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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1856
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.
   

Click here for Superintendency correspondence 1844-1900.



The War in Oregon.
    Letters have been received at the Indian Bureau in Washington containing matters in regard to the Indian difficulties in Oregon, which will be found new and interesting. We extract the following:
    "Intense excitement pervades the white population of the entire country, and in the districts most remote the people have congregated in blockhouses and forts which they have erected for their protection. Messengers are seen hurrying from settlement to settlement, alarming reports are everywhere current, and in the popular frenzy the peaceful as well as the hostile bands of Indians are menaced with extermination. The demonstrations already made in Jackson County and in the Umpqua Valley arouse the fears of the Indians in this part of the Territory that these threats may be carried into execution.
    "However, the collection of the Indians at suitable points, and the appointment of discreet persons to watch over them, has tended very much to quiet their apprehensions, but should the present campaign in Washington Territory and in Middle Oregon prove unsuccessful, it will be well nigh impossible to save the Indians of this valley from the fury of the inhabitants. Their guilt or innocence will not be the subject of inquiry; the fact that they are Indians will be deemed deserving of death. They will be slain, not for what they have done, but for what they might do if so disposed.
*    *    *
    "It is useless now to speculate upon the causes which have produced this state of affairs. The war is upon us, and whatever its origin, when defenseless women and children are murdered, and the property of our citizens destroyed by the ruthless savage, no one can hesitate as to the course to be pursued toward those who have assumed the attitude of enemies.
    "The bands now encamped at Fort Lane, numbering 334 persons who, immediately on the commencement of hostilities, placed themselves under the protection of the garrison, are in imminent danger of meeting the fate so boldly and recklessly threatened--that of annihilation, and unless they are immediately removed, the scheme will undoubtedly be carried into effect. These bands comprise the original Rogue River Indians, and a part of those treated with on the 18th of November, 1854, and from their general good conduct merit a better fate.
    "The Umpqua Indians are but little more secure, one village having already been attacked by a body of lawless banditti, who put to death men, women and children."
    From the above, it will be seen that a portion of the white population, by their lawless deeds, have contributed not a little to incite the Indians to commit outrages upon the defenseless white population of these Territories. It is needless to add that the Indian agents and government officers stationed among these tribes have done all in their power to prevent the commission of these deeds of violence, and to save the friendly Indians from the fury of the settlers. The Superintendent's letter closes with the following paragraph:
    "The agents in the Indian Department are almost powerless to do good. With a military command of two hundred men to protect the encampments, the friendly Indians might be collected and kept out of the fight, but otherwise it is greatly to be feared that they will all unite in hostilities against us. Almost every day brings intelligence of the desertion of bands heretofore friendly, and the commission of some horrible outrage on our citizens. We need a strong and well-disciplined military force in the country--first to chastise and bring the Indians into subjection, and afterwards to aid in ridding the country of lawless vagabonds, who have provoked this state of affairs."
Thibodaux Minerva, Thibodaux, Louisiana, February 2, 1856, page 3

Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley
        Jan. 4th 1856
Dear Sir
    I have just returned from a visit to the Umpqua reservation, but as you were there in person I apprehend it is useless to say anything concerning the affairs of that part of this district more than you will find in Mr. Magruder's report, which I herewith transmit, together with a statistical table containing the numbers and names of all Indians residing on that reservation.
    Of the Indians belonging to the Table Rock reservation no change has occurred worthy of note; within the past few days we have had an acquisition to the number already here of (48) forty eight women and children. The men were killed off under the following circumstances. After the defeat of the volunteers at the Meadows, they returned to this valley and sent out scouts in different directions. A band of Indians was discovered by them camped on Rogue River near fifteen miles above the mouth of Butte Creek, known by the name of Charley's band; they were in a manner destitute of arms and ammunition, said they desired peace and had not taken part in the war, nor had they ever engaged in a war against white people, that they had resided in that vicinity ever since the commencement of hostilities and for some time before. I am credibly informed they held a friendly talk with the spies who went into their camp, and parted as the Indians understood on terms of friendship. A few days after on the 23rd of December, 1855, a volunteer force sufficient to surround the encampment were sent in quest of them. They were accordingly surrounded and at the break of day on the morning of the twenty fourth commenced the attack, which resulted in the death of all the males except two who made their escape. They made but a feeble resistance; no white man was killed or wounded. The band numbered [blank] men, thirty-three women and children, who are now at Fort Lane and nearly destitute of everything; many of them have their feet and hands severely frosted, rendering their condition pitiable in the extreme.
    At the same time another scouting party had discovered the remnant of old Jake's people, who were encamped on Butte Creek, and who shared the same fate as Charley's band. The women and children are also here, fifteen in number; in a talk with them the other day they gave me the following statement, which is partly corroborated by the evidence of a company of volunteers, so much so I have but little doubt of the truth of it. After the attack on Butte Creek on the morning of the eighth of Oct. last, Jake gathered the remainder of his people together and started for the Indian settlements near Snowy Butte, the same band who had perpetrated the murder on the Siskiyou Mountains, and for which Jake's people had been killed. With a view of punishing these Indians for bringing ruin upon his people, he encountered them and killed several of their number. Among the dead were found one dressed in the clothes of Mr. Keene, who had been killed a short time previous by the Indians, and whose clothes were recognized by Capt. Thomas Smith, who was in company with Mr. Keene at the time of his death, and who also found the Indian battle ground a few days after it had occurred. From all appearances no doubt seemed to rest on his mind of its having been fought by Indians. No volunteers had been in that direction, and again, the dead had been shot with arrows, proving conclusively that it must have been done by Indians.
    A third party who were out in the direction of Applegate Creek discovered a band of Klamath Indians who had taken refuge in some cabins built by miners, but had been abandoned; two of the cabins I believe were built by the Indians. The volunteers apprehending they were not sufficiently strong to cope with their red enemies or otherwise sought to take advantage of them, called for a talk, told the Indians they had not come there to fight, but were miners and desired their friendship. After some consultation an agreement was made that neither party should molest each other, and that each should be left to pursue their usual avocations, without fear of molestation. The volunteers immediately reported the fact, and raised what was supposed to be a sufficient force to take the house. Upon repairing thither it was found they had a more formidable enemy than on two former occasions. Assistance was sent them from Fort Lane. On the morning of the second of January, Lieut. Underwood in command of a detachment of thirty five men with a mountain howitzer, started for the scene of action. While on the road about three miles south of Jacksonville Mr. Angel, an esteemed citizen of this valley, who had volunteered his services to accompany the command, while riding a few hundred yards in advance of the troops, was shot dead by some Indians in ambush. Before the infantry could reach the spot, although in sight, the Indians had fled up a precipitous mountain and made their escape.
    On the following day when within three or four miles of the Indian houses the pack mule loaded with the ammunition for the howitzer fell off a precipice, near seventy feet into deep water. Nothing was seen of it after. An express was immediately dispatched to Fort Lane for another supply, which reached there about 3 o'clock in the afternoon.
    A point being selected for the howitzer, the attack began. Several shells were soon thrown through the roof. Instead of the Indians breaking and running in every direction, as had been supposed they would, they quietly [sic--calmly?] returned the fire through the opening the shell had made through the roof. To the utter astonishment of all present they shot with such remarkable precision as to hit men standing by the howitzer, distant over five hundred yards. During the day one man was killed and several wounded; the firing continued till about dark without effecting anything decisive.
    About 2 o'clock that night the Indians abandoned their house, and charged through the lines of the volunteers, firing their guns and revolvers and yelling like so many demons, effecting their escape without any loss known to the whites.
    An examination of the premises after the attack showed that Indian ingenuity or cunning could hardly be excelled by the whites. Their cabins were built on the points of a triangle, so arranged that any two could defend the remaining one. Their portholes were also cut in accordance with this plan.
    Excavations had been made underground with a small aperture for the entrance floored overhead with two feet of solid earth, thus women, children, provisions and ammunition were all stored in safety below. From some secure corner the would watch the operations of the whites, and when safe would sally to their portholes, fire and slide back into the ground again.
    Several cans of powder & considerable quantities of provisions were left behind in their flight, showing clearly that they were well supplied and that the abandonment was voluntary on their part.
    On the fourteenth of November last the civil authorities of California demanded the surrender of several Indians who were accused of the crime of murder. Said offense was alleged to have been committed upon the soil of California by some Shasta Indians belonging to this reservation, a formal demand having been made a requisition was obtained from the Governor of Oregon. As you are already aware Capt. Smith of Fort Lane had arrested the two to whom the most suspicion attached, and they were accordingly delivered over to the sheriff of Siskiyou County, California. At the sitting of the grand jury no bill was found against the prisoners; they were accordingly released. After being liberated they were shot by the enraged populace.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 39.  An abbreviated copy can be found on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 560-566.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 562-568.



Salem January 4th 1856
Joel Palmer
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Oregon Territory
Dear Sir
    In the month of August 1851, Anson Dart, then Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, gave me [a] letter appointing me to the duty of notifying the Indians along the coast in the neighborhood of Port Orford when he would be at Port Orford and treat with them.
    The letter was copied in a book kept in the Superintendent's office.
    You would confer a favor on me by forwarding me a copy of the letter to this place at your earliest convenience; the original was destroyed by the Indians.
Respectfully your obt. servt.
    W. G. T'Vault
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 41.



Jacksonville Jan. 4th 1856
Mr. Palmer
    Dr Sir
My communication is in regard to furnishing potatoes for Indian services in the spring of '54. Mr. Brownlee gave me an order to you of $190. I had the order filed in your office last spring by your clerk. I understood via Mr. Ambrose that the money had come. I wish to learn whether you have retained the money for me or not.
Yours in haste
    Abram Petrie
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 51.



Notice.
The public are hereby notified that the TABLE ROCK INDIAN RESERVE is not abandoned, and all persons are hereby requested not to trespass on the same, as they will be held strictly accountable for so doing.
G. H. AMBROSE,
    Ind. Agt.
        Table Rock, Jan. 4, 1856
Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 5, 1856, page 3




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Jan. 7th 1856.
Dear Sir
    Since it has become public that you had in contemplation a design to remove the Rogue River tribe of Indians to the Coast Reservation, west of some of the Willamette counties, I have met with several persons from that section of country who strongly protest against it. I have also received several communications from citizens residing in that part of the country to the same effect, some declaring that every Indian will be killed as soon as they cross the Calapooya Mountains. I am fully impressed with the idea that an escort of twenty men will not be sufficient to afford the requisite protection. Would it not be well to state the facts to General Wool and ask for a larger escort. It would be an act of injustice to say nothing of the bad faith, to
disarm these Indians under the promise of protection and then permit them to be killed off, and that too after they had sought protection, placed themselves in our power, and had complied with every demand made of them. Enclosed you will find copies of correspondence between Col. Ford & myself in relation to that subject, not so inflammatory in character as many I have received, but emanating from a high and responsible source. I deemed it worthy of consideration. Col. Ford, it will be recollected, is one of our earliest as well as our most respected citizens.
    I cannot believe such men would meet for the purpose of passing a series of idle resolutions, nor yet can I believe they would with a proper understanding of the matter wish to array themselves against the laws of the land; would it not be well to make a proper explanation to those men before making the attempt to take the Indians through that country?
    I submit these suggestions to your consideration; one would be pleased to hear from you at as early a day as possible.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 5.



Dayton O.T. Jany. 8th 1856
Dear Sir
    I have to request that you will come over here prepared to go to the Molalla, Santiam, Spores & Corvallis Indian encampments and inform the chiefs that I desire to see them at my office. Upon their arrival the chiefs of the Tualatin band will also come and we will then all go and examine the Grand Ronde together. None need come but the chiefs, as when congregated we will be unable to accommodate so many. They [can] come over as soon as convenient for I contemplate trying to induce the various bands to go in the encampment before paying them the goods. The Wapatos however need not go until spring, but you will say nothing about this matter to anyone, white or Indian.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
John Flett Esq.
    Local Agent
Beinecke Library WA MSS 370



To His Excellency Franklin Pierce
    President of the United States
        Honored Sir,
            We, the undersigned Democratic members of the Council and House of Representatives of the Territory of Oregon, would most respectfully but earnestly pray your excellency to remove the present incumbent, Joel Palmer, from the office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs of this Territory. This, sir, we ask, amongst others, for the following reasons, to wit,
    First: The official conduct of the said Palmer during the two years past abundantly satisfies your petitioners that he, said Palmer, is unqualified for the proper discharge of the duties of his said office. And in support of this, our unanimous judgment, we beg leave to state to your excellency the following facts, to wit--He, said Palmer, in forming treaties with Indian tribes within this Territory, has in entire and willful disregard of the expressed unwillingness of the recognized chiefs of tribes to assent to or sign proposed treaties, recognized other Indians as chiefs of their respective tribes and received their signatures to his treaties, being told at the same time that their acts were not and would not be approved by either the legitimate chiefs or their people, which, together with other foolish and visionary acts and movements on his part, has greatly contributed to produce the present Indian war, and to bring upon the defenseless inhabitants of this frontier the combined power and hostility of a horde of ruthless savages. And what is still more inexcusable and unendurable, the said Palmer is, at this moment, engaged in efforts to purchase the land claims of citizens residing on the west side of the Willamette Valley and contiguous to the Coast Range of mountains, with the avowed intention of bringing thousands of Indians from remote parts of the country and of colonizing them in the heart of this, the Willamette Valley, and this too despite the remonstrances of the legislative assembly and of our constituents, the men, women and children of the Territory.
    Second: We would also further represent to your excellency the fact that the said Palmer, representing himself to be a sound National Democrat, received, through the recommendation of such Democrats, residents of this Territory, his appointment from a Democratic Administration, but through a spirit of political perfidy, ingratitude and meanness, he, the said Palmer, did, about a year since, join the Know Nothings, and having bound himself with the perfidious oaths of that dark and hellish secret political order, has faithfully kept his oaths by neglecting to vote for the nominees of the Democratic Party, and by appointing incompetent Know Nothings to office to the exclusion of sound, worthy and competent Democrats.
    In consideration of which said foregoing reasons we earnestly pray that the said Palmer may be promptly removed from the said office of Indian Superintendent and that Edward R. Geary, a sound, consistent and reliable National Democrat, and an able and worthy citizen, may be appointed in his stead; And we will not allow ourselves to believe for one moment that our prayer will be disregarded.
    Grant this, our petition, and we, your excellency's Democratic friends, representing the people of Oregon in the legislative assembly, will as in duty bound ever pray, &c.
[signed]                                                                           Salem, Jany. 8th, 1856.
Delazon Smith, Speaker, House Rep.
William Tichenor, Rep. Coos County
Herman C. Buckingham, Rep. Benton County
John Robinson, Benton Co.
F. Waymire of Polk County
R. P. Boise of Polk County
Philo Callender, Clatsop co.
Hyer Jackson, Washington & Multnomah
James Officer, Clackamas
William Hutson, Douglas
Hugh L. Brown, Linn
Orville Risley, Clackamas
A. McAllexander [sic--McAlexander], Lane
J. R. Moores, Lane
John Harris, Columbia
B. P. Grant, Linn
C. W. Brown of Multnomah
John R. Hall of Jackson
M. C. Barkwell, Jackson
Andrew Shuck, Yamhill
A. R. Burbank, Yamhill
William P. Harpole, Marion
Hugh D. O'Bryant, Douglas, Coos & Umpqua
John M. Harrison, Marion
Charles Drain, Linn
L. F. Grover, Marion Co.
Thomas Smith, Jackson
N. Huber, Memb. Council, Yamhill &c.
H. Straight, Clackamas
J. M. Cozad, Umpqua Co.
N. H. Gates, Wasco County
James M. Fulkerson of Polk
A. P. Dennison, President of Council
James K. Kelly, Mem. of Council
John C. Peebles, Mem. of Council, Marion Co.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 486-490.



Pleasant Plain [Washington County]
    January 8th 1856
To the Superintendent of Indian Affairs now at the reserve near the mouth of the Calapooia Creek in Umpqua at Douglas County O.T.
    Dr Sir, The Indians formerly residing in this vicinity seem quite unwilling to be removed from their old place of abode & residence where some of them were born & some of them have imbibed industrious habits & although they are Indians have certain rights dear to them in this land of American liberty. They have been told that the time has not yet arrived when they were to
yield up their full possessions of their land & such is the feelings of some of the whites on the subject that should they be permitted to remain here & behave themselves as well for the future as they have since A.D. 1851. They can be able to purchase as much land in this neighborhood as they may need wherever our domain shall be offered in worth by the assistance of the whites. They as a general thing have never been quarrelsome among themselves nor molest the whites in any manner since that time & I have lived here since 1850 & don't think there has ever been a theft committed in this bend that might have been justly laid to Indian Lossee or Charley nor do I know that any such feeling should justly exist against anyone else of this band & you doubtless are aware of the unfavorable feelings lately manifest in the vicinity to which they are expected to be sent & the action of our legislative body at this time on the subject & if you were to see the rolling drops as they ramble down their browning cheeks when they give the jargon farewell! farewell! to the home of their fathers you must but feel an action of injustice to the injured & defenseless Indian. It may be well to not be the first to violate the treaty. If they are Indians they are not without friends.
L. L. Kellogg
   
Superintendent of Indian Affairs near Calapooia O.T.
    The bearer, Indian Lossee & Charley or Jim & his squaw have been down to their old home & one damn Indian to close up some business there & dispose of their last effects there & are harmless & inoffensive Indians.
L. L. Kellogg
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, no number--filmed immediately after No. 4.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 9th 1856
Sir
    Enclosed herewith is a copy of [a] letter to Major Genl. Wool, U.S. army. This communication sufficiently explains itself.
    In accordance with my request an order was given on Capt. Smith, stationed at Fort Lane, for the number of troops asked for. Fearing objections might be urged against their removal and other obstacles thrown in the way, I determined to repair to these districts, and accordingly on the 13th ultimo accompanied by an interpreter (Mr. John Flett) and Mr. Willis Shaw as messenger set out. The trip to the Umpqua Reservation was performed through one of the severest storms I have ever experienced in Oregon. We reached that point on the evening of the 17th. Here I found nearly three hundred Umpqua and Calapooias, Cow Creeks and Molallas under the charge of Theophilus Magruder, who had been appointed by Mr. Martin (designated by me as local agent but declined in favor of Mr. Magruder) and whose appointment had been approved by Agent Ambrose. The census of this camp gave 89 men, 133 women, 40 boys and 37 girls, many of whom were suffering from sickness, probably induced by a change of diet, being confined to flour and fresh beef, and to exposure. They had been hurried upon the reservation as a means of safety, and deprived of their usual comfortable lodges and variety of roots, berries and fish, and their crops of vegetables prepared by many for winter's use, [they] were dying off rapidly. With a few exceptions the camp were without shoes or moccasins. Many were nearly in a state of nudity and but few were comfortably clad. Their lodges were mere temporary structures, hastily thrown together, and entirely unsuited for a winter camp. Among the number assembled were the head chief and 28 of the Molallas or Molel tribe of Indians, inhabiting the country along the western slope of the Cascade Mountains east of the Umpqua and Calapooia purchase, being the headwaters of the north and south forks of Umpqua River. These Indians were anxious to be confederated with the Umpquas, but desired to reside in the Umpqua Valley. Mr. Walker, who had been directed to precede me with horses to aid in the removal, had submitted the matter of removal to the Indians, but no definite arrangement had been made, as portions of them were averse to removing. The young men desired to leave the settlement, but a few of the old men, who stated they had but a few days to live, were opposed to the removal. The 20th ultimo was set for a general talk, and the Indians directed to consult among themselves upon the propriety of confederating with the Molallas, and all going to the reservation. On that day the council met, but the head chief of the Umpquas not being present they were unwilling to give a definite answer. In the evening the head chief arrived. On the 21st the Indians were again assembled in council, and a treaty, which had been drawn up in accordance with the suggestions made them, was fully explained. The head chief, who understands and speaks English quite well, spoke in its favor and urged his people and the Molallas to accede to its terms, declaring that he was willing and ready to go where he could have peace. They then all consented, and the chief of the Molallas, Steencoggy, and three of his principal men signed the treaty. With the exception of two of the Umpqua chiefs, who were sick, all the chiefs of the bands embraced in the treaty of 29th Nov. 1854 signed this treaty, and those two chiefs were willing to remove in the spring or when the weather and roads were more favorable.
    On the 22nd and 23rd, proceeding to Roseburg, I purchased a few goods to supply the most pressing wants of these Indians--in the meantime the snow had commenced falling, and up to the 27th it was eleven inches deep and the weather exceedingly cold, with a prospect of its remaining so for some length of time. Mr. Metcalfe had previously been dispatched to Rogue River, and on the 22nd he returned and joined me at Roseburg. The inclemency of the weather and bad condition of the roads induced Mr. Ambrose and Mr. Metcalfe to recommend the continuance of the Fort Lane encampment until spring. Accordingly he returned to Umpqua. Mr. Metcalfe is left in charge of the Umpqua encampment with instructions (see paper A) to remove them at the earliest possible moment. Three men, ten women and five children were being taken to the reservation on the 28th, the day which I started on my return home. These people belonged to the Cow Creek and Lookingglass Prairie bands and were of the party in the latter place at the time the first attack was made upon the Indian village at that point by the whites, and who escaped to the mountains.
    The head chief of the Molels expected to gather 30 additional members of his band, but the severe cold and snow storm prevented his return before I left.
    Wm. J. Martin, Lieut. Colonel of the Southern Battalion, Oregon Volunteers, has directed Captain Boyiee with a command of 20 men to accompany the party of Indians on their removal and gave the agent such assistance as might be required, but whether this order will be observed I am unable to determine as the scanty supply of forage could hardly warrant their remaining so long in that vicinity.
    The excitement among the people of this valley has greatly subsided. The settlers in the immediate vicinity of the contemplated encampment cease to oppose the movement, and very many urge the propriety and adoption, and I feel quite well satisfied that by the time the Indians approach the neighborhood said to be the most hostile no opposition will be offered to their passage. Should I, however, find it to be otherwise, I shall call upon General Wool for such aid as may awe lawless persons and enable these friendly and peaceable bands to reach their destined encampment safely.
    In another communication will be transmitted the treaty before referred to. The last clause of Article 3rd contemplates that in the event the President disapproves of the Coast Reservation as a home for these people, they may after the restoration of peace be allowed to return to the Umpqua Reservation, or elsewhere as may be directed.
    The expenses connected with the collecting and subsisting the Indians at the various encampments in this Superintendency has long since absorbed all funds in my hands applicable to such purposes. This class of accounts has thus far been carried to and placed under the head of appropriations for "adjusting difficulties and preventing outbreaks." The Indians claim, and with much reason, that this expenditure ought not to be taken from their annuities, as the necessity for such expenditures was no fault of theirs. I have previously suggested amounts required to enable me to maintain peace with the tribes in Middle Oregon, along the coast and on Table Rock Reservation, presuming at that date, October 9th, that the tribes in this and Umpqua valleys would be able to subsist themselves with comparatively little aid, but the excitement immediately following rendering necessary their collection and subsistence calls for an immediate remittance.
    I am of opinion that a sum less than fifty thousand dollars would be insufficient to meet the liabilities already incurred, and those likely to accrue before the close of these disturbances, and should they continue long that sum would be insufficient.
    I would respectfully suggest the propriety of asking an appropriation of one hundred thousand dollars to be placed at the disposal of this Superintendency to meet the expenditures connected with the removal and subsistence of Indian tribes, and to adjust difficulties and prevent outbreaks, and that one half that sum be placed immediately at the disposal of this Superintendency.
    The ratification of the Coast Treaty and settlement of the Indians of this valley and those of Umpqua and Rogue River upon that reservation and the removal of the southern coast tribes within its limits, with the requisite number of troops to guard the passes and maintain order, would be a matter of economy to the government, besides it may save the lives of hundreds of our citizens, for it requires but a slight provocation to cause an outbreak in the immediate settlements.
    With the appropriations for such tribe as per treaty and an early remittance so as to put matters into active operation at an early day, we may be able to maintain peace with all the tribes and bands now friendly, but delay is dangerous.
    It is said that a majority of the bands treated with on the 19th November 1854 and the greater portion of the Cow Creeks are among the hostile bands. Quite a number of each of these bands, however, are among the friendly camps, and others believed to be in the mountains entirely neutral. A majority of those treated with on the 10th September 1853 and those treated with on the 29th Novr. 1854 remain firm to the stipulations of those treaties. So also are all the bands of this valley. The coast tribes, with the exception of a small band on the head of Coquille, are also friendly. The Wasco-pams and nearly all the Deschutes bands are friendly. The Walla Wallas, Cayuses and Umatillas are represented as hostile, but as indicated in other communications I believe much against their will. Portions of each of these tribes, it is said, are still friendly. The Nez Perces are all friendly. Many of the Klamath are now in this valley and are friendly and desirous of entering into negotiations. The village of Indians in the vicinity of St. Helens are yet without signing the treaty of 10th January 1853, but are willing to do so. The Clatsops, Nehalems, Tillamooks and Nestuccas have not been treated with. Arrangements had been made immediately preceding the breaking out of hostilities to visit them, and since I have deemed it advisable to await the restoration of peace. It is understood, however, that they are willing to confederate with the coast tribes. With these exceptions all the bands west of the Cascades have entered into treaty negotiations for the sale of their country, and should the coast treaty be ratified, the entire bands may be confederated and located upon the one tract.
I have the honor to be
   Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 5-9.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 382-390.




