The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Fruit Growers Associations

By-Laws of the Fruit Growers
Association of Southern Oregon.

    Sec. 1. This association shall hold its regular meetings on the fourth Saturday in every month.
    Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the president to preside at all regular and special meetings, to keep order during the hours of session; and to draw all warrants on the treasurer for any sum voted by a majority of the members present at any meeting, regular or special.
    Sec. 3. The president shall have power to appoint any person to fill vacancies until the day of general election.
    Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the vice-president to preside at any meeting in the absence of the president, and to discharge all the duties of said officer.
    Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep a fair record of all the proceedings of the association, to record the same in a book kept for the purpose; and to countersign all warrants drawn on the treasurer by the president. To receive and keep an account of all moneys voted and collected by the association, pay the same to the treasurer and take a receipt; also the date, number and amount of each order countersigned by him, and the purpose for which said order was drawn.
    Sec. 6. The treasurer shall keep in trust all moneys committed to his care and shall pay out on any order drawn by the president, and countersigned by the secretary, any sum of money so ordered. He shall keep a record of the amount of money paid to him, and the amount paid out; the purpose for which it was paid and carefully retain all orders paid which shall be his vouchers, for the amount so charged against him on the records of the Society; and shall make a report of the financial condition of the association at every regular meeting.

Members of the Fruit Growers
Association of Southern Oregon.
B. F. Miller
G. F. Pennebaker
H. W. Shipley
G. F. Schmidtlein
J. Henry Griffis
Z. M. Hall
Wm. M. Colvig
Tobias Miller
Henry Clock
Joseph Douden
W. H. Newton
Thos. Haymond
John B. Wrisley
R. F. Maury
W. Beeson
John W. Smith
Arthur Willson [sic]
I. B. Williams
A. L. Johnson
Abram C. Speer
H. F. Wood
Levi Gartman
W. H. Atkinson
J. M. McCall
G. F. McConnell
L. Martin
D. B. Bier
S. B. Galey
E. S. Townsend
J. H. Chitwood
F. Roper
J. W. Almutt
Robert Goodyear
Abram Bish
W. C. Myer
P. Lyttleton
C. B. Stone
John B. R. Hutchings
H. J. Teil
A. P. Hammond
W. H. Leeds
Ole Severson
S. J. Day
W. S. Fitzgerald
Martin Peterson
G. A. Hubbell
John E. Ross
R. S. Dunlap
I. W. Thomas
S. E. Stearns
W. T. Leever
Jesse Richardson
C. C. Beekman
H. McElroy
Edward Piening
James McDonough
A. H. Carson
Geo. W. Lewis
S. A. Borough
J. S. Gage
H. B. Miller
C. Wells
J. S. Denise
C. W. Clarke
Frank Dukes
I. J. Duncan
C. B. Miller
A. M. Jess
Fred Giger
Sam'l. Harkness
J. H. Stine
A. J. Leage
Thos. Curry
J. E. Potter
E. P. Geary
J. R. Cooper
T. M. Griffis
J. N. Woody
Thomas Hopwood
Wm. Kahler
M. A. McGinnis
Geo. A. Jackson
Scott Morris
L. P. Clark
G. W. Daley
W. P. Hammon
E. K. Anderson
F. T. Downing
J. W. Marksbury
S. W. Edwards
J. E. Pease
Robert A. Miller
S. S. Pentz
Ed C. Phelps
David Allen
J. N. T. Miller
C. Magruder
J. J. Frayer
Jas. McDonough
Dr. Geo. Kahler
G. Naylor
E. W. Hammon
J. H. Downing
C. A. Nutley
E. J. Kaiser
E. E. Gore
B. F. Adkins
F. J. Creed
Julius Goldsmith
H. E. Baker
P. W. Olwell
W. W. French
T. A. Newman
Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Gold Hill       
Jan. 22nd 1885.       
    According to previous notice the representatives of the fruit growers of Southern Oregon assembled at W. S. Fitzgerald's store for the purpose of permanent organization. The meeting was called to order by B. F. Miller, who was elected president (pro tempore). On motion J. H. Griffis was called upon to act as temporary secretary. The chair then appointed Messrs. H. W. Shipley, G. F. Pennebaker and Thomas Haymond as a committee on organization, after which the committee withdrew.
    Wm. M. Colvig then delivered an interesting speech on the future possibilities of the fruit growing industry of Southern Oregon. At the close of his remarks the committee on organization presented their report, and offered the following constitution and by-laws, which were passed upon, one section at a time, and accepted.
(To Wit)
    Sec. 2. [sic] The object of this association shall be to unite the fruit growers of Southern Oregon in promoting the best interests of the Society. For the purpose of an interchange of ideas as to the best manner of improving the different varieties of fruit, and the best modes of putting the same on the market; and the adoption of such means and measures as this body in its wisdom may think proper for the general interest of those herein represented.
    Sec. 1. This association shall be called "The Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon."
    Sec. 3. The officers of his association shall consist of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary and treasurer.
    Sec. 4. The officers of this association shall be elected by ballot, and to serve for one year and until their successors are elected and qualified.
    Sec. 5. Any person who is engaged in agricultural pursuits may become a member of this body by signing the constitution and by-laws and paying into the treasury the sum of fifty cents.
    Sec. 6. This constitution or by-laws may be altered or amended by a vote of two-thirds of the members present at any regular meeting.
    Sec. 1. This association shall hold its regular meetings on the fourth Saturday in every month.
    Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the president to preside at all regular and special meetings, to keep order during the hours of session, and to draw all warrants on the treasurer for any sum voted by a majority of the members present at any meeting, regular or special.
    Sec. 3. The president shall have power to appoint any person to fill vacancies until the day of general election.
    Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the vice-president to preside at any meeting in the absence of the president, and to discharge all the duties of said officer.
    Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep a fair record of all the proceedings of the association; to record the same in a book kept for the purpose, and to countersign all warrants drawn on the treasurer by the president. To receive and keep an account of all moneys voted and collected by the association; pay the same to treasurer and take a receipt, also the date, number and amount of each order and countersigned by him, and the purpose for which said order was drawn.
    Sec. 6. The treasurer shall keep in trust all moneys committed to his care and shall pay out on any order drawn by the president and countersigned by the secretary, any sum of money so ordered. He shall keep a record of the amount of money paid to him, and the amount paid out; the purpose for which it was paid and carefully retain all orders paid, which shall be his vouchers for the amount so charged against him on the records of the society; and shall make a report of the financial condition of the association at every regular meeting.
    Committee on Organization
        H. W. Shipley
        G. F. Pennebaker
        Thomas Haymond
    The following gentlemen then came forward and signed the constitution and by-laws: B. F. Miller, G. F. Pennebaker, H. W. Shipley, G. F. Schmidtlein, J. H. Griffis, Z. M. Hall, Wm. M. Colvig, Tobias Miller, Henry Clock, Joseph Douden, W. H. Newton, Thomas Haymond. After which the members proceeded to the election of officers. On motion of H. W. Shipley, G. F. Pennebaker was placed in nomination for president. On motion of Wm. M. Colvig, B. F. Miller was nominated for the same office. The nominations were then closed, and the society proceeded to vote by ballot. B. F. Miller, receiving the largest number of votes, was declared elected president.
    W. H. [sic] Shipley and G. F. Pennebaker were nominated as vice-presidents. The rules were suspended, and the above-named gentlemen were elected by acclamation.
    Wm. M. Colvig was unanimously elected treasurer, and J. H. Griffis secretary.
    H. W. Shipley moved that the next meeting of the association take place at Medford, on the 28th day of next February; carried. On motion of G. F. Pennebaker the association returned a vote of thanks to Mr. Fitzgerald for his kindness and accommodation. The secretary was instructed to send a copy of the proceedings of this meeting to the local  papers, and to purchase books suitable for keeping a record of the proceedings of the organization. It was resolved by motion of H. W. Shipley that every member present be considered a committee of one to solicit members. H. W. Shipley addressed the meeting, and spoke of the necessity of determined action on the part of members in the beginning of this very important move, until all the fruit growers of Southern Oregon are enlisted in the cause, and fully realize the benefits that will accrue to them from concerted action.
    G. F. Pennebaker offered some very wise remarks in regard to the sectional feeling that exists between different business points in this community and earnestly urged the fruit growers of Southern Oregon to rise above such a narrow-minded policy and let individual interest give way to such measures as are for the general good. On motion of G. F. Schmidtlein the meeting adjourned.
                J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Medford       
Feb. 28th 1885.       
President B. F. Miller in the chair
    The secretary was instructed to call the roll, and read the minutes of previous meeting. On motion of John B. Wrisley, the minutes were adopted as read. W. Beeson addressed the house on the advantages to be derived from united action among fruit growers and gave it as his opinion that so soon as they learned to put up their fruit in a neat, attractive manner, and were able to furnish sufficient quantities to attract the attention of the markets of the northwestern country, the demand would equal the supply, and at good prices. John B. Wrisley said that he had tried the experiment of shipping fruit in small quantities, and found it would not pay. By associating together and loading a car or several of them at a time, the fruit growers could receive a handsome profit, owing to the difference in the cost of transportation. J. H. Stewart said that while he was a stranger to our soil and climate, he was not a stranger to a horticultural society, for he had belonged to one for years and knew they were of great benefit to the fruit interest. He desired to impress upon the minds of the gentlemen present that too much care could not be taken in selecting varieties of fruit before planting orchards. While there were many varieties of fruit that possessed merit, there were but few kinds that would prove profitable to ship for the general market. J. W. Smith made a spirited speech recommending our apples as being superior to those of California or the eastern states, and looked forward to an increased demand for them. From apple trees eight and ten years old, he gathered last fall of each ten to fifteen bushels of apples of fine quality; and from pear trees four years old last year received a profit of two dollars to the tree. Arthur Wilson gave his experience in planting fruit trees in different kinds of soil. On motion it was decided to hold the next meeting at Ashland on Saturday, March 28th 1885. On motion of W. Beeson, B. F. Miller was selected to inquire into the different varieties of fruit and ascertain what kinds are best adapted for shipping and would be the most profitable to raise. The society returned a vote of thanks to Mr. Byer for the use of his hall, and instructed the secretary to send a copy of these proceedings to the county papers for publication.
    A. L. Johnson made a rousing speech, a portion of which was as follows, "I consider this the beginning of one of the grandest moves that has ever been inaugurated in Southern Oregon. I looked upon the Grange as one of the greatest benefits to the producing class of the United States, and attribute its present backwardness to the fact that the farmer being set off to himself and accustomed to rule his little kingdom as a monarch unquestioned in his authority he has failed to learn the necessity of commingling with his fellow man for mutual advantage. You must learn to give and take in the interchange of ideas and fight the evil not the man, or you can never hope to have an equal show with men in other branches of business. The merchant has his chamber of commerce. The mechanic has trades unions and so on in nearly all branches of business men are associated together for mutual protection. Why should not the fruit growers stand together and work for each other's interest in securing a market and remunerative prices for their fruit? I cannot too strongly urge upon you the necessity of protecting the birds; they are your friends. Wherever the birds have been destroyed insects have never failed to become troublesome pests. Protect your birds, they are a part of the equilibrium of nature. The game belongs to the man that cultivates the soil; you should guard it well if you would foster your own interest."
    Messrs. W. Beeson, J. W. Smith and G. F. Pennebaker were appointed as a committee to secure a hall for the next regular meeting. On motion of J. H. Griffis the meeting adjourned.
                J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Myer's Hall Ashland       
March 28th 1885       
    Meeting called to order by vice-president G. F. Pennebaker. By order of the chair the secretary read the constitution and by-laws. Call of the roll was omitted. Nineteen prominent gentlemen came forward, signed the constitution and by-laws and became members of the association. The minutes of previous meeting were read and approved. The secretary read a communication from president B. F. Miller stating that it was impossible for him to attend without neglecting important business at home. He also reported progress in the matter of gaining information and making a report as to what varieties of fruit can be shipped at the most profit. Wm. M. Colvig handed in his resignation as treasurer, which was received. Abram Bish was nominated for treasurer, the rules were suspended and he was elected by acclamation. It was moved and seconded that W. M. Colvig, ex-treasurer, should pass over to the secretary what money he had in his possession belonging to the association; carried. W. H. Wickham spoke of the necessity of having a fruit cannery at Ashland, and thought there would be some effort made this year toward starting one. G. F. McConnell said, "I have shipped peaches from Ashland successfully; they were of fine quality and found ready sale. I have also shipped a quantity of apples this season which brought a higher price than any other apples in the market. The railroad companies already are offering reduced rates for the transportation of fruits and with proper solicitation by this association might be induced to be still more liberal. We should endeavor to have one good house in San Francisco and one in Portland that we could rely upon to receive our fruit. The Early Crawford is the favorite peach, and the Northern Spy and Fall Pippin apples the best to ship, in my estimation." Mr. McConnell was followed by several other gentlemen who made remarks upon the preparation of the soil before planting orchards, gave different methods of planting trees in order to have the rows straight and at right angles, and discussed the question of high and low training for fruit trees. W. C. Myers while he was back east took with him some specimens of apples and pears which he said astonished the people there. On being asked by a number present what kinds of fruit were best adapted to this country, he named several kinds that he had tested and proved to be a success which were of excellent quality, but remarked that perhaps some of the new kinds now being introduced might be much better and if so they must be very good. On motion of J. H. Chitwood, the president, secretary and treasurer were authorized as a permanent committee empowered to select specimens of fruit and forward to the state Board of Immigration, for the purpose of being placed on exhibition in their rooms at Portland. On motion of J. M. McCall the chair was empowered to appoint a committee of three to revise and improve the present constitution and report at the next regular meeting. The chair appointed A. L. Johnson of Medford, W. Beeson of Wagner Creek and S. B. Galey of Ashland as the committee. On motion of W. H. Atkinson, L. Martin and Abram Bish were appointed to solicit persons engaged in fruit culture to become members of the association. The next regular meeting was ordered to take place at Jacksonville on Saturday April 25th 1885. A vote of thanks was tendered Mr. Myer for the free use of his hall. On motion of J. M. McCall the meeting adjourned.
            J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Jacksonville April 25th 1885.       
    Meeting called to order by president B. F. Miller. The constitution and by-laws were read, and the roll called. Ole Severson, S. J. Day, W. S. Fitzgerald, Martin Peterson, G. A. Hubbell, S. E. Stearns, W. T. Leever, John E. Ross, R. S. Dunlap, I. W. Thomas, Jesse Richardson, C. C. Beekman, H. McElroy, Frank Krause and Chas. Nickell joined the association. The minutes of previous meeting were then read and approved. B. F. Miller presented the report on the question of varieties of fruit and their adaptability for shipping. He also read a communication from Capt. Morgan of Portland on the subject. Mr. Miller's report was received as far as given, and he was requested by the association to continue his inquiries and make a further report at some future time. The secretary read a communication from J. P. Rogers, general freight agent of the Oregon and California Railroad, stating that any specimens of fruit the association desired to forward to the state Board of Immigration would be carried free of charge over their line.
    G. A. Hubbell offered the following resolution; Whereas the state Board of Immigration has invited each county in this state to organize a county board of immigration to supplement its work, Therefore be it resolved that
    The committee appointed by the association at last meeting to forward specimens of fruit to the state Board of Immigration be ordered to wait on the county commissioners to induce them to cooperate with the association in organizing a county board of immigration. Considerable discussion took place on the motion. W. M. Colvig, John E. Ross, G. A. Hubbell and several other gentlemen spoke on the question. On being put to a vote the resolution was adopted unanimously. John B. Wrisley moved that the president appoint a gentleman from each important district in the county to sit with the committee appointed to confer with the county commissioners on the immigration question; the motion was carried. The president appointed G. F. McConnell, G. F. Pennebaker, Martin Peterson, John B. Wrisley, G. A. Hubbell, R. F. Maury and Thomas Haymond. G. F. Pennebaker was chosen chairman of the committee. H. McElroy of Grants Pass favored the house with a short speech which demonstrated him to be a clear and impressive speaker; he assured the association that the citizens of Grants Pass and vicinity would not be lacking in enterprise and sympathy with the fruit growers of Southern Oregon. G. F. Pennebaker moved that we meet at Jacksonville on Saturday June 27th 1885 for the purpose of deciding where the association shall establish permanent headquarters; motion carried. The next regular meeting was ordered to take place at Grants Pass May 30th 1885. On motion of Martin Peterson the meeting adjourned.
            J. Henry Griffis
                Sec., Fruit Growers of Southern Ogn

