder and lightning deal death, but they also clear the atmosphere for new life.
    Nineteen thirty-one marked a period of critical illness for the economic world, but in the economic as in the physical realm, such a period, when not fatal, marks the triumph of health over disease.
    This may not be so apparent now. But it will be in the future, when a true perspective of the year 1931 is attained.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 24, 1931, page 4

    In the way of relieving the local unemployment situation in the city of Medford, through City Superintendent Fred Scheffel, the latter provides employment, in shifts, of about 20 men a week--at least it averaged that last month and so far this month--in putting them at work at extra common municipal labor, in stretches of three days each, at 35 cents an hour pay.
    For instance, eight men were placed at work yesterday morning at cleaning out gutters and the like, and after they have worked three days they are replaced by eight other unemployed men for three days, and so on. Of course, only local men are so employed, heads of needy families being given preference.
    One peculiar feature about the city's providing this extra labor in the way of unemployment relief is that quite a number of citizens who lack money with which to pay delinquent assessments owed to the city beseech to be given employment at this extra work, they volunteering that all the money thus earned be retained by the city to be applied on whatever delinquent sum [is] owed. A number of such have been given brief employment during the last two months.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 24, 1932, page 5

    MEDFORD, Ore. (UP)--Hard-pressed farmers and business men of the Rogue River Valley are using hay as a medium of exchange in place of money. Many farmers are paying workers in hay, priced at $6 the ton in shock.
Oswego Palladium-Times, Oswego, New York, July 27, 1932, page 7

    A policy of making no further charity doles from their own relief fund to able-bodied persons, "be they men, women or children," unless work is provided for the recipients to perform in return for the assistance rendered them, was adopted yesterday afternoon by teachers in the Medford school system at the general organization meeting held in preparation for the opening of school, Tuesday.
    The relief program was brought up along with other matters, and instructors decided that it is an educational as well as economic problem and should be given educational treatment.
Should Have Program
    The teachers also went on record as recommending that no contributions by any other relief-dispensing organization be made that cannot show a worked-out and accepted program whereby provision is made for requiring that all able-bodied persons who receive assistance from it shall perform some worthy work, or service in return for that assistance.
    The observation of the teachers has been that needy persons of worthy type do not desire charity but rather a chance to work and earn what they receive, it was pointed out at the meeting.
    Much of the keenest suffering as a result of unemployment in this city is on the part of those who are too proud and too self-dependent to accept charity. "They do not apply to charitable organizations for doles, but they and their children suffer in silence. Such people are too precious an element in our American citizenry to be overlooked and neglected in their times of need," it was stated.
    The only way to reach or to aid these people is to offer them an opportunity to work or to serve for what they get. They will have it no other way. They despise the dole and will not accept it, it was also stressed.
Should Abandon Dole
    "For the sake of preserving that which is best and finest in our American manhood and womanhood, not only for the present but for this generation now coming up, we stand committed to the principle that the dole and the unwise use of charity in solving our relief problems must be abandoned. In its place must be worked out a plan whereby money or goods expended for relief may be earned by every able-bodied recipient who benefits therefrom.
    "To the furtherance of this end, we pledge our support to all future relief work in which we are to have a part." The staff of teachers agreed in a written statement to the press.
    "The teachers of the Medford public schools recognize the serious problem of unemployment relief work in this city, and although their incomes have been greatly reduced this year they intend to assist again in bearing the burden as they have done in the past," the statement continues.
    "Last year, the teachers of Medford not only contributed liberally to the Community Chest, but in addition raised and administered a relief fund for needy children who were not reached by the regularly organized charity institutions of the city because they and their parents are possessed of too much personal pride and independence to apply for it.
Charity Misplaced
    "Through several years of having a part in both watching and administering charitable relief, the teachers have become increasingly conscious of the fact that a most serious problem is fixing itself upon the people as a result of it. The unemployable element of the population is becoming so mixed with the worthy unemployed that they are receiving a dignity to which they are not entitled and many times charitable assistance which they do not deserve.
    "There is, without doubt, a growing class of people in the country who are fast learning to relish the dole and who prefer to lean upon others rather than support themselves through their own planning, working and saving. Children are now in the schools coming up under these conditions. This is becoming not only a social and economic problem, but it is an educational problem as well, and of serious consequences for the younger generation. As such, the teachers feel it proper that public attention should be called to it.
    "The teachers recognize the fact that many worthy people are now needing assistance and will continue to need it--perhaps throughout the winter. With that need they are in full sympathy and will contribute to its alleviation insofar as their abilities will permit."
Medford Mail Tribune, September 4, 1932, page 1