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley
        Jan. 10th 1856
Sir
    In accordance with your suggestions, I have caused the following notice to be inserted in the Table Rock Sentinel.
Notice
The public are hereby notified that the
Table Rock Indian Reserve
is not abandoned, and all persons are hereby requested not to trespass on the same, as they will be held strictly accountable for so doing.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
    I also had a notice inserted to the following effect:
    Any persons having claims against the Agency are requested to present the same in order that they may be properly authenticated for settlement.
G. H. Ambrose
    Ind. Agt.
    The object of this last notice was to obtain a full knowledge of the indebtedness of the Agency. No papers were left in this office by the late agent of that character, and I know of no other mode of obtaining a correct statement than by having the claimants come forward and prove their accounts.
    I supposed the indebtedness had been duly entered on the quarterly returns, till you asked of me information on that subject. I will endeavor to supply you with a list of claimants, and the amounts claimed, as soon as possible.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 567-569. 
The original can be found on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 40.  Another original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 569-571.



Coquille Valley January the 10th 1856
Mr. Joel Palmer Superintendent
    of Indian Affairs
        of Oregon Territory
Sir,
    We the undersigned settlers of the Coquille Valley in Coos County O.T. would humbly beg and pray your attention to the removal of the Coquille Indians from the Coquille River for the following causes
    We have had some difficulties with the Upper Coquille Indians and have good and sufficient evidences from reliable Indians that the above Indians have an understanding with the Rogue River Indians to unite and kill all the whites in this valley and all that kept them from accomplishing it was our being on our guard, which we believe to be necessary yet and will be until the Coquille Indians are removed from the valley.
    Signed Henry G. Saunders                        
John J. Hill John A. Starry
A. J. Pence James G. Malcom
R. Y. Philips
S. M. Dement
E. Morris
Sarah Philips
Caroline Dement
B. F. Jarnijin
Pat Jarden
E. C. Catching
A. Huffman
Wm. Rowland
Isaac Bingham
E. Cunningham
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 10.



[undated]
Sir,
    You will proceed to the encampment of the Luckiamute at Corvallis, Spores and the Abiqua, and direct the Indians that if they desire to be supplied with provisions and receive their share of annuity payments for this winter, they must remove to the encampment in the Grand Ronde on the headwaters of Yamhill River.
    The great expense attending the maintenance of so many encampments precludes the possibility of keeping them up through the winter, and unless they report to the point designated they must subsist themselves.
    You are further directed to inform the local agents at each of the above encampments that it is my desire that they will take immediate steps to remove such of the above bands under their charge as wish to avail themselves of the opportunity. But in the event of the bands decline to remove, that their [the agents'] services will no longer be needed and that the Indians will be thrown upon their own resources for subsistence.
    It is my wish that Dr. Wright of Corvallis should accompany the Indians and act for a time as physician to the encampment. You will inform him of this wish and say to him that other arrangements may be made after his arrival.
    The Indians at Spores, Corvallis and Santiam may have a passage secured on board of one of the steamers to Werton, whence they can reach my office in 2½ miles and proceed thence in wagons to the encampment.
    The goods and chattel belonging to the members of the respective bands may also be transported on the steamer.
    The Indians of the Luckiamute encampment under the charge of Mr. Simpson may be taken on wagons from that point direct to the Grand Ronde.
    At Corvallis you will call upon Nat Lane Esq. and solicit his aid in inducing the Indians to account them provisions, and request him to secure a passage on the steamer for such as choose to come down.
    No further supplies of provisions or clothing can be furnished the Indians this winter unless they remove to the encampment designated.
    You are acquainted with the reasons for this action and the necessity of the location and will explain as fully as possible, so that the Indians may have full knowledge of the matter.
    Should they desire decline to avail themselves of the proposition we are still friends and I shall do as I can to protect them so long as their conduct merits it. But I feel satisfied that a compliance would tend to promote peace and advance their interests materially, and I am desirous they should accept of it.
Yours respectfully &c.
    Joel Palmer
        Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
John Flett Esq.
    Interpreter &c.

Beinecke Library WA MSS 370.  See Joel Palmer letter of January 8, above.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 14, 1856.
Sir,
    Herewith are transmitted the following letters which will aid you in forming a proper estimate of the state of our Indian affairs at their respective dates in the different localities to which they refer, viz:
    From Agent Ambrose 5 letters dated Nov. 11th, 14th, 22nd, 30th and Dec. 2nd 1855.
    Two letters from Agent Olney of Nov. 30th & Dec. 8th;
    Two letters from Agent Thompson of Nov. 15th & 19th;
    One letter from Sub Agent Drew of December 3rd;
    One letter from R. W. Dunbar Esqr. Colr. [sic] at Port Orford acting for Special Agent Wright then absent on official duties of Nov. 4th enclosing a copy of Mr. Wright's letter to Major Reynolds U.S.A. of Nov. 5th, requesting that the U.S. troops then at that point might not be withdrawn; and a letter from Thomas H. Smith Local Agent for the temporary encampment of Indians at St. Helens.
    I remain very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner &c.
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 401-402.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 15th 1856
Editor Oregon Statesman
(same to Oregon Weekly Times &c.)
    Sir,
        Will you allow space in your paper for the publication of the enclosed copies of instructions from the Department of the Interior Commissioner of Indian Affairs to this office and the order of the President of the United States declaring the tract therein designated as an Indian reservation, and also extracts of certain sections of the act of Congress of June 30th 1854 regulating trade and intercourse with Indian tribes.
    I transmit also a triplicate copy of the treaty with the coast tribes, negotiated in July and August last, and a certified copy of the treaty with the Molalla tribe by which they are confederated with the Umpqua Indians and jointly to be located on the Coast Reservation. In accordance with the articles of convention entered into with the bands therein named, they are now on their way to the designated encampment, and it is hoped that no citizen will seek to contravene any provision of treaty stipulation or law of Congress by which it would become necessary to resort to any of the powers conferred upon persons in this Department entrusted with the duties enjoined.
    The object in asking the publication of these documents is to disabuse the minds of our citizens in regard to the policy of the government and the actions of the Superintendent in the designation of an encampment in the Grand Ronde Valley, and to correct the erroneous impressions that that action was unwarranted and in violation of instructions. In connection with this subject it may be proper to say that it is not contemplated to locate any of the bands of Southern Oregon east of the Coast Mountains, nor is it expected, at this time, to bring through or into this valley any portion of the Rogue River tribes. The entire number of the Umpquas confederated, to be wintered at the point designated, is less than three hundred & fifty souls.
    I am not disposed to enter into a newspaper controversy in the support of measures adopted under the instructions from the Indian Department at Washington, but regret greatly that such action should come in conflict with the conceived opinions and interests of our citizens. The efforts of those seeking to manufacture public opinion can have no influence in deterring me from the performance of a public duty whilst acting under the oath of office and instructions from the constituted authorities.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 16-17.  This letter was printed on page one of the Oregonian of January 26, 1856.



Winchester January 10, 1856
Gen. Palmer
Dear Sir
    It is impossible for us to furnish that list of goods you left with us. We cannot get the goods in Scottsburg. Such articles as you wished cannot be had, a portion of the goods can be bought at very high prices and some of them cannot be bought at all.
    Mr. Bradbury bought all the blankets there was in Scottsburg, and he wants two prices for blankets, and we will not accommodate him by paying his extravagant prices.
Very respectfully yours
    Lane & Floed
Gen. J. Palmer
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 22.



Elk Camp Jany. 16th 1856
Sir
    I left the Umpqua Reservation on the 11th inst., with all the Indians that were assembled there. It was with the utmost difficulty I got them started, and every morning since I have been on the road I have had to use all the power of persuasion I had at my command and finally threats to get them started from camp. Today they halted in the road opposite Lindsay Applegate's and refused to go any farther, but I finally succeeded in getting them this far with the exception of some of the Calapooias who were encamped near Mr. Applegate's who positively refused to move. And their refusal has been the cause of great dissatisfaction in camp, so much so that I have but little hope of being able to continue my journey without the assistance of a military force. On the refusal of these Indians to leave Applegate's today I sent an express to Col. Martin for a detachment of volunteers to assist in carrying out your instructions. And if he fails to comply with my request I look for a general stampede in camp. The indisposition on the part of the Indians to leave here is owing to the interference of some of the whites in this vicinity. When I called at Mr. Applegate's for the Indians I found nine and some other men who were there sympathizing with the Indians and told them that there were no agents here and that we were a set of inhuman men driving them from their homes and that they had rights as well as ourselves. Now you see what I have to contend with, but I am determined to take these Indians to the Yamhill at all hazard unless I am otherwise ordered. I see from the papers I am likely to have a difficulty with the citizens of Polk County. You must be the judge of that, and if there is likely to be trouble please send me an escort of regulars and I will carry out your instructions. I am just out of funds and hope you will send me five or six hundred dollars at the earliest moment by Mr. Magruder or some other person that will make no delay. If I am detained on this side of the mountain we must lose some of our stock, as there is no food of any description here. We had one death in camp this evening (Bogus' wife), the only one since we started. We have but little sickness in camp except a few chronic cases, which are likely to be no worse by traveling. I have eight wagons and find them insufficient to haul all who are not able to walk.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    R. B. Metcalfe
        Sub-Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 15.




Grand Ronde Yamhill Co. Oregon Ter.
    Jan. 18, 1856
Hon. Joel Palmer,
    Dear Sir, After three days hard driving we reached this place, and the team became so far disabled that we were under the necessity of employing Mr. Eaton to forward seven hundred lbs. of our load at one dollar per hundred lbs., and then found it was all we could do [to] get here with the assistance of Mr. Chamberlin, who met us three miles from here with a fresh team.
    On our arrival here we found all peace and have taken possession of the Eaton house, spending one day in fixing bunks &c. &c. We have been engaged today in slaughtering the hogs, find them very good pork. Finding ourselves under the necessity of having a grindstone we got Mr. Casper's upon conditions that he have pay for it or another as good replaced there or he would lend it just as you and he are [of] a mind. Today I sent off Mr. Clark for Tillamook with those letters for Mr. Raymond the Ind. agent. He rode one of our horses. We shall not have salt enough to keep the pork, and as there is an opportunity to procure some of Mr. Woolery for four dollars per hundred I concluded to purchase some and shall have to draw on you in his power for the amount of the same. Mr. Woolery has some four or five hundred lbs. of flour which you can purchase at three dollars per hundred here of which you must be the judge. In order to expedite the erection of the buildings for the Umpqua Inds. I have employed two hands for riving boards for I find it is utterly out of the question to get lumber from the mill, the roads being so bad it cannot be hauled. Those buildings we will commence on Monday morning and push forward with all possible dispatch. There is wanted here a bolt of drilling for bedding purposes, also some saleratus and cream of tartar for bread rising. I think it advisable to have a couple of barrels to pickle pork in, if you should find it convenient to send them. Where to locate those houses I have not been able to determine as I have not had time to examine the premises.
Respectfully yours
    Joseph Jeffers
P.S. The bearer Mr. Woolery is going to return to this place with his wagon; if my clothes have arrived or any letters please send them by him. I have bought of Mr. Woolery some shoats and chickens to the amt. of fifteen dollars. This is a private matter. Accept of my respects for yourself and family and remember me to Mr. Geary.
Joseph Jeffers
I have lost my specs and Mr. C. waits for me.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 19.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 21st 1856
Sir:
    The efforts of a few aspirants to position, and the demagoguism as exhibited by the recent action of the legislative assembly of this Territory apparently to put at defiance the laws of Congress and instructions of heads of departments at Washington City, and their efforts to encourage a spirit of resistance among the people against the adoption of such measures as have been deemed requisite to restore our Indian relations to a state of quiet--in accordance with treaty stipulations and instructions from the Department of the Interior--makes it my duty to employ such persons in the service of the Indian Department as are wholly disconnected and uninfluenced by those factions, and such only as may tender efficient aid in consummating the plans of the government in their efforts to civilize the aborigines of this Territory. I have therefore to inform you that I have no longer any need of your services in the Office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Edw. R. Geary Esq.
        Dayton, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 17.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 21st 1856
Sir:
    Your letter of the 16th instant from camp on Elk Creek has been received--
    Upon examination of your letter taken in connection with the efforts of the legislative assembly to excite our people apparently with a view of inducing them to resist by force the consummation of the plans sought to be carried out for the colonization of those Indians, and their removal to the reservation in accordance with treaty stipulations, I have dispatched a messenger to Fort Vancouver with a request that 25 or 30 dragoons, if they can be had, or 50 infantry, be dispatched at once to your aid, and I confidently anticipate a compliance with that request. In the meantime use persuasive measures to induce the Indians to accompany you on the way until you find a convenient camp, and, if you deem it advisable, there remain until the arrival of the troops. You will use every possible effort to induce the Indians to acquiesce in the arrangements, and if you fail, select, as above indicated, some suitable camp where they can be subsisted and where forage can be obtained for your animals, and await the arrival of the troops.
    The mail brought me intelligence of the designation by the President of the Coast Reservation for the Willamette, Umpqua and coast tribes, together with power to adopt such measures as I might deem necessary and proper to maintain order and secure an observance of treaty stipulations, drawing upon the Department at Washington for such an amount of funds as might be requisite to meet the exigencies.
    The encampment at the head of Grand Ronde is the point selected for the concentration of the friendly bands; the point to which we look as the entering wedge of our future operations, and a failure to accomplish that would be equivalent to abandonment of the policy of the government. The threats of aspirants to intimidate and defeat the plans for the accomplishment of this important link to all successful operations will not induce me to swerve: My oath of office, and instructions, require prompt and decisive action. The Indians must be taken to the encampment at Grand Ronde. The goods are at this point (Dayton). I have persons engaged in building at the encampment. A portion of the Indians of this valley will be on the ground in a few days.
    I send by Mr. Magruder one thousand dollars for use in the removal of those Indians.
    Arrangements had been made to transport the Indians on one of the steamers from Corvallis to Dayton, but in the event of an escort of troops, it may not be necessary to do so. I feel encouraged in the hope that you may have succeeded in inducing the Indians, at least, to cross the Calapooia Mountains. The troops sent up will doubtless reach Corvallis by steamer, and may be looked for at that point as early as Friday next.
    In the event of a necessity for additional teams, you will purchase [them] if they can be obtained at reasonable rates, as they will be required for service on the reservation. I shall secure the services of a physician and send [him] out to attend the sick, if it be practicable to do so; one has already been engaged to reside with them upon the reservation.
    Say to those Indians that we are not going to take them into a wild wilderness, but to a country where they can be supplied with all the comforts of life; where there will be houses and fields, and they will be protected and supplied with provisions, clothing, and those who wish employment will find plenty to do. Say to them that, if they desire peace and wish to receive my talk and do what is right and be protected, that I shall expect them to come with you and see me as they have agreed to do; they must not listen to the talk of foolish people, that those who profess great friendship for them now only expect to get them to do their work for them; that those people do not often give them anything unless they get something in return; that our Great Chief has directed me to look after their interests and to see that they are protected, and that I wish to do them good, but unless they receive my talk and obey me I can do them no good. Tell them also that those persons who represent that our Chief is not pleased with my acts are lying to them; that he does approve them, and what is more if he finds that they lie to him in trying to prevent them (the Indians) from doing as I tell them, he will have them punished.
    In the event of the troops coming you can say to the Indians that they come to protect them and not to harm them, but we shall expect them to obey you in what you say to them.
    I may possibly meet you on the road, though I cannot say, for I am expecting Indians from the Lower Columbia River to negotiate a treaty.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    R. B. Metcalfe
        Sub-Ind. Agent
En route with Umpquas
to Grand Ronde encampment
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 20-21.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 21st 1856
Sir
    Your letter of the 16th instant from camp on Elk Creek has been received.
    Upon examination of your letter taken in connection with the efforts of the legislative assembly to excite our people, apparently with a view of inducing them to resist by force the consummation of the plans sought to be carried out for the colonization of those Indians, and their removal to the reservation in accordance with treaty stipulations, I have dispatched a messenger to Fort Vancouver with a request that 25 or 30 dragoons, if they can be had, or 50 infantry, be dispatched at once to your aid, and I confidently anticipate a compliance with that request. In the meantime use persuasive measures to induce the Indians to accompany you on the way until you find a convenient camp, and if you deem it advisable there remain until the arrival of the troops. You will use every possible effort to induce the Indians to acquiesce in the arrangements, and if you fail, select as above indicated some suitable camp where they can be subsisted and where forage can be obtained for your animals, and await the arrival of the troops.
    The mail brought me intelligence of the designation by the President of the Coast Reservation for the Willamette, Umpqua and coast tribes, together with power to adopt such measures as I might deem necessary and proper to maintain order and secure an observance of treaty stipulations, drawing upon the Department at Washington for such an amount of funds as might be requisite to meet the exigencies.
    The encampment at the head of Grand Ronde is the point selected for the concentration of the friendly bands; the point to which we look as the entering wedge of our future operations, and a failure to accomplish that would be equivalent to abandonment of the policy of the government. The threats of aspirants to intimidate and defeat the plans for the accomplishment of this important link to all successful operations will not induce me to swerve; my oath of office and instructions require prompt and decisive action. The Indians must be taken to the encampment at Grand Ronde. The goods are at this point (Dayton). I have persons engaged in building at the encampment. A portion of the Indians of this valley will be on the ground in a few days.
    I send by Mr. Magruder one thousand dollars for use in the removal of those Indians.
    Arrangements had been made to transport the Indians on one of the steamers from Corvallis to Dayton, but in the event of an escort of troops, it may not be necessary to do so. I feel encouraged in the hope that you may have succeeded in inducing the Indians at least to cross the Calapooya Mountains. The troops sent up will doubtless reach Corvallis by steamer and may be looked for at that point as early as Friday next.
    In the event of a necessity for additional teams, you will purchase, if they can be obtained at reasonable rates, as they will be required for service on the reservation. I shall secure the services of a physician and send out to attend the sick, if it be practicable to do so; one has already been engaged to reside with them upon the reservation.
    Say to those Indians that we are not going to take them into a wild wilderness, but to a country where they can be supplied with all the comforts of life; where there will be houses and fields, and they will be protected and supplied with provisions, clothing &c., and those who wish employment will find plenty to do. Say to them that if they desire peace and wish to receive my talk and do what is right and be protected, that I shall expect them to come with you and see me as they have agreed to. They must not listen to the talk of foolish people, that those who profess great friendship for them now only expect to get them to do their work for them; that those people do not often give them anything unless they get something in return; that our Great Chief has directed me to look after their interests and to see that they are protected, and that I wish to do them good, but unless they receive my talk and obey me I can do them no good. Tell them also that those persons who represent that our Chief is not pleased with my acts are lying to them; that he does approve them, and what is more if he finds that they lie to him in trying to prevent them (the Indians) from doing as I tell them, he will have them punished.
    In the event of the troops coming you can say to the Indians that they come to protect them, and not to harm them, but we shall expect them to obey you in what you say to them.
    I may possibly meet you on the road, though I cannot say, for I am expecting Indians from the Lower Columbia River to negotiate a treaty.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    R. B. Metcalfe
        Sub-Ind. Agent
En route with Umpquas
to Grand Ronde Encampment
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 20-21.




Dayton O.T. Jany. 21, 1856
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Sir
            I have just received your note of this morning informing me that my services as clerk &c. are no longer required.
    I have only to say that this termination of our relations is in accordance with a wish that I have on more than one occasion expressed to you. I regret that I have not been more efficient in the discharge of the duties which I am
convinced required a larger experience than I possessed. Allow me to assure you sir that whatever pecuniary injury or embarrassment may arise out of any error or omission of mine, I hold myself in honor and morally bound to make good to you within the extent of my means.
Respectfully &c.
    Edward R. Geary
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 18.




Office Sub. Ind. Agent
    Umpqua City--Oregon
        Jan. 21st 1856
Sir
    Your favor of Dec. 11th '55 was received at this office by the mail of Jan. 13th '56. Its non-arrival at an earlier date is to be attributed to the closing up of navigation between this place & Scottsburg during the cold weather.
    While I am most happy to fill
omissions & rectify errors agreeable to your instructions I do not fail to appreciate your courtesy. To have accounts suspended on account of inconsistencies is not only vexatious & mortifying but in a pecuniary point of view exceedingly detrimental--subjecting the patient to embarrassments & censure from the Department.
    I now see how deficient my accounts have been--have carefully reviewed them all from the time of my first appointment up to the present & supplied the omissions & rectified the errors I have been able to notice. I am yet a sub "in embryo" therefore have patience--enclosed please find
    1st The Account
Current & Property Returns for 4th quarter 1854--Account Current & Property Return for 1st quarter 1853--
    2nd Abstract B 2nd quarter 1855--corrected voucher No. 60 (it being an abstract of
distribution) replaced (corrected) with a bill of purchase--vouchers No. 13 & 15 for same quarter completed--Accounts Current & Property Returns for 2nd quarter 1855--
    3rd Vouchers No. 6 & No. 7 Abstract A 3rd quarter 1855 completed--Accounts Current & Property Returns for same quarter--
    4th Returns for 4th quarter 1855 including abstract of disbursements for current expenses with accompanying vouchers--Account Current & Property Return for same quarter
    5th Abstracts
of distribution made at the different encampments in the Umpqua District during quarter ending Dec. 31st 1855
    6th Estimate of funds received for the quarter commencing Jan. 1st 1855.
    Should any of the enclosed prove incorrect or insufficient they will be perfected immediately on their return to this office. Having
no blanks I find it difficult to obtain the precise form required & may have failed in some points.
    The Indians in this district are all quiet at present & in my opinion no trouble need be apprehended in their removal should it be required. They all appear perfectly well satisfied with the terms of the treaty & say "when the Department comply with their part of the
treaty (i.e., make the specified improvements) we are ready & willing to go."
    At the headwaters of the Coquille there has been some disturbance & by late advice I am of the opinion that more may be apprehended. Therefore it becomes "absolutely necessary" to
retain the Coos band at their encampment. Indeed I do not think the Indians would be safe out of the reserve, even now, hence if the citizens report that they have been opposed & fired upon by Indians who have been permitted to leave the encampment for a few days hunting which reports I believe to be without the least foundation & evidently false--made for the sole object to create a disturbance. Should the Indians be required to remain at their lodges nor be permitted to hunt as heretofore, the estimate which I forward will be inadequate to defray the expense & should be doubled the amount.
    The Scottsburg band of Indians you will notice in the enclosed abstract
of distributions are at Umpqua--a part of them believe in the "Calapooia Reservation" if they have not been removed to the coast, which transfer you will recollect was spoken of that August at the "Winchester Bay council ground."
    The Siuslaw & Alsea bands are apparently on the most friendly terms, frequently visiting the agency & no fear need be entertained from them if no whites reside among them to create difficulty.
    The bill of goods
receipted for at Rogue River & distributed at the Coquille has not yet come to hand. As I have never yet received a list of the same with the prices affixed it is impossible for me to bring up my abstracts & forward them to your office.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
    E. P. Drew
        Sub Ind. Agt.
To Gen. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 58.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 21st 1856.
Major G. J. Rains, 4th Infy.
    or Commanding Officer, U.S. Army
        Fort Vancouver, W.T.
            Sir:
                I have the honor to apply to you for a detachment of one officer and 25 or 30 U.S. dragoons, if they can be had, or if not a force of say 50 regular infantry, to protect and escort certain tribes of friendly Umpqua, Calapooia and Molalla Indians now in camp on Elk Creek about one hundred miles south of this point to the Indian reservation selected and approved of by the President of the United States.
    I send this dispatch by Mr. Blanchard, who also bears documents and letters of instruction and information that will explain to you the necessity of troops being used in carrying into effect the object in view, owing to the prejudicial interference of certain citizens of Oregon with and among those Indians, by which means disaffection is caused, and the orders of the government liable to be defeated.
    I think it well to remark that, owing to the inclement weather and bad state of the roads, the order of General Wool directing that troops from Fort Lane be sent with these and the Rogue River bands was not carried out, and the latter Indians yet remain at Fort Lane and will not be removed before spring.
    The troops asked for are required as soon as they can possibly be got in readiness and may be transported by water from Oregon City to Corvallis, that being the point of debarkation, from which they will have (for dragoons) but about three days march. I presume it will not be necessary for them to transport either subsistence or camp equipage, as they will be housed each night and can be subsisted on the road.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
A true copy from my letter book.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 535-537.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 22nd 1856
Sir:
    Your letter of yesterday informing me that you had decided upon awaiting the arrival of the Umpqua Indians has been received. In answer I have to say that I disapprove such a course, and that it is expected that all persons engaged in the service will comply with instructions.
    Arrangements had been made for these Indians to come down at a designated time, and other arrangements made in accordance with that understanding. A departure from those plans tends to frustrate our whole business, besides the longer the matter is delayed the greater opposition is brought to bear, and this delay may defeat the entire policy.
    Should Mr. Spores arrive with the Indians under his charge he will take charge of those heretofore at your camp and proceed at the earliest moment by steamer to this place. And I have to request that you will proceed and meet the Umpqua camp and tender such medical aid to the sick in that camp as may be requisite in their march. At the last advises--16th inst.--they were on Elk Creek, south of the Calapooya Mountains, but would cross in two days from that date. They are now probably on Long Tom.
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Dr. T. J. Right
        Corvallis
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 22.