Fruit Growers meeting held at       
Grants Pass May 30th 1885.       
    President B. F. Miller in the chair. The constitution and by-laws were read. Eighteen gentlemen became members of the association. Reading of the minutes was omitted in order to save time. C. W. Clarke spoke on the question of hop culture, and said that he had been informed by dealers to whom he had sent samples of hops from the vicinity of Woodville that they were superior to any grown on this coast. Mr. Clarke requested the association to take up the hop question and include hop culture as well as fruit growing. On motion it was ordered the association take up the hop question at the next regular meeting. Hon. H. B. Miller made a short but very enthusiastic speech; he considered fruit growing was destined to be the leading industry of Southern Oregon. He said some of the Portland people think we have no good fruit, because shippers have been so careless in assorting and packing their fruit for market when it arrives, thus throwing discredit on fruit growers and depreciating the market value of our fruit. There is work to do. I will do all in my power for the Association. A. H. Carson made a fluent speech; among other things he said, I know we [have] the best of fruit lands. Land that will produce forest trees will produce fruit trees. While we can grow many varieties of fruit almost to perfection, in apples we leave [sic] the world. Our high lands are the best for fruit; it is not necessary to irrigate; trees, if properly cultivated, do well without irrigation, and the quality of the fruit is better from unirrigated trees. Col. J. S. Gage likes this climate better than the climate either north or south of here. He said he had received information which led him to believe the railroad would soon be completed [i.e., to California--it was completed in 1887]. On motion the president was instructed to appoint someone to speak or write on some particular kind of fruit at every meeting. J. H. Stine, the editor of the Grants Pass Courier, expressed his willingness to do what he could for the fruit growers, and invited members to send communications to him in reference to the culture of the different fruits, and he would be only too glad to publish them. C. W. Clarke suggested that the members of the association were becoming quite numerous, and if everyone would give his knowledge and experience the result would be a vast fund of useful information such as would astonish many of us. He found that some of our members were overmodest, that while they might possess knowledge they did not deem of much importance, it would probably be the very thing that someone else was looking for. On motion the meeting adjourned to meet at Jacksonville Saturday June 27th 1885, at one o'clock p.m.
            J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers Convention       
held at Jacksonville June 27th 1885.       
    The house was called to order by vice-president G. F. Pennebaker; the roll called; and the minutes of the two previous meetings read and approved.
    On motion it was resolved that hop culture be considered one of the interests of the Fruit Growers Association. A communication from C. W. Clarke on hop culture was read by the secretary.
    The question of locating the headquarters of the Fruit Growers Association was then taken up. Gold Hill and Jacksonville were placed in nomination; the vote was taken by ballot. Whole number of votes cast 13, Gold Hill receiving 6 and Jacksonville 7. Jacksonville was therefore designated as the future headquarters of the association. On motion of R. F. Maury the association resolved to hold its annual meeting on the 8th day of October 1885 at one o'clock p.m. C. C. Beekman moved that the association hold a horticultural exhibition at their annual meeting October next, lasting one or two days, according to the discretion of the permanent officers of the association; carried.
    The chair was empowered to appoint a committee of five to make arrangements for the exhibition. On motion of Martin Peterson the association invited all persons interested in fruit growing and hop culture to preserve such fruit as could not be exhibited green in order that as many kinds may be exhibited as possible.
    On motion of Wm. M. Colvig it was ordered that the secretary of this association be allowed $20.00 per annum for his services and all expenses while in the employ of the association. On motion it was ordered that the secretary be paid what money is now on hand (twenty-nine dollars) to remunerate him for money expended and services rendered up to this time. A communication from an experienced orchardist on pruning was read before the association. On motion of Martin Peterson the meeting adjourned.
            J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
held at Jacksonville Aug 26th 1885       
Special Meeting.
    Pres. B. F. Miller in the chair. The object of the meeting was to make arrangements for an exhibition in Oct. next. But owing to a lack of public spirit and the scarcity of choice samples of fruit, caused by the late unusual frost last spring, a motion was made and carried to postpone the exhibit until next year. The committee on finance and arrangements for the exhibition were discharged. The committee on constitution and by-laws, appointed March 28th 1885, was also discharged.
    A. H. Carson of Josephine was appointed to deliver an address on the peach.
    Hon. H. B. Miller was also appointed to deliver an oration and choose his own subject. L. D. Brown of Portland addressed the meeting a few minutes. On motion of G. F. Pennebaker the meeting adjourned.
            J. H. Griffis,

Jacksonville, Oct. 8th, 1885.           
    The Fruit Growers of Southern Oregon met today at 1 o'clock.
    The house was called to order by the president B. F. Miller. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. Col. R. F. Maury presented the association with a large bucket full of choice samples of apples and pears, consisting of the Ben Davis, Dutch Mignon, Sady and Baldwin apple, and the Beurre de Anjou pear. Wm. Kahler presented a very fine basket of fruit containing specimens of the Yellow Bellflower and Belmont apple, second crop Bartlett pear, also sweet potatoes of the Nancemond variety weighing  between 2½ and 3 pounds. B. F. Miller exhibited a splendid specimen of the Souvenir du Congres pear, and gave an extended report on varieties of fruit most suitable for shipping purposes. A. H. Carson addressed the meeting at some length and dwelt particularly on the cultivation of the peach. Mr. Carson gave it as his experience, together with the knowledge gathered from others on the subject, that it is best to plant peach trees about 16½ ft. apart; see that the ground is well drained to a depth of 30 inches and in planting set the trees the same depth as in the nursery. In pruning he considered it best to head low about 18 inches from the ground in order to protect the trunk of the tree from the heat of the sun. Keep the tree well balanced and cut back one-third of the new growth every year. It was Mr. Carson's opinion that Rogue River Valley could find a large market for late peaches in California. Speeches were made on the merits and demerits of irrigation in fruit raising by Col. John Ross, Wm. Kahler, esq., A. H. Carson and Col. R. F. Maury. On motion Mr. L. P. Clark was invited to deliver an address before the Fruit Growers on any subject he should choose. The meeting adjourned subject to the call of the president.
            J. H. Griffis,

Minutes of Fruit Growers Meeting       
Held at Jacksonville February 27th 1886.       
    President B. F. Miller the chair.
    By the request of the members, the constitution and by-laws were read, and the minutes of last meeting approved.
    The next in order being the election of officers, it was decided on motion of C. C. Beekman to suspend the rules and vote by acclamation the following officers and then elected unanimously B. F. Miller president, G. F. Pennebaker and H. W. Shipley vice-president, Abram Bish treasurer and J. H. Griffis secretary. After discussing various subjects connected with fruit culture, a motion was made by Col. R. F. Maury to adjourn subject to the call of the president.
            J. H. Griffis,

Minutes of Fruit Growers Meeting       
held in Jacksonville Feby. 25, 1888       
    President B. F. Miller occupied the chair. Owing to the resignation of the secy. the president appointed C. B. Miller secretary pro tem.
    Reading the minutes of last minute was postponed till next meeting.
    By request of new members, the constitution and by-laws were read.
    By a two-thirds vote of the members present, the by-laws were amended and six vice-presidents instead of only two were elected.
    The next in order being the election of officers, the following persons were elected for the term of one year.
    R. A. Miller president; B. F. Miller, Thos. Curry, I. W. Thomas, H. B. Miller, S. B. Galey and J. H. Stewart vice-pres.; C. B. Miller secretary, and J. D. Whitman, treasurer.
    The newly elected president made an enthusiastic initiatory address urging the members of the Association to action and interest in fruit business. He presented many interesting facts and worthy of consideration by the members of the Asso. The speaker advised advertising and gave many proofs of the advantages by instances of his own experience and that of other men of business.
    Packing and shipping was talked about intelligently; shipping only the best was especially advised.
    Plans for the protection of the fruit business from fraudulent dealers who desire to use brands and trademarks having a good reputation was duly discussed. To this end the Association considered the merits of a trademark.
    Mr. Marksbury made prudent remarks on fruit culture, also as to the best manner of disposing of the crops. Suggestions were offered by several members requesting that preparations should be made to have speaking on different subjects on next meeting. Accordingly the president appointed the following speakers: B. F. Miller on budding & grafting, W. P. Hammon on drying, R. F. Maury on strawberry culture and J. E. Pease on pruning. The right of all members to make reply or criticisms was reserved; the attendance of the appointed speakers at next meeting was especially desired.
    A motion by I. W. Thomas was made to hold next meeting at Medford on Saturday March 31, 1888.
    By motion the meeting was adjourned.
        C. B. Miller, secretary.

Minutes of the Fruit Growers Meeting       
    Following are the proceedings of the last meeting of the Southern Oregon Fruit Growers Association, held at Medford Saturday March 31, 1888.
    The house was called to order by pres. R. A. Miller. The secretary was instructed to read the minutes of previous meeting which were approved as read. An invitation was then given to those who desired to become members of the Association and Mr.  E. C. Phelps came forward and signed the roll.
    The trademark business was brought up for discussion and wisely handled by men who are informed on the subject. Mr. Whitman reviewed many advantages secured by this means of protection, also the indispensable necessity of proper means to discourage careless packing [of] fruit to be shipped to distant markets. He says, "Great injury is done to the business by indolent men."
    Mr. Pentz explained very plainly the necessary steps to be taken to secure a trademark. He says first choose a name, secondly draw a diagram of proper design and send to the Secretary of State, and if not already on record it can at once be established. A motion to adopt a trademark was carried.
    Mr. Whitman then made a motion to appoint Mr. Pentz as a committee of one to draw a design for said trademark. By request of Mr. Pentz a motion was carried requiring all members to select a design and to be presented at next meeting or to be handed to Mr. S. S. Pentz of Medford or C. B. Miller of Gold Hill personally.
    The subject of pruning was introduced by Mr. J. E. Pease. He says after pruning several years in the orchards of Oregon he notices the habit of cutting off large limbs has been practiced too much for the good of big orchards. Large limbs will not heal over readily, consequently leaving a portion of wood exposed to the elements, and thus injuring the entire tree. Though admitting the free use of the knife to be of advantage on small limbs, the speaker thought best to leave a portion of the water sprouts, clipping off only the tops.
    Mr. Pease thinks the proper season for pruning is from Mar. 15 to June 15 or during the free flow of sap.
    Mr. J. H. Whitman made some good suggestions in regard to insect pests and how to dispose of and prevent them from infecting our orchards; by his request pamphlets containing important portions of the laws of California on this subject were read to the Association.
    The secretary was instructed to correspond with other associations engaged in horticultural industries for the purpose of gaining information and making known the object and desires of our Association, rendering such reports as will be most compatible to fruit-growing interests, thus bringing into more intimate intercourse the settled and remote districts, and unite the dream of this great enterprise by a connecting link.
    Owing to the absence of several members who were appointed to speak, their names will appear on [the] program for next meeting. By motion the meeting adj. to meet at Central Point, Apr. 29, '88. C. B. Miller, secy.