    The Welfare Exchange, operated in the old city hall building, is so much in need of clothing of all kinds and sizes that another appeal is being made by those in charge, in order that those who apply for aid tomorrow and next week need not be turned away.
    Last Saturday more than 50 of the unfortunates who must ask for aid in clothing their families this winter were assembled in the store room at 9:30, the opening hour.
    Twenty women were anxiously seeking work in the sewing room so that they might receive clothing in exchange for their labor. Mrs. Glenn Smith has been supervising the sewing for some time.
    The loan of two more sewing machines for use in the workroom is asked by the committee, and anyone who will loan a machine is asked to call headquarters, 1050, tomorrow.
    Among things most needed by the Welfare Exchange are sleeping garments, stockings, underwear, shoes, coats, suits and house dresses, but anything contributed will be utilized or exchanged.
    The public is again reminded that the Welfare Exchange is open only on Saturdays and Wednesdays, and that in case bundles cannot be left there on these days, Mrs. David Rosenberg, whose telephone number is 1325, will see that contributions on these or other days are collected and delivered to headquarters.
    Mrs. H. D. McCaskey, who is in charge of the exchange during the illness of Miss Helen J. Carlton, has announced that all persons interested in this work are invited to visit the shop and workroom so that they may see how the work is conducted as well as the needs of this department of welfare work.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 11, 1932, page 9

    Medford residents from Bear Creek east and to the city limits are asked by Miss Helen Carlton of the Welfare Exchange to make a careful survey of their clothing supply and select at least one garment or some article of wearing apparel to be given to those less fortunate than themselves.
    Trucks will start out Wednesday morning at 8 o'clock to pick up these contributions, which should be placed on the doorsteps and marked Welfare Exchange.
    The articles much hoped for are underwear, shoes, rubbers, stockings, trousers, overalls and men's shirts and coats, but anything will be accepted.
    Since so many of the women in the workroom need to work for food as much as clothing, arrangements are being made to issue scrip at the value of 20 cents a working hour, which may be used for either food or clothing, according to Miss Carlton.
    Cash contributions would help much in supplying emergency needs.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 4, 1932, page 1

By L. R. Shurtleff.

    Early in January two men who had learned of the Southern Oregon and
Northern California Mining Association plan to put some of the unemployed to work on the proven placer grounds of this section, called upon one of the members of the associations for information and financial aid.
    They knew of some ground that they could work where they could make at least a living wage, providing they could get some financial assistance to get there and take care of their families while they were making their first attempt, but that at the present time they were dependent upon the county for food for their families.
    They were told that, owing to a present lack of funds, the association could do nothing to help them, even though it was one of the plans of the association to do this very thing.
    Their story was, however, so appealing and so plausible to the member of the association to whom it was told, that he asked them how much it would take to get them started and was told that they could make it on $5. He managed to raise this amount for them by borrowing it from a friend.
    Happy, they left, filled the car with gasoline and oil, spent the rest for food, leaving the greater portion of the latter with their respective families, and hied to a piece of county-owned property.
    In twelve days they returned, bringing back $20.80 worth of gold, which they sold to a local buyer. They proceeded immediately to return the $5 loan, purchased a few more supplies and were again off to the diggings, returning this time in six days, being compelled to cease operations temporarily on account of snow storms, and bringing $15 back with them. At this writing they are probably again at work.
    Names of these men, as well as the man who assisted them, are on file at the office of the association, and the story is told for the purpose of showing that with the mere assistance of five dollars, two families were taken from the "bread line" and rendered self-sustaining and that this same effort might be duplicated many times.
    Tuesday W. H. Maltby, who built a good share of Medford's sidewalks, and a man with considerable mining experience, called at the office of the association and said that there are at the present time 200 men working on the old Sterling mine and that they are producing by hand work alone over $200 per day. Many of them are working on county-owned ground, and he stated that he could count thirty rockers in a row in a distance of a hundred feet.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 2, 1933, page 10

    Orchardists who have some apples left that they haven't disposed of can make a good-sized payment on their taxes with them, Hamilton Patton, director of relief work for Jackson County, announced today.
    The relief organization is prepared to take a large quantity of marketable apples at 30 cents a sack, which will be traded to Klamath Falls farmers for potatoes. The potatoes will be used in the relief commissary here, and the apples will be used in the Klamath country.
    "Thirty cents a sack isn't much for apples," Patton said, "but we are getting the potatoes at 30 cents a sack, and some apple grower here can do a lot towards paying off his taxes."
    Growers with apples are requested to see or call Patton.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 2, 1933, page 1