Grand Ronde Jany. 22 / 56
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Dear sir, Yours of the 21st ultimo has been presented me by Mr. Flett's express, and in answer have to say that on the 19th instant there were brought here 20 of the Luckiamute band of Indians which I gave all the attention in my power. They encamped on the bottom below the Eaton house. I furnished them with straw for beds and near a hundred pounds of flour and salt spare ribs and backbone pieces from the hogs we have slaughtered and two bars of soap and a pound of sugar apiece. As near as I can come at it they want clothing and blankets very much for they suffer with the cold, and I could not sleep myself last night for thinking about them in open tents and a cold rainy night. They say that they will remain in their tents until I put up their houses and seem to be well pleased with my plan of house for them. I hope to have them all housed this week. There are five of them at work. As for lumber I can make it here cheaper than it can be hauled for except the planing. We can make five hundred feet per day to the hand from the stump, and as there is plenty of good riving timber here at hand suitable for weatherboarding with the use of the drawing knife a little. I have advised Mr. John Flett on his return to you to go by the mill and engage five thousand feet of flooring six or eight inches wide 1¼ inch thick and 16 feet long and one thousand of feet of 1½ inch seven inches wide for jamb casing for doors and windows. The flooring will answer for casing the logs, [the] building being squared at the opening to six inches thick. It is almost impossible to get hauling done, that is from the mill; the roads is so bad and my presence being of such importance here to advance the Indian building. Mr. John Flett will make the engagement of the lumber at the mill as he returns and if possible to have them to deliver half of it at least right of us, also one thousand feet of lathing or rafters three inches wide by 1¼ inches thick with thirty-inch clapboard will make a good roof. I have made this arrangement hoping it may meet your approbation, believing as I do that I shall soon see you, and if I have misjudged the mistake can be corrected without much evil. I have got of Mr. Woolery 130 pounds of salt and 490 pounds of flour. I will try and keep all things right in this quarter and moving. We have succeeded so far well, although at this time the weather is much against us. We want some candle wicking, and I think you would do well to send up Mr. Hash's cook stove to go in the house of Mr. Henderson, as we will have a good deal of work to do in that quarter in getting out riving timber it would soon pay for itself in the time of going back and forth, it being about 1½ mile, there being no place for fire in the house. There was an Indian reported himself this morning at Mr. Clark's house wanting to get oats, saying that he and a white man were camped out above his house and on their way to the Tillamook. His appearance being suspicions, Mr. Flett and Mr. Clark went in pursuit of him and brought him in, having two horses, there being no person with him. He has told many stories about himself. I have not determined what action I shall take. I think it best to keep him a few days if I can; he may have stolen the best horses, but I will not detail Mr. Flett longer.
Accept my respects as truly yours
    Joseph Jeffers
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Dayton
I have concluded to send the suspected horse down to you. The Indian will work until his innocence is shown, and if innocent we will pay for work and return the horse.

NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 24.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Jan. 22nd 1856.
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to transmit to your office the accompanying paper, showing the pecuniary condition of this agency.
    Also: appended you will see an estimate of funds necessary to meet the current expenses of this district for the second quarter 1856.
    Salary of agent $375.00
Salary of interpreter 125.00
Incidental expenses     500.00
$1000.00
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Indian Agt.
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 4-5.



Headquarters Fort Vancouver
    January 23rd, [1856]
Sir
    Your communication of the 21st inst. to Major Rains has by that officer been turned over to me. As I do not feel authorized to order the command you ask for without the authority of Genl. Wool, I shall forward your letter to dept. headquarters by the next steamer.
    The movement of a command for the purpose of escorting the Indians to the reservation will involve an expenditure which I do not feel authorized to make without reference to the General. I hope, however, that the temporary delay will cause you no embarrassment.
With great respect
    Your most obdt. servt.
        G. Wright
            Col. 9th Infy.
                Commdg.
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        Dayton
            Oregon Tery.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 23.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 532-533.




Portland Jany. 24th 1856
Genl. Palmer
    Dr. Sir
        At Oregon City as you directed me I paid Cochran & Springer your bill from the ten you gave me, for which I took a receipt and left it and seven 50/100 with O. B. Twogood which you will please call for on your first visit to that city.
    I am expecting the Columbia tomorrow or the day following, and will be off for home. Your acts are favorably received by all with whom I have conversed.
    Write to me at Port Orford as to the success of your plans now being consummated.
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 25.


Pacific County W.T. 1856
    January the 25
Mr. Palmer
    Dear Sir
        I wish to inquire of you whether there is any probability of me getting my money that I was robbed of by the Rogue River Indians the last day of August 1849. It has been a long time since I lost my money and you have been in office a good while and I have no doubt you know whether I can get my money or not and if it can be had you know what is necessary for me to do to obtain it. I have done all that I know how to do, that is proved the account and asked the Superintendent to pay it but he has no money that can be applied in that way and I have waited six years and see no prospect of my ever getting it. The account is a just one and the knowing ones all tell me I will get my money someday. The question is how and when? If you can answer the question I will be much obliged to you if you will do it and if I can never get it you equally oblige me by saying so.
    Please excuse my bluff manner of getting off my story and I hope you will answer the above and I remain yours

John Meldrum
Joel Palmer, Superintendent Indian Affairs O.T.
   

    This day personally appeared before me John Meldrum & being first duly sworn said he and his comrades were robbed by Indians on Rogue River on the thirty first day of August 1849 of money and property to the amount of twenty three hundred and ninety five dollars under the following circumstances: I was on my way home from California in company with Arthur Saltmarsh, Mr. Gage, Mr. Wilkinson, Mr. Kellison, Mr. White and Mr. Mulkey. Saltmarsh and I had an Indian boy with us which we had taken with us to California. During the day before we were robbed the Indians frequently showed themselves to us and appeared surly. We stopped for the night three miles above the point of rocks on the road [Rock Point] and thinking there might be danger we left two on guard at a time I was on the first guard all was quiet until after daybreak when the guard turned loose the horses to feed after they walked off fifteen or twenty steps they made signs of fright when the guard called out "There are Indians about." Just when I had got on my feet the Indians commenced firing and hallowing. I think they fired about thirty times our horses frighted and ran, when they were two hundred yards off Indians on horseback ran in behind them & drove them off. Those were the first Indians we saw for those that were shooting at us we could not see they were in the brush and it was foggy in the direction they were. Their arrows fell about us like a shower of hail. They were not dangerous though [they] kept us busy to dodge them. White ran after his horses but did not come back nor catch them. Mr. Kellison after firing his gun also ran. I saw Mr. Gage standing a few steps from our bed loading his gun. Mr. Wilkinson was standing by him who had no gun where the arrows were not falling so thick and after firing my gun I backed off towards Gage & Wilkinson to reload. Mr. Saltmarsh remained standing on the bed. Mr. Mulkey was sick, covered up in bed an arrow fell on him cutting through the blankets [and] wounding him slightly. At this he and Saltmarsh come running toward me I wheeled and ran 60 or 80 yards but as soon as I found I was running I halted and said we could whip them. Saltmarsh and Mulkey who were with me halted standing a minute. We saw Indians raise up near our baggage I think about 150 of them. They ran in on our baggage until it was literally covered. At this Saltmarsh said to me "John now is our time" and he fired. At the crack of this gun the Indians all fell on their faces and each one bounded up bringing something with him, blanket or something else, and began to make off. At this Saltmarsh and I hallowed loud and ran right at them when we arrived to where our beds were we found all was gone. Standing a few minutes we were joined by all of our party, when we soon commenced our journey for home on foot some of us barefooted and I with no hat. After we had traveled about one mile the Indians began to collect on the opposite side of the river. They dogged us for about 7 or 8 miles shooting at us occasionally when we sat down on the road for Mulkey to rest. They crossed over on our side of the river and one showed himself within 2 or 3 hundred yards of us. Saltmarsh said to me "You take that side and I'll [take] this and we will get him." The Indians seeing us coming began to run from tree to tree one of them watching. Saltmarsh within 60 or 80 yards of me exposed his back to me; I laid my gun up beside of a tree took good aim and fired he took one step afterwards and fell. The remaining Indians being 9 in number run into a clump of brush about 20 steps from the fallen Indian I reloaded my gun and [said] "Boys I guess we had as well go." We then walked on and soon crossed the river.
    After this we were troubled no more by the Indians and on the third day we met the wagons in the Kenyon and got something to eat. The above mentioned money eighteen hundred dollars was gold dust and two hundred dollars was coin part gold and part silver. My horses and blankets and other clothing was worth four hundred dollars. The remainder of my comrades except Saltmarsh were strangers to me except Saltmarsh he and I had left home together and had worked together all the time, consequently I knew what money he had and he also knew what I had. He had fifteen hundred and between 20 and 40 dollars his horses and rigging I think something better than my own say four hundred and fifty dollars. Our Indian boy had one horse and his rigging was worth two hundred dollars. I think he also had one hundred and seventy five dollars in gold dust that he lost.
    It is impossible for me to designate the Indians inasmuch as I never was in that country but the once going to and from California. 500 dollars of the above named money as claimed by me belonged to David Waldo and 75 dollars John Roe.
John Meldrum
Chinook January 11th 1854
Victor Monroe
Associate Justice W.T.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 679-684.




Grand Ronde Jan. 25th 1856
Respected Sir
    As Mr. Flett is about to leave I thought to drop a line to you. I send a package of letters which if you will see them mailed I will be much obliged. Jake thought he would like to see you and as he has been a good boy and stayed as long as would be expected also being somewhat
disable to work having hurt his arm we thought it ought to gratify him in his wishes. We all love Jake and hope he will make speedy return. It was very pleasing to see the the Inds. coming in. I would not add to your cares unnecessarily but wish to say I am in need of some clothing which I can get at the Jew's store if you have none which you would prefer to provide.
    You  will see what Jake needs. Your letters are very welcome but your person would be doubly so. You have my thanks for forwarding my letter and if you can send me one from my--wife--
    Please have the goodness to call for my mail as I am almost impatient. Jake
leaves in company with Mr. Flett. We are well.
In haste your friend and
    Well wishes
        Joseph Chamberlin
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 44.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 26th 1856
Sir:
    Your letter of the 4th ultimo, conferring upon me discretionary powers to meet the exigencies of the services in this Superintendency, has been received.
    Several communications in relation to the affairs of this Superintendency had been prepared prior to the reception of your communication, all of which go out by the return steamer, which is expected here tomorrow. Subsequent to the date of those letters I received, by express messenger, from R. B. Metcalfe, sub-Indian agent left in charge of the Umpqua Indians, a letter informing me that he had succeeded in inducing all the Indians assembled on the Umpqua Reservation to join the immigrating Indians, and had proceeded to Elk Creek, at the southern base of the Calapooya Mountains, where by the mischievous interference of whites the Indians had become alarmed and portions of them had, peremptorily, refused to go further, and that he doubted whether he would be able to succeed in keeping together the camp unless aided by a military escort.
    This interference appeared to be the result of the action of the legislative assembly denouncing the policy adopted & avowing a determination to resist by force any attempt to settle Indians on the designated reservation. The Indians were told by persons prowling about the camps that the Superintendent would be removed, and that if they proceeded the citizens would shoot them. The Indians, being naturally suspicious, readily believed these reports, and although apparently anxious to proceed, were deterred by an apprehension of premeditated design to annihilate them. A messenger was immediately sent to Fort Vancouver with a request that 25 or 30 dragoons, or 50 infantry, might be sent to the aid of the agent. I have not yet received official information of the result of that application, but am informed by good authority that Colonel Wright, now in charge at Vancouver, declined granting the escort until he received orders from General Wool, who had returned to California.
    By the perusal of the enclosed newspaper you will notice a telegraphic dispatch received at this place from Oregon City that the Indians alluded to had been dispersed. It may turn out, however, that the bands referred to are those belonging to this valley, as messengers had been sent advising them to congregate at the encampment in the Grand Ronde, where they might receive their annuity and be supplied with rations. Several of these bands had started accompanied by their local agents, but were induced to abandon the trip by the threatened opposition of the legislative assembly. One band, only, reached the point designated; others I presume will do so in a few days if visited in person.
    Should General Wool grant the request for an escort of troops, with directions to remain at or near the encampment, it will give confidence to the Indians, and there will be but little difficulty in carrying out the proposed plan; should it be refused, I have but little hope of making a successful arrangement to locate these Indians or accomplish any good in our efforts for their benefit.
    Preliminary steps are being taken to remove the southern coast bands to the reservation, but the number of Indians in that quarter, the numerous streams to cross on the route and the difficulty in transporting the requisite supplies must necessarily cause great delay. The obstacles sought to be thrown in the way of the removal of the Umpquas and Willamette tribes will doubtless have to be overcome in the removal of the coast Indians. A very few designing persons are able to cause a vast amount of unnecessary labor and expense and defeat any arrangement with these Indian tribes, and the only means by which we can hope to retain the ascendancy over their superstitious fears and place our relations with them upon a firm basis will be by having a military command at our disposal. To be denied the aid of troops at a critical moment upon flimsy pretenses and technical objections is to encourage a spirit of resistance to authority and good order and effectually neutralize all efforts to reduce the Indians and lawless whites to subordination.
    The publication of instructions from your office, the designation by the President of the Coast Reservation, and publication of certain sections of the Intercourse Laws, and the treaties with the Molallas and coast tribes, will, from present indications, have a beneficial influence in disabusing the public mind in regard to the policy of the government and the action of the Superintendent.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 24-25.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. Jany. 26th 1856.
        (written at Portland)
Sir
    Your communication of 4th ultimo conferring discretionary powers to meet the exigencies of the service in this Superintendency has been received. Several communications had been written and placed in the post office, detailing at some length the condition of affairs in this Superintendency prior to the reception of your letter, all of which goes out by return steamer, which is expected here tomorrow.
    Subsequent to the date of those letters I received by express messenger from R. B. Metcalfe, sub-Indian agent, who had been left in charge of the Umpqua Indians, a letter informing me that he had succeeded in inducing all the Indians assembled upon the Umpqua Reservation to join the emigrating party and had proceeded to Elk Creek at the southern base of the Calapooia Mountain, where by the mischievous interference of whites the Indians had become alarmed and portions of them had peremptorily refused to go further, and that he doubted whether he would be able to succeed in keeping together the camp unless aided by a military force.
    This interference is undoubtedly the result of the action of the legislative assembly in denouncing the policy of colonization and arousing a determination to resist by force any attempt to settle Indians upon the reservation designated, as the Indians were told by persons strolling about camp that the Supt. would be removed and that if they proceeded to the reservation the whites would shoot them &c. The Indians, being naturally superstitious and timid, believed those reports and although appearing desirous to proceed were deterred by an apprehension of premeditated design to annihilate them.
    A messenger was immediately sent to Vancouver with a request that 25 or 30 dragoons or 50 U.S. infantry might be dispatched to the aid of the agent. I have not received information of the result of that application but am informed by good authority that Colonel Wright, now in charge at that post, had declined granting the escort until he received orders from Genl. Wool, who had returned to San Francisco.
    By the perusal of the enclosed newspaper you will notice a telegraphic dispatch received at this place from Oregon City, to the effect that the Indians who are alluded to had been dispersed. It may however turn out that the Indians referred to are those belonging to the Willamette Valley, as messengers had been sent directing them to congregate at the encampment in the Grand Ronde Valley, where they might receive their annuity payment and be supplied rations. Several of these bands had started, accompanied by their local agents, but were induced to abandon the trip on account of the threatened opposition of the legislative assembly. One band only reached the point designated; others I presume will do so in a few days if visited in person.
    Should Genl. Wool grant the request for an escort of troops with directions to remain at or near the encampment, it will give confidence to the Indians, and there will be but little difficulty in carrying out the proposed plan. Should this however be refused, I shall have but little hope of making a successful arrangement to locate those bands or accomplish any good in our efforts to benefit those Indians.
    Preliminary steps are being taken to remove the southern coast bands to the reservation, but the number of Indians in that quarter, the numerous streams to cross on the route [and] the difficulty in transporting the requisite supplies must necessarily cause delays; besides it would I apprehend be a useless attempt unless official aid would be afforded by the military, for the obstacles sought to be thrown in the way of the removal of the Umpqua and Willamette tribes will have to be overcome in the removal of the Coast Indians. A very few designing persons are able to cause a vast amount of unnecessary labor and expense and defeat any arrangements with those Indian tribes, and the only means by which we can hope to retain the ascendancy over their superstitious fears and place our relations with them upon a firm basis and counteract pernicious influences of whites will be by having at our disposal a military command.
    To be denied the aid of troops at a critical moment upon flimsy pretenses on technical objections is to encourage a spirit of resistance to authority and good order and effectively neutralize all efforts to reduce the Indians and lawless whites to a state of subordination.
    The publication of instructions from your office, the notice for the designation by the President of the Coast Reservation and certain exertions of the intercourse laws and treaties will from present indications have a beneficial influence in disabusing the public mind in regard to the policy of the government and the objectives of the Superintendent.
    By the next mail I will transmit copies of Sub-Agent Metcalfe's letter, and the correspondence between this office and the commanders at Vancouver.
I have the honor to remain
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner of Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 480-484.




Cow Creek Jan. the 26, 1856
    Dear Sir, I have sent you the agreement by mail last three months since. I swore the recpt. you sent me and send it with this note. We have nothing of interest. The Indians are in the mountains. I think we will kill them soon, that is the Cow Creeks. I think they are out of ammunition.
J. B. Nichols
Joel Palmer
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 79.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. January 27th, 1856
        (written at Portland)
Dear General:
    I enclose herewith a copy of a letter written by Father Cherouse, of Walla Walla, to the father at the Dalles mission, the contents of which I think merits, and should receive, immediate attention.
    The picture may be strongly drawn, but unfortunately for the character and reputation of our troops, I fear it is too true. I have, I think, undeniable evidence that a portion of the Indians in the country referred to are, and have been, desirous of peace, and are willing to submit to almost any sacrifice to obtain it, but there may be a point beyond which they could not be induced to go without a struggle.
    I am firmly of opinion that nothing short of the immediate occupancy of that country by regular U.S. troops can save these tribes from a participation in this war--the result of which would be to deluge the country in blood, and cast a stain of reproach upon our national reputation, as it is within our power to prevent it and restore our country to a state of peace and quietude. To enable this Department to maintain guarantees secured these Indians by treaty stipulations and carry out the policy of the government in its efforts to colonize these Indians upon the reservations designated, I have to request that you will direct at least one hundred United States troops to proceed at once to the Cayuse country to aid the agents of this Department to establish an Indian encampment upon the Cayuse Reservation. Our efforts to establish an encampment at that point, unaided by the military arm of the government, under the existing state of affairs, would be useless, and no efforts will be made to effect such an object in that quarter until such aid can be given.
    The Cayuse Reservation is situated about thirty miles southeast from Fort Walla Walla and upon the Umatilla River at that point where the emigrant wagon road reaches the western slope of the Blue Mountains. It is at this point that I desire to establish an encampment so as to enable us to commence active operations for the permanent locating of those tribes.
    Immediately on my return home, I contemplate writing you more in detail, giving the condition of affairs in Southern Oregon and the progress made in congregating Indians upon the Coast Reservation. I may say now, however, that owing to the extreme inclemency of the weather and wretched condition of the roads, it was deemed inadvisable by the agent and Captain Smith to attempt the removal of the Indians at Fort Lane before spring, and consequently no escort was obtained for other bands.
    Application for an escort in the removal of the Umpquas has been made, and it is presumed you will be advised through‘the proper channel. Very little good can be accomplished unless I am sustained by the troops in the regular service, and I cannot but believe that I shall receive your cooperation in carrying out the policy of the government, a failure to obtain which would subject me to the most humiliating mortification, as I should regret very much to see the humane policy to better the condition of these Indians frustrated by the interference of designing, intriguing, corrupt and vicious demagogues, such as are now barking at the heels of every public officer who has the moral courage to express his disapprobation of the savage and brutal conduct of those miscreants who have provoked this war, or who dare differ in opinion upon any subject in which they may figure. This interference on the part of such persons can have no other effect than to awaken the fears of the natives and arouse weak-minded persons to a senseless opposition to the measures deemed essential to the efficacy of the service, but that opposition is nevertheless effective, if unaided by a force to awe lawless persons and give confidence to the Indians.
I have the honor to be, General,
    Most respectfully
        Your obedient servant
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                    O.T.
To
    Major General John E. Wool
        Commanding Pacific Department
            U.S. Army
                San Francisco
                    California
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 526-529.



In camp at Mr. Reed's Jan. 28 1856
Dear Sir
    I send Mr.
Magruder down this morning not that I have anything of importance to communicate but I have no further need of his services on the road. I have returned Mr. Davidson from the fact [that] he is acquainted with most of the people about Dallas and in the event of him having difficulty with the citizens of Polk County he can render us great  assistance. I will be at Grand Ronde next Friday.
    I had trouble to
get some of the Indians to leave Corvallis. Some of the citizens, evidently aiming to make all the mischief they could, they sold the Indians liquor, which made several of them drunk. They were fighting on the road from Corvallis to this place and had several fights after they arrived in camp, but all is quiet this morning, and we will get off without further trouble.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 35.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Jan. 31st 1856
Sir
    I avail myself of the kindness of Jim Smith to send you a few lines. Our mail arrangements have become in a manner worthless. I have had communication in the office several days, waiting to send it out, but no mail.
    I expect to be able to start out with these Indians about the fifth of February, or as soon as the escort gets ready. It may not be ready quite as soon, although Capt. Smith is looking daily for a company from Fort Jones. He thinks without doubt Judah will be over in a few days. Neither I  nor Capt. Smith considers it prudent to start with an escort of less than one hundred men, and he has accordingly granted me that number to go with him through the Canyon, and but twenty from there on. If there should be any necessity for more than that number you can easily secure them by making application to Genl. Wool. The Capt. has already asked for discretionary orders, in the event of its being necessary, to enable him to act promptly. I would have started earlier but it was absolutely necessary to wait till a sufficient escort could be obtained. The roads are still very bad and no forage can be procured for the first hundred miles in consequence of which I suspect we will have to travel very slowly, as our means of transportation are quite limited when we take into consideration the number of aged and infirm, and women and children, who are to accompany us. As soon as I get started I will write you more particularly and advise you of our whereabouts. I suspect it will become necessary to remit me assistance.
    I have on hand at present about two thousand dollars which will hardly be enough. However you will be able to form a very good idea from the cost of Mr. Metcalfe's trip, who I presume will be through by the time this shall have reached you. There is now nearly four hundred Indians, and they have but very little stock of their own. I have four teams as you are aware of in my charge, one belonging to the Agency. I have also employed one team to assist as far as the Umpqua, and if Mr. Smith should succeed in making the trip as soon as he expects you will have time to send me assistance which would meet me in the Umpqua Valley, if in your judgment I should require it. I shall start as soon as possible and lose no more time than can be helped while traveling, but much depends upon the arrival of the escort when I shall start, but I can safely say it will be within ten days.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 54.


Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Jan. 31st 1856
Dear Sir
    I have the honor to transmit the following report of the condition of affairs pertaining to this Agency. Circumstances have rendered it impossible for to remove these Indians for the past two months, although they are quite willing to go as soon as the necessary arrangements can be made for that purpose. The military escort asked for is not sufficient to afford them protection in view of which fact I deemed it best, both for the Indians and the country, to await a more favorable time. The inclemency of the weather also had much to [do] with that matter. Some meddlesome evil-disposed persons are in the habit of frequenting the encampment, telling the Indians all sort of stories in relation to the contemplated move, warning them of the danger they will be in if they should go, representing to them that they will surely be killed by the way by persons who are laying in wait for that purpose, that at least five hundred persons were preparing to march against them, and their only chance of safety lay in flight to the mountains in the night unknown to the authorities of Fort Lane. Such meddlesome interference keeps them in constant alarm and renders it imperatively necessary that they should be accompanied by a sufficient military force to ward off any threatened danger. In my last communication I informed you that the number of Indians belonging to the encampment had increased to three hundred and fifty-one. They now number three hundred and seventy-one. The last lot of twenty were also women and children belonging to the Upper Rogue River and Butte Creek bands of Indians who had been dispersed and scattered in various locations. From their statements I am inclined to believe all belonging to these bands are now here. During the past month five deaths have occurred, one adult male, two women and two children. The general health of the tribe is not good. Thirty of them are confined by sickness, fifteen or twenty of whom would have to be conveyed by wagons to start. I am fully satisfied that the earlier they start the better and am accordingly using every exertion to get them under way as early as possible and hope to succeed in being able to start as early in February as the 5th or 6th of the month. Of the missing cattle belonging to the Agency all have been recovered but one. The skeleton of an ox was found on the reserve the day after it had been slaughtered and destroyed by the hostile Indians. It could not be identified as one of the Agency cattle, but it most probably was one.
    No war news of interest to communicate. Nothing effective has yet been done, occasionally some skirmishing, but nothing decisive on either side.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 63.