Minutes of Fruit Growers Meeting       
held at Central Point July 28, 1888       
    President R. A. Miller called the meeting to order and directed the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting, which stood approved as read.
    The committee appointed to draw a design for a trademark was called on to report and the chairman of the committee made the following verbal report. He proposed using a large red apple for [the] central figure and surrounding with leaves and scroll work.
    Other members suggested using a peach, as a more important production of Southern Oregon. The majority of the members agreed with the committee in its selection.
    It was also suggested to use the apple for the central figure and surround it with other fruit such as peaches, prunes, pears, grapes, etc.
    Mr. Leever made a motion to adopt the design proposed by the committee. Mr. Pentz advised that each member should secure a stencil stamp of the trademark and have his name beneath.
    Mr. Cain, a commission merchant of S.F., was invited to speak, and he mighty commends Oregon apples and thinks they are by far the most important crop of our valley. He expressed his surprise to find the orchards of Oregon in so neglected a condition after handling such fine fruit as Oregon produces.
    The trademark business was again postponed in order to have all the members together before disposing of this important business. Messrs. Galey, Pentz and Leever was appointed as a committee to draw a diagram and complete arrangements for adopting a trademark. The necessity of legislation for the protection of our orchards from pests was again urged by several prominent members, and plans were proposed to take action in this direction.
    The president advised the Association to make an effort to put a stop to killing such birds as destroy insects. He thinks they are of great value in orchards.
    Mr. Whitman also prizes the little birds very highly, and says that the fruit they eat is of very little importance compared with the good they do in destroying insects. He also adds that they are our best friends in the fruit business instead of being destructive enemies, as regarded by many.
    Mr. Kelly addressed the Association on this subject and advised the appointment of a State Ornithologist, also an entomologist. He recommended the eastern canary as an insect destroyer and mentioned the linnet as a very destructive fruit eater.
    Mr. Leever believes the sapsucker to be more beneficial than destructive since it lives principally on insects and rids the trees of borers.
    Several members spoke about protecting the feathered songsters, and much interest was manifested in their behalf.
    In addressing the Association on the subject of planting, Dr. Hinkle says the tap root should not be cut off when transplanting trees, for he says this leaves a source of decay which will not heal over.
    After discussing various topics on fruit culture, preparations were made to have an exhibition on the next meeting of the Association. Accordingly Mr. Whitman made a motion to have an exhibition and a picnic on next meeting. The motion was unanimously carried & it was decided by the majority of the members present to hold that meeting at Orchard Grove near Medford on Saturday Sept 29, 1888. It was moved and seconded that the president be appointed as a committee to arrange this picnic grounds, carried--S. S. Pentz, C. C. Magruder, E. Roper and C. B. Miller were appointed as a committee to prepare a programme. On motion the meeting adjourned.
                C. B. Miller secy.

Minutes of the Fruit Growers Meeting       
    A regular meeting of the Southern Oregon Fruit Growers Association was held at Heber Grove Sept. 29 1888 and the grandest display of fruits and vegetables ever recorded in Southern Oregon history was spread out with lavish hands. About 10 o'clock wagons and carriages began rolling in, each bringing choice selections of the best that could be produced, until about one o'clock, when the long row of tables began to groan under their luscious burdens and it was found necessary to pile some of the delicious fruit upon the ground.
    Crowds of eager spectators gathered around the proud producers who were eagerly describing the peculiar merits of some fine varieties of fruit to the many credulous hearers, who seemed to believe, and well they ought, that Southern Oregon could not be equaled in the production of peaches, pears and apples, beside other fruit which cannot be excelled.
    One gentleman was heard to remark that after traveling through a greater portion of the fruit-growing sections of the western states, that he here found the finest display of fruit that had ever met his view.
    After the fruit was well tested and examined greatly to the satisfaction and encouragement of all, it was announced by the president that the Association would have the rare privilege of listening to an encouraging address on fruit culture by Mr. James O'Meara, formerly of the Rogue River Valley.
    When the speaker came forward and saluted the large assembly he at once secured the undivided attention of all. The speaker began by describing the vast change that had been wrought in the wilderness of Rogue River Valley since his departure, dwelling with appropriate compliments on the present prosperity of the citizens and the development of the resources of the country.
    The speaker then pictured to us in flowery eloquence, the magnificent prospects of its future.
    He refers us to California for scientific horticulture, and says that the California fruit growers are an example worthy [of] our patronage, and that they are far ahead of us in this line of business.
    Mr. S. A. Clark, editor of the agricultural dept. of the Oregonian, was next introduced to the Association.
    Mr. Clark is another pioneer of S.O. He is now an elderly gentleman, but still possesses his well-developed power of reason and experience, and the magnetism of his presence is felt in his audience.
    In rising to address the Association Mr. Clark said that he just wanted to express his appreciation of our faculties for fruit culture and added that he believes that Southern Oregon possesses qualities that cannot be equaled by even California.
    He says he came here just on the eve of the mining era and had been here during the most flattering productions of gold. "But now," he says, "I come when a new enterprise begins to grow, and no other business can compare with it in magnitude or importance."
    He says a man is loyal to his country--a hero--when he engages in planting an orchard, for he not only reaps a bountiful harvest for himself, but leaves something for his children, and leaves a permanent business not to be destroyed by each harvest. Mr. Clark urges the fruit growers to look well to the cultivation of their orchards, as this has much to do with the size and quality of the fruit, and size was estimated second to none as a quality that will sell fruit. After the speaker was seated a motion was made to extend a vote of thanks to the speakers; the motion was carried. Ten names were added to the roll.
    It was agreed by a majority of members present to hold next meeting at Medford on the second Saturday in November. The meeting adjourned to meet at Medford.
            C. B. Miller,

Jacksonville Or. Feb 24 1889       
"Town Hall"       
    The annual meeting of the Sou Oregon Fruit Growers Association, pursuant to the call of the president, met in the room of the Town Hall of Jacksonville Oregon Saturday afternoon at 2:30 p.m.
    The president and secretary being absent, the meeting was called to order by Hon. J. D. Whitman, and on motion Mr. Whitman was elected chairman and Mr. S. S. Pentz sec. pro tem.
    There being no regular order of business on motion of Mr. S. S. Pentz the names of Scott Griffin, C. C. Ragsdale, S. C. Lawrence, Samuel Colver and J. A. Whitman were proposed for membership in the Association, and these gentlemen were duly elected [sic].
    The president suggested that as this was the regular time for the election of annual officers, but as there was not a full attendance of the members the election be postponed until the next regular meeting.
    The election of officers for the ensuing year was postponed until the next regular meeting.
    On motion Mr. Colver addressed the meeting upon the subject of "lines of transportation" to the nearest & best markets as also upon the question of the best methods for the "preservation" of fruit and "Processes of Drying," advocating the "Evaporating" instead of the "Sun-dried Process."
    After a short discussion of these and kindred subjects, on motion the Association adjourned to meet in Medford Or on the last Saturday of March A.D. 1889 at the hour of 2 o'clock.
    The following initiation fees were received and handed over [to] the treasurer to wit
    C. C. Ragsdale                50¢
    J. A. Whitman                 50
    Saml. Colver                   50
    S. C. Lawrence               50
    Scott Griffin                   50
    W. H. Barr                      50
            S. S. Pentz
                Secretary Pro-tem

Medford Or Sept 19th 1889       
    No minutes of the last meeting of the Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon having come into my possession (although record of the same having been requested of the former sec'y) I am unable to furnish any minutes of said meeting or meetings.
            S. S. Pentz
                Sec'y S.O.F.G. Assn.
Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon Record Book, 1885-1889

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    A called meeting of the fruit growers of Southern Oregon was held at Jacksonville last week. There was quite a large attendance, G. F. Pennebaker presiding and J. H. Griffis acting as secretary. Among other things it was resolved that hop culture be considered one of the interests of the fruit growers' association. A communication from C. W. Clark on hop culture was read by the secretary. The question of locating headquarters of the association was then taken up, resulting in the selection of Jacksonville. On motion of R. F. Maury the association resolved to hold its annual meeting on the 8th of October, 1885. C. C. Beekman moved that the association hold a horticultural exhibition at their annual meeting in October next, lasting one or two days, according to the discretion of the permanent officers of the association; carried. The chair was empowered to make arrangements for the exhibition. On motion of Martin Peterson, the association invited all persons interested in fruit and hop culture to preserve such fruits as could not be exhibited green, in order that as many kinds could be exhibited as possible.
Oregonian, Portland, July 16, 1885, page 3

    Last Saturday the fruit-growers of Rogue River Valley met at Medford, R. A. Miller presiding.
    The subject of a trademark was discussed, and the society made arrangements to adopt one, a committee being appointed to consider the question.
    The subject of pruning was opened by J. E. Pease. He says, after several years of experience in pruning the orchards of Oregon, I notice the habit of cutting off large limbs has been practiced too much for the good of our new orchards. He says that large limbs will not heal over readily, consequently having a portion of unprotected wood exposed to the elements is an injury to the trees. Though admitting the free use of the knife to be of advantage on small branches, the speaker thought best to leave a portion of the water sprouts about the tree, cutting off only the tops of the same. He thinks the proper season for pruning to be while the sap flows most readily, thus giving nature a chance to operate most effectually.
    Mr. Whitman made some good suggestions in regard to pests and how to dispose of and prevent them from infecting our orchards. Pamphlets containing important portions of laws of California on this subject were read to the association.
    The secretary was instructed to correspond with other associations engaged in fruit-growing, for the purpose of giving information and becoming familiar with the ways and means and uniting the forces of all, thus giving strength and interchanging ideas.
    The Jackson County society should enter into correspondence and maintain brotherly relations with the North Pacific Fruit-Growers' Association, which contemplates including in its objects the entire North Pacific region and is gaining a large membership. By harmonious action the two societies may accomplish more good for the public, and that is the great object of both associations.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, April 12, 1888, page 6

Of Southern Oregon Meet at Ish's Grove, Near Jacksonville.
A Glance at the Old Timers and Comparison with the Times That Were--
The Future of This Region to Be Great.