Orchardists Pay Taxes in Apples
    MEDFORD, Oreg., Feb. 6 (AP)--Hamilton Patton, director of Jackson County relief work, announced today that orchardists will be allowed to trade in apples in payment of taxes at the rate of 30 cents a sack.
Calexico Chronicle, Calexico, California, February 6, 1933, page 1


    The Welfare Exchange is badly in need of supplies of many sorts, according to announcement from relief headquarters today. Pieces of yarn for tying quilts, bias tape for binding dresses, spools of silkolene and sugar and flour sacks are among the rather insignificant articles which would mean much to many people in the valley if supplies of them were turned in at the Exchange. Pieces and scraps for piecing quilts are also needed, spools of thread of any number, and in the larger classification furniture and a cook stove.
    Anyone with any of these things to give is asked to get n touch with the Exchange or to leave them at the Shell station on Sixth and Front streets, where a box is being placed by the Welfare Exchange to receive contributions each day.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 24, 1933, page 9


    A happy atmosphere reigns again at the Welfare Exchange, where women who worked diligently last year are greeting each other in the new headquarters in the city hall and looking forward to another successful year.
    A pleasant surprise came to the workers yesterday, when a non-resident entered the shop, stated that he had heard of the splendid work, and wanted to share with the committee in carrying it on. His cooperation met with enthusiastic appreciation.
    In addressing the Business and Professional Women's Club Tuesday evening, Miss Helen Carlton, chairman of the exchange, found the members anxious to lend a willing hand and eager to supply whatever garments they had available. The members promised their cooperation in all channels possible, and their fine spirit was commended yesterday by Miss Carlton, who expressed the belief that this particular project will be of an even greater service to the community this year than it was last.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 21, 1933, page 2


    Miss Helen Carlton of the welfare exchange turned in a detailed report Friday to the Community Cheat of the work of the extension from September 1 to January 15. The interesting figures give some realization of the work accomplished through this relief agency.
    From September to January 125 full-size comforters and 15 baby comforters were made. From the funds received from the Community Chest 820 yards of material were purchased and 125 bundles of cotton and wool batting.
    During December, 116 women were given work in the shop, and in two weeks in January 47 were given work. In the two months of December and January, 985 garments were brought in for exchange and 1081 were given out.
    Miss Carlton, in making her report, told many incidents surrounding the requests for clothing. She stated that the welfare exchange was wholly dependent on the Community Chest for the continuation of its activities, since the number of garments, comforters, etc., given out exceeds the amount of material and clothing brought in. Materials must be purchased for the lining of quilts and many of the garments. These things are given to families in exchange for sewing done in the work rooms of the welfare exchange.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 27, 1935, page 10

    The Welfare Exchange will close tomorrow after a successful winter's work, it was announced today by those in charge, who said they appreciate very much the interest the public has shown in the work that has been carried on.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 19, 1935, page 1

Officer Says Families Need Support of Accused Shady Cove Men--
Have Served Three Weeks in Jail
    Sheriff Syd I. Brown reported today that he intended to take Rueben Train, Ralph Bender, Norman Abla and George Milton, Shady Cove residents, serving county jail sentences for possession of deer meat in a closed season, into justice court next Monday and recommend they be released, so they may go to work and support their families. Each was given [a] 60-day sentence and $75 fine.
    "Three of these men have jobs at $5 and $7 per day on road work in Jackson County, and the foremen have assured me they can go to work when released," the sheriff said. "All have families, have no funds and are unable to get relief. By turning them out now, they can support their folks.
    "If the men serve out their time and fines, it will be August before they are freed, and all the work will be gone," the sheriff further stated. "They will go into next winter in the same shape they are in now.
    "They have served three weeks, and I believe have learned a lesson. The purpose of the law is to reform, not persecute. If they violate the law again the old sentence and fine reverts against them," the sheriff concluded.
    The men were arrested by state police with nine deer while returning in an auto on the Crater Lake Highway from a hunt on upper Elk Creek.
    A committee of the Rogue River Sportsmen's Club, Inc., requested by Justice of the Peace W. R. Coleman to make leniency recommendations in the case, declined to do so Thursday.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 31, 1939, page 1

Last revised April 14, 2024