Deer Creek Douglas Co. O.T. Feb. 1st 56
Mr. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
            Sir
Agreeable to promise I send to you what information I have been able to gather concerning the Indian massacre on Lookingglass Creek in this county.
    I will give you the names (as I have learned them) of the men engaged in the affair. They are
L. D. Kent Douglas County O.T.      
James D. Burnett                 "
Robert Hadley                 "
John Farley                 "
[blank] Nichols                 "
Wm. Briggs                 "
Dad* Howe                 "   *Nickname--don't know his proper name
Oliver Underwood Umpqua Co.
Jack Long           "
Angus alias Jack Brown Near Jacksonville O.T.
Wm. Bullard                  "
Newton Poindexter Near Eugene City
Garrett Maupin Willamette Valley
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 57.   There may have been a page 2, but it was not filmed. The transmittal records the sender as W. K. Willis.


Removal of Indians.
Dayton, Feb. 4th--9 a.m.
    T. J. Dryer, Esq.--Three tribes of Indians, consisting of the Umpquas, Molallas and Calapooyas, under the care of Agent Metcalfe and Mr. C. Walker, arrived in town on the night of the 2nd, on their way to the Grand Ronde Valley. Number, 380, all told. Seem in good health and spirits.
    Our [telegraph] wire works well, and we will be able to send you a flash occasionally.
Yours,
    Graham.
Oregonian, Portland, February 9, 1856, page 2


Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Feb. 4th 1856
Sir
    I hereby transmit a memorandum of accounts contracted by the late agent Mr. Culver. I am at a loss to know what way to audit these claims. As some of them have not been returned on his quarterly returns and consequently not certified to as being correct, as a matter of course I could not certify to them. I have not settled any of these outstanding claims. I chose to retain the money in my hands to subsist the Indians upon, as I found it unpracticable to remove them. If they could have been removed (as contemplated by you) about the first of Dec. last a portion of the money in my hands could have been appropriated to the liquidation of these claims. As they could not be removed I considered it obligatory upon me to retain money sufficient to subsist them during the winter, by which means they could be subsisted much cheaper & more economical than otherwise.
    As I have no rule to be governed by in the adjustment of these claims & as some of them are regarded of doubtful character, would it be sufficient to permit the claimants to establish their claims by their oath & the evidence of disinterested persons. I have thought of adopting that plan.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
     

Memorandum of Accounts Contracted by S. H. Culver,
Late Indian Agent, Rogue River Valley Agency, During the Year 1853 & 1854.
C. S. Drew For clothing &c. given to Indians $194.00
Wm. Thompson Subsistence for Indians while removing 69.00
S. A. Rice Potatoes for planting & hauling 152.00
G. C. Pearson Beef furnished employees 65.85
Saml. Mooney Flour furnished Indians while removing 61.10
John Rauchen Butter furnished employees 27.50
David Birdseye Beef killed by Indians 125.00
Jewett & Bros. Ferrying Indians while removing to reserve 18.50
Wm. Hughes Furnishing & planting potatoes on reserve farm 187.50
Wm. Miller        do.               do.          do.              do.      do. 165.00
W. W. Brown Blacksmithing 45.50
E. T. Wright Beef for treaty purposes Nov. 18th 1854 95.00
Henry Redick Jo: oats 16.75
Pearson & Hunter Fresh beef for employees 12.96
Wm. Ducker Butter                    do.          3.25
$2576.41
Jerry Martin Blacksmithing 32.00
Wm. Miller Medical attendance        10.00
$2678.41
   
Rogue River Valley
Jackson County O.T.
1854 July Tyee Jo, Indian Chief Jo
Wm. Miller
To 2 visits & medicines for wife & daughter $25.00              
 Oct. " 3 " " " " self " " 25.00                                
1853 " 2 visits " medicines " wife & daughter 20.00
    Dr. Ambrose, you will please present this bill to Gen. Palmer for settlement. If he should object remind him of the time he was here and told me to let Jo have medicines and attention.
Wm. Miller           
   
The United States to C. S. Drew              Dr.
        1853
                    Augt. 24 30 shirts @ $3 $90.00
Sept. 10 1 vest 8.00                           
6 pairs shoes $3 18.00
3 heavy blankets $12 36.00
1 pair boots 10.00
1 ct. thread 2.00
3 pairs pants $10      30.00
$194.00
    I certify that the above articles were purchased in the market for treaty purposes of C. S. Drew, and that they were delivered by said Drew at the dates above mentioned, and that this account is legal and proper.
S. H. Culver
    Indian Agent
   

Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        Feb. 4 1856
Sir
    I have transmitted to your office several spoliation claims, with accompanying papers which contain all the evidence and explanations I am able to give.
    In all cases I have elected everything pertaining to the justness or unjustness of the claim or that would tend in the least to elucidate the matter. Some of these claims I am aware does not properly come before me but at the earnest solicitation of the claimants, many of whom believed if they could get their claims before the proper department at an early day they would be enabled the sooner to receive their compensation.
    I have accordingly taken the evidence & transmit the whole matter for your inspection.
    Some of the claims seem exorbitant, and some others as little uncertain, which ones the evidence will fully indicate & it is to be regretted if they should tend to prevent the payment of just claims.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 59.



Port Orford
    Feby. 5th 1856
Genl. Palmer
    Dear Sir
        Arrived on Saturday 2nd instant, found everything quiet except at Rogue River. Huntley & another white man had been killed near the mouth of Illinois Creek while transporting provisions up to "Big Bend." The war party it seems have come further down Rogue River. The house at "big bend" had been attacked in the absence of a party for supplies. On learning these facts from Jerry, Bent, agent, before our return, Major Reynolds sent a detachment of 16 men under Lieutenants Chandler & Drysdale, to aid the men at "big bend," and has sent 20 stands of arms & co. to the mouth of Rogue River, where an attack is anticipated. The major is spoken of in the highest terms.
    On my way down I met as passengers Capt. Cameron & Mr. Simons of Coos Bay, who told me that the steam tug spoken of was unseaworthy, of which I am satisfied, and therefore advise you to have nothing to do with her, with reference to your shipments to the reservation or otherwise.
Truly & in haste
    R. W. Dunbar
(Look out for breakers.)
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 80.


Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 6th 1856
Sir:
    You are authorized to dispose of and collect the value of any property now in the possession of any person belonging to any of the members of the Umpqua, Calapooia, Cow Creek or Molalla tribes of Indians, heretofore residing in Umpqua Valley, and make due returns to this office. It is understood that considerable quantities of wheat and other grain and vegetables have been deposited by the Indians with the settlers, and in some instances it has been left in caches. It is known also that a number of guns have been taken by the volunteers and citizens belonging to said Indians; the names of several having such are in your possession. These guns you will collect and have them forwarded to this office, and for that purpose you will deposit them with Floed and Lane at Winchester. In the event of any being in the hands of volunteers, procure the receipts of captains of companies if the arms cannot be obtained.
    In the transaction of this business you will use economy and incur no expenditure not absolutely required to accomplish the object. Seek to dispose of all the property (except the guns) at the highest rates and with as much dispatch as possible. Should you find that individuals have obtained guns or other property belonging to these Indians for which they are unwilling to pay a reasonable consideration, you will obtain all the facts and evidence and report them to this office that measures may be taken to collect the same. I have been informed that Mr. Lindsay Applegate has five or six guns belonging to these Indians.
    Louis, the head chief, has a farm with stock consisting of cattle, horses, hogs &c. This property will be left in charge of some suitable person until his return, when he will make such arrangements as may suit himself.
    You will say to those Indians who have refused to join the immigrating party that in the event of their coming to the reservation they will be received and provided for as others, provided however that they have not been engaged in any aggressions against the whites.
Very respectfully yours &c.
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Mr. Theophilus Magruder
        Local Agent
            now at Dayton, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 30.



Grand Ronde February 7th / 56
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Dear Sir, Not knowing where to address Mr. Metcalfe I write you in reference to the Umpqua Indians, who are suffering with the flux to an extent that it makes humanity shudder, and having no medical help or medicine my hands are tied so that I can't render them any assistance and those that are sick suffer with the cold at night enough to kill them. We have made already three coffins for them and are now at another. I have been among them twice a day since Mr. Metcalfe left for Portland, rendering such assistance as I could by making teas for the sick and if you cannot get a doctor that you think will fill the place at present if you think proper and will send me two bottles of castor oil, an ounce vial of laudanum and some Dover's powder I will administer to them. Please say by pack what you wish me to do, and if I shall give the sick ones blankets. The suffering of this people haunts me day and night. In haste I write. Please excuse the manner and matter. My sympathies for the suffering of this people are the only apology.
Yours truly
    Joseph Jeffers
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Supt. of Indians
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 46.



Salem February 10th 1856.   
To
    George W. Manypenny
        Commiss. of Indian Affairs
            Washington City
Sir
    At the request of Samuel H. Culver Esq., late Indian agent for the southern district of Oregon, I take pleasure in submitting to your consideration the following facts coming to some extent within my own personal knowledge.
    During the time Mr. Culver was acting as Indian agent and at the time of his suspension as well as afterwards, I was frequently attending the U.S. District Court in his district and acting as U.S. District Attorney "pro tem" and I fully believed at the time, in common with the people of his district, as I am now convinced that Mr. Culver did nothing in the discharge of his official duties to merit suspension by Genl. Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory.
    After his suspension Mr. Culver continued to act as agent at the urgent solicitation of the inhabitants of the valley, who believed at the time that his presence and services alone could preserve peace. So far as I had an opportunity of judging and from report Mr. Culver was an active and efficient officer.
Very respectfully your
    Obt. Servt.
        R. E. Stratton
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 946-948.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. 11th February 1856
Sir:
    My letter of the 26th ultimo informed you that I had received a letter from Sub-Agent R. B. Metcalfe, asking an escort of U.S. troops to enable him to proceed with the immigrating Indian party from Umpqua Valley to the Coast Reservation.
    I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of my letter to Major Rains, or commanding officer Fort Vancouver, applying for a detachment of U.S. soldiers, and the reply of Colonel Wright, in command at that post, declining to send them.
    Prior to the reception of Colonel Wright's reply, I had sent discreet messengers to explain to the inhabitants along the route to be traveled by those Indians the objects to be attained in their removal, and that the immigrating party consisted wholly of the peaceable and friendly bands of Umpqua Valley. A full explanation of the policy of the government in regard to these Indians and the correction of the erroneous impression imbibed, with an exhibit of a few sections of the intercourse laws, together with the energetic and determined action of Agent Metcalfe, had the effect to deter persons from resisting by force our efforts to remove these people.
    On the 2nd instant Agent Metcalfe arrived at the encampment on the Grand Ronde Valley with the Indians under his charge. Ten persons who had fled from his party could not be induced by him to proceed. Other members of these bands joined his camp so that there were 380 souls reached the encampment. The Luckiamute and Yamhill bands of this valley are also at that point. The remaining bands of the valley south of this point, from both side of the river, are now encamped at Dayton and will remove to the reservation in a few days. Portions of these bands have been deterred from coming in, as indicated in my letter above referred to, but by great exertions in disabusing their minds and appealing to the good sense of the people we have succeeded in gathering them here. These bands make in the aggregate over three hundred souls, making a total of over seven hundred. Other bands will be collected as soon as temporary shelter is prepared for them.
    Whilst I do not apprehend any immediate danger of collision between our citizens and the Indians upon this reservation, I regard it of the utmost importance that a military command should be temporarily established in its vicinity, for a very slight provocation during a time of excitement might provoke retaliatory steps and involve the entire bands in war. They are now entirely defenseless, and as an act of justice are entitled to our protection, and if allowed to remain at peace would soon be able to nearly subsist themselves.
    Since the engagement with the Walla Wallas & Cayuses of which you have been previously advised, nothing of importance has transpired changing materially the condition of affairs in that quarter. The Indians are said to be congregating on the north bank of Snake River, near the mouth of Palouse River, indicating a determination to contest the approach of the volunteers now being sent into that country. Five additional companies have been called for by the Governor of this Territory, three of which are already on their way to the Dalles to join those in that country; the remaining two are expected to leave in a few days.
    Serious complaints are being made by the friendly Indians in that district and the French settlers, missionaries &c. against the volunteers for ill treatment. The enclosed copy of a letter written by Father Chirouse of the Walla Walla mission to Father Mesplie of the Dalles mission sets forth in strong terms the condition of affairs .at that point. I enclose you herewith a copy of my letter to General Wool soliciting U.S. troops to be stationed in that vicinity. No reply has yet been received to that communication.
    I am now very much inclined to believe that it would be wise to remove such of the friendly Cayuses, Walla Wallas and Umatillas as have claimed our protection to the Warm Springs Reservation, and associate them with the Wascoes and Deschutes bands. This reservation is out of the disturbed district and so isolated as that the two races would not be likely to come in contact unless interfered with by our people.
    The similarity of habits and customs of these bands would suggest their confederation with the Nez Perces, but it is feared their removal to that district would give grounds to suspect a disposition on the part of the Nez Perces to screen hostile Indians and thus involve that tribe in the war.
    The removal of the Wascoes, Deschutes and the tribes named to the Warm Springs Reservation would render unnecessary the stationing of a regular military force near its boundaries, at least during hostilities. These bands may have some aversion to confederating, but, it is believed, their scruples may be overcome and all objections removed so as to enable us to confederate and locate them upon one tract. This would leave the entire district between the Dalles of the Columbia and the Blue Mountains to the northern boundary of our territory, and south to the 44th parallel, unoccupied by Indians, save the one reservation including the Warm Springs Valley. And it is not at all improbable but that these tribes may be induced to remove to the Coast Reservation, which by extending the line so far north as to include the Tillamook Valley would give room for their location, thus placing all the Indians in the Territory west of the Blue Mountains upon the one tract. The value of this coast district for any practical advantages for a white settlement of far less importance than the country between the Cascades and Blue Mountains. No other importance, I think, can well be attached to this coast district but on account of its fisheries, and whilst that could be of but comparative little consequence on account of the absence of harbors along its line of coast, they will afford a ready subsistence to the native population and make up, in some degree, for their inexperience in procuring a means of subsistence by cultivating the soil and economizing the expenditures of the general government in subsisting them during their tuition.
    I am credibly informed that the white settlers in Tillamook Valley are not only willing but desirous of an opportunity to dispose of their land claims and improvements for the object named. Another consideration which has induced me to look upon this plan favorably is the representation that gold has been found in considerable quantities within the limits of the Wasco reservation. This may or may not be true, but until there be a fair test it would be well to confine the expenditures within the limits of temporary improvements.
I have the honor to be sir
   Very respectfully yours
        Your obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington City, D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 33-35.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 519-525.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 12th 1856
Dear Genl.
    Notwithstanding the efforts and threats of those seeking to create a disturbance and defeat the consummation of the removal of our friendly Umpqua Indians to the Coast Reservation, I am happy to inform you that, with the exception of about ten who were frightened by the citizens and ran off, all of them reached the designated encampment on the 2nd instant.
    The Rogue River Indians are still at Fort Lane, and there is no doubt but that the failure to start them on the route contributed not a little to quieting the fears of the settlers, as their opposition to the removal of the southern Indians was more directly urged against the Rogue River bands than others. The plan of removing these bands has not, however, been altered or abandoned, and it is expected they will start on the journey at an early day as the weather will admit. No attempt, however, will be made to remove them unless an escort of regular troops can be furnished, and the number asked for in my letter to Major Rains of the 21st ultimo I regard as being requisite to ensure a safe passage. The presence of fifty infantry troops will not be more than adequate to ensure order and enforce our regulations at the encampment, and I feel in hopes that you will have given such directions as to carry out the original design at the encampment examined by Lieut. Bonnycastle.
    We have now at that encampment, and at this point on their way, over seven hundred Indians. Others are still coming on, and a very slight provocation might cause disturbances the end of which cannot be foreseen, to avoid which I am anxious that troops should be stationed at the Grand Ronde Encampment immediately.
I have the honor to be, Genl.
    Very respy. yr. obedt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Major General John E. Wool
        Comdr. Dept. of the Pacific U.S.A.
            Headqrs. Benicia, Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 38-39.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 12th 1856
Sir:
    On the 29th September last I paid W. H. Wright $125, per account, for "one horse killed in the service of Special Agent Benj. Wright, who was pursuing a prisoner who had escaped from the officer, having been arrested in violation of the Intercourse Act; the horse being shot by some person unknown."
    In order that the above accounting may pass the accounting officers of the Treasury, I have to request that you will have an affidavit drawn up and taken by yourself before a justice of the peace in your county, stating all the facts in the case, specifying the date and place of the death of the horse with all the attendant circumstances. Let this affidavit also state that the horse was the property of W. H. Wright, and how it came into your possession, whether by hire or otherwise, and that the actual value of the horse was not less than one hundred and twenty-five dollars.
    To this affidavit have a certificate of the clerk of the county court appended, under seal, that the justice before whom taken was properly empowered to take deposition, and that his acts are entitled to full faith and credence.
    The affidavit, when completed, I desire you will transmit to this office with as little delay as possible.
Very respectfully &c.
    Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To Benj. Wright
    Specl. Sub-Agent
        Port Orford O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 39.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 12th 1856
Sir:
    You are hereby designated as resident physician for the Indian tribes located at the Grand Ronde Encampment on the Coast Reservation and as such will attend to the sick and take charge of the medical department at the agency station, under the charge of Sub-Agent R. B. Metcalfe. This designation of appointment to be submitted to the Department of Indian Affairs at Washington, subject to confirmation or rejection as may be deemed advisable.
    A hospital building will be erected at an early day for the reception of such of these bands as you may deem advisable to remove thither. In the meantime seek to make the condition of the sick as comfortable as the circumstances will warrant.
    Any medicines in your possession requisite in the service to which you are now appointed will be paid for when received upon proper accounts being rendered, the articles particularized with the prices attached to each, and a statement showing the manner in which used in conjunction with your monthly report of the sick. Such medicines and surgical instruments as may be absolutely necessary you will make a special requisition for, and hand in to the agent in charge for transmission to this office.
    Your compensation will be at the rate of fifteen hundred dollars ($1500) per annum. No other allowance, i.e., money, is made on any account whatever. Your actual traveling expenses, incurred whilst traveling on duty, under special written instructions from this office, will be reimbursed to you on rendition of the proper sub-vouchers.
    A dwelling house will be erected for your accommodation at as early a day as practicable; in the meantime you can be quartered at the agency station.
    A horse will be furnished you for use at the station while in the service as such resident physician.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Dr. A. B. Westerfield M.D.
        Lafayette
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 40.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 12th 1856
Dear sir:
    Your letter of the 31st ultimo, by the hand of Mr. Smith, has this moment reached me.
    I am pleased to learn of the favorable prospect of your accomplishing the removal of the Rogue River Indians as we had received rumors that you had abandoned all idea of removing them and contemplated commencing labor on the reservation.
    I have written General Wool asking for an escort, increasing the number over that originally applied for and confidently anticipate receiving orders for such numbers as may be required.
    I start tomorrow for Portland and expect to intercept my mail matter, and if favorable shall proceed to Vancouver. On my return I shall dispatch a messenger with funds and information to you relative to escorts &c. In the meantime I hope you will take steps to carry into effect the object in view.
    I would suggest that in the procurement of teams to remove these Indians it would be well to purchase, instead of hiring, as the teams will be useful in future operations upon the reservation. Funds for this object will be sent you. The animals used in the removal of the Umpqua Indians are so much reduced as to be unable to return to Umpqua Valley. 380 Indians under charge of R. B. Metcalfe arrived safely at the Grand Ronde on the 2nd inst. Those of this valley are congregating at the same point--very many are at work.
    I received a few days since a letter from Messrs. Floed & Lane, of Winchester, informing me that they were unable to furnish the goods ordered for the Rogue River Indians. I am fearful this has been a great disappointment to the Indians. It certainly has been so to me, and I know not how to remedy it, as the goods are not to be had in that country.
    It may be well to purchase a few articles before you leave Jacksonville.
    We have no important news from the north.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    Geo. H. Ambrose Esq.
        Indian Agent
            Dardanelles
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 41.