    Leaving Eugene City at 10 o'clock at night, one goes to sleep in the Willamette Valley to wake up next morning in another region of country. We breakfast at Medford in the heart of Rogue River Valley, and before we reach there go racing through a broken, hilly country where cornfields lie wedged in between lava hedges, towering ranges being always the graphic background. During the night I was wakened by something unusual--some different movement from railroading over prairie land or even from climbing steep grades. We were evidently going downhill and moving in curves at a tremendous pace. Supreme confidence in the management of the road, and the thought that the engineer would be in as much danger as the rest of us, dispelled thoughts of fear, but the way that long train went tearing down the steep grades of the Calapooias, the Umpqua Mountain and the Grave Creek Hills was a caution to timid travelers, that, too, when Cimmerian darkness was over all. Drowsy as I was, memory went dreamily back to the first trip I ever made over this same identical route in good part. It was 1851, early spring, that news came to Portland that mines were discovered in Northern California, near the Oregon line. Moved by a spirit of adventure I rigged an ox team and started for the new diggings. The Indians were hostile, and by the time we reached Rogue River we had grown into a company of over seventy, including many teams and wagons, with Hembree of Yamhill for our captain. We prospected down Rogue River and went past and around rich placers that were found that same fall and reached Shasta Butte City, afterwards Yreka, about the first of July, a journey of six weeks that is now made in less than a day.
    Thirty-seven years ago we did not dream of the time to come when the iron horse should make up those hills and annihilate time as it does today, nor of the time to come when the foothills of Southern Oregon should furnish peaches and grapes for western commerce as they do now.
    Breakfasting at Medford, we took the stage for Jacksonville, the place where gold once rewarded labor in a most remarkable way, and where now the surrounding hills begin to grow vines that yield grapes and rich wines, good for old age and tired natures. I here look down upon the washed gravel from the mines that once were. I am not able to say that these same vineyards are rendering a good account of themselves this year, for there came a sort of blizzard touch upon Southern Oregon last February. A warm touch of weather was followed by a sharp frost that froze the marrow of the vines, and while it killed some outright, [it] had the effect to kill the fruit buds and materially lessen the crop. There were more grapes on the vines last fall, late in November, than today at the beginning of the harvest. There is not a third of a good yield, and the grapes are not quite as large and tender as usual. This is a misfortune to Oregon as well as to the grape growers, but as it is something that does not occur often [it] is not discouraging. A year ago the same thing happened to many of the vineyards of California by a frost that occurred as late as May 11th. That frost did not harm the grapes of this section, but circumstances were against them last February, and the vines were unfortunately just in condition to be easily damaged.
    Jacksonville has an old and decayed appearance, for there is no new building going on to make an era of progress and development. The railroad gave it the "go by," to all intents and purposes. The mines that created the place and made it once a center of extravagant life and unusual prosperity have become exhausted. The creek that brought down gold in rich placers is worked out, and all its golden wealth is exhausted. It was possible, it is said, to have induced the railroad builders to have located their route near enough to Jacksonville to keep its health and prominence undisturbed, but they failed to appreciate the necessity, and nothing now can give animation and vitality to the place beyond the fact that some good country is tributary to it and must bring trade there.
    The fruit growers of Rogue River Valley met today in a grove between the two places--Jacksonville and Medford--and the occasion called out the beauty as well as chivalry of this section. Many families came with their lunch baskets, and the scene was enlivened by the presence of old and young inclined to make the most of the opportunity for enjoyment. There is a commendable display of harmony and interest manifest here in the fruit industry that must make the valley in time a center of wealth and prosperity. A year ago they feared prohibition would interfere with their business, but the "third party" did not pan out well last spring. Greatly as one might depreciate the manufacture and use of intoxicating liquors to excess, there is a legitimate use of the grape that has existed for all time.
    The extent of country adapted to fruit growing is really very great on Rogue River and its tributaries, even though it does not include the valley lands of this section. There is an immense scope of foothill land lying on the numerous tributaries and much of it facing the south, so as to be favorable for grapes and peaches. This land is so extensive in area that it must require many years to develop it for this purpose. Of course there is an advantage in nearness to transportation that will count in favor of the lands most available on that account, but as development continues roads will be constructed and the outlying fruit lands will be furnished with the necessary facilities.
    Speaking of Jacksonville, it was possible to locate the road through a gap on the north, so that it would be four miles shorter through the valley, but this cutting would be expensive, though they claim here that the cost would be something in favor of the route by Jacksonville. Some here claim that the present route included a fine body of timber, I suppose in the limits of the land grant, and this was as valuable to the company as the $40,000 subsidy asked of Jacksonville. But this is hearsay, the road is built, and Jacksonville is out in the cold with only a tolerably good courthouse to compensate for its other losses. This is their anchor to windward, and they pin their hopes to it, thinking it will be many a day before Jackson County will feel able to throw this away and build another.
    There is still some mining country left that may prove good pay. It is only eight miles over the ridge west to the Sterling mine, where the Ankenys are interested. Henry Ankeny was at the meeting today, and seems to have made his permanent home here. Strange to say that while millions of gold have been washed from the gravel, no pay quartz has been discovered, save in pockets here and there. No mother ledge has been found, and there is always a chance that some such discovery may create permanent wealth and restore prosperity, like the old times they speak so proudly of. Here I met many old friends, among them Col. John E. Ross, once so strong in matters of peace and war, business and politics. The colonel looks well, but is growing old.
    Here was J. N. T. Miller, who was active in politics once but who has been succeeded by his son Robert, who is a member of the House, and is active in all home affairs. For instance, he is president of the Fruit Growers' Association and shows a commendable interest in all such matters. I met also Mr. Beeson, who showed eighteen kinds of apples, and is quite a fruit grower. One of the standbys of this region is Judge P. P. Prim, so long on the supreme bench. He lives in Jacksonville and much resembles Marius of old, who gazed, you know, on Carthage in ruins. Wm. Klippel [Henry Klippel?] is also of this place, and a pleasanter man one seldom meets. Plymale is waiting for Jacksonville to go Republican, and has some satisfaction in seeing Democratic majorities reduced. He may live to see the millennium if these foothills shall ever be cut up into small farms Some way, these men who run small fruit farms are generally Republican in faith. B. F. Miller of Rock Point, of Gold Hill now, was there, full of fruit-growing. These were all old-timers, and as old-timers are melting away so fast it seems only just for one who was with them in the long ago to wish them "hail and farewell." Among the active fruit men of our day is J. H. Settlemier of Woodburn nursery, who is practically an orchardist also. He responded to a suggestion that some thorough fruit man should assort and arrange the present exhibit when sent down to the Mechanics' Fair this week by offering to do this much for them. They are fortunate in securing his services, as he thoroughly knows the range of fruits and having been present can do the work well.
    Saturday morning we drove to Ish's grove, about two miles from Jacksonville and three from Medford, and found there assembled a crowd of moderate proportions, most of them engaged in displaying their fruits. The place was formerly located as a claim by Overbeck, and was bought by Mr. Ish, now deceased. His widow lives there, and the home lot is part of a beautiful, high prairie covered with grand oaks the Druids might have loved, if capable of so common a passion as human sympathy and affection.
    Druidical oaks they certainly were, and nowhere else in Southern Oregon did we meet with their equals. One feature that pleased was the presence of the red-barked evergreen laurel. There were grand oaks and laurels fully as grand and graceful too. These mingled their shadows and threw the same over the table spread with nature's prodigal gifts. There were squashes and pumpkins of immense size. Through the vegetable world the exhibit came gradually to the proper realm of horticulture, and the long table groaned with fruits; a great abundance was manifest in the line of apples especially. There were pears, too, but the time of the Bartletts is past [i.e., they were out of season]. Southern Oregon claims to be the natural home of the pear, and to produce them in uncommon excellence. The display is to go down to the fair of the Mechanics' Institute at Portland, and the world of Oregon can see it and give this region due credit. One cannot enumerate all that was to be seen in such an effort as this but can generalize to advantage. The display was good of apples and pears and some superb varieties of late peaches. The choicest fruits in this last line were past and gone, and many lamented because the exhibit was held too late to do justice to the best fruits of this valley. However, there were peaches that they said weighed a pound, late and of the clingstone variety. Those will also go below. To sum up the display, there were fruits covering a table one hundred feet long, and all things shown there would be a credit to any country on the globe.
    This being the first occasion of the kind, they claim [it] was not all it should be, and the attendance will be larger another year. Certainly they may call out more people and products, but I doubt if in either respect the display will be better if it continues for a generation. For a beginning it is a success, and no doubt it will grow and improve and become an agricultural society of excellent character and proportions. Some facts that come to my attention are valuable. Mr. Gore, who has a farm three miles south of Medford, says he planted apples and peaches in 1860 that have kept in bearing almost constantly. The peaches have borne for twenty-four years with only two occasions that approached failure, while the apples have borne every year, with no failure in any respect.
    Critical judges say that the apples of Southern Oregon are smoother and more perfect than those of the Willamette, but are not quite so large in size. In flavor the difference is probably in favor of the Willamette. For keeping qualities the southern apples are best.
    They claim great excellence for pears, but if they have finer pears than grow in the northern valley they are welcome to them. They have the codling moth and are not pleased with its acquaintance and attentions. When the legislature meets the representatives of all counties south will be ready to sustain a bill for the purpose of preventing and destroying these pests. Something of the kind is necessary and must sometime become [omission].
    After the tables were spread with the product of orchards and gardens the good people present went to their carriages and drew forth the lunch baskets, and bountiful supplies were laid out and everyone was included in the general hospitality. I shared in the joint hospitality of Mr. Prim and Mr. J. N. T. Miller, and the "jovial" party gathered around their spread had certainly an abundant feast. There is something appetizing in an al fresco feast like this that does not come in the ordinary course of a dinner service. This abundant feast was flavored with sundry bottles of Miller's wine that greatly assisted the digestion and did not hinder the hilarity.
    When the dinner, or lunch, was cleared away the crowd gathered where seats and a rostrum were prepared and listened to a speech from James O'Meara, the orator of the day. He formerly lived in Jacksonville, and met many old friends there. Several brief addresses followed, and the occasion ended with a general feeling of satisfaction at the success achieved. It will no doubt prove the beginning of a county society. Rogue River Valley will be the leading fruit-growing section of Oregon, and its fruit-growers should work together to make that interest successful. They must study it from their own standpoint, and be advised by their own experience and success. There is a great future before this people in connection with horticulture, and they should do all in their power to foster and properly encourage it.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, October 2, 1888, page 6

Jackson County Should Have One--What Its Advantages Would Be.
    The time has now come when the further development of the fruit interests of this section make it imperative that the fruit growers unite in an organization for their benefit.
    There are at least half a dozen reasons why a fruit growers' union would be a help to the fruit industry of this valley. The chief advantage would be in securing better prices for the fruit. The local middle men could be eliminated and the profits that they make could be retained by the growers, for they could, through an association, dispose of their fruit direct in the leading markets of the world. An association by handling fruit in big lots can always be sure of commanding the top price in the market, and has the further important advantage of being able to keep the fruit out of a glutted market, where prices are demoralized.
    To establish a name for our fruit, that will be known and recognized in the markets of the world, is the work for an association. Hood River strawberries are known from Portland to Chicago, and a box of berries having "Hood River" upon it needs no further recommendation to consumers in all the vast territory where that berry is sold. Southern Oregon fruit cannot be excelled by that of any other section of the United States, and if it was marketed under some special name it would not be long until consumers would recognize the name as a synonym for first quality, as they now do "Hood River" for Oregon strawberries, or "Watsonville" for California apples.
    While advertising the name of Southern Oregon fruit in the markets of the world is an important work for an association, the maintaining of that name is a matter of still more importance and that can only be done through the united efforts of all who are interested in the success of our fruit industry. Already there has been improperly packed and short-weight boxes of fruit shipped from this section, and if there is much of that kind of work it will not be long until our fruit will be given such a bad reputation that its sale will be seriously injured at home and abroad. One dishonest shipper can do an almost irreparable damage to the fruit interests of a place. Only by a thorough organization by the fruit men can they protect themselves from the injury caused by dishonest packers and shippers, for what is everybody's business is nobody's business, and that applies quite as much in the fruit business as in other activities.
    While Southern Oregon is as yet quite free from fruit tree pests, the time is coming, if stringent preventatives are not employed, when these pests will swarm over the valley, as they have in other places, and bring to an end the most profitable industry that this country possesses. There are indolent farmers in each locality who allow their orchards to be infested with all manner of noxious insects, while the towns eventually become veritable nurseries for the propagation of every kind of a pest that torments the fruit man. No one grower can enforce the state fruit pest law, and only through the efforts of a powerful association can the indolent farmer and the negligent town man be made to keep their fruit trees from sending forth a myriad of insects each season to prey upon the surrounding orchards.
    In the matter of freight rates an association would have a decided advantage over an individual. The railroad companies in quoting rates to distant markets would give far greater concessions to an association having hundreds of carloads to ship than to an individual having but two or three carloads to handle. In providing better shipping facilities an association would be of great benefit to the fruitmen, for it could provide ample warehouses at each of the stations from which fruit is shipped. In buying boxes and fruit paper the association, by buying in large quantities, could save quite a margin over that paid by individual buyers.
    Hood River, Oregon has one of the most successful fruit growers' organizations on this coast. Of the work of this union, Hon. H. L. Smith, president of the Oregon State Board of Horticulture, has the following to say in an interview given in the Portland Telegram: "We sell our fruit through our association, which has been in existence ten years, and we find that it is the best means of disposing of it.
    "Individuals can do nothing in these days of organization, and the purchasers will hardly condescend to talk to the grower who tries alone to sell his produce.
    "The association guards against a glut in any portion of its market and thus distributes the fruit in accordance with the demand. The price, so far, has been fair this season, and leaves a fair margin for the grower. Our berries are all sold at the depot, and so we take no chances of decay or a falling market. The association method is the only proper means of fruit disposal. We have found that out by ten years' experience, and we would not go back to the individual, haphazard method again."
    This union buys the fruit of each grower, paying for it as fast as delivered at their warehouse in Hood River the regular market price, and then at the close of the year whatever profit has been made is divided among the members in proportion to the amount of fruit delivered to the union. This method of dividing the profits precludes the possibility of a few getting control of the stock of the union and absorbing all of the profits. When marketing fruit the union has a man in the East, who keeps in close touch with the market and routes the cars, in transit, to the city where prices are highest. But if a sudden glut should happen in the market of any city to which a car is being sent, this manager promptly changes the destination of the car to someplace where there is a firm market, thus avoiding a forced sale at a losing price. Such a system as this would enable the growers of Southern Oregon fruit to secure better prices than they now realize with each grower handling his own fruit.
Medford Mail, June 20, 1902, page 1

Mr. Olwell Discusses the Fruit-Growers' Union.
    John D. Olwell, one of the owners of the famous Olwell orchard, four miles north of Medford, and which by the way is one of the largest apple orchards on the Pacific Coast, and for that matter in the United States, was in this city Tuesday. Speaking of the proposed fruit-growers' union, which is being talked of by the fruit men of this valley, Mr. Olwell stated to a representative of the Mail that he thought that in the matter of marketing fruit a union would be of little assistance to the growers who have from ten to forty, or more, carloads of fruit to ship, but to those having small quantities, and who are compelled to sell to local buyers, a union would be an advantage to them. Especially so would a union be to peach and berry growers, who usually have small quantities to market, and whose fruit is of a perishable nature and has to be rushed to a market. To such persons a union would enable them to secure better prices, through pooling their crop and reaching a distant market, but to the apple growers, at least those who have large quantities, a union would not be of much advantage, for their crop is not perishable at once, but can be held for months until it is convenient to ship.
    In other ways Mr. Olwell thought a union would be of considerable benefit to all the fruit men of the valley. The present laws for the suppression of fruit pests he considered inadequate, and it would require a united effort by all the fruit men to get the legislature to make the necessary changes to the law. A union could do much toward enforcing the present fruit pest laws, and thus prevent careless farmers and town residents from allowing their fruit trees to become a nursery for the propagation of pests that would swarm out and overrun the orchards of those who try to keep their trees clean and healthy. Mr. Olwell wished it distinctly understood that he was not opposed to the fruit men getting together for their mutual interests, or that he even desired to discourage the effort to organize a union. On the contrary he was willing and anxious to do all that he could to push the fruit business of Jackson County, and to make it possible for the growers to maintain the high quality and splendid reputation that their fruit now has, and also secure to them the best prices that the markets of the world can afford.
Medford Mail, June 27, 1902, page 2

Its Organization Now a Certainty. Fruitgrowers Pledge Their Hearty Support.
Board of Trade Will Help. Date of Meeting, About August 16th.
Some Pertinent Facts Concerning the Union.