Corvallis Feb. 18th 1856
General Palmer
    Dear Sir
        William W. Wilkinson informs me that sometime during the winter of '55 he preferred a claim against the general government for spoliations committed by the Rogue River Indians to the amount of $2000 or thereabouts, which spoliations were committed by said Indians in the fall of '49. Will you please to inform me by letter as soon as convenient what has been done in the premises and what the probability is of Mr. Wilkinson's getting his demand allowed.
Yours truly
    A. J. Thayer
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 66.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 18th 1856
Sir:
    Your letter of 1st ultimo, asking information in regard to a claim for potatoes furnished Mr. Brownlee, has been received, and in reply would state that a settlement has been made with Mr. Brownlee and his claim for all potatoes furnished has been paid.
    A contract was made with Mr. Hughes, as represented by Mr. Culver, the former agent, for planting potatoes--the consideration to be given covered the cost of plowing the land, furnishing seed and planting the crop. I have been advised by Mr. Brownlee that he performed the services in plowing the land, furnishing seed and presented a bill for potatoes used by men employed by Mr. Culver upon the reservation, and as the returns of Mr. Culver show that he was entitled to receive the pay for such seed it has been allowed him.
    I am unable to find any order in this office given by Mr. Brownlee for the amount of $190 as stated in your letter.
    If you have a legitimate claim against the government for articles furnished the Indian agent, it will be proper to present it to G. H. Ambrose, Indian agent, for his action, but articles furnished Brownlee or any other than an agent would not be a proper claim against the government. The parties with whom you contracted and delivered are alone responsible so far as the government is concerned. Dr. Ambrose is authorized to receive accounts of claimants having demands against the Indian Department in Rogue River Valley, who will report thereon.
Very respectfully &c.
    Joel Palmer, Supt. &c.
To
    Abram Petry
        Jacksonville, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 42-43.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 18th 1856
Gentlemen:
    Your communication addressed to this office under date of the 10th ultimo, asking the immediate removal of the Coquille Indians, was not received until the 12th instant, since which I have been unable to reply.
    I am free to admit that such a step would be best calculated to maintain peace and secure the rights of settlers in that quarter, but the accomplishment of that object is not so easily effected as many might seem to suggest. Those Indians have agreed to abandon their home and remove to a district designated in the treaty, but it could not be expected that they would go there before the ratification of the treaty by the Senate of the United States as required by law. Their removal must necessarily involve an expense, and until remittances are made for such objects no funds can be expended in their removal, besides we have no point at which to locate them that would be free from objection until the tract selected as an Indian reservation shall have been so declared by the President and Senate--so far as the former is concerned, it has been done, but what the action of the latter may be cannot be foreseen; presuming however that it will be in accordance with the views of the President, preliminary steps are being taken to carry out the provisions of the treaty and remove the Indians from among you. A little more patience and forbearance may be requisite on the part of the citizens, and energetic and prompt action on the part of agents, to maintain order and preserve peace in your neighborhood, but I cannot doubt that all citizens will lend their aid to enable us to effect the object sought to be attained in the consummation of the treaty with those tribes. Whatever may be the feelings and action of the Rogue River Indians, I see no good reason to doubt the friendly intentions of the Coquilles and believe they will readily conform to any regulation deemed advisable by the agent having charge of that district.
    Upon the whole I may say that every possible effort will be made by the Indian Department to secure a strict observance to treaty stipulations and rid the settlements from the annoyance of Indians by their removal, at the earliest possible moment, to districts designed as Indian reservations.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer, Supt. &c.
To
    John D. Hall, A. J. Pence,
    R. Y. Phillips, S. W. Dement,
    E. Morris and others
        Coquille Valley, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 43-44.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        February 18th 1856.
Sir
    I again have time to drop you a few lines before starting. Capt. Judah is expected to arrive this evening, in which event I will be able to start day after tomorrow. I have no doubt of its being necessary to have a large escort till I get through the canyon
as well from fear of the whites as from the hostile bands of Indians who are in the vicinity of the roads. On the first inst. I sent two Indians in whom I had confidence to the camp of the hostile party to endeavor if possible to get a correct statement in regard to the massacres of the 9th of Oct. last, and more especially to learn if they held in bondage any white women & if so to try to redeem them.
    They returned on the 11th inst. in company with two other Indians belonging to George's band with the following statement, that Old John & eight others [of] his own people did all the mischief that day until their arrival at Wagoner's ranch and at that place they killed Mrs. Wagoner & fired the house before they were observed by the other Indians. Chief George was camped within four hundred yards of the house, but was not at home himself; he had left the day previous to go to Cow Creek. Mrs. Wagoner's daughter, a little girl about eight years of age, was at George's camp and was saved by his woman concealing her. After John had killed these people, captured the teams & burned the houses, he was joined by some other Indians, among whom he divided the cargo that he had captured belonging to Peters & co.; about two thirds of George's people agreed to join him and all the Cow Creeks that were there did the same. The new force was then sent on the road to continue the work of pillage and death begun by Old John.
    He and his men here left for Illinois Valley. The house of Mr. Harris was then attacked by this new party. Mrs. Harris, who was rescued by Major Fitzgerald, recognized some Cow Creek Indians & talked to them before they killed her husband, which in a measure corroborates the statement made by the Indians. They both agree as to who shot Mr. Harris. I am not aware that the Indians knew anything of Mrs. Harris' statement previous to making their own. They also remarked they could have killed her but did not wish to kill women. They strove to take her prisoner, hoping her powder would soon become exhausted, when they would be enabled to capture her, from which they were prevented by the timely arrival of Major Fitzgerald. From here they proceeded to the house of Mr. Haines, where he and his son were killed, his wife and daughter taken prisoners. No clue has been had of the fate of Mrs. Haines and daughter except this, and this, being partially corroborated by the evidence of white persons, leaves but little more to doubt its correctness. The Indians aver that Mrs. Haines' daughter lived but three days, when she died with the flux. That her life was despaired of from that disease on the morning of the massacre I know to be a fact. Mrs. Haines lived six days and died of the same disease; she also was sick at the time of her captivity & had lost two children the week previous of the same disease, so I conclude there is no cause to doubt the statement of the Indians on this matter. Mrs. Wagoner's daughter lived near two months and was killed by some of John's boys, who had been sent from Mr. Wagoner's ranch to the Klamath on a recruiting service. Immediately upon their rejoining the Indians at the meadows they shot the little girl & a little half breed girl belonging to an Indian woman, averring at the same time they done it in revenge for some Indian women who had been killed by the whites. These Indians declare they have not killed any women nor did they intend it should be done, that none but John's people were guilty of such atrocious acts. They also state there are a great many Indians at the meadows, some from the coast below the mouth of Rogue River. These are not armed. The entire Klamath tribe & many disaffected Indians from Northern California have joined them, numbering in all near three hundred efficient warriors, that they are strongly fortified, have made excavations underground & arched them over with large rock & will stand a general fight, although their desire is for peace.
    Bill, son to Old John, refuses to fight & says he never will. These Indians say he invariably mounts his horse & leaves at the first approach of the whites, and is now living several miles from the main body of the Indians with none but his own family. This is the same Bill spoken of last summer, who was with that party on the Klamath at the time of the massacre there, of which you were informed at the time, and subsequently of the surrender of two of the worst of that party into the hands of the civil authorities of California & of their acquittal and subsequent murder by the populace. He says he still desires peace & that he will do anything, or go anywhere, to obtain it, that he never will war with the whites. I give you his statement from which  you can form your own conclusions.
    Old John says he desires peace provided the whites are really penitent & want it. Such a peace as he had from the former treaty, which only served to turn his people into a belief of security, on which they were killed for amusement by the whites, he does not want. He considers he has avenged his injuries, for which he was fighting, & has not lost a single man in doing it, and if the whites are willing to make & observe a peace he will do the same. If the whites wish to fight it is all right. He prefers war to a dishonorable peace, that he would rather die fighting for his rights than to have peace for himself & have his people killed for nothing whenever it suited the caprice of some man to do so. Limpy is exceedingly anxious for peace, says he never joined the war party nor never intends to. He was at Fort Lane at the time of the massacre and remained there until after its occurrence, and left to get his family away from danger. He said when he left he would return with them if it was possible for him to do so & if it was not he would go to the coast mountains and spend the winter there, that he would only fight in defense of his life or family, how true he has kept his word. We have no means of knowing more than the statement of the Indians who were sent out as scouts, & one of them being his brother would probably present the fairest side to view. Limpy is the Indian who caused a gun and some other stolen articles to be returned to their owner a short time previous to the war, of which I gave you an account at the time [see Ambrose's letter of Oct. 8, 1855], though without knowing who had done it. The theft was committed by John's people, the articles taken from them & returned to the owner by Limpy.
    The two messengers sent to us by them were kindly treated and sent back with the following statement, that the whites were very much exasperated at having their women & children killed & they need not hope for peace so long as these murderers were alive, that George's people and the Cow Creeks had no good cause to engage in the war, indeed every facility was afforded them to keep out of it, that they could return to their people whenever it suited them & tell them to defend themselves as best they could, as peace could not be talked of while those murderers were yet unpunished, that they must first surrender them up unconditionally. They then requested me to make known their views to you and they would await an answer, that if extermination was still the cry and they were forced to fight against their will, that we would be held responsible for the murder of our own people & not them, that the whites never could kill them, while they could kill a great many whites.
    I have given you the substance of the interview and as near in their own language as it could be got. I have no doubt it is the desire of a large portion of them to have peace. They are tired of war, but a peace with John's people and the Klamaths would be of short duration, at least until they are well chastised. It does seem to me to be fallacy to talk of peace. I was well satisfied all the while that they were the leading spirit of the whole war & but for them we might still have had peace. It also strikes me very forcibly that it could not be regarded as either very visionary or foolish to make some disposition of about two third of the war party who desire peace, other than trying to exterminate them. I agree with the Indians in that particular that the whites never can do it.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 98.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 20th 1856
Sir,
    I herewith enclose you a copy of an account and letter received by me in relation to the transportation of the Corvallis Indians from your place to Westin. The bill presented is for a much greater sum than I feel myself authorized to pay inasmuch as the aggregate number of Indians transported was only 78--including children.
    The claim is based by the captain of the steamer, it seems, upon a contract (whether verbal or written, it is not stated) made by you for the transportation of 250 Indians. Of such contract, if one was made, I am as yet totally ignorant and desire you will inform me of all the facts in connection with the matter.
    My instructions to Mr. Flett (who was directed to show them to you) were to the direct point that transportation should be provided for those that choose to come and that he would apply to you to make the arrangements.
    In order that a just and equitable settlement of the matter may be effected, I would be pleased if you would see the captain of the steamer and make with him such an issue as will be just and satisfactory to all. I have no disposition to evade the payment of a just claim, but it appears to me if an allowance of this kind should be made the accounting officers would disallow the voucher, and unless I am legally bound by specific contract I shall feel warranted in protesting against such a charge, the amount of which would undoubtedly be thrown back upon this office.
Very respectfully &c.
    Joel Palmer, Supt. &c.
To
    Nat H. Lane, Esq.
        Merchant
            Corvallis, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 46.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 21st 1856
Sir:
    I have received additional letters from Agent Ambrose informing me that he thought he would be able to start by the 6th or 10th of this month if an escort could be obtained that soon, but from the general tenor of his letter I think it doubtful about his getting off by that time. He represents that a tremendous effort has been made and is being made to alarm and prevent those Indians from coming in, and that great anxiety is manifested by them on that subject, but believes they may be induced to come and think, as in his former communications, that one hundred troops are necessary to afford the proper protection.
    I am compelled to forward to him, and to Sub-Agent Drew, funds to a very considerable amount. The alarming representations of the condition of affairs between Umpqua and Fort Lane renders it doubtful whether a messenger can carry safely the amount of funds unless, indeed, he be acquainted with the country and people. I am unwilling to entrust the money to anyone unless it be to a regularly appointed agent of the government, and there are none at all available but Raymond and yourself. The question is who will go. Raymond is entirely unacquainted with the country and people, besides he is not the man I desire for this particular service, and as the agent going ought to aid in the removal of those Indians, I opine his services would be of but little importance to the Indians or the agent in charge.
    Your long acquaintance with these Indians, the confidence they repose in you, and your acquaintance and familiarity with the people along the line of travel points you out as the person above all others to perform this service. The latter considerations are of the utmost importance, besides you have seen the point at which they are to stop and can explain fully to them the policy to be adopted.
    I do not design this as a positive order to go, but I would wish you to do so, if it would meet your approbation, for very much depends upon the success of this movement.
    Should you conclude to take the trip, we can arrange the papers and accounts here and assist you in regard to your responsibility of property at the Grand Ronde Encampment.
    By the time the Indians arrive we will have cleared the southwestern arm of the prairie and prepared buildings for their reception in the forks--as intimated in our conversation, and at the same time have the trail opened from that point to the fishing grounds.
    I send this up by messenger, and if you conclude to go please come down immediately.
    Taylor will go below in the first boat for the articles called for in your memorandum.
    I regret to learn of Nez-zeeck's death and the great amount of sickness in camp. Dr. Westerfield starts upon the morning and will remain. We have finished the distribution of goods to Indians today; they will start for your camp tomorrow should the weather be favorable.
Very respectfully &c.
    Joel Palmer, Supt. &c.
To
    R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde Encampment O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 47-48.



Rogue River Valley Feby. 21 / 56
Dr. Sir
    As I have not troubled you for some time about my claim against the gen. gov. and not having heard anything in relation to it, I have concluded to address you a note inquiring whether you have yet heard from the Department with reference to it--whether there is any probability that it will ever be examined or not. It would be some satisfaction even to know that it would never be paid, or to have it disposed of in some way.
    If you have any information about the claim you will confer a favor if you will write me at your earliest convenience.
    I presume that Dr. Ambrose keeps you posted up in relation to Indian news, and that there is nothing new which I could communicate. I believe that Sam & the Indians that have been encamped at Ft. Lane are willing, if not anxious, to leave for the Reserve on the coast & unless they are prevented by the injudicious conduct of our brave
volunteers, will leave here in a few days. I am informed that Limpy & George are now at Ft. Lane & have come up for the purpose of endeavoring to make a treaty that will allow them to go down to the Reserve with Sam & his people. From all I can learn a very large majority of the people in the valley who have anything at stake would like to have a treaty made with them & get them out of the country as soon as possible. What course our brave volunteers will pursue it is very difficult to determine. They talk very valiant, and from their conduct in the field I should judge they possessed a very large share of the better part of valor. If a treaty is not now made with Limpy & George & their people it is extremely difficult say when our Indian war will end. From the past conduct of the volunteers I can see but little reason to anticipate any very brilliant display of either courage or military skill.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. A. Skinner
Joel Palmer Esquire
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 77.



Port Orford, Oregon
    Feby. 21st 1856
Genl. Palmer
    Dear Sir
        At the solicitation of Mr. John Harper, now of this place, I promised to write to you and to ask if he could get employment on the reservation. He is an excellent carpenter and millwright and what is more an honest man. One of the right stripe (a good Mason & Odd Fellow), has his wife, an excellent lady, who would go along and could be employed if needed, is a first-rate housekeeper & seamstress. They are middle-aged persons of the old New York Dutch stock, are butter & cheese makers, understand the business of farming in a general way. He is a quiet, moral man, just such as I believe you would like.
    The business he speaks of is carpenter & millwright. He has put up large sawmills at Humboldt Bay & Coos. Please to give this an early thought, stating conditions of employment and wages or salary if he should suit.
Yours in haste
    R. W. Dunbar
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 93.



Journal of the Removal of the Rogue River Tribe of Indians
Commencing on the 22nd Day of February
    Friday. Quite a pleasant morning. Had previously made the arrangements. After collecting the wagons & teams together, we found our means of conveyance too limited to make ordinary progress. After driving (3) three miles we encamped on the bank of Rogue River.
    23rd Saturday. The weather still continues pleasant. It was found necessary to have more teams than at first contemplated. I accordingly proceeded to Jacksonville for that purpose, and also to procure some articles, such as clothing and blankets, to add to the comfort of the Indians. Although the weather is set down as pleasant, it certainly would be regarded as such, especially at this season of the year; however, the nights are quite frosty and the mornings cool, sufficiently so to render it necessary that they should be provided with tents, blankets, shoes & such necessaries as would tend to promote their comfort while on their journey, which being procured the day was spent in distributing the articles among them. Also two additional teams were secured to convey the sick, aged and infirm. Our teams now number eight, which I fear will not be sufficient. Thirty-four Indians are disabled from traveling by reason of sickness aside from the aged & infirm, who will as a matter of course have to be hauled.
    24th Saturday. Remained in camp. A fine and beautiful day too. Our first cold day spent in camp.
    25th Monday. A heavy frost last night. In consequence of Indian horses straying off during the night we were unable to get an early start. About eleven o'clock we all got under way. Our route lay immediately down the river on the south bank of said stream, a level, good road. We traveled today a distance of eight miles, encamped on a small stream near its outlet in Rogue River.
    26th Tuesday. Frosty and cool. All things being arranged, we took up our line of march, which still lay immediately down Rogue River. In about four miles we arrived at Jewett ferry, which occupied several hours in crossing, which being done we encamped for the night, it being the only camp we could reach before nightfall.
    27th Wednesday. The weather continues cool & frosty. Our route still lay down Rogue River, over rough, rocky ground. We marched today a distance of ten miles and camped at Patterson's old ranch. Good water but not much grass.
    28th Thursday. Frosty & cool again. This morning, while about preparing to leave camp some person killed an Indian who had wandered off some distance from camp in search of his horse, which had strayed off during the night, which caused some considerable excitement among the Indians, as it went to prove the statement previously made by some evil-disposed persons, to wit: that they would be killed by the way. We learned this evening that a party of evil-disposed persons have gone in advance of us as is supposed to annoy us, or kill some friendly Indian. A messenger was immediately dispatched to Capt. Smith at Fort Lane for an additional force to escort us to or through the Canyon if it should be found necessary. We also learned that an individual by the name of Timoleon Love was the person who killed the Indian this morning and that he was one of the party that had just passed. We drove today a distance of seven miles and encamped on the west bank of Jumpoff Joe Creek, where we will most probably remain till the arrival of Capt. Smith.
    27th Friday. We remained in camp all day, quite a pleasant day. Capt. Smith arrived about two o'clock today. We had another Indian to die, the first by diseases on the road, although many are very sick. However there are no new cases of sickness occurring.
    March 1st
    Saturday. Quite a pleasant spring-like morning. Everything being in readiness by time we took up our line of march over a rough, hilly, mountainous country, and the roads were truly in a horrible condition. I omitted to mention that on Thursday last we took a northward direction and left Rogue River to the south of us, which brought us among some rough hills between the Umpqua and Rogue River. After passing the Grave Creek Hills we learned that Mr. Love and some others were awaiting us at the house, intending to kill an Indian. Upon going to the house I found it to be a fact, talked with the gentlemen & told them the consequences, went back & requested Capt. Smith to arrest Mr. Love and turn him over to the civil authorities. We passed the house, however, without any difficulty and encamped on a small stream two miles north of Grave Creek. We drove today a distance of eight miles. We are now in the midst of a hostile Indian country & not entirely free from danger.
    2nd Sunday. Clear & frosty. Upon consultation it was deemed best to move forward, as we were in an enemy's country & neither forage nor grass could be had for our animals. We found the roads horrible as we traveled on. After traveling hard all day we made a distance of twelve miles & encamped for the night on the west bank of Cow Creek one mile above the crossing.
    3rd Monday. The mornings still continue quite cool & frosty. Our route lay almost directly north over somewhat better ground than for five days previous. Our cattle was jaded considerable by our continuous marches without forage or grass, neither of which could be procured. We drove a distance of seven miles & encamped just within the mouth of the Canyon.
    4th Tuesday. The weather still continues fine for the season. During the night our cattle deserted us, passing through the Canyon & crossing South Umpqua, a distance of twelve miles. Some few of them took the other end of the road. Finding it impossible to collect the cattle in time to move I took the Indians in advance & went through the Canyon before night in order to obtain supplies, of which we were getting quite short. In passing through I found some heavy obstructions. The high water during the forepart of the winter had thrown in large drift logs & a slide from the mountains had filled up the channel of the creek, all of which required to be removed before wagons could pass, which was accordingly done by Lieut. Underwood, who sent a detachment in advance for that purpose. The persons who were sent in search of the missing cattle returned with all but four head.
    5th Wednesday. The Indians remained in camp today at the mouth of Canyon Creek awaiting the arrival of the wagons. About three or four o'clock in the evening they made their appearance. The cattle are very much jaded & tired. As no forage could be had I secured the best pasture I could find & turned them in that. An Indian girl died this evening. We were now a distance of eleven miles from our camp of the evening of the third, being occupied two days in making it. Mr. Love, who still continued to follow us, was arrested & put under guard.
    6th Thursday. This morning the cattle were collected together preparatory to making a start, five of the cattle still missing. I sent a man back through the Canyon in search of those that went in that direction. Towards noon these were discovered in the hills on the north side of South Umpqua & brought up to camp this evening. Good road this morning until we reached South Umpqua, which stream was ascertained we could ford with the wagons. The foot passengers were all ferried whilst the teams were crossing & ready to resume their march. Here we ascended a considerable hill & passing through some oak knolls come to a very narrow pass around the spur of a mountain which projected down to the water's edge, and around which a road had been dug out of the rock wide enough for wagons to pass. Emerging from here we came out in full view of an open prairie, found the road good. We traveled today a distance of eight miles & camped on the north bank of South Umpqua near Weaver's.
    7th Friday. The weather still continued cool & frosty of nights and pleasant through the day. Our road today [was] hilly & in places quite rocky. An Indian woman died this morning & the number of sick increasing it was found necessary to hire or buy another team. I soon procured one & continued our march. We drove today a distance of ten miles & encamped in Round Prairie. On the South Umpqua yet.
    8th Saturday. From camp this morning we had a good road for about two miles. Here we commenced ascending a mountain on the summit of which a wagon upset & broke out a tongue which caused considerable delay. After fixing a temporary arrangement we were enabled to go down the mountain a distance of four miles and encamped on Roberts Creek about two o'clock in the afternoon in order to repair our wagon before proceeding further which was accordingly done before night. We traveled today a distance of eight miles.
    Sunday 9th. Quite a pleasant day, but owing to our proximity to the hostile Indians it was deemed advisable to continue our march which was accordingly done. Mr. Cain who had been sent in search of the missing cattle returned. He stated that he had found the cattle on the morning of the sixth and corralled them on the south side of the Canyon, that during the night he believed they were stolen by the Indians, as hostile Indians were seen in that vicinity & appearances went to show that they had taken them. Our road still continued down the South Umpqua River over a broken, uneven country, the roads growing worse as we went north. We traveled today a distance of eight miles & encamped on the bank of a little muddy branch about two miles north of Roseburg.
    10th Monday. A very fine morning, indeed we got an early start this morning. Found the roads very bad. In about two miles we arrived at Winchester, situated on the south bank of the Umpqua, and we had to ferry the river, which occupied us about three hours. We then ascended a considerable hill and traveled over a rough prairie country. Very muddy roads. We found a very pleasant camp about four miles north of Winchester on Camas Swale Creek, a distance of seven miles. This morning a writ of habeas corpus was served on Lieut. Underwood to show cause why he detained & held in custody unlawfully the person of Timoleon Love, to which he made a return that he held him by the authority of a legal Indian agent & according to law & that said Love was held only to be turned over to the civil authorities according to law. Lieut. Hazen was left at Winchester in charge of the guard to turn the prisoner over to the proper officers of the law.
    11th. This morning the teams were got up quite early and preparations were made for starting. I then proceeded to Judge Deady's and caused a writ to be issued for the arrest of Timoleon Love for the murder of a friendly Indian on the 28th day of February last. Before the service of the warrant Mr. Love had effected his escape. We found the roads in a horrible condition and grass quite scarce. The teams drove but three miles today & [we] encamped for the purpose of attending the trial [sic].
    12th Wednesday. Cloudy & threatening rain. We had some trouble in finding our cattle. We however succeeded in getting them to gather about ten o'clock. After traveling through a canyon about one and a half miles we arrived at Calapooia Creek. Our route lay directly up the creek for two & a half miles over hilly but prairie country where we crossed the stream on a bridge at Baker's mill. For the remainder of the day our route lay northward & over some steep hills. About four miles from the mills we struck camp at what is called Oakland. Two deaths occurred today since we camped, one man & one woman.
    13th Thursday. This morning we had quite a shower of rain, rendering it quite unpleasant traveling. After burying the dead we took up our line of march over a rough, hilly & uneven country. Our cattle traveled quite brisk today. About two o'clock we struck camp on the bank of a small stream by the name of Elk Creek, near Jesse Applegate's. The day was quite cool with frequent showers, rendering it unpleasant traveling. We however traveled about twelve miles.
    14th Friday. Cloudy & showery. By keeping our cattle in pasture we were enabled to get an early start. Our route lay down Elk Creek through a rough canyon which we found quite muddy. We crossed Elk & Pass creeks & several other streams. After crossing Pass Creek our road lay immediately up the creek & bounded by high mountains on either side. We drove eight miles today & camped at the foot of the Calapooya Mountains.
    15th Saturday. Cloudy. This morning our cattle were missing, and upon search we ascertained they had crossed the mountain. Pursuit was immediately made & they were found about ten miles from camp. They were brought back and we were ready to start by two o'clock. From camp we commenced our ascent up the mountain, at first quite gradual. After ascending some distance we arrived at the summit. We then followed the ridge of the mountain some distance before we commenced the descent. The road was quite dry over the mountain and till we were near the base, where we found some very heavy mud. The last team arrived in camp after traveling a distance of eight miles. One woman died today.
    16th Sunday. Cloudy with the occasional sunshine. Remained in camp all day to rest. Nothing occurred worthy of relating.
    17th Monday. This morning we took up our line of march in [a] northward direction. The roads were quite hilly and in places very muddy. This morning while crossing a small stream a teamster broke a wagon tongue, which delayed us an hour to repair, after which we proceeded without any further difficulty for the remainder of the day. We encamped tonight on the west bank of Rich Creek, a distance of thirteen miles from where we started. Arrived in camp by four o'clock.
    18th Tuesday. Cloudy & threatening rain. During the night an Indian died, which delayed us a short time to bury, however by nine o'clock we were in readiness to start. We traveled over a level flat country, in places quite muddy. The greatest difficulty we experience is in obtaining grass for our cattle, which we find to be exceedingly scarce. We drove today a distance of twelve miles. Camped on an oak grove near the claim of Mr. Smith.
    19th Wednesday. Cloudy & threatening rain. Quite showery through the day. We continued our march down Long Tom & passed over some very muddy roads. We traveled today a distance of fourteen miles & encamped on the bank of Long Tom at Starrs Point.
    20th Thursday. The weather still continues cloudy and threatening rain. We secured a good pasture last night for our cattle & this morning quite early were under way. Our route lay immediately down Long Tom over a level prairie country. In consequence of the recent rains our wagons dragged along heavily all day. We drove a distance of fifteen miles and encamped on the bank of Marys River at the ferry. A very hard day's drive, but no camp could be found short of this.
    21st Friday. Clear & pleasant. This morning we were two or three hours in ferrying the river. For two or three miles we found the roads very muddy. About three miles north from Corvallis our road improved very much, becoming rolling & dry. We traveled today a distance of twelve miles and encamped near the claim of Mr. Reed.
    22nd Saturday. Cloudy weather again. This morning for several miles our road was in excellent condition. We then found some very bad road and sloughy prairie to cross over after which we arrived at the South Luckiamute, which we crossed on a bridge. Still continuing our course northward, in a few miles we arrived at Little Luckiamute, which we also crossed on a bridge & passed upon the north bank of the stream a short distance and encamped near a little oak grove. Traveled twelve miles.
    23rd Sunday. Remained in camp all day. Quite pleasant weather.
    24th Monday. Got an early start this morning and had an excellent road. We drove a distance of fifteen miles & encamped near Mr. Frederick's.
    25th Tuesday. Clear & pleasant. We got an early start this morning and after driving hard all day reached the reservation about four o'clock in the evening, after driving a distance of sixteen miles. So ends my journey & journal after a period of thirty-three days, in which time we traveled a distance of two hundred & sixty-three miles. Started with three hundred and ninety-five Indians. Eight deaths and eight births, leaving the number the same as when started.
Yours respectfully
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 165.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 22nd 1856
Sir:
    You will take charge of the immigrating train of Indians now on their way to the Grand Ronde Encampment and proceed with as much dispatch as possible to that point. Three days rations are issued them this morning. Should you be detained on the road a longer period you will purchase additional supplies from the persons along the route. Forage also will be procured for the teams along the road. The train consists of six wagons and two carts, with 24 yoke of cattle, and about 80 horses belonging to the Indians, all of which owing to the scarcity of grazing will be supplied with forage, if deemed by you requisite to ensure a speedy passage to the point designated.
    You will remain a few days at the encampment, or until my arrival, and in the event of Mr. Metcalfe's coming down you will remain at that point until school. I understand the time of issuing rations is on Saturdays; in issuing to the Indians now on their way, after their arrival arrange the quantities so as to terminate with a view of having the entire camp supplied on the same day. Should there be an insufficient quantity of supplies on hand you will proceed at once (should Mr. Metcalfe come down) to purchase at least two weeks supply and make the arrangements to have it in store, drawing checks on this office for the amounts, one each person, specifying the article and price, so that a proper voucher can be taken. But should Mr. Metcalfe decline coming down you will at all events remain and assist him until you hear from me.
    It is my wish that Mr. Chamberlain should devote his time to nursing and attending the sick, until the school house be in readiness, and he will be relieved from all the duties during that time. This wish you will communicate to him and to Dr. Westerfield should he be in attendance. And in order to enable him to attend to that duty properly, one building in some one of the valleys will be assigned for his use, and he will be supplied with rations, blankets and other articles to enable him to act efficiently in his vocation. The necessary camp equipage for that use will be sent up by Mr. Hash.
Respectfully yours
    Joel Palmer, Supt. &c.
To
    W. W. Raymond Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            now at Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 48-49.



Rogue River O.T.
    Feb. 23rd 1856
        12 o'clock Sat.
To Major Reynolds
    Dear Sir
        This morning our few troops stationed near the Tututni rancherie about a mile above the mouth were attacked at daybreak this morning and are supposed to be all killed. Among the missing is the Indian agent Benj. Wright & Capt. John Poland.
    Those living on ranches or skirting Rogue River we know are killed & have no doubt all are. As soon as I heard at the mouth I immediately dispatched what disposable force I had at hand for the scene of action but they were met by an overwhelming force of Indians and driven back without being able to ascertain the particulars of the battle.
    I want you to send me immediately all the troops you can spare. The citizens here are fortifying themselves the best they can, expecting an hourly attack. And they are but few and poorly armed. You will please send a howitzer with the troops.
    There is no doubt but the coast Indians have joined the hostile band. It is impossible to particularize more particularly as my time is too much taken up in making arrangements to meet the enemy.
Yours truly
    Peter McGuire
        Especial Sub-Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 92.



Port Orford, 10 o'clock night
    Feby. 24th 1856
Dear Genl.
        I have just returned from a meeting of the citizens, called together by the startling intelligence from Rogue River.
    The volunteers, having moved down from the big bend, were camped near the spot on which we rested last before leaving the treaty ground, a part of them only were in camp; the balance were at the mouth of Rogue River. At the dawn of day on the 22nd inst. the camp were surprised and every man killed, as now believed, but two, one escaping to the mouth and one to Port Orford on foot through the hills, arriving here tonight; the one who came in, Charles Foster, escaped by crawling into the thicket and so remaining until dark, and there had an opportunity unperceived
to witness much that transpired. He states that he saw the Tututnis engaged in it, who sacked their camp. The party were estimated by him to number 300. Ben Wright is supposed with Capt. Poland and others to be amongst the killed. Ben & Poland had gone over to McGuire's house (our warehouse); he had word from the Mikonotunnes that the notorious Eneas (half-breed) was at their camp and that they wished him to come and take him away, and he was on that business. Foster distinctly heard the yelling and the conflict of arms in the direction of the house at the time of the attack and murder of the camp. Ben nor any other person has been heard of since. My opinion is that Ben is killed. McCulloch and a man on his ranch are known to be killed. A ranch near that of Wright's on the left as you come this way from Rogue River, and every ranch but Simon Lundry's has been sacked, in confirmation of the foregoing. Foster, on his way through the mountains, attempted to stop at Euchre Creek, but found all the houses burnt and all still as death & passed on. Directly after his arrival the schooner Nelly came up from Rogue River with the confirmatory intelligence. Dr. White of Rogue River had started up to town, came to Euchre, saw many of the bodies lying on the beach & otherwise & the houses burnt, went by the ranch of Geisels above the mouth of R. River--all were found dead. These things are corroborating--and the news from the mouth by the schooner of the arrival of only one man, supposing himself the only one, leads us to fear the worst consequences & confirms a belief in the statements above. Our town is in the greatest excitement. We are fortifying, and our garrison being too weak to render aid to R. River, the major is making arrangements for protection here and has sent Tichenor with a request that all abandon R. River and ship to Port Orford. 
     William Chance is at Coquille River. The greatest alarm has been felt for some days along the coast at Floras Creek. Many strange Indians have made their appearance, well armed, have actually committed many depredations. An express goes tonight to warn them of the danger and has the sanction of Maj. Reynolds, U.S.A., as they are in a defenseless condition.
    I fear that whether Ben is dead or not, that he has lost to a great extent the confidence of the Indians of late, as many even of the coast Indians are known to have threatened his life. We build a fort tomorrow, in which all are engaged in good earnest. All have enrolled themselves for self-protection, and a night patrol is set. We are illy prepared, have but few guns and scant ammunition. Our brass pieces will be mounted but illy served. If any further developments take place I will write again before the mail closes.
Yours in haste
    R. W. Dunbar
To Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Suprt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, Document A of No. 71.  An abridged version is found on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 506-508.  Another excerpted version is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 508-510.




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        February 24th 1856
Sir
    I received yours of the 12th inst. by the government express on the 22nd and replied by the same way, but as it is somewhat uncertain about your getting the answer, I conclude to send you this. I confess I was very much astonished that so unfounded a rumor could have reached you, to wit, that I did not intend to remove these Indians. Ten days has not elapsed at any one time when I did not write and in all my communications, both public and private, I have heartily endorsed your policy, and have labored assiduously to put it into execution. It was regarded both by Agent Metcalfe, with whom I consulted, and myself to be impolitic to make the effort to remove them without a large escort, and I so informed you in several communications previous to the one sent by the hand of Mr. Smith. If I were sure they had not reached you I would supply you with copies. We have in this part of Oregon a reckless set of white men who have tried every means to involve Chief Sam's people in war. So many threats have been made to that effect that it was regarded as really dangerous to make the attempt unless in possession of a sufficient force to ward off any threatened danger. Again: the Indians were, many of them, sick, the effect no doubt in part of their close confinement. Twenty-seven have to be hauled now. I also waited in hopes that Messrs. Floed & Lane would furnish the articles of clothing for which they had contracted to do; the Indians were in a manner almost naked and with but a very few blankets, but the greatest danger to be apprehended was from the hostile Indians, who were known to be in force prowling about in the vicinity of the road to the Canyon, on which no forage could be had nor was there any grass. I have now an escort of one hundred men to go with me through the Canyon; from there I presume the number originally asked for will be sufficient.
    I regret to learn the animals used in the removal of the Umpqua are unfit for service, as I had hoped to get the use of them in the removal of these Indians. I have had to purchase two teams, and should the number of sick increase or even remain as it is I may find it necessary to buy more.
    In accordance with your suggestion I purchased some few articles for the benefit of those who were the most needy. Since I last wrote you George and Limpy with twenty-three of their men come to Fort Lane to have a talk of peace. They said they with their families were willing to submit to any terms you might choose to impose so that it would bring them peace. They protest their innocence in beginning the war, declaring it was Old John and his people that caused it. They requested their wishes should be made known to you. they wanted to see you very much indeed, said it was impossible to surrender into the hands of the whites the originators of the war, that they were unable to do so, but were willing to do anything that laid in their power to do. They were willing to give up their weapons and place themselves under the protection of United States troops. They would await an answer from you as to what they should do, were willing to be removed anywhere you might choose to locate them.
Very respectfully your obt. servt.
    G. H. Ambrose, Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 94.



Fort Orford O.T.
    February 24th 1856
Capt.,
    I have the honor to enclose a copy of a letter this day received from the actg. Indian agent at the mouth of Rogue River, containing information of the outbreak of the lower Rogue River Indians, and the murder of the Indian agent Mr. Wright. By the last steamer I notified you of the appearance of the hostile Indians among the tribes bordering on the settlement at the mouth of Rogue River, and that I had sent Lieut. Chandler with the agent to bring down to the mouth of the river, all those who were friendly, which was effected in all apparent good faith on the part of the Indians. Mr. Wright returned about this time and was perfectly satisfied as to the friendly disposition of these Indians and that they seemed [to] adhere to their agreement with Genl. Palmer to move on the Reserve this summer, and I supposed myself that could they be kept from intercourse with the hostile Indians they would remain friendly, and was consequently very anxious to assist Mr. McGuire in effecting this.
    That the present outbreak is extreme and serious in this quarter there is not the slightest doubt, involving all the Indians on Rogue River and some of the coast Indians. One of the men (Mr. Foster) from the scene of the attack has reached this place, and represents the number of persons killed or missing at 21 or 22, and the Indians engaged at between two and three hundred. The following is the list of whites missing from the mouth of Rogue River and vicinity. Benj. Wright, Indian agent, Capt. J. M. Poland, B. Castle, H. Lawrence, E. Nelson, Guy Holcomb, McCluskey, Joseph _____, John Chadwick, _____ missing, Joseph Wagoner, Pat McCulloch, Warner, Mr. Tullis, _____ Seaman, _____ Smith, Geisel and family, _____ Boatman, Jas. Crouch and brothers, _____ Johnson, _____ Martin.
    I will state that I do not deem it prudent to accede to the request of Mr. McGuire to divide this small command between the two places and wrote to him to say that if they were unable to maintain their position at the mouth of the river, they must concentrate here. We have no animals here fit to move even this small command had it been expedient. I will send a copy of this letter to the comdg. office at Vancouver by the str. as she goes up, also one to Genl. Palmer.
I am sir
    Very respectfully your obt. servt.
        John F. Reynolds
            Capt. Brvt. Maj. 3 Arty.
                Comdg.
To Capt. D. R. Jones
    A.A.G. Hd. Qrs. Dep. of the Pacific
        Benicia Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, enclosure to No. 89.



Ft. Orford O.T.
    February 24th 1856.
Sir,
    It becomes my melancholy duty to report the death of Mr. Benjamin Wright, the Indian agent for this district, the particulars of which as far as known will be found in the enclosed letter from Mr. McGuire. I also enclose for information a copy of my report of this outbreak of the Indians to Maj. Genl. Wool and that I have also furnished the comdg. officer at Vancouver with copies of the same.
    With the Indians on the Coquille rather inclined to be hostile, I have thought it unwise to divide the small command here and invite an attack on this place.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            John F. Reynolds
                Capt. & Bvt. Major 3rd Infy.
                    Comdg.
To
    Genl. Joel Palmer
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 89.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 25th 1856
Sir:
    Referring to my letter of the 1st instant upon the subject of your proceeding to Fort Lane with funds, and aiding in the removal of the Rogue River and other friendly Indians, encamped at that point to the Coast Reservation, I have now to direct that you will proceed with as much dispatch as the circumstances will admit to that service.
    Two thousand dollars will be placed in your hands for that object, and should Agent Ambrose take charge of the immigration party you will turn over the funds to him, taking his receipt in duplicate according to the form herewith enclosed, and aid him in the removal of these Indians as may be required. Should he, however, decline to accompany the train, you will take charge and direct the movement.
    Fifteen hundred dollars and six hundred dollars will also be placed in your hands for Sub-Agent E. P. Drew, to whom you will deliver the amounts, taking his receipts in duplicate and as per enclosed form.
    It is not unlikely that Agent Ambrose is already en route accompanied by an escort of one hundred United States troops. Should you find this to be the case and believe it requisite for a greater number than twenty to remain with the immigrating party north of the Cañon, you will request the officer in command to remain with such force as you may deem requisite given for such action--as the number required has been granted by General Wool. The route taken by you in the removal of the Umpquas will doubtless be preferable to any other. I wish to be advised of the approach of this party at the earliest moment.
    I deem it unnecessary to give detailed instructions for your action in this matter. The office copy of the Revised Regulations of Indian Bureau for 1850 will be the guide in the mode of conducting the removal--dispensing with many of the hangers-on and unnecessary parade of dignitaries and their emoluments as unsuited to the condition of things in this country, but so far as the accountability of officers and persons in relation to expenditures and public property, it is expected that its requirements will be complied with.
    In the event that Mr. Magruder has collected any of the arms belonging to the Umpqua Indians, you will either sell them or bring them along with you as you may deem advisable.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affrs.
To
    R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
        Indian Agent
            now at Dayton Suptcy.
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 49-50.



Feby. 25th 1856.
    The alarm has spread up the coast, and all the settlers & miners are flocking into town. Three fresh recruits who started for the camp of the volunteers on the 23rd returned today. They picked up the brother of Smith the p.m. in the woods this side of Euchre village who had crawled into the brush at the time the ranch at Euchre was attacked and who was almost famished, having lain in the woods some two days & nights. He was sick and was stopping at Warner's ranch. From him I learn the following facts, and which may account for the manner in which Ben Wright was decoyed to the slaughterhouse. Smith says that about 5 o'clock [in the] afternoon of [the] 22nd the Euchres, and some which he took to be Mikonotunne Indians, came to Warner's ranch, where were Warner, Smith and Dr. White. The Indians asked them to go up to the 3 Sisters with their guns, where was Semon of our place, shooting otter. Warner declined, and in a little time another Indian came and asked Warner to go down to the creek to look at an otter skin, which was only a little distance from the house. Warner had not been out but a short time when firing was heard. On going to see after the noise Warner was missing, and a body of savages came yelling upon the ranch. He and Dr. White broke and ran for life, being fired upon. In the woods they separated. Dr. White as is seen reached R. River, and he [reached] P. Orford in the manner spoken of above.
    No further news from R. River up to 7 o'clock [at] night. I have pointed out to Maj. Reynolds the flour as belonging to the Department, who will take charge of it.
    A singular circumstance took place about 24 hours after the conflict at Rogue River. Jenny had gone below with Ben, but had returned about the 19th, and instead of stopping at Sutton's as before, she stopped at Cooney's, kept very close, and on the 23rd, Tagonecia came in and took her out. In a little time she returned, saying nothing to Sutton, but took a new trunk, which Ben had filled at Portland with numerous articles of clothing, and had left with Sutton the trunk. She took [it] to the Kautz house, and emptied it of everything, to the value of some $175, mostly new clothing for herself, and put off to Elk River and from thence to Sixes River, "Old Tag" & all his band moving also. When the news from R. River was confirmed a messenger was ordered by the major's assent to go to Elk & Sixes and ask all those Indians to come in for a talk. When Jenny was asked first she denied knowing of the death of Ben, but at last admitted that she did know of it earlier. She now admitted his death. Most of the Indians came in today [and] had a talk with the Major and promised to come in to the reservation by the fort tomorrow and give up their arms and submit to order.
    The citizens elected S. H. Lount captain over the citizen organization for Port Orford, and the Major has selected him as an agent "ad interim." Now, Genl., will you as the first friend of Wright, and in consideration of the very complicated nature of the business here, come down. Your presence is needed now if ever. An agent is to be put over these Indians. Great care is necessary to the safety of the whites as well as the Indians, and to the carrying out of your plans with them. Tichenor is "bragging" about the inhuman treatment to the whites by the head of the Indian Department. Lount is opposed to your plans, and [is a] shoulder-striker for Tichenor. I do not suggest anyone but I will undertake to give the sentiments of all good men, and "woman too." Send no more squaw mongers here, or in other words now cut loose from all of that class, who are admitted on all hands to have been the great cause of the present Indian difficulty in Oregon. Now understand me, I supported Mr. Wright because I knew him to be a true man, one in whose hands your interests were safe--but I go no further with any other man of that class.
    There should be a final settlement with all now in the Indian Department here of that character if any good is to be accomplished. You will have a report from the Major on the business of the Department here so I only write as
Your friend
    R. W. Dunbar
To Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Dayton
            Oregon
P.S. I am on duty as guard tonight. Excuse blunders, as I expect the steamer early in the morning.
R.W.D.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, Document B of No. 71.



Jacksonville O.T.
    Feb. 25th 1856
Sir
    I received your letter of the 12th inst. by express on last evening & have but time to acknowledge its receipt. After a vexatious delay I have at length been enabled to make a start on yesterday morning. How you could have heard so unfounded a rumor, that I did not intend to remove these Indians, is more than I can conceive. I heartily approved your plan & have labored assiduously to put in execution. It will be necessary to send me funds on the road, what amount I cannot say. It is certainly much to be regretted that Floed & Lane could not furnish the articles contracted for, as I fear it will have a bad effect. The Indians will be very much disappointed, as they will expect to get them upon their arrival on the Umpqua. I had so promised them upon representations made to me by Messrs. Floed & Lane. Again, they stand very badly in need of them; most of them are entirely barefooted & almost destitute of clothing & very many of them are sick. Articles of clothing cannot be purchased here except at enormous prices & then but a poor assortment. I will write you in a day or so & when I shall have a little [time] I will write you at length & if no safe conveyance is offered I will dispatch a messenger expressly for that purpose. Did you receive my communication of the 14th of last month & of the 30th, also a copy of correspondence between myself & Col. Ford.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 85.



Ft. Orford O.T.
    February 25th 1856
Sir,
    Since my letter of yesterday the following named persons reported missing have reached this place. Messrs Smith, Crouch & brother & Johnson & Mr. White reached the mouth of Rogue River. Messrs. Smith & White were together at the mouth of Euchre Creek, and they were attacked by the Euchre Creek Indians, together with strange Indians.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            John F. Reynolds
                Capt. & Bvt. Maj. 3rd Arty.
                    Comdr.
To
    Genl. Joel Palmer
        Supt. Indian Affairs
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 72.  A copy is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 502-503.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. February 27th 1856
Sir
    Your letter of the 18th instant making inquiry in relation to William Wilkinson's claim for spoliations committed by the Rogue River Indians 1849 has been received. In reply I would state that I am unable to inform you as to the ultimate result of such claim.
    The 17th section of act of Congress of June '34 "Regulating Trade and Intercourse with Indian Tribes" provides "that unless such claim shall be presented within three years after the commission of the injury, the same shall be barred."
    The claim presented by Mr. Wilkinson it appears is for spoliations committed in 1849, and his application reached this office the latter part of March 1855.
    I am of opinion that the only way such claim can be reached will be by application directly to Congress.
    A report is being prepared in this office, to be forwarded to the office of Commissioner Indian Affairs, in relation to all claims for spoliations committed by Indians with a recommendation that application be made to Congress to indemnify claimants who are entitled in equity without reference to date of injury.
    The tribe alleged to have committed the offense in this case, not being in amity with the United States, or no treaty stipulation then existing by which they were amenable, and no specific provision incorporated in treaties made subsequently for their payment, it may be a matter of some doubt whether the annuities provided for by those treaties could be applied to such purposes, and if indeed they were to consent that such should be done the meager amount of the annuity would be insufficient to meet all the claims presented against those Indians within ten years, were the entire amount applied to that object. Should this be done the government would be compelled to provide means of subsistence for such as remained friendly, and as the amount would ultimately be taken from the Treasury, application might as well be made directly to Congress.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer, Supt. &c.
To
    A. J. Thayer, Esq.
        Corvallis O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 59-60.



Grand Ronde Encampment
    Feb. 27 1856
Sir
    I have the pleasure of saying that all arrived safely night before last--no accident save the loss of one Indian's horse which gave way under its rider--one birth on the way--all appear in good spirits--the sick generally convalescent & some rather stubborn cases. I purchased one yoke oxen on the way and have given an order for them on your office where the voucher will be taken for the cattle.
    After the first day all came in quietly and finely--your presence here is very much desired as soon as practicable. Opposition is dying lessening, opportunity becoming advocates. Some who were very much opposed to the policy of bringing the Indians to this place admit the correctness of the policy in every particular. Many who wish to furnish us supplies desire their money here, for they say they know not when they may go to Dayton. Nothing further of importance.
In haste
    As ever
        Your obt. servt.
            W. W. Raymond
                Sub Ind. Agt.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
P.S. Mr. Sampson has a very heavy wagon for sale. W.W.R.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 70.




Camp Jumpoff Joe Creek
    February 29th 1856
Dear Sir
    We are safely encamped on Jumpoff Joe & will probably remain until tomorrow. On yesterday when about leaving camp some person or persons unknown shot an Indian while leading his horse into camp, which caused some confusion, but I hope nothing serious will grow out of it. The Indian killed was a person of no influence in the tribe, yet it was very bad policy to kill anyone at this particular time. I had apprehended something of that sort & every precaution was taken to guard against such an occurrence. The perpetrators of the act no doubt belonged to a volunteer camp stationed at Wagoner's ranch about three miles distant from where we were camped. The object no doubt was to frighten Sam's people to the mountains. It is the desire of many persons here to protract the war, men who have no interest in the country and might properly be considered vagrants in any country in the world but this. That our country is infested with such a set of men none will question who are acquainted with the country. The Indian was killed in pure wantonness, without any cause or provocation & the exploit was boasted of as something shrewd. I still have every confidence in being able to get the Indians through. George & Limpy are very desirous of going also & talking of fighting if they are not taken, however I think I will get past them without difficulty. We will remain in camp until Capt. Smith arrives with an additional escort. He is looked for tonight. I have not received any tidings of the messenger you informed me you would send, in consequence of which I have to send one to you. I am about out of funds & it is exceedingly difficult to get along without money, and peace cannot be maintained with the Indians if they remain and reckless white men are permitted to shoot them with impunity, and I have no doubt many desire & intend to do [so] if they remain.
    I learned from rumor last night that about half of a volunteer company had gone in advance to harass the road, which I can hardly believe, although taking their conduct of yesterday into consideration it is not at all improbable.
    Capt. Smith will accompany me to the Umpqua & if it is deemed necessary that a larger escort should go then the order will have to reach me there or he will most probably turn back.
Yours in haste
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T,
March 1st. Capt. Smith arrived last evening & we resumed our march this morning. We are now encamped two miles north of Grave Creek. Nothing occurred worthy of note.
G. H. Ambrose
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 95.



Corvallis March 1st 1856
Sir
    Yours of Feby. 20th with a copy of Capt. Wygant's letter is before me. In reply I have to say that Mr. Flett told me to contract for the transportation of two hundred or two hundred and fifty Indians, that the Indians would be ready to go in about ten days from the time he was here. On your instructions to him and his word for the number to be taken I contracted (verbally) with Capt. Wygant to take them at $2.50 per head, a much smaller rate than I could have contracted for only 100 head.
    On Theodoris finding that there was but 100 or less he refused to take them unless myself and Doc Wright would agree to use our endeavors to procure the payment of $400 for the trip. I told him I would write to you advising you of the circumstances which I did, but suppose the letter was miscarried, as you say you have recd. nothing on the subject. Now I think under the circumstances that the $400 should be paid, as I know he refused freight, supposing the full number of Indians would be on hand, and also the Indians could not at that time [have] been taken by land for less money. I hope you will think in your judgment that a settlement with Capt. Wygant will be best. I don't wish to be compromised in the matter. I did what I thought for the best, and my word in a contract I hold more sacred than a deed. I hope you and him will be able to come to a settlement.
Yours truly
    Nat. H. Lane
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 81.



Cow Creek March 2nd 1856
Joel Palmer Supt. Indian Affairs
    Sir, I have claims against the government amounting to twenty-one hundred and fifty dollars for spoliations committed by the Rogue River Indians in 1853. The claims have been certified to by the commissioners appointed for the purpose. As I am desirous of leaving for the States [as] soon as possible, I would request to know if you have the authority and means to settle those claims; if not, what course I can take to collect them. Please inform me at your earliest convenience and oblige.
Very respectfully
    Yours
        Peter Miller
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 101.



Canyonville O.T.
    March 3rd 1856
Dear General
    I have but time to say one word. We are now in the Canyon, and in a little [while] the worst mud I ever did see. When we will get through God only knows, but I have hopes of getting through in two or three days. I started through in advance this morning to get supplies & expect to get the Indians through by night. The wagons will probably be detained for several days. Lieut. Underwood sent a detachment of twenty men in the Canyon to remove the obstructions which were thrown in the road during the winter by high water. There was also a slide from the mountain of a ledge of rocks, completely blocking up the Canyon, which will require some time to remove. After passing the Canyon I know of no cause of delay and will make all possible haste. I would like to hear from you where you desire the Indians. Shall they be taken to the Grand Ronde or Coast Reservation. I yesterday heard of the death of Sub-Agent Wright & twenty-five others said to have fallen by the hand of the Indians. I regarded it as doubtful at first but it seems pretty well authenticated. I learned none of the particulars, but a volunteer company was in the field & ready to do battle, and it was with them that hostilities commenced, so vague rumor has it. The next mail or express will most probably bring the particulars.
In haste yours
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Genl. Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 99.