    When the Mail took up the question of bringing about the organization of the fruit growers of Rogue River Valley, it was with some misgivings as to the success of the undertaking, for previous efforts had been made by some of the fruit men to organize a union among themselves, but through lack of a thorough understanding of the objects and aims of the society, and a fear that it would end in a disastrous failure, as has been the fate of similar organizations in several of the fruit districts of this coast, nothing was accomplished and the matter was dropped by those interested in it. But now there is every assurance that a strong union of the fruit men of this valley can be effected, and that it will be organized on a basis that will ensure its permanence. The work that the Mail has done in showing the imperative need and the manifold advantages of a fruit growers' union has met with the hearty approval of both the fruit men and the business men of this valley, and they are actively cooperating in promoting the establishment of the Rogue River Valley Fruit Growers' Union.
    It has been suggested that it would be better to have a union for each locality in the Rogue River Valley, lest one organization for the whole valley should be unwieldy and unable to cope with the local interests that would tend to disintegrate it. Small local unions, from their lack of strength, would be of no advantages whatever to the fruit men, and, if organized, their ultimate failure would be certain to come, thus doing a lasting injury to the development of the fruit interests of Jackson County. The local interests are not so diverse as to cause any friction in an organization that would embrace all the fruit men of the county. And there is no part of the work pertaining to a union but what could be better carried on by a big organization than by a little one.
    The rock that has wrecked many fruit growers' unions, and which has brought disaster to the first year's life of many that weathered the storm, was attempting to do too much at the start, before the union got into good working order and got men at the head of it of proved ability and capacity. The successful unions on this coast are the ones that went slow and only took up such features of their work as they could readily handle in their weak and inexperienced condition. The one thing that a newly organized union should let alone is that of attempting to market their fruit. In the first year many of the members are of a doubtful, critical mind, and the least mistake or failure is sure to arouse their bitter condemnation. The other equally dangerous factor is that a union may not be able to start off with just the right man at the head of it. When a union undertakes to conduct a sales department, it is assuming great responsibilities, and that department, to be a success, must be in the hands of trained business men. After a union has got into good working order, and its heads of departments have proved that they are fully competent to fill their positions, then may the marketing of their fruit be undertaken with success as an assured fact.
    There are activities in plenty to fully employ the time and the resources of a fruit growers' union during the period in which it is getting into shape to undertake the principal work for which it was organized. To enforce the law against the fruit pests and to prevent unscrupulous persons from injuring the reputation that Rogue River fruit has in the markets of the world are the two most important matters that will require the immediate attention of the Rogue River valley union. For if the pests are permitted to increase by the countless myriads that they are now doing in the uncared-for orchards in this valley and in the neglected trees in Medford and the other valley towns, it will not be long until fruit raising in Jackson County will cease as an industry, and the boasted Rogue River apples will disintegrate into the knotty, worm-eaten apologies that are grown in the Willamette Valley. And it must be borne in mind that a few dishonest pickers and shippers can undo all the good work done by the growers in the valley by making the name Rogue River, when on a box of fruit, a guarantee that it is strictly first class. The law cannot be made to reach such unscrupulous persons, but the growers, by a united effort, can soon put an end to careless or fraudulent packing, short-weight boxes, and falsely labeled fruit as to quality. To secure monthly reports as to the condition of fruit crops throughout the United States, and to keep its members posted as to the probable changes in prices, is another work that the association can take up immediately on its organization. In the matter of boxes and fruit paper, the association can be of much benefit to its members, for the union could secure lower prices and more prompt delivery than could a private individual. But the marking of the fruit had better be let alone until acquired experience makes the venture a safe one. To handle the $300,000 worth of fruit grown in Jackson County is an undertaking of such magnitude that no newly organized union should take hold of it.
    A fruit growers' union can be of very great advantage to its members in an educational and social way. The union should meet once a month, all day, afternoon or evening, as the convenience of the members permitted, and the meetings should not be all in one place, but in the different localities of the territory covered by the association. Papers could be read and discussion had on the various topics of interest to fruit raisers, and to give added interest to the meetings, the members could bring samples of their fruit and have a small fruit fair and tree exhibit, a feature that could be made highly instructive. One of the chief causes for so many country people, especially the young folks, moving to town, is the lack of social advantages in the rural districts. A fruit growers' union could, in a considerable measure, supply this want. The meetings could be given a social cast, and become a place where people could get acquainted with each other, and where neighbors could renew friendships, and all be given something to think and talk about for the coming month, besides the weather and the shortcomings of neighbors. And a dinner, such as the good mothers of the farms know how to prepare, would stimulate mightily this fellowship, so often wanting in farm communities.
    The business men of Medford have taken a deep interest in the proposed union of the fruit growers, and through their board of trade will render all the assistance possible to the fruit men in getting their organization perfected. The board of trade will provide a suitable hall in which to hold the meeting, and arrange, in conjunction with the fruit men, a suitable program for the day. The board will invite prominent horticulturists, and others who are interested in the development of the Oregon fruit industry, to be present and take part in the meeting, that our fruit men may have the benefit of their advice and experience. Among those to be invited will be Hon. E. L. Smith, of Hood River, and president of the Oregon State Horticultural Society. Mr. Smith is one of the leading fruit growers of Hood River and is one of the prominent members in the famous Hood River Fruit Growers' Association, which is one of the most successful on this coast. Among others to be invited will be Prof. Lake and Prof. Cordley, of the State Agricultural College, at Corvallis; Henry E. Dosch, of Portland, and a leading fruit grower of Oregon; Col. R. C. Judson, industrial agent for the O.R.&N. Co.; W. E. Coman, general passenger agent for the S.P. Co.'s lines in Oregon, and H. E. Lounsberry, traveling freight agent for the same company. Other men prominent in the fruit and the transportation business in Oregon will also be invited to attend and discuss, with the local fruit men, the various phases of the fruit industry of this part of the state.
    From the interest taken by the fruit men throughout Jackson County, the Mail is able to state that there is every assurance that there will be a big attendance at the meeting, for the fruit growers now realize that the time has come when vigorous action is required, both to preserve their industry from deteriorating influences, and to put it on a firm basis for future prosperity. As to the time for holding the meeting it is thought that about Saturday, August 16th, would be a convenient date. That date will allow ample time in which to arrange the program and to correspond with the prominent men who will be asked to take part in the meeting. The middle of August is a comparatively slack season with the farmers and there will be no hindrance, by reason of a rush of work, to their attending. There being moonlight on that date, farmers at a distance will be able to drive in and attend the evening session.
Medford Mail, July 4, 1902, page 1

The Following Circular of Advice Regarding a Number of Features Pertinent to the Horticultural Industry Covers the Outlook Up to Date, as Reported from Headquarters of the Rogue River Fruit and Produce Association.

To Stockholders and Friends:
    Do you realize that it is only four weeks until we commence to ship peaches, and a little later, pears, and that your Manager and his assistants have worlds of work?
    Are you ready and will you do your part to the end that this first season of your Association will be a success? To accomplish this certain things are necessary, all of which are your concern as well an my own.
    Get busy with your neighbors and friends and if they are not with us, see that they become members, no matter whether their orchards are in bearing or not. Lately I have met one good soul, who on my soliciting him to be one of us, remarked--show me that you are successful, and I will then join. If everybody was like this chap, you never would have an Assn., and, speaking personally--after we are successful, I never would ask him to join, nor thank him for his support. At this time I am ready to take off my hat to any who have joined, or will join before shipping commences.
Give Us Your Produce to Handle.
    We have our fixed expenses that we cannot avert, but with a very small additional expense we can double and treble our output if we have the goods to handle; knowing this, it is the duty of every producer in our territory to cooperate with the Association at least until you prove it a failure.
    The value of our products going through one shipping source permits judicious distribution, while if each grower ships independent and not knowing the market his neighbor uses, one can readily see how some markets can be overstocked while other markets are bare of Rogue River products.
Benefits of the Association.
    Your Association is a failure if by cooperation it cannot get $.15 to $.25 per box more for your apples and pears that in past years, market conditions being taken into consideration. By purchasing your supplies in large lots, lower prices can be obtained. When in need of help we want to help you. Work hard to improve your pack and instead of being well down to the bottom of the list as packers, be at the very top.
Respond Promptly.
    If you receive a communication from this office and it calls for a reply, get busy on it at once--no matter whether it is for a remittance, crop estimate, or a notice of any kind. Please do not lag on this matter.
Fruit Packers.
    It has been deemed advisable that all who pack fruit this season should have a number, which will be stamped on each box as finished, and to get these numbers, each packer should call at this office for registration. Notify all your packers to do this, as this plan will not interfere with you retaining such packers as you desire. If packers will notify us when through at a certain place and our growers will notify us when more packers are needed, we hope to be of service to all parties concerned.
Orchard Labor.
    We intend to list all applicants for work who apply here, and when in need of help call us up and we may have such as you need. If a party asks for work and you do not need him, send him to us.
Orchard Supplies.
    We have closed contracts for shook, nails, paper, labels, etc., and whether it is because the general markets are lower or because we are in a position to buy in large lots, we find we will save you to 10 percent over last year's prices.
    When you know what supplies you will need and we have them to deliver, come in and get them, and you are then sure your crop will not suffer on this account. If you lag on this matter and you cannot get everything you want, do not complain.
    Come in and get better acquainted with us.
Ashland Tidings, June 20, 1910, page 8

    Know all men by these presents, that we, the undersigned, C. H. Gillette, Ashland, Oregon; G. A. Hover, Phoenix; W. A. Sumner, Medford; G. A. Hamilton, Grants Pass, and H. E. Gale, Merlin, do hereby associate ourselves as a corporation under the general incorporation laws of the state of Oregon, and we do hereby adopt the following articles of incorporation:
Article I.
    The name of this corporation shall be the Rogue River Fruit & Produce Association.
Article II.
    The objects and purposes of the Rogue River Fruit & Produce Association shall be:
    1. To pick, grade, pack and to buy and sell, direct or on commission, fresh and prepared fruits, and other farm products of all kinds.
    2. To buy, sell and deal in fruit and other farm products, packing material, orchard supplies, spraying material and machinery.
    3. To buy, rent, lease, acquire and improve such real estate as may be required in the business of this corporation.
    4. To buy, rent, lease, build, acquire and operate packing houses, warehouses, offices, and other buildings, railroad tracks and wagon roads, and to lease or sell the same.
    5. To buy, rent, lease, acquire, build and operate pre-cooling plants, ice factories, cold-storage plants, dryers, canneries and by-products factories, and to lease or sell the same.
    6. To manufacture and sell ice and distilled water, spray materials, boxes and all kinds of fruit and produce supplies.
    7. To fix such charges, tolls and commissions on sales and operative work in the business of the association as may be required to meet the expenses and other financial needs of the association.
    8. To borrow money on bonds, notes or otherwise, and to mortgage or pledge any or all of this corporation's property, real or personal, to secure the same.
    9. To make and execute contracts in furtherance of the business of this corporation.
    10. To do and perform generally any and everything necessary, proper or convenient to carry into effect the objects and purposes above stated.
Article III.
    The duration of. this corporation shall be perpetual.
Article IV.
    The principal place of business of this corporation shall be at the city of Medford, Oregon.
Article V.
    Section 1. The capital stock of this corporation shall be $50,000.
    Section 2. The capital stock shall be divided into 5,000 shares of the par value of ten dollars each.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals, and to two others of like tenor and date, this 16th day of February, A.D. 1910. (Signed)
(Seal) C. H. Gillette,
(Seal) G. A. Hover,
(Seal) W. A. Sumner,
(Seal) Geo. A. Hamilton,
(Seal) H. E. Gale.
State of Oregon, Jackson County, ss.:
    This is to certify that on this 16th day of February, 1910, before me, the undersigned, a notary public in and for said county and state, personally appeared the within named G. A. Hover, W. A. Sumner, G. A. Hamilton and H. E. Gale, to me known to be the identical persons described in and who executed the foregoing articles of incorporation, and acknowledged to me that they executed the same freely and voluntarily, for the uses and purposes therein mentioned.
    In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed by notarial seal, the day and year last above written.
(Signed) Holbrook Withington,
    Notary Public for Oregon.
State of Oregon, Jackson County, ss.:
    This is to certify that on this 21st day of February, 1910, before me, the undersigned, a notary public in and for said county and state, personally appeared the within named C. H. Gillette, to me known to be the identical person described in and who executed the foregoing articles of incorporation, and acknowledged to me that he executed the same freely and voluntarily, for the uses and purposes therein mentioned.
    In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my notarial seal the day and year last above mentioned.
(Signed ) R. P. Campbell,
    Notary Public for Oregon.
    My commission expires September 11, 1911.
Article I.--Directors and Officers.
    Section 1. The board of directors shall consist of fifteen stockholders, who shall be elected at the first meeting of stockholders, and at each annual meeting thereafter, and who shall hold office for one year, and until their successors are elected and qualified.
    Section 2. The officers of the corporation shall consist of a president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer and an auditing committee of three members. These officers shall be elected by the board of directors, from among their number, and shall hold office at the pleasure of and for such time as may be fixed by the board.
    Section 3. Vacancies in any office, however occurring, shall be filled by a majority vote of the board of directors, and any stockholder elected to fill a vacancy in the board of directors shall hold office for the unexpired term.
    Section 4. A bank or banks may be designated as treasurer or custodian of the funds of this corporation.
    Section 5. The treasurer shall give bonds in such amounts as the board may require, unless a bank shall be chosen as treasurer, in which event no bonds shall be required.
    Section 6. No director of this corporation shall be allowed to hold any other office or position in the employ of the Rogue River Fruit & Produce Association other than president, vice-president, auditing committeeman, secretary or treasurer; nor shall the manager hold any other office or position with this corporation other than that of manager.
    Section 7. No officer or director of this corporation shall hold any office or position in the employ of any other fruitgrowers' association, or other similar organization engaged in the same line of business as this corporation, provided that this section shall not apply to the officers of any such organization now existing in the Rogue River Valley.
    Section 8. No person shall be eligible to hold office as an officer or director of this corporation who shall be directly or indirectly engaged in or a representative of any fruit or produce commission business, and any officer or director engaging in such business or accepting such position shall thereby become disqualified as such officer or director, and the board of directors shall thereupon declare his office vacant.
Article II.--Salaries.
    Section 1. The directors of this corporation shall be paid a compensation of $2.50 for every day or part of a day that each is in attendance at a meeting of the board of directors, and they shall each be paid a further remuneration of six cents per mile for the distance one way by the usual and most direct route of travel from their respective places of residence to the place of meeting of the board of directors.
    Section 2. No officer or director of this corporation shall share in any profits or commissions earned by this corporation other than regular dividends which may be declared for the benefit of all stockholders.
Article III.--Duties of Officers.
    Section 1. The board of directors shall have full and exclusive control of all business transactions of the Rogue River Fruit & Produce Association, not otherwise specified in these by-laws, and they shall also have full power to fix the duties of all other officers and employees of this corporation.
    Section 2. The auditing committee shall have all books and accounts of the Rogue River Fruit & Produce Association audited once each three months, employing expert accountants to do the work, if they see fit, or are so ordered by the board of directors.
Article IV.--Penalties.
    Section 1. Any director who is absent from two successive regular meetings of the board of directors shall be considered to have resigned and to have forfeited his office, unless at the next regular meeting of the board of directors he shall present an excuse for such absence satisfactory to the board. The secretary shall state in the minutes of the meeting the action of the board, and the secretary shall also keep a roll of attendance at each regular and special meeting, noting the directors present and those absent. He shall, when he notes the absence of a director from two successive regular meetings of the board, report the same to the board of directors, and the board at their next regular meeting shall take action, the secretary notifying such delinquent director of the proposed action.
Article V.--Meetings.
    Section 1. The annual meeting of the stockholders of this corporation shall be held on the second Tuesday in February of each year, and special meetings of the stockholders may be called by the president, vice-president, or by a majority of the directors or by the stockholders holding at least one-third of the subscribed capital stock of this corporation.
    Section 2. Notice of the annual meeting and of all special meetings shall be given by the president or secretary of the corporation at least thirty days prior to the date of such meeting, which notice shall state the time and place of such meeting, and shall be published in three newspapers in Rogue River Valley--one in Ashland, one in Medford and one in Grants Pass--once each week for four successive weeks prior to such meeting.
    Section 3. At all meetings of stockholders a majority of the subscribed capital stock shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at such meeting, and every decision of the majority of the stock represented at such meeting, either by stockholders in person or by written proxy, shall be valid as an act of such meeting, with the exception of the amendments of these by-laws.
    Section 4. At the annual meeting of the stockholders the following order of business shall be followed:
    1. Reading of the annual report of the manager and action on same.
    2. Action upon proposed amendments of the by-laws.
    3. Election of directors.
    4. Any other lawful business.
    And all proceedings at all stockholders' meetings shall be governed by Cushing's Manual, unless otherwise provided by these by-laws.
    Section 5. Regular meetings of the board of directors shall be held on the second Tuesday in each month, and special meetings may be called at any time by the president or vice-president upon two days' notice, either verbal or written, being given to each director by the secretary. Five directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of all business at all meetings of the board.
Article VI.--Grades of Fruit.
    Section 1. Three grades of apples are established as the standards for this association, namely, "extra fancy," "fancy" and "choice." Apples in boxes marked "extra fancy" shall be sound, smooth, practically free from bruises, worms, worm stings or disease, and have proper shape for the variety, fully matured. Red varieties shall be 95 percent, or higher, red. The "fancy" grade shall consist of apples sound, smooth, practically free from bruises, worms, worm stings or disease, and have reasonably proper shape for the variety, fully matured. All red varieties in this grade shall be at least 50 percent red, except Spitzenberg, Winesap, Jonathan and Arkansas Black, which shall be at least 70 percent red. The "choice" grade shall consist of apples sound, free from any breaks in the skin or black bruises, also free from worms or any disease which injures the quality of the apple.
    Section 2. The first board of directors, in conjunction with the managers, are hereby authorized and empowered to establish permanent grades on fruit and produce other than apples, as above provided, such grades, when so established, to be permanent unless changed by a majority vote of the stockholders at any regular meeting or at a special meeting called for that purpose.
    Section 3. The manager of the association shall be ex-officio inspector of fruit, with power to enforce conformity to the established grades, and he shall have power to appoint deputies to assist in such work. Any appeal from his decision shall be taken to the board of directors in such manner as the board shall prescribe.
Article VII.--Marketing Products.
    The members of this association shall be permitted to market their products by sale or consignment, either direct or through the association; provided that if any portion of the products of a member be marketed through the association, the association shall be entitled to collect from said member a commission upon the proceeds of all the product of such member of the same kind or class as that marketed through the association, however the remaining portion of such product be marketed. In applying this by-law each season's products shall be considered separately.
Article VIII.--Amendments.
    These by-laws may be amended at any annual meeting of the stockholders, or at any special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose, by affirmative vote of the majority of the subscribed capital stock, but no amendment shall be made at any special meeting unless the article and section to be amended, or the proposed amendment, be set forth in the notice of such meeting.
Better Fruit, August 1910, pages 45-48.  These articles were also printed in the August 1911 issue, pages 26-27.


    After a number of preliminary moves in forming the association, the committee on organization was named. It had on it fifteen representative men from all sections of the valley, from Ashland to Merlin, sixty-five miles. It called for a new conception of organized effort, and the result is something midway between a one-town association and the California Fruit Exchange. One small union was superseded and two associations were absorbed, making not an exchange, but one large association, with twelve shipping stations, five houses for storage and packing, one manager over all, all business going through a central office. The packers are being registered, organized and instructed, all material for the orchard and the packing house being purchased by one man and all information is gathered at the central office. All inquiries for Rogue River fruit comes here, everything is billed from here and all money comes here.
    The value of cooperation to a large section is evident, especially where the fruit is nearly uniform. Besides the difference in supplies of every description, the organization of packers and help of all kinds, it makes the actual handling of the fruit easier and cheaper. In shipping, the expense to the shipper, large or small, is much reduced; and this, if for no other reason than that expert help is provided. It is the case of the specialist being employed. With a definite standard of excellence in the pack to be reached, with schools in the instruction of packing of various kinds of fruit, with semi-supervision at the grower's packing house, and rigid inspection of all fruit before shipped, a pack is attainable that will at least be nearly uniform and will give some standing in any market, year after year.
    Crowning this is to come something like a scientific distribution of the fruit, intelligent marketing. This means to sell the fruit to the people that really want it, and only becomes possible where a large amount of fruit is at the command of the distributing organization. It is one thing to make soap; it is altogether a different thing to sell soap. It is one thing to raise fruit, and quite another thing to sell it. There is no necessary vital connection between the two things. One requires a certain scientific common sense and physical labor; the other requires a broad intelligence concerning the needs and wants of the population of many cities and towns, and the ability to gauge their wants as a whole, and to attempt with real salesmanship to supply these wants.
    There is a suspicion in many minds that cooperative associations are pure philanthropy, with enough business in them to save them from the Sunday school class. This suspicion exists because of the inability to see the business end of the organization, the cooperative sentiment necessary for the formation of such an organization being so in evidence that many do not see past it. But cooperative buying and selling is pure business, and if it is not financially successful, does not obtain better prices, create better conditions, it is not a success, and no amount of sentiment will hold it together. Education in cooperation comes only through experience and demonstration. One successful association is worth years of talk.
    The ground has not all been covered by any means; there are many ideas unworked, others not worked out. Every new association opens new possibilities in cooperation, suggests different solutions to its problems.
    The year 1910 will probably see the largest crop of fruit that has ever been raised in this valley; it is estimated at a thousand cars, and the association will ship about 95 percent of it. To be able to bring this fruit to the rolling stage, to have a pack that is something near uniform, that is satisfactory on the whole to market and grower--good at both ends of the line--to satisfy the constituency that grows the fruit and the market that buys it, is no small undertaking in a territory as large as this. But, unless this is done more or less successfully the fruit business cannot maintain its high level here. Future investors will look twice at the finest land if they are not assured of intelligent marketing of their fruit; but where it reaches a more or less certain market, and is handled satisfactorily from the blossom to the table, and yields something--a fair return for the intelligence and labor expended--it can be said to be the finest of the producing occupations.
    Some day we shall have our own pre-cooling plant; another day, when we are producing and selling 5,000 instead of 1,000 cars, we shall have our own marketing machinery and our own agents in all the markets where our fruit is consumed. In the meantime, we content ourselves with the machinery that already exists for marketing.
    There will be this year no competition between Rogue River pears in any market, for our distributing agent is the Stewart Fruit Company, and they will handle them all.
    The success of the association so far is due to the time and effort given willingly by a number of men, among them some of our large orchardists, and others who have gladly made whatever sacrifices that were necessary in order to make the association a real and working force. With such a beginning, all that is needed now is the cooperation of the fruit growers with their fruit to ship. All cooperative institutions are difficult of management because of certain kinks in human nature; but no situation is impossible. The cooperative marketing idea is growing and the time is not far distant when the Pacific Northwest fruit exchange will be here, taking in every section and its associations, and doing business to the satisfaction of all.
    (Editor's Note--The manager, Mr. C. W. Wilmeroth, has been an apple man for many years, not only well known to the trade, but an acknowledged past master in all that pertains to apples and their distribution.)
Better Fruit, August 1910, pages 72-75

A New Fruit Association
What It Is Doing for the Orchardmen
    In the early development of the fruit growing industry in the Northwest, the marketing problem has been a comparatively easy one. Fabulous incomes have been realized on a small acreage. The influx of men and capital to develop the industry has resulted in a very extensive increase of planted acreage.
    In California, Georgia, Florida and elsewhere the producers of fruit did not awake to the seriousness of their problems until increased production, coupled with undeveloped markets and unscientific marketing methods, brought them face to face with actual loss on their crops and depreciation of property values.
Production to Increase.
    Production in the Northwest will increase by leaps and bounds each year ahead of us. Every far-sighted producer has realized that adequate marketing facilities must be provided to keep pace with, in fact anticipating, this increase. Otherwise, history will again repeat itself in loss and demoralization.
    Instead of awaiting the cry of "overproduction," "overstocked markets," etc., a large number of prominent and successful fruit growers have decided to profit by the experience of their friends in California and elsewhere, and the Northwestern Fruit Exchange has been organized.
    With an intimate knowledge of the difficulties, the experiments, failures and the final success of the California Fruit Growers' Exchange and similar organizations in other parts of the country, it has been possible to launch this organization of the northwestern fruit growers, placing it at once on a sound, practical business basis.
Representatives Secured Abroad.
    The Northwestern Fruit Exchange has been organized for the purpose of uniting the interests of the whole fruit producing Northwest; to adopt a system of marketing the northwestern fruit throughout the markets of the United States and Canada; to establish and maintain direct representation in the markets of Europe, and to develop a demand and establish direct connections in the Orient, Hawaii, the Philippines, Japan, China, Russia and Australia.
    A most important feature of the exchange work is assisting the development of a uniform and high standard in grading and packing. It is the purpose of the exchange to have its output recognized in the markets of the world as a standard of excellence in grade, quality and packing.
These at the Head.
    The officers of the exchange are:
    President, R. H. Parsons, vice president Rogue River Fruit and Produce Association, Medford, Ore.
    First vice president, M. Horan, president North Central Washington Development League, Wenatchee, Wash.
    Second vice president, W. N. Irish, president Yakima County Horticultural Union, North Yakima, Wash.
    Secretary, C. R. Dorland, Portland, Ore.
    Treasurer and general manager, W. F. Gwin, secretary and treasurer [omission] Ore.
    Directors: R. H. Parsons, M. Horan, W. N. Irish, W. F. Gwin, Hon. Fremont Wood, judge of the third judicial district of Idaho and president of the Boise Valley Fruit Growers' Association, Boise Idaho; William M. Richards, vice president Yakima Horticultural Union, North Yakima, Wash.; A. C. Randall, president Talent Orchard Company, Talent, Ore.; H. M. Gilbert, president, Richie & Gilbert Company, Toppenish, Wash.; John S. Evans, formerly general manager Fruit Dispatch Company, New York.
    The policies of the exchange and its entire operations are governed by the board of directors. The exchange is virtually a federation of growers, managed and controlled by the leading men in the industry. The exchange is incorporated for $100,000, of which $55,000 has been subscribed, and is amply capitalized for its requirements.
Wide Distribution Necessary.
    It has been proven in the fruit business that the only way to effect a wide distribution with right results is through a branch house system under salaried men. District sales offices have already been established by the exchange in various parts of the country and this list is being steadily increased to meet the requirements of the business. In addition to these district offices a number of traveling salesmen are aggressively canvassing new territory, and the exchange has established direct trading relations with a number of buyers and markets [who were] never previously purchasers of carloads of northwestern fruit. The exchange is equipped throughout in an up-to-date manner and its various employees are thoroughly versed in their line. As far as possible the policy of the exchange is to sell everything on a basis f.o.b. shipping point and specialize in the placing of orders in advance of shipment with the fancy fruit trade in this country and abroad.
    The Northwestern Fruit Exchange, being the central selling organization of the various associations and growers' organizations of the Northwest, must depend on these organizations to perfect their methods of production, grading and packing. A proper organization at shipping point is of the most vital importance to the successful operation of the entire system.
    The exchange takes charge of the fruit from the time it is loaded into the cars and delivered to the railroad company. If not already placed on advance orders, a description of the fruit goes out by wire from the exchange to its district sales offices, who offer the fruit for sale at a given price f.o.b. shipping point. In the case of fruit which is of desirable variety, quality, etc., there is usually no difficulty under normal market conditions to readily effect a sale at a price f.o.b. In the event market conditions are such as to make a satisfactory immediate sale impossible, cars are billed to the exchange at some middle western freight gateway such as Minneapolis, Omaha or Chicago, and during the period of transit to that point the entire sales organization exercises its efforts in placing to the best advantage.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 23, 1910, page B1