Grand Ronde Encampment
    March 5 1856
Sir
    This is to inform you that agreeable to your instructions yesterday by Mr. Taylor I proceeded to make arrangements for Mr. Matheny to occupy the Powell house. In company with Messrs. Layton, Powell & Matheny I went to the Powell place, which I supposed you purchased from him. Arrangements were made for Mr. Matheny to move tomorrow, and the teams on return were to bring Mr. Powell's things away. Wheat, oats, potatoes & chickens were purchased. I had made arrangements to occupy the house Matheny is now occupying as an office for the present. But Mr. Powell has this moment called and informs me that you misrepresented things to him, stating that you did not allow him the same for improvements that you did his neighbors and consequently refuses to give possession of the premises. You will at once see my situation and disappointment and instruct me accordingly. I supposed that the arrangements I had made for the bacon & other supplies for this station to be paid for at Dayton. The money you left with me was all that I should need to prosecute the work there, but paying for these supplies already contracted together with the settling with the Springers for their wheat, oats &c. which all will be shown by proper vouchers. I find it will be necessary for me to draw on you for an additional thousand dollars, and this is why I send Mr. Taylor as express.
    It is my opinion that Mr. P. is desirous of selling for an advanced price, but I think we can get along without embarrassment if we do not occupy that place for the present. Mr. Matheny goes tomorrow to the Barry Springer place till further instructions.
In haste
    Your obt. servt.
        W. W. Raymond
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 83.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 5th 1856
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit herewith enclosed voucher No. 1 abstract "E" 3rd qr. 1855 account of I. B. Nichols for balance due him for the erection of two houses for chiefs of Cow Creek band of Indians. This account is signed by said Nichols and I have to request it may be placed on file with my account for that quarter.
    The agreement referred to in my memorandum forwarded with the abstract (E) cannot be found--it having become lost or mislaid. I have to state however it was but a simple contract to put up the two houses specified and for the consideration paid that the conditions were all complied with on the part of Nichols.
Very respectfully
    [unsigned]
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 75-76.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March 6th 1856
Sir
    I wish you to send down four teams so as to take up the remainder of the goods, a portion of which are for the Rogue River Indians now on the road as well as for the Wapatos who will be at the encampment in a few days. The Rhode farm, Copper farm and George Springer's farm and the Wooley farm are designed for the Willamette Indians and you will place the Wapatos within the limits of these farms, retaining as much of the Foster farm as may be free from encumbrance as possible so that it may be used as an agency farm.
    Confer with Mr. Jeffries in relation to the assignment of the Indians to the respective locations and conform as far as possible to the arrangement of the tracts made with them in relation thereto. The particular lines of tracts now assigned may be varied when the time comes to have them surveyed but so arrange matters as to employ each man to cultivate a small tract this season if they desire it.
    I will write more in detail soon.
Yours
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    W. W. Raymond
        Sub-Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 77-78.



Camp on South Umpqua River
    Near Myrtle Creek
        March 6th 1856
Dear Sir
    Immediately after starting the Indians I dispatched a messenger to your office for information & funds. The messenger, meeting with Mr. Metcalfe, returned and met us at the mouth of the Canyon, where I see from a letter addressed to Mr. Metcalfe that you desire to be informed of our approach. I according to that request [will] start Mr. Jewett to your office again tomorrow morning.
    In a former communication I informed you of the killing of an Indian by a white man. On yesterday Lieut. Underwood arrested the person supposed to be guilty of that act. He is now under guard, to be handed over to the civil authorities by them to be tried. The individual's name is [Timoleon] Love. He does not deny the act but pleads justification, that the Indian was known to be a bad Indian etc. We have got along very well; so far no difficulty at all except in the Canyon, which we found in a miserable condition. We were near three days getting the wagons through. The wagon way had been entirely obstructed in places by driftwood and rock falling in from the steep hillside above. Very many of the Indians are sick and some are dying. Two have died since we started, one man and one woman. I find I will have to engage some more teams in order to make ordinary speed, as many of the Indians are tiring down and giving out & will have to be hauled to get them along. We experience great difficulty with our cattle; no forage can be had for them, nor is there any grass of consequence on the way. I think it not unlikely that forage can be had after we cross the Calapooia Mountain, which would enable us to travel much faster. We today discovered a band of hostile Indians but were unable to get a talk with them. They were on the south side of Umpqua & just above the mouth of Cow Creek. Capt. Smith gave us an escort of (105) one hundred & five men to accompany us through the Canyon & on to South Umpqua. Tomorrow Lieut. Crook returns & Lieut. Underwood & Lieut. Hazen accompany us, one with sixty men. Mr. Metcalfe deems it necessary & Lieut. Underwood request that you get an order from Col. Wright of Fort Vancouver to that effect & transmit to Fort Lane.
Very respectfully yours
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 97.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        March 8, 1856.
Sir:
    I have the honor herewith to send up four communications, dated respectively the 8th, 9th, 14th and 26th of January last, from Superintendent Palmer, together with their enclosures upon the subject of our Indian relations in Oregon Territory.
    You will perceive that the subjects treated of by the Superintendent are of grave character, and are of such importance in my opinion from the circumstances surrounding them as to require that all the force which the Executive Department can exercise in that section of country should be brought to the aid of the Superintendent in the views entertained by him.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Hon. R. McClelland
    Secretary of the Interior
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 292-293.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March 8th 1856
Major
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 25th ult. referring to one of the day previous the 24th and giving the names of certain persons who it was thought had been killed by the Indians in their attack on the camp on the morning of the 22nd but afterwards were found to have made their escape. Your letter accompanied by one from Mr. R. W. Dunbar, the collector at Port Orford, reached Dayton by express in the evening of the 1st inst. and was that night forwarded to me at the Grand Ronde Reservation about 30 miles from here. I very much regret the letter referred to as written on the 24th had failed to reach me, as I doubt not it contained particulars that would have afforded me a clearer and better understanding of that terrible affair. I can only however await the arrival of the next mail with patience to learn further in regard to the movements of Indians at that point. Had it been possible for me to do so I would have immediately repaired to your place and personally investigated as far as might be done the causes of which resulted in that attack, but it is imperative I should at once proceed into the Walla Walla and Cayuse country to collect together and locate the friendly Indians in that quarter and will depart for the Dalles tomorrow morning.
    On my arrival there I shall direct Agent Nathan Olney to proceed with all possible dispatch to Port Orford and am in hopes he may be able to go down by the steamer which conveys them. He will be furnished with specific instructions as to the course I desire to be pursued in order to carry out the policy which has been in view for some time, to collect together all the friendly Indians in and about Port Orford district and encamp them preparatory to their removal northward to the reservation, which will be executed so soon as the necessary preparations can be made and the weather will admit. The first consideration will be, however, the furnishing of a necessary escort of troops to safely and effectually remove them. Should it meet with your views and approbation perhaps it would be advisable the temporary encampment of the Indians should be fixed at the military reservation.
    I would suggest to you, Major, the propriety of employing as a local agent Mr. J. Maguire to collect together the Indians and remain in camp among them. I know this man quite well and from his being well acquainted with the Indians and perfectly familiar with their language, habits &c. am convinced his services would be of great value in the present position of things, besides the greater number of the Indians know him and have confidence in him.
    I still entertain a hope that Special Agent Wright might have escaped, as the information received contained nothing certain of his death. Agent Olney may not be able to reach Port Orford until the arrival of the next steamer, in which case I presume you will continue to exercise the direction and control of all matters that pertain to the Indian Department in the district--a point which at this time I feel convinced needs the surest judgment and discretion you can bestow upon its interests. It is desirable the agent should act in concert with you in carrying out the plans adopted, and I would be glad if you would impart to him such knowledge of the existing state of affairs as may in your judgment demand attention so as to enable him to fully comprehend their precise condition and to act accordingly.
I am, Major, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    Major John F. Reynolds
        3rd U.S. Artillery
            Comdg. Fort Orford O.T.
P.S.  It is my intention to visit Port Orford as soon as I can return from the Dalles, and shall do so provided no pressing duties in this section of the country should prevent me.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 79-80.  A copy is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 504-507.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March 8th 1856
Sir
    On the morning of the 3rd instant, I received letters by express from Port Orford under date of 24 & 25 ult., informing me of an outbreak among the Indians in that district, the substance of which is as follows: That a party of volunteers who had been encamped for some time at the Big Bend of Rogue River, which is distant about thirty miles from its mouth, returned and a part of them encamped near the Tututni village, three miles above the coast, the remaining portion having passed on to the mining village at the mouth of the river. On the morning of the 22nd ult., at daylight, the camp near the Indian village was attacked by a party of Indians supposed to be about 300, and all but two it was supposed put to death, one man making his way to Port Orford, and one to the village at the mouth of Rogue River; with one exception all the dwellings from the mouth of Rogue River to Port Orford have been burned, and the inmates supposed to be murdered. Five persons, however, have made their appearance which at first were supposed to have been killed. I enclose herewith extracts from letters received from R. W. Dunbar, and a copy of a letter from Major Reynolds with a copy of my reply to him. Benj. Wright, the special Indian agent, is supposed to be among the killed. The general impression is that the coast Indians as far north as Humbug Mountain, ten miles south of Port Orford, have united with the hostile tribes.   Up to the last advices from that quarter, Mr. Wright expressed a confident hope of being able to maintain peace among them, but the extraordinary success of the hostile bands in whipping the forces brought against, and the ease with which they have invariably gained a victory over them, inspired a belief that they were abundantly able to maintain their position and rid themselves of the white population. In every instance where a conflict has ensued between the volunteers and hostile Indians in Southern Oregon, the latter have gained what they regard a victory. It is true that a number of Indian camps have been attacked by armed parties, and mostly put to death or flight, but in such cases it has been those unprepared to make a resistance and not expecting such attacks. This, the lessing the number of Indians in the country, has tended greatly to exasperate and draw into a hostile attitude many that would have otherwise abstained from any acts of violence against the whites. The avowed determination of the people to exterminate the Indian race, regardless as to whether they were innocent or guilty, and the general disregard for the rights of those acting as friends and aiding in the subjugation of one real and avowed enemy, has had a powerful influence in inducing these tribes to join the warlike bands. It is astonishing to know the rapidity with which intelligence is carried from one extreme of the country to another, and the commission of outrages, of which there have been many, by our people against an Indian is heralded forth by the hostile parties, augmented, and used as evidence of the necessity for all to unite in war against us.
    Those coast bands, it is believed, might have been kept out of the war if a removal could have been effected during the winter, but the numerous obstacles indicated in my former letter, with the absence of authority and means in my hands, rendered it impracticable to carry it into effect.
    It is hoped the condition of things is not really so bad in that district as the letter referred to might seem to imply. Enough, however, is known to convince us that a considerable portion of the coast tribes below Port Orford and extending eastward to Fort Lane, and very likely those on Upper Coquille (for they are adjacent), are hostile and indisposed to come to terms, and doubtless will remain so until they have positive demonstration of the folly of attempting to redress their own wrongs.
    Measures have been for some time preparing to remove those bands, and such as still remain friendly will be collected and placed on the military reservation at Port Orford until the requisite arrangements can be perfected for their removal to the Coast Reservation. I have in contemplation the [assignment] of Agent Nathan Olney to the service and, as I propose repairing to the Dalles of the Columbia with the view of perfecting arrangements in Mr. Thompson's district for the removal and settlement of the Indians of that vicinity on their reservation, I shall visit Mr. Olney in person and satisfy myself in regard to certain rumors indicating improper conduct on his part, to which I referred in my letter of 11th of Feby.
    The substance of which rumors and allegations are that he had cooperated with certain menials and elements of the Hudson's Bay Company and others in Middle Oregon in inducing a state of war, and improperly ordered all the whites in that country to abandon their possessions previous to their being any demonstration of hostility on the part of the Indians there; that a written order to that effect had been given to the persons in charge of the Hudson's Bay Co. fort at Walla Walla, indicating that a concert of actions had been had, or a preconcerted plan arranged with a view apparently of fastening upon the government any damages for property that was hastily abandoned, which if real danger had been apparent would not have been right; that in his apparent attention of controlling and directing the affairs in the Cayuse and Walla Walla country, acting as Indian agent on the occasion of his visit in company with the volunteers, and acting as aide to Col. Kelly, he had given improper counsel and advice and contributed in a great degree to the death of Peu-peu-mox-mox and his party, who had come in under a flag of truce; that after the fight he had in conjunction with disreputable persons seized and drove from that country large bands of horses belonging to the friendly as well as to the hostile Indians, driving them to the Dalles, and applying them to his private use; that he retained in his services and had around him men of disreputable character calculated to bring the Indian Department into reproach; that much of the ill feeling and bad treatment shown by the volunteers towards the friendly Indians was induced by his participating in these acts, they alleging that if an Indian agent be permitted to come into the country and drive off large bands of horses and apply them to his own use, they ought to be allowed the privilege of taking as many as were required whilst in the service. In the event of finding these reports well founded, I shall suspend Agent Olney from the service, however efficient he may be in other respects, and in that case we will be compelled to rely upon a special agent to take charge of and remove the coast tribes.
    My letter of the 23d ult., recd. here on the 4 inst. from Agent Ambrose, believe that he had started on the journey from [Fort Lane] encampment with the friendly Indians under his charge to the reservation at Grand Ronde. Sub-Agent Metcalfe had on the 27th ult. been dispatched with funds to Sub-Agt. Drew and Ambrose, with instructions to remain with and aid Ambrose in the removal, unless some unforeseen obstacle should arise. I look confidently for the arrival of these Indians upon the Grand Ronde Reservation within ten or twelve days.
    Active operations are going on at the reservation. Considerable progress is being made in putting in wheat crops, rendered more necessary by that sown in the fall having, with nearly the entire fields in the country, been killed by the severity of the frost in January. Small tracts of land are being designated for residence and cultivation by the respective members of the band, and with but few exceptions they appear to enter into the arrangement with spirit and determination to do something for themselves. It must, of course, take time, and an almost unlimited share of patience to reconcile the superstitious and ignorant notions and whims of these people, and introduce anything like system or order among them, but I have confidence in the belief that with efficient agents and the means forwarded by the treaties, we will be able to greatly better their condition and convince the skeptical of the practicability of carrying out the humane policy of the government in civilizing and enlightening the Indians of Oregon Territory.
Yours most respectfully
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 81-84.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 511-518.





Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March 8th 1856
Sir
    Herewith please find a schedule of articles to be purchased in the eastern markets for use in the Oregon Indian Superintendency for the year ending June 30th 1857.
    This schedule is submitted without reference to the proportion of each article designed for the respective tribes, as by the confederation and relocation of portions of these we may desire to change their character of payments to suit the circumstances. Emergencies often arise rendering necessary that application of articles on hand to objects other than those for which they were originally designed. I have called for such articles only as are difficult to obtain of good quality in these markets, presuming that very many essential and important [articles] may be purchased in San Francisco upon reasonable terms, at periods when if compelled to await their shipment from the Atlantic Coast would subject us to great inconvenience.
    In connection with the subject of clothing for the Indians, I would suggest the propriety of making inquiry whether the kind of material used for clothing the United States troops, such as pants and jackets, might not be obtained for their use, which are I think more serviceable and better suited to their mode of life, and in the end more economical than the kind of slop shop and flimsy material usually obtained in clothing establishments. The flouring mills are designed to be used upon the reservation, vide my annual estimates for the next fiscal year. In the arrangement of building and the motive power for these mills, reference should be had to the kind of machinery used. And in order that this may be done systematically, and in view of the great delay in communicating with machinists in the Atlantic States, I would suggest the propriety of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs directing inquiry into the last arranged mills of the character desired to be used and arrangements made for these shipments at an early day, with directions to the manufactories to immediately forward to this office drafts of the mill, machinery &c. and specifications of the requisite buildings, size, height of story and arrangement in which they will be placed. These four mills are to be located upon distinct and separate tracts, and consequently each mill must be complete in itself. The 30-inch one, however, will be placed in the same building with one of the three-feet run, and the arrangement of machinery, bolts &c. should be in accordance. It is designed to propel all these mills by water, and the water wheels and shafts for the first story may be constructed here at perhaps less expense than to have them shipped from abroad. The bolting cloths need not be arranged with that degree of fineness usual in merchant mills; none I presume will be required finer than No. 8. Although I have estimated for Noye's patent, which are manufactured in Buffalo, New York, perhaps some other style of mills may be equal or preferable, but of this I have some doubts. For these last few years, smut in the wheat has been quite prevalent in this country. It will therefore be requisite to furnish each mill with a smut machine, and screeners for separating cheat and chess. I have inserted in the schedule for irons for two flutter wheels; sawmills for those to be erected immediately. Irons may be purchased in this country. The cost of those mills and other articles are chargeable to stipulations with Indian tribes in Oregon and [will] be paid from out of the funds estimated from the year ending June 30th 1857. The heavy plows shipped for account in negotiating treaties in Upper and Middle Oregon are not well suited to our loose soil and tender sod, but by lengthening the beam and making wrought points and extending the cut may answer the purpose. The seventy-five small plows are almost valueless. They might do in some soils for corn plows, but the age is too far advanced to use such plows, even in cultivating wheat among the Indians. The felling axes sent out by the first shipment are the most worthless I ever saw or heard of; not one out of ten are good for anything at all. Those tried upon the reservation have resulted in nothing but a convincing proof that it's labor thrown away to handle them. More than half of them break like glass within the first hour use. If these axes were warranted upon being furnished, the parties ought to be made responsible for their cost and transportation. Owing to the unsuitableness of the plows as above stated, I have called for a quantity of steel designed for use in the manufacture of plows by the mechanics upon the reservations. I desire a portion of the iron embraced in the schedule to be sent out to be of heavy bars for land sides of breaking plows, also a portion of suitable size and quality for making axes. It is desirable that a portion of the blankets required should be sent out by the first clipper ship.
I have the honor to be sir
   Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            [Joel Palmer]
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner Ind. Affairs
                Washington City D.C.
     
Schedule of articles, property and goods to be purchased
in the Atlantic States for the use of the
Oregon Indian Superintendency

Four Noye's patent flouring mills--each one run of three-foot burrs, and all the requisite machinery and fixtures for running the same, and the necessary bolting cloths for each mill; also
One run of 30 inch burrs (extra) to be placed in one of the above mills
One hundred pairs 3 point scarlet Mackinac blankets
Two hundred pairs 3 point blue Mackinac blankets
Seven hundred pairs 3 point white Mackinac blankets
Two hundred pairs 3 point green Mackinac blankets
Two hundred pairs 2½ point blue Mackinac blankets
Eight hundred pairs 2½ point white Mackinac blankets
Two hundred pairs 2½ point green Mackinac blankets
Eight thousand yards 3/4 unbleached shirting
Eight thousand yards 4/4 unbleached sheeting
Two thousand yards scarlet cloth
Fifteen hundred pairs heavy satinette pants
Fifteen hundred satinette pea jackets
One hundred kegs assorted cut nails
Four tons asst. sizes round & bar iron
One thousand pounds steel, for plow mouldboards
Two hundred pounds blister steel
Two hundred pounds asst. German cast steel
Two sets mill irons complete for flutter wheel sawmills
Four hundred cast iron pots, from 1 to 6 gal.
Three hundred Dutch (or bake) ovens, asstd. sizes
Four hundred cast iron tea kettles
Two hundred cast iron skillets
Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 8th 1856
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 84-87.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 604-612.



    Sir, your letter of this date making inquiry relative to the Indian war now existing in W.T. is before me. You say "Will you have the kindness to inform me as to the causes of the war." In reply to this inquiry, I must say it is hard to tell. Some ascribe the war to one cause, some another. The Indian statement is that the war has grown out of the treaties made with them for their lands. They say that they made bad bargain in the sales made & they know of no way to get out of those bargains but to fight out. Leshi, the principal chief on the west of the Cascades & Owhi on the east as well I believe as all the subordinate chiefs assign the same reason. They say that they have no dislike for the Bostons, that they have been profited by our presence amongst them, that they have purchased blankets for less money & received better prices for their labors and all else that they have to sell since we settled in their country. Their hatred and dislike is for those who made the treaties with them, such as agents, interpreters, etc. &c. & to get at them they have had to wage an indiscriminate war against all Americans. It is not pretended by them that any of the tribes engaged in the war they they have been abused or misused by American settlers our people. They only assign as a reason for going to war their dissatisfaction with the sales they had made of portions of their lands and their reservations of others. Previous a few days to the breaking out of the war, I was east of the mountains and saw the most of the Indian tribes who have since engaged in this war as well as some of the tribes who have remained friendly to the whites. I learned from those who were friendly then and who continued so, that some half doz. tribes were trying to unite for the purpose of waging a general war of extermination against the white settlements. That deputation had been sent from the Walla Wallas, Kinses, Yakamas, Hedesserie & Palmer with with an offer of 500 horses & 250 head of cattle had been offered to induce them--the Spokanes--to join in the war and that a larger number had been offered to the Nez Perces which offer they declined. They told us I mean when inquired at the reason they those hostile tribes gave for wanting a war with the whites was that they had become dissatisfied with the treaties made with sales they had made of their lands & by a union of all the tribes they could expel the Bostons from their country entirely and recover all their lands and enjoy the prosperity that the whites possessed. Capt. McDonald, one of the chief factors of the H. B. Company who was in charge of Fort Colville, told us and who understands the Indian character as well as any man on the Pacific, told us that the Indians were dissatisfied with the sales they had made of their lands and that they were particularly hostile to Gov. Stevens & General Palmer who had made the treaties. Such was the state of mind existing amongst those tribes at the time that I was in their country which was in the month of August. The Yakamas had determined to attack the small post that composed our company but and were prevented from doing so by the influence of Capt. McDonald. On our return from the Colville country, we passed through the Walla Walla country Valley when we met with the celebrated chief Peu-peu-mox-mox with whom we held an interview at our request--that interview was held at Fort Walla Walla in the presence of Captain McHenry who St. Clair, a most worthy and intelligent gentleman and who had been born & raised in the H. B. service & who has since been murdered by the Indians. In the interview we held with Peu-peu-mox-mox, we found him in a bad humor. He too was dissatisfied with the sales he had made of his lands--pretended as if he had not fully understood the bargain which he had made and manifesting a strong dislike for Gov. Stevens--he told us he had been at all times that both himself and people had been always well treated by the Bostons, but that he had heard that the whites in traveling through the xxx tribes of Indians had given them poisoned flour which caused the death of quite a number of them. When asked if he believed the statement [he] remarked that he could hardly credit it--at the same time adding that it might be true that there were good and bad men amongst all classes of people and colors. We found the old chief a man of decided shrewdness and apparent fairness--but Capt. St. Clair told us that he Peu-peu-mox-mox was a bad Indian, that his influence amongst all the tribes was east of the mountains was unbounded and that he had not the least doubt but that the Indians were preparing for a general outbreak on the settlements and that he--Peu-peu-mox-mox--was at the head of the conspiracy. Capt. St. Clair's surmises proved too true. It will be seen from the statement of facts which I make that the war immediate cause of war grew out of the treaties which had been made with the Indians for their lands for there was no tribe engaged in the for it is worthy of note that there was not a tribe engaged in the war with whom treaties had not been made. Capt. St. Clair thought a remote cause of war grew out of a feeling of envy. The Indians had seen the rapid increase of in numbers of the white man on the Pacific Coast from Cal. to the Straits of Juan de Fuca. They had seen him cut down their native forests and plow under the grass on their beautiful prairies. They had witnessed their fair-skinned neighbors seen with what rapid strides their fair-skinned neighbors acquired comforts. They saw his superiority in everything. They could not shut their vision to the inevitable destiny which awaited them--that their power & influence in that vast region was gradually but certainly passing away--and aroused by their savage instincts which have controlled the race in their attacks on our frontier settlements from our earliest history up to as a people up to the present time--commenced the barbarous and savage war which they did offering as an apology dissatisfaction with the treaties which they had just concluded. The present delegate from (Col. Anderson) was with me  He saw what I saw & heard on the trip to Colville While passing through the Indian country he saw what I saw, he heard what I heard and will doubtless corroborate the general statements which I here make you beside giving you many incidents of interest which in my hurry I omit.
    It is true as you suppose that I have lived amongst the Indians for several years and that I know the Indian character & that I have been engaged since the war commenced in defending the settlements against their murderous attacks. I have lived in W.T. for 4 years surrounded by Indians with whom I have always been on terms of intimate friendship until the war began, since which time I have been engaged in the war. I believe I was amongst the first if not the to respond to the call of our Territorial Gov. for help & have been in the field ever since up to within a few days from of the time I left W.T. which was about the 26th May and believe that I understand the Indian character as friends as well as enemies. You ask me whether the charge is true that has been put in circulation to the effect that a party of seven white men had taken a party of friendly Indians near the Cascades and after violating a young girl, murdered the whole party? In reply to this last inquiry, I answer that I heard of this charge for the first time on my arrival in [illegible] City. If an outrage so criminal and brutal had been committed in W.T., I certainly would have heard it. It would have been a theme of universal condemnation and the perpetrators driven from our midst. I can say without the fear of contradiction that the Indians of W.T., while there was peace, have been more courteously treated by the whites than Indians have ever been in any territory. Their rights have been scrupulously observed. In the length of time that I resided among them I knew one Indian killed by white men. They were arrested, tried before an examining court & acquitted, yet notwithstanding the murderers were acquitted, such was the force of public sentiment that they had to leave the Territory.
    I have known several white men killed by Indians who were acquitted for the offense, and if I am not forgetful, Col. Anderson was then counsel. Since I have been engaged in the war I have taken a number of Indian prisoners comprising men, women, & children. I have in no case killed the men except such as were proven guilty of murders being engaged in some of the murders various murders that have been committed upon our citizens.When it was not clearly proven, they have been sent to the reservations. The women & children have been invariably kindly treated and returned to the Indian reservation. I have been surprised at the sympathy manifested for Indians by some persons on the Pacific occupying a high position--at the great pains they take to tell of the barbarous treatment Indians receive at the hands of the vol., which ill barbarous treatment was never given the Indians never did receive at the hands of the vol., and how scrupulously the same class of  men avoid telling the of the savage & brutal murders the Indians have committed on our unsuspecting & defenseless citizens comprising men, women & children, how they have mutilated the dead bodies of women by cutting off their breasts & severing the heads of infants at the breast from their bodies. We have not learned as yet that the Indians have violated our women, our white women, for none have been left alive to tell the tale of their wrongs--for the Indians take no prisoners. Can it be that those Indian sympathizers are not on the Pacific are ignorant of the facts? If not, what can they mean by such extraordinary and one-sided publications.
In haste, your obedient servant,
    Gilmore Hays
Joseph Lane Papers, OHS Mss 1146, Oregon Historical Society Research Library.  Undated.