    That cooperation is the basis of good business, and that the more centralized the effort the greater is the measure of success attained, is becoming more and more recognized; but to obtain this result good business principles must be the basis of organization. Organized effort may be as futile of desired results as is individual effort, and will be unless the principles of the organization are followed, and the better the understanding of those principles, together with the knowledge of the difficulties encountered, both within as well as without the organization, on the part of those who are attempting to cooperate the more is the assurance that those principles will be followed.
    To help to a better understanding of the principles of cooperation as well as to show the need for the same is the purpose of this article.
    It has long been understood that "In union there is strength"--but why? How does union promote strength? This is the day of big business. The larger the accumulation of business under one head the more cheaply it can be done, as well as being done with more efficiency, provided, always, that good methods are followed.
    In the matter of fruit producers' organizations it is believed that as many, if not more, difficulties present themselves for adjustment than in an organization for the handling of any other product. The complications arising, owing to the nature of the product handled, are much more acute. For instance, the values of the product are more varied as well as being subject to more rapid changes in quality; also subject to more rapid changes of market values than almost any other product. This being true, it is essential that provision be made to meet these varying conditions, which, of course, become the basis of organization. Let us, therefore, notice the needs of organization. Without it each grower must act as agent for himself, both in buying his supplies and in selling his product. In the buying of his supplies it has long been established that purchases on a large scale can be made much more cheaply than on a small scale: First, because it enables the large concerns from whom supplies are obtained to handle the same amount of goods much more cheaply. Thus by purchasing box material, wrapping paper, nails, spray material, etc., in carlot shipments the price of the supplies are greatly reduced. Second, because by handling in large quantities it enables them to handle a greater amount of goods with the same labor. That makes it possible, by cooperation, to purchase supplies in large quantities at reduced prices, and by dealing these out to the consumer it is possible, with a small fee to cover handling and expense charges, for him to obtain his supplies at a greatly reduced price from what he would have to pay were he purchasing direct. In the selling of his product he is still at much worse disadvantage. Again, the large concerns handling his product prefer to deal with large concerns for the same reason that the dealer in his supplies offers "big business."
    Again, the individual shipper cannot so readily obtain that information needed, both with regard to prices and the supply on the markets of that food product with which his fruit comes the most directly into competition, all of which entails much labor and expense, and is essential to successful operation. The same requirements enter into both sides of his transaction, namely, "big business."
    It is, therefore, evident that the smaller the grower the more he feels the need of organization, and a cooperative organization can only justify its existence by securing for him his supplies at the best minimum price and returning to him for his product the best possible maximum price. This is the "milk in the coconut." And to obtain this result requires the application of good business principles on the part of the operators as well as patience and forbearance on the part of the producers.
    As the purchase of supplies is a simple matter and of minor importance compared with the handling of the product this article will waste no time with that question, but will attempt to deal at some length with the question of the marketing of the product.
    Let it be remembered that every specimen of fruit going into the market does so in competition with every other specimen of the same kind of fruit, and not only so, but it goes in competition to a greater or lesser degree with every other food product.
    To regulate competition among fruits of the same kind and to overcome competition of food products of other kinds is within the realm of good business, and to obtain that price for your fruit which truly measures its relative value as compared with all products with which it comes in competition is the right measure of successful effort. This brings us to a consideration of the nature of the product handled. Let us consider especially pears and apples: First, it is of a very perishable nature, extending in its life from but a few weeks to a few months at best. All of it must be consumed or decay within one year (unlike many manufactured food products, which can be held almost indefinitely). This makes the regulation of competition very difficult. Second, it is necessarily gathered within a period of approximately eight weeks and must be dealt out to the consuming public through a period of less than ten months. Third, the quality of the fruits is varied from year to year by the varying climatic conditions under which it is produced, even on the same soil, while different soils and different climates the variations become very acute.
    Successful cooperation demands, therefore, first, that every participant be treated as every other participant in the organization; second, that provision be made for protecting the equities of the individual, that this protection should be embodied in a formula of working rules governing the action of both individual and officials, and should be accepted as the by-laws of the organization and considered by everyone as being as sacred and as inviolate as the "moral code"; third, full knowledge of all proceedings should be within easy accessibility of all participants. These should be sufficiently broad and wise in their provisions as to establish full confidence in their efficiency to obtain better results under cooperation than by individual effort because confidence is the bulwark of successful action.
    Let us now look at the proposition of marketing. From 1895 to 1900 the average annual production of apples in the United States was 51,619,000 barrels, or 154,857,000 boxes; from 1905 to 1910 the average annual production in the United States was 26,844,000 barrels, or 70,532,000 boxes. All of these apples are gathered at practically the same time, consequently must be taken care of from the time of gathering until they have gone into consumption. This necessitates the consideration of loss in decay, of interest on capital invested in products and of expense in handling and holding of products. All this must be met somewhere.
    Competition among products lowers the price of the product. To regulate the price is to first regulate the competition. This is accomplished by regulating the offerings at any one time to meet the consumptive demand for the product. But to do this necessitates the consideration of the questions of decay. Of interest on capital invested in the product, and of handling and holding expense, and in cooperation these questions must be considered as relating to the holdings of the individual in proportion as his equities are to the total product handled by the organization, and in this way only can "every participant be treated as every other participant" and "full protection be given to the equities of the individual." Otherwise it necessarily follows that some would profit by better prices than others, which is not equality, while others would suffer loss in decay, interest on capital invested and expense of handling and holding product. This also is inequality. Therefore, to accomplish the best results under cooperation it is necessary that the product handled be considered as the property of the whole organization, but here comes the difficulty of adjusting the equities of the individual to the equities of the whole. Values of fruit are governed by the relative merit of the fruit of the same variety as well as by the relative merits as to other varieties, and, as before said, the merits are so varying that it is impossible to be exact, consequently some concessions must be made in the hope that the benefits derived by cooperation on the whole will overcome any losses by reason of the concessions made. This requires careful consideration, patience and forbearance, and further requires that there be strong continuity on the part of those endeavoring to cooperate. Shattered confidence invites disintegration and strict integrity on the part of all concerned, coupled with full publicity, is the best known preventive. Every member is fully entitled to a knowledge of the proceedings because he is a part of the organization itself, and the officers are but his servants to carry out his will. Therefore, he should consider the interest of the organization as the interest of himself, and should protect, and promote, and foster the interests of the organization through the principle of self-defense.
Better Fruit, May 1911, pages 68-69

Aims, Objects and Purposes of Rogue River Produce Association
By Kirby S. Miller

(Manager of Rogue River Fruit and Produce Association)
    Like every other great business of today, the fruit business, in its development, has become quite highly differentiated. The local association is one department of this great business, and the one nearest the grower. Attempting to serve a large public, that public should know its alms and methods as clearly as possible. A mistaken idea as to the function of the association leads to [a] wrong conception of what it is trying to accomplish.
    Instead of a selling agency for the distributing and marketing of fruit, this association aims to be a part of the producing end, its definite function being the preparation of the product for the market. After a product has been manufactured, it is one thing to put it in shape for the market and quite another thing to sell it. Buyers who handle strictly fancy fruit specify definitely that they will not touch a "farmer's pack," that they will not buy unless the pack is supervised by some responsible institution. The necessity for this supervision of the pack in the Rogue River Valley is not so apparent as it will be in another year when our hitherto largest crop will be doubled in quantity.
Pack Has Varied.
    Heretofore, without any system or organization the pack of the fruit from the valley has varied [from] the very best to the very poorest; there has been no standard, no attempt at uniformity. But conditions have changed. We never hear of Sam Smith's apples from Hood River, or John Jones' apples from Wenatchee: What we hear about and what is sold to the trade is "Hood River Apples," "Wenatchee Apples"; the fruit is sold as coming from a section, not from individuals. And we are at the point where our fruit must be sold as "Rogue River Fruit."
    It is a distinct business to pack, grade, assemble, inspect, secure uniformity, and ship fruit. Special knowledge must be acquired to do this intelligently and economically, and it is seldom possible for any except the few large growers to acquire this knowledge. Organization of packers is required to pack a crop of a thousand cars, for without organization of packers, with every orchard scrambling for packers, most of the fruit would be poorly packed and some rot on the ground. Only a few know what to pack in order to pack the most fruit and still retain the grade. The fruit is different each season and must be known as a whole crop before a grade can be determined; a few poor cars can ruin the reputation of the whole valley; it means a great deal at the other end, where the money comes from, as to how the fruit is handled, the temperature it has when loaded, what assortment of grades is in the car; and all the many details in connection with packing and handling can be worked out accurately only as some organization makes a special business of it, is organized to do it and keeps at it year after year.
Do Not Market Fruit.
    The association does not attempt to market fruit for several reasons, but chiefly on account of the large expense involved if it is done properly. Selling and distributing fruit is also a business of itself and cannot be made a side issue to anything else, and it would require as much and as accurate information to market to advantage our four or eight hundred cars as it would to sell and deliver a hundred times us much. When there was one or two million boxes of fruit in the Northwest and buyers were coming each year to compete for the crop, we had a very different situation from that of 1910 when eleven million boxes were produced and a market had to be found for the largest part of it. The increase will be even greater in 1912, likely reaching fifteen million boxes. In this immense quantity the individual grower loses his identity, and it becomes a question of maintaining the identity of each section, because the world's knowledge of such matters in very limited. Doubtless prices will be somewhat less as the years pass because the consumption must be increased among people of moderate means; and this in turn will call for a decreased cost of production, more economical handling and more scientific distribution.
Selling of Fruit to Come.
    The time will come when the Rogue River Valley will maintain its own selling organization, but that time will be when the production reaches five thousand cars. In the meantime we take the cheapest effective way to distribute our fruit to all markets by employing semi-public and private companies who maintain branches in every district, who can reach every market every day, who are in close touch with all buyers and not a select few, whose men are on the spot to attend to our business every day. The uninitiated think that selling fruit is like selling iron--just sell it, deliver it and collect your money. But fruit is perishable, the market fluctuates, from one to two cars in every five are rejected or questioned after being sold and delivered, and if the seller is not represented on the spot he will fare badly. One large department of a credit agency is devoted entirely to the adjustment of such disputes, which usually hang upon whether or not the fruit is up to the grade specified.
    The point of the matter is that the seller must be represented at the other end if his business is not to suffer. When fruit is sent to auction, like the bulk of our pears, or sent to a general market, there must be someone there to receive it, look after it, put it on the auction, inspect it periodically if it is stored; whoever does this must be paid. To do such work in many markets requires organization and system, and it must be competent in every way if the business is done properly. A few traveling salesmen cannot do this; nor can they cover more than a limited territory, whereas we are raising fruit for the markets of the world. More losses result from fruit being mishandled or poorly handled than from low markets. It is essential for profit that nothing be allowed to get away from us on this account, that every car finds its place in first-class condition and at the right time. It is the association's plan to employ the most competent organizations for this part of the business, and such expert service is many times cheaper and better and in all ways safer than the haphazard, chaotic, unintelligent distribution and sales made by individual growers or commission houses. And this method will get the results. Any man or company or association promising abnormally high prices for fruit is to be shunned, for no one can do any more than guess at such things; no one can get better than the market price all the time. All the association can offer in the way of prices is the market; but with system, effort and care we should always be able to get the market price for all fruit, and this is all that should be expected. A few private customers may pay a grower more than the market for a limited quantity of fruit, but ninety-eight percent of our crops must go to the markets of the world, and our returns must be based on the demand and the way in which we meet it.
Commissions a Bar.
    It is the contention of some that this method of handling fruit puts it through too many hands and that the growers pay too many commissions. But to anyone that has examined the operations of fruit handling, it is clear that the grower has always paid more in commissions than the association method calls for, only he never knew it. By assembling large quantities of fruit, the association not only helps to regulate the supply but, on account of the volume, securing the best services at that figure that is enough lower than the individual grower can get to make the association charge for handling no outlay for him: he may pay as much but it is divided differently, and part of the charge pays for loading, inspection, supervision, collection, etc. He gets more service for the same or less money, with his business done in a safe conservative way. The association does not increase the charges to the grower.
    The general business that pertains to all shippers of fruit, the interest of the whole valley, would be looked after only by an organization. Such things as railroad rates, train service for highly perishable fruit, quality of spray material and paper, investigation of storage and keeping qualities of fruit, providing shipping facilities that are adequate, the establishing and maintaining of grades--these things with many others give growers the conditions under which fruit can be marketed to advantage, but as they are provided, apparently out of the unseen, the average grower is not apt to think of them as a result of someone's efforts.
The Association Is the Growers.
    The association was organized and is working for those who are producing fruit to sell, and the present management is attempting to put it in line with the modern fruit business in its functions and methods. It is not a foreign corporation seeking to take money out of the community, but the association is the growers, who in the organization are attempting to do their own business in what seems to them the best possible way. It is founded and working on correct lines; and if one set of men cannot carry it on successfully, another set will be found who can and will. Many things remain to be worked out and there will always be the difficulty inherent in having to secure a new crew of workmen every year; but when the tremendous amount of fruit comes into bearing, and the packing and handling of it has to be done by hundreds of inexperienced growers or by an organization somewhat fitted for it, it does not take the average man long to see the importance of an organization for this one thing alone. A profitable fruit business is dependent on proper packing, handing and selling.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 9, 1911, page 8