Winchester March 8th 1856
Sir
    Agreeably to instructions I send a messenger to inform you of the condition, time of starting and progress in the removal of the Rogue River Indians and accompanied them two days on their march to this place where I left them to make some arrangement for the trial of a man who killed an Indian whilst unarmed and under the protection of the U.S. troops. We may conclude to take him down with us, and if we do I should like to hear from you at the earliest moment. Dr. Ambrose does not like to take any responsibility, and if we do wrong in retaining him it rests upon me. If such miscreants are suffered to shoot down with impunity friendly Indians whilst under our protection and put all law at defiance it is time for us to introduce some such of laws that will reach their case, and nothing short of the aid of a strong military force will enable us to reach the reserve. I have therefore thought it advisable to recommend an escort of sixty men under Lieuts. Underwood & Hazen, an order for which you will please get as early as possible and forward by express to meet us. Dr. Ambrose has written and I suppose has given you all the particulars which renders it unnecessary for me to write at length.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 96.



House of Representatives
    March 10, 1856
Dear Sir,
    The Committee on Indian Affairs having referred to me for examination the "petition of the citizens [of] Oregon Territory who suffered losses from Indian depredation in that portion of country lying between the Canyon and Rogue River" with a bill for their relief, I have determined to consult your department in regard to the matter. You will confer a favor upon the committee by communicating to me any information you may have in respect to that subject.
    Your early attention is requested.
Yours truly
    B. F. Leiter
I send you the bill & petition for inspection; please return with your answer.
L.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 330-331.



Office Sub-Ind. Agt.
    Umpqua City, Oregon
        March 13th 1856
Sir--
    Reliable information has been received at this office to the effect that a large portion of the war party of the Rogue River Valley band of Indians are now on the coast. The particulars of the murder of Spec. Sub-Agt. Benj. Wright & party received from Port Orford via Coos Bay by an express messenger to this office are "That the head chief of the war party of Rogue River Valley with a large force came down to the mouth of Rogue River to the Indian village on the south side & after exciting the coast Indians to declare war sent up to Capt. Wright that he desired to have a talk with him. Wright went down to the river & sent for the Indian to come over & have the talk, thinking that he might have an opportunity of capturing him & taking him to Port Orford. The Indian however came over with twenty (20) warriors & commenced an attack. Wright had but two persons with him & the report is that he killed three Indians before he was taken. As soon as the Indians had finished with Capt. Wright & party they proceeded to surprise the miners in the vicinity & succeeded in killing some twenty persons. The general impression is that the Indians with their increased force will spread themselves over into the Coquille country, which is at present entirely abandoned by the whites." The coast Indians as far north as Port Orford (as I am informed) have joined the war party. The Coquilles have been turned over to the military authorities at Port Orford. Only four or five days' rations for the band [are] to be obtained in the place, and it is to be feared that they will "make a break" & join the war party.
    At daylight tomorrow I leave for Coos Bay again. The Indians all remain friendly, yet the only hope I have of securing the same is to remove them all to Umpqua, where they will be out of the influence of the whites. Provisions can be obtained here & they will be further removed from the hostile bands. A small extra expense will be incurred for lumber in the event they are moved immediately.
    I shall delay if possible any steps in the matter until I can learn your views of the same.
    Since I commenced the above another dispatch has been received stating that five more men have been killed below Port Orford, that dissatisfaction is apparent among the Coos bands. Should you be unable to come to the coast yourself send me some specific instructions in the premises.
    A military force should be stationed at this point & upon the celerity of the dispatch with which troops may be sent to this point may depend the hostility or friendliness of all the bands within the Umpqua Sub-Agency.
Yours
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
To Genl. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 104.



Crescent City, Cala.
    Mch. 15, 1856.
T. J. Henley, Esq.
    Supt. Indn. Affrs.
        San Frano.
            Sir:
                I have the honor of reporting myself to you at this place, where I came at the request of Col. Buchanan, of [the] U.S. army, for the purpose of holding a consultation relative to the removal of a large number of Indians onto the reserve, a duty with which he is charged by Gen. Wool, U.S. army. No conclusion was arrived at until the 14th inst. The result was that Col. Buchanan would continue to subsist the Indians until instructions could be obtained from the Supt. of Indn. Affrs. Not being empowered by you to create expenses in the subsistence or removal of Indians, I declined to do either but agreed to receive them on the reservation, they to be located on Wilson's Creek, contiguous to the seashore. Wilson's Creek is on the reserve, as I laid it out, about four miles north of the mouth of Klamath River.
    The Indians now about to be removed are those who have always resided near this place and the country north, who were induced to come here for their own protection against the hostile tribes and reckless white men during the present disturbance. They were collected and placed on a small island in the harbor and have been subsisted by order and direction of Capt. Jones, U.S. army, until the arrival of Gen. Wool on the 8th inst., who ordered Col. Buchanan to continue the same until the Indian agent of the Klamath Reserve would assume the province of removing them to the reserve, and if he (the agt.) declined, then Col. Buchanan was to have it done. They number between 3 and 500 souls, and the daily expense is considerable. The situation of the Inds. is hard. They were forced to fly their homes, lose their provisions &c., to now subsist upon rations heretofore unknown to them, almost destitute of clothing or shelter from the tempestuous weather which now prevails, and the only condition upon which they agreed to remove from their old homes and go onto the reserve was that they should have food for the present, suitable houses erected for their reception (in which they will assist), conveniences for fishing, and proper tools furnished for making themselves comfortable, which was promised them.
    To carry out these agreements, it is absolutely necessary that at least four additional working men should be employed.
    The Indians positively refuse to renounce all claim to their former lands and improvements and expect to be remunerated hereafter--or have the privilege of returning t
o them--neither of which I could promise
    The good results to be gained by a peaceable removal of these Indians is not to be calculated by dollars and cents. It will sever them from the hostile tribes north, with whom many are connected by family ties, and who are more disposed to join them than submit to indiscriminate slaughter by the whites. The whole community expect action and discretion on my part, as Indn. agt., particularly at this time--which I am forbidden to assume. The neighboring Inds. in S. Oregon are still in arms, and are constantly committing depredations and making hostile forays. The whites on Rogue River (65 miles distant) are surrounded and dare not venture from their breastworks. The last accounts represent their reduced situation as truly deplorable, and there are no just grounds for believing that the war will be immediately terminated.
    That you may better appreciate the situation of affairs I send you a rough map of this section of the country and extracts from the Crescent City Herald. When I was last in San Frano. I applied to have a detachment of soldiers stationed on the reserve. They arrived last month and occupy the houses at the upper end. I concentrated the seven employees at the lower depot. On 27th Feby., when hostile acts were expected to take place, I applied to the officer in command to send me 5 men, to be ready in case of necessity, which request has never been complied with. I would suggest the propriety of the officer acting in concert with the agt., which he is now forbidden to do at present in cases of emergency.
    Your instructions, to employ more men to carry out the agreement with the Indians and also to facilitate farming operations, are respectfully asked at your earliest convenience--as I will await them, at this place.
Very respecty.
    S. G. Whipple
        Spec. Ind. Agt.
            Klamath Reserve
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 807-811.



Salem, Oregon Territory March 18 / 56
Dear Brethren
    I herewith forward you my "March report." In looking over my labors for the past year, I find but little that is pleasant to report to the churches which have sustained us here. If I were called upon to speak of war, the gathering and disbanding of troops, the profanity, Sabbath-breaking or intemperance of those enlisting for the field, I could make out a full report. The list of sin is full. It was only this morning that the last enlisted body of men which has been mustered into service at Salem left the town. This being the capital, to which most of the troops are gathered, the place where our public men reside, and consequently the place to which the reports and expresses from the seat of war, north and south, come, it has kept us in a constant state of excitement. A report has just come in of the massacre of a company of twenty men at the mouth of Rogue River by Indians supposed to be friendly. The Indian agent had gone to take a small tribe under his care, as they said they did not wish to fight the white people as the other tribes were soliciting them to do. But there was treachery in their professed friendship, and the whole company which went to bring them in have fallen victims to their bloody hands. The Indians hitherto at the south have proved victorious in every battle. Not more than thirty to forty of them have been killed, according to the best reports, while about a hundred and fifty of our own people have fallen victims. Rogue River Valley and all south of the Umpqua is either burned and laid waste or in such a state of constant alarm that nothing is done. Southern Oregon is ruined, and the Indians are daily gaining courage. They fight with the desperation of fiends, and have even begun their work of death in Umpqua Valley. Where this state of things will end, God only knows. If they do not receive a check soon, Oregon is ruined.
    At the north, the Indians have lost one battle, but they have no disposition [to] yield, and there is [a] strong probability that we shall have years of war. At Puget Sound, Bro. [Jotham W.] Goodell writes that the people are mostly "forted up" or the towns are picketed in, and the Indians are growing bolder and stronger every day, farming is stopped, the cattle of many are driven off or shot, and all are obliged to be constantly on their guard if they go out of town, as the savages pick off all they can find alone. According to good authority the force of the Indians is about as follows: In Southern Oregon, five hundred, in Whitman's Valley at the north, two thousands, at the Sound from three to five hundred. I state to you these things because I know you wish to know what does and what does not affect the interests of missions and what are the prospects for the future in this Territory.
Yours in Christian love
    O. Dickinson
Letter to the American Home Missionary Society. Congregational Home Missionary Society, Letters from Missionaries in Oregon, 1849-1893.




Deer Creek March 18th 1856       
Dear Sir
    The grain given in by the Indians to be collected was given in by the sack and basket, each supposed to contain two bushels but whereupon examination some contained not to exceed one and a half bushels, and some not more than one-half a bushel. I started on Feby. 27th and went to the reservation and there found five canoes which I tried to sell but was not able to do so, owing to all the settlers having left their homes in fright of the hostile Indians. Feby. 25th I left the reserve and went to the French settlement where I found a mare, which I left there for them. I went to Culver's & White where the Indians reported wheat and other things cached and there found about thirty bushels of wheat cached in the forks of a branch which had been covered over by water in the flood time and had all spoiled, but I was not able to find anything else. From there I went to Mr. Flournoy's and there found about forty bushels of wheat cached in the ground, all of which was thoroughly wet through and almost rotten. Feby. 29th I left Flournoy's and went to Arrington's where the Indians were camped in the Lookingglass Prairie, who had nothing in his possession belonging to the Indians. Then I went to Mr. Gage's who had as he said taken four bushels of wheat belonging to the Indians which he refused to give up under pretense that the Indians had stolen more than ten times that amt. from him, but I learned from his neighbors that in place of four bushels it was ten bushels that he had got, in evidence of which there was three persons (Balliew, Stearns and Gage) that raised thirty bushels of wheat from a cache and divided it equally between them, and after the division Mr. Balliew [Belieu?] delivered his ten bushels to John Dillard who has a bill against the Indian Department for land and cultivation of the same as per support of Umpqua Indians in 1855. I then left Gage's and went to John Dillard's and found in his possession ninety bushels of wheat which he would not deliver to me, but said that he was willing to account to the Department for the amt. credited to the amt. due him from the Department at one dollar per bushel. March 1st I left John Dillard's and went to L. D. Kent's, who had in his possession as I was told twenty-five or thirty bushels of wheat and some peas, a horse and two rifles, but upon my asking him he said that he got the wheat but he did not measure it but he thought there was twenty-five bushels and that the volunteers had made use of it all to ten bushels, which he delivered to me. The two rifles he said he would let me have upon my paying him four dollars and fifty cents for repairs of the guns, which I did, as the Indians would not lose anything by it. The peas he said he got one basket full containing one-half bushel which he gave to me, which together with the wheat after trying to sell to the few remaining settlers and not being successful I turned it over to John Dillard how to account for it as the other in his possession. I then asked him for the horse. He said he got the horse, but in one or two days it was gone and he had not seen him since, so according to that the horse had been gone about four months.
    Then I went to Mr. Moon, who according to the Indian report had some wheat flour and some other things of which he knew nothing of except one small sack of shorts (say 40#) and some three bushels of peas, which after much time spent in trying to dispose of them I was compelled to leave them at Moon's. Then I went to McCullough, as I learned that there was some wheat left there or near there belonging to the Indians, but I learned that it had been burned up in a granary which was burned by the hostile Indians.
    Mr. McCullough supposed there was near twenty bushels. March 2nd I left McCullough's and went to John Hendrick's, who had in his possession a horse which after much contention he gave up to me. I took the horse to John Dillard's and put him in a pasture until such time as I could return for him.
    March 3rd I left Mr. Dillard and went to McCloud's, to where it was reported by the Indian that they had much wheat, peas and many other things. McCloud having volunteered and not at home, I could not find anything there belonging to the Indians but learned from Mr. Rice, who is residing on McCloud's place, that there was nothing there belonging to the Indians. Then I went to Mr. Burnett's as I learned that there was some wheat there. Mr. Burnett said there was no wheat in his possession, but there was some wheat raised from a cache by some citizen volunteers who were not mustered into the regular services. He did not know the quantity but supposed there was twenty-five bushels or more. Then I went to Mr. Hadley's for a gun which was reported to have been left there, but Mr. Hadley said that there never had been a gun left at his house by any Indian. Then I went to John Adams', who an Indian said owed him ten dollars, and John Adams said that he paid the amt. in provisions before the Indian left. March 4th I left John Adams and went to Mr. Phipps' who had in his possession a canoe, him having volunteered and not at home I was not able to see him, but seen the canoe, but owing to not seeing Mr. Phipps and the scarcity of the settlers I was not able to sell the canoe. So I left it there, then I went back to Mr. Kent's as I had heard while traveling about that he still had in his possession the horse which he before denied knowing anything about. So I asked him where the horse was. He said he did not know. I told him that I knew that he had got the horse and that he still had him, for I was told so by persons that knew. Well, he said he did not know, the horse might be up on the ranch. I then asked him if he did not know that he was. He said yes, he believed that he was. I said then that I would go and get the horse, to which he said that I should not unless I would pay one dollar per week for ranch fees for four months, the whole amtg. to sixteen dollars. I told him I could not pay the amt. He said he would be d---n if ever he would give the animal up so long as he could help it. So I left him and went back to Mr. Dillard's. March 5th I left Dillard's and went to Mr. Parvises who had taken his family and moved to the Willamette so I found nothing there. Then I went to McAdams' for a balance owed on a gun. McAdams [said] the Indian owed him one dollar and fifty cents in place of his owing the Indian anything.
    I then went to Mr. Barker's as the Indians reported that they left a lot of wheat there, bur Mr. Barker was not at home and I could not learn anything about it. I then went to Mr. Wright's, who had also volunteered and left home. Mr. Burns is not in the country. I then went to Deer Creek and left the horse that I got at Mr. Hendrick's.
    March 6th remained at Deer Creek.
         "      7th went to meet Dr. Ambrose.
         "      8th left Deer Creek and went to James Direous [sic--Darius?] and found about twenty-five bushels of wheat, all of which was spoiled through getting wet, and five elk skins with the hair on. They could not be disposed of anyway. Then I went to Mr. Lipton, where I found one canoe and about twenty-five bushels of wheat which was good and about seven bushels spoiled by getting wet.
    The five bushels I sold for five dollars; the canoe I sold for three dollars, which putting the two together make eight dollars. Mr. Lipton told me that a man by the name of Shaw had taken about eight bushels of wheat. So I went to see Mr. Shaw, but he had gone to the Rogue River country.
    March 9th I left Mr. Lipton's and went to Mr. Huntley's, but could not find anything there belonging to the Indians. I then went to Mr. Hutchinson's.
    March 10th I left Mr. Hutchinson's and went to Mr. Markham's near Lewey's place and believing Mr. Markham to be the proper person to have the care of Lewey's property I accordingly put it in his charge.
    Then I went to Winchester to make settlement with R. B. Metcalfe. March 11th remained at Winchester. March 12 left Winchester and went to reservation to dispose of canoes and hunt horses. March 13th rode all day trying to dispose of canoes, but every settler in the neighborhood had purchased a canoe of the Indians before they left, so I was unable to sell any of them. Therefore I made arrangements to have the canoes hauled out on shore. March 14th I hunted horses left on reserve and found but one and that was dead. March 15th I left reserve and went to Coles Valley to hunt for horses left there and found one dead and one colt, which I took to Deer Creek, then I went to Shambrook's, who had left home with his family on account of Indian hostilities. Then I went to Champine's to get money coming to Indians. Peter Champine [Champagne/Champaign] said that he settled with Peter [sic] before he started to the Willamette.
    March 16th I went to hunt for a mare left in the French settlement. I could not find the mare. I then tried to sell her unsight and seen but could not, as all persons were acquainted with her, knowing her to be five or six years old and never had been rode.
    I herewith transmit the amounts of property collected and taken into account, together with the amount of expenses of collecting and taking into account the same.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        T. R. Magruder
            Local Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
   
Property Taken into Account Belonging to Umpqua Indians
5 Canoes left on reserve $25.00
90   Bushels wheat in possession of J. Dillard 90.00                        
2 Rifles recd. of Kent 16.00
1 Horse of J. Hendricks 25.00
                        1 Canoe left at Phipps' 10.00  
1      "      sold to Lipton 3.00  
5 Bushels wheat sold to Lipton 5.00  
        1 Colt got in Coles Valley      10.00                    
$184.00  
T. R. Magruder
    Local Agt.
Deer Creek
    March 18th 1856
   
Amt. of Expenses Incurred in Collecting and Taking into Account
Property Belonging to Umpqua Indians
    March   4th Paid John Adams as per hotel bill $2.00               
"   5th     "   L. D. Kent for repairing guns 4.50
"   5th     "   John Dillard per hotel bill 4.00
" 11th     "   John S. Walton      "        " 2.50
" 18th To 15 days services of T. R. Magruder, local agt. from
Feby. 27 to March the 18th at $3.00 per day   45.00
$58.00
T. R. Magruder
    Local Agt.
Deer Creek
    March 18th 1856
   

Kent's Ranch
    March 5th 1856
Recd. of T. R. Magruder Local Agt.
for Repairing of Indian Guns
                            for putting in one tube $1.50                        
  "        "        "    "    cylinder 2.00
  "   screws and [illegible] pin   1.00
4.50
   
Adams Fort South Umpqua
    March 4th 1856
Received of T. R. Magruder, Spcl. Sub Agt.
                              For one night's lodging $1.00                           
   "   horse fee a night & morning   1.00
$2.00
John Adams
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 119.



Canyonville O.T. March 19th 1856       
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Dear Sir
        My object of addressing [you] is relative to a small band of Indians that is in this neighborhood. They left here at the commencement of hostilities in Oct. last. They were advised by the whites to move high up on Myrtle Creek; at that time there was some ten or a dozen of them, but there never was over three efficient bucks in the band, the balance squaws & children. The bucks gave up their arms to the whites & had their promise that they would not be molested by the whites, but it was but a short time before a reckless & lawless set of scamps followed them up & killed one buck & three or four squaws. The balance of the little band made their escape & has been in the mountains ever since. One of the band came in last night very near starved & is very anxious to go on the reservation. There is some five or six of them & may be more; they wish I would write to you & let you know their condition. They are destitute of everything.
    I told them to come in & I would furnish them with provisions until I heard from you. If you want them brought down to the reservation I would like to get the contract. I will do it as reasonable as any person else. You can let me know what you will pay. I can furnish everything that is necessary. I will feed them at any rate until I hear what will [be] done with them.
Write me by return mail
    And you will oblige
        Yours &c.
            John T. Boyle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 141.



Washington City
    March 19 1856
To the Commissioner of Indian Affrs.
    Sir
        Will you have the kindness to inform me when Anson Dart was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affrs. of Oregon, when he entered upon his duties, how long he served, and whether during his term of service he visited this city, how long he remained, and for what purpose he visited this city, and whether he resigned and left Oregon previous to the appointment of his successor, and also whether he did not turn over the public property to a private citizen, and also inform me whether in your opinion he is entitled to extra or additional pay for the time he was in service, and if so if all others who served before & since in the same office are not entitled to the same pay, and if convenient let me know the total amt. of his expenditures while in office.
Your obt. sert.
    Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 32-34.





Portland March 20th 1856
Sir,
    Enclosed please find an order from Col. Wright for objects expressed. The captain of the steamer seemed unwilling to remain at Vancouver today sufficiently long for an interview with you, and as I presumed some intelligence might be obtained at this place as to the progress of the emigrating party, I resolved to come forward. In reply to a telegraph dispatch sent to my office this evening I am informed that there are sixty troops accompanying the party and that they are probably within forty miles of their destination. Col. Wright informs me that he had no control over that division or force that would direct as per order. The difficulties met with justifies the impression that other and more serious obstacles might be expected, hence it is important that a force adequate to meet a possible emergency should be at hand. Should these sixty men continue to the reservation and remain until relieved by other troops it will doubtless be sufficient, otherwise I regard it important that a force equal to the number stated in the order should be detached for that service. I am greatly in hopes that one full company may be stationed at the Grand Ronde at an early day, as I think a less number would be inadequate to maintain good order among the Indians and to ensure peace between them and the whites, but for a time the sixty men may answer the purpose. I start home tomorrow, and on my arrival may learn something more definite and will then advise you in the event of your not having received any information demanding a different course. I would hope that the force named in the order might be in readiness to relieve such as may be required to return and add to the number--thirty originally designed to accompany the Indians.
To
    Col. T. Morris
        4th Infantry
            Fort Vancouver
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 89.



Office of Supt. Indn. Affrs.
    San Francisco, Cal.
        Mch. 21st, 1856.
S. G. Whipple, Esq.
    Specl. Indn. Agt.
        Klamath
            Sir:
                In the absence of the Supt. of Indn. Affrs., I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th inst. relative to Indian disturbances at Crescent City and requiring instructions relative to the removal of certain Indians, now collected on an island near Crescent City, also as to employing additional force on the reserve.
    In regard to the removal of these Indians, I would say that in view of the fact that you have nothing upon the reserve for their subsistence, and the transportation of subsistence has heretofore been attended by a loss of about one-half, it is not desired that their removal should be effected unless you consider it absolutely necessary for the peace and well being of the community.
    You have furnished no estimate of the probable cost of their removal, but from the information now in this office it is thought this can be effected at little or no expense. You will, therefore, should you under the circumstances deem it expedient, proceed to remove these Indians by conducting them on foot across the country, if practicable; if not, by water, by means of canoes and with the assistance of the Indians now on the reserve. The employees and Inds. assisting them will take their rations necessary for the trip or trips with them from the reserve--and in this way the removal can be effected without additional expense.
    It is expected that these Indians, if removed, can be subsisted chiefly upon the salmon taken from the river. You will, therefore, incur as little expense as possible for their subsistence.
    In carrying out the views and wishes of the Supt. authority cannot be granted for employing "additional working men," and especially where, as in this case, the necessity for such increase of expenditure is not fully explained.
Respecty. yr. obt. svt.
    G. W. Henley
        Actg. Clk. to Supt.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 813-815.



Port Orford March 21 1856
Gen. Palmer
    Sir, I doubt not before this you have received official notice of the lamentable murders & depredations committed by the Indians south of this place, through Major Reynolds, who informed me he had written you giving a full statement as far as known of all killed, & it will be useless for me to reiterate his statements, for without a doubt they are correct. As soon as we heard of