    This association was incorporated in April, 1910, with over half of the capital stock of $50,000 subscribed. The whole of the Rogue River Valley from Grants Pass to Ashland was interested to the extent of subscribing this capital, thus putting the association on a good financial basis. The association owes its existence to the fact that the growers saw the absolute necessity of combining their interests if the chaotic, unintelligent handling and marketing of fruit was ever to be overcome. The immense acreage about to come into bearing made organization of work and grading of fruit of prime importance. A distinctive feature of the association is the fact that the large shippers, as well as the small, are connected with it, and doing their business through it.
    During 1910 the association shipped ninety cars of pears and two hundred and twenty cars of apples, this being nearly seventy percent of the output of the valley. This season the shipments will be one hundred and eighty cars of pears out of two hundred shipped from the valley, and sixty out of seventy cars of apples, this being a short year on apples. Instead of a selling agency for the distributing and marketing of fruit, this association aims to be a part of the producing end, its definite function being the preparation of the fruit for the market, making it a distinct business to pack, grade, supervise, assemble, inspect, secure uniformity and ship the fruit. The packers of the valley are organized thoroughly, and the association assumes the responsibility for the pack, no grower being allowed to pack his own fruit. We have eliminated the "farmers' pack" entirely, and are in a position to guarantee every box of fruit shipped.
    Distributing and selling fruit cannot be made a side issue to anything. When we are large enough we shall probably have our own marketing organization, but in the meantime we employ the highest class selling agencies, with the most comprehensive facilities for covering every market, to distribute our fruit for us, having abandoned definitely the haphazard method of consigning to whatever market we happen to fancy at the moment. The Northwestern Fruit Exchange distributes our apples and Stewart Fruit Co. our pears.
    All that has been said of the Rogue River pear is true; no section approaches us either in flavor or keeping qualities. We top all markets because we have the quality. The only possible objection to Rogue River pears is that there are not enough of them, but the quantity is steadily increasing, and in a few years every city can have enough. The Rogue River Bartlett is as good in London as it is in Chicago--it will carry halfway around the world in first-class shape. The Howell, one of our specialties, is growing in favor, and we can always sell our crop many times over, as is the case with our long-keeping, honey-flavored Winter Nelis. The Bosc, of unbelievably fine flavor, is demanded in ever larger quantities. The large, smooth .Anjou, so eagerly sought, is not yet plentiful enough for everybody to have a few, and crowds our Comice, king of all pears, in price every year. Nothing equals the Comice; it is the finest fruit that ever grew on trees, and if you have not eaten one there is a gastronomic experience par excellence waiting for you. We do not get ten dollars for all of them, but every season someone thinks that much of a few cars. Our other special product is the Yellow Newtown, and while the British and New York markets take all we can produce now, the time is close when we shall have enough to introduce it to all American markets; it is "the autocrat of the breakfast table" and the best-keeping apple grown. Our Spitzenbergs, Jonathans and Ben Davis really class by themselves, and no one who has eaten them can ever forget. With such products as we raise, our growers cannot afford to put them on the market in any but first-class shape, and we expect to maintain our reputation with the best fruit and the best packing in the Northwest.--K. S. Miller, Manager.
Better Fruit, August 1911, page 45

    North Pacific Fruit Distributors.--The National Apple Show of Spokane called a conference of growers for the purpose of discussing the marketing problem on account of the unsatisfactory prices that were realized in 1912 in Spokane during the National Apple Show. The deliberations at that meeting resulted in a call for representatives from each district for a meeting, which latter meeting was held in Spokane December 16, 1912. At this meeting a board of trustees was appointed, consisting of the following nine gentlemen: W. T. Clark, Wenatchee, Washington, president; J. H. Robbins, North Yakima, Washington, vice president; H. C. Sampson, Spokane, Washington, secretary; H. F. Davidson, Hood River, Oregon, treasurer; N. C. Richards, North Yakima, Washington, general counsel; Henry Huber, Walla Walla, Washington; W. N. Sackett, Corvallis, Montana; P. J. Neff, Medford, Oregon; W. N. Yost, Meridian, Idaho, and W. S. Thornber, Lewiston, Idaho. Mr. W. T. Clark is president of the Wenatchee Fruitgrowers' Association, Mr. J. H. Robbins is manager of the Yakima Valley District Association, Mr. H. C. Sampson was manager of the 1912 Apple Show, Spokane, and Mr. H. F. Davidson is president of the Davidson Fruit Company, Hood River. The districts which these trustees represent were outlined in the January edition of Better Fruit.
    At a meeting held in North Yakima on March 31 the trustees got down to business very quickly and unanimously decided to proceed with the organization and perfection of a central selling agency with headquarters in Spokane. Mr. J. H. Robbins was elected general manager. An executive committee was elected, which included Mr. H. F. Davidson and Mr. H. C. Sampson. Mr. Sampson was elected secretary.
      Legal contracts are now being drawn, which will be sent to the different organizations in the different districts for signature. As soon as these contracts are signed and the tonnage definitely ascertained, the North Pacific Fruit Distributors will be able to state positively just what the plans will be for the coming year. Such action as they may be able to take will necessarily depend on the signed-up tonnage. One system of grading rules will be effective for all districts. The object of the agency is to eliminate all competition, create a wider distribution and greater consumption, avoid the glutting of markets and reduce the selling expense to the lowest possible minimum. The tonnage of the association will come through individual associations in the different districts, each of which will be held responsible for the grade and pack.
    The North Pacific Fruit Distributors expect to handle the entire fruit crop of all kinds from Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana. The sentiment for this organization is strong throughout the entire Northwest, and those who are familiar with conditions estimate that at least 10,000 cars will be signed. The salary of the manager will be $7,500 per year. As soon as sufficient tonnage is signed up they will proceed to make arrangements for doing business this year, engaging the necessary selling force, bookkeepers, stenographers, traffic managers, etc. It is the intention to sell apples of all varieties from every district absolutely on their own merit. In addition to the regular charge, which we understand will be $15 per car for selling, one cent per box will be charged to be used for advertising and exploiting purposes. The different associations will be known as sub-centrals. The executive committee requires all districts which are not organized to perfect organizations to be locally controlled by fruitgrowers and to superintend proper packing, grading, etc. Each trustee has one vote, regardless of the tonnage from his district.
Better Fruit, May 1913, pages 26-27

    The Rogue River fruit crop will be handled by the Rogue River Valley Fruitgrowers' Association, consisting of a membership of between 400 and 500 growers. This is the old association in the valley. Its output will be handled through the Northwest Fruit Exchange. A new association has been formed this year called the Rogue River Cooperative Fruitgrowers' Association. Mr. J. A. Perry is president. The Producer Fruit Company will also operate in the Rogue River Valley during the coming season.
Better Fruit, July 1913, page 26

Weekly Letter of Rogue River Fruit & Produce Association Discusses
Subject of Prime Importance to the Valley Orchardists--
Essential to Success in Marketing.

    During the season of 1916 the Rogue River Fruit and Produce Association will handle their fruit either in pools or for the individual account of the grower. Up to the last reason all the fruit handled by the association in the 5 previous years was pooled and the proceeds from the different grades in all the different varieties were divided pro rata according to the number of boxes the growers shipped through the association. Last year on account of peculiar crop conditions it was deemed wise to abandon the former practice and to sell fruit for individual accounts. During the coming season the growers are giving the option of entering pools or of selling separately.
    In no deciduous fruit district in the Northwest, so far as we are able to learn, is there any substantial objection to the pooling system from the growers, and the deciduous associations all pool their fruit. This does not necessarily mean that it is necessary for us to follow in their footsteps but it is nevertheless an indication of a more ready cooperation in other fruit districts than in our own.
Objections to Pooling
    There seem to be two principal objections to pooling in the Rogue River Valley: first, the necessary time which elapses before the growers can be paid in full for their fruit and, second, the feeling that certain varieties grown in special sections or under somewhat different conditions are superior in quality to other crops of the same variety grown elsewhere.
    In answer to these objections it may be said that the elapsed time in paying for any fruit crop would be the same under either system. A grower might be fortunate enough to receive his money soon after shipping his fruit; still there is also the possibility that it would be necessary to hold that grower's fruit until nearer the end of the selling season. Moreover, it has been the practice of the association to make distribution of all cash upon the sale of the fruit which was pooled, pro rata, among the growers contributing to such pool as soon as sufficient remittances have been made from the purchaser. In this was it often happens that an individual grower would get 95 percent of the cash finally coming to him from the sale of his fruit before the pool was actually closed and no grower would suffer from a long drawn-out selling season more than all other growers in the pool.
Variation in Fruit
    The claim that certain sections of the valley grow better fruit than others seems to be true only so far as the proportion of the blue triangle grade is concerned. For instance, there are certain sections which produce Spitzenbergs of a better color than others, but the final package from any section would be exactly similar to the packages from all the other sections. This is brought about by the grading rules to which the association closely adheres, and which are made possible by the centralization of our packing and the absolute standardization of our pack. If a crop meets requirements laid down in the association grading rules for extra fancy fruit and all the grading rules are strictly adhered to, there is only one possible way in
which a hardship can be worked upon one grower against another, and that is through a superior keeping quality. This matter is one about which so little is known that it is impossible to differentiate between different growers or to accurately tell which crop will stand up better, but with the increased use of irrigation it seems probable that there will be no more difference between crops grown by different growers than in those produced by one grower from different trees.
Cooperation Essential
    The chief argument in favor of the pooling system arises from the fact that the business both in any district as well as throughout the whole Northwest must become even more cooperative in order that the growers may make the success which they desire. A man with a small crop, 1, 2 or 3 cars, might get very disastrous results even in a year of high prices if his fruit, not being sold at private sale, arrived at the auction market during a period of local oversupply. It is of course necessary to consign a certain amount of fruit every year although the association's best efforts are made to dispose of as much as possible through F.O.B. sales. By giving every grower the price which represents the average price of all fruit of the same variety, grade and size sold, there is little doubt that with a five-year average the majority of the growers would show better results if their fruit is pooled than if it were sold for separate account.
    The ease of handling the fruit sales is much simpler with the pooling system in use. For instance in 1913 the association in one day sold five cars of Blue Triangle Bartletts to five different buyers at five different prices, the grading being the same
and the sizes practically the same.
Problems to be Faced
    The prices were all exceptionally good, and there was no question as to whether the fruit should be sold on the bids or not. If, however, the pooling system had not been in force at that time, it would have been a delicate matter for the manager to determine whose Bartletts to use to fill the different orders. It would have been possible but somewhat complicated for him to do as was done with an order for five cars of Blue Triangle Newtowns during the season of 1915 when pooling was not in force, when he received an order at $1.65 a box F.O.B. Medford in
October. The price was good and was accepted. The cars were loaded out and shipped, the fruit arrived in good condition and the draft was paid, but in order to give the growers advantage of this above the average price it was necessary to fill the order by taking the entire stock of Blue Triangle Newtowns on hand which would meet the specifications, figure the number of boxes of this fruit owned by each grower and load into the cars a portion of each man’s fruit proportionate to the size of the total packed Newtowns at that date compared with the total number called for in this order.
    This substantially was a pooling arrangement in which about forty growers were represented but it necessitated an infinite amount of extra labor to the association both in handling the fruit at the packing house and in the bookkeeping at the executive office. At the time that this order was shipped one grower had sufficient fruit already packed in the warehouse to entirely fill it. It has been suggested that a number of limited time pools be established. Under this system the freight shipped on certain days, certain weeks, or certain months, as specified before the shipping season, would be pooled and all the growers who had fruit in these pools would share equally. The only advantage of this over the seasonal pool is that it is thought that perhaps the final settling up could be made with less delay.
    As stated earlier in this letter the association is not insisting upon pooling this year, it is optional with the grower whether be does so or not, but it is well to remember that there are advantages as well as disadvantages under the pooling system.
    S. V. BECKWITH, Manager.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 10, 1916, page 5

    New Name--The first [omission] previously known as American Fruit Growers, Inc., since its formation in 1919, now will be known as American National Foods, Inc., according to a release made by the latter company. A previous announcement of the sale of the AFG interests to the foods company has been made. The announcements here were made by E. A. Pringle, Medford division manager. The firm now is a nationwide agricultural marketing cooperative.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, February 1, 1954, page 7

Last revised April 10, 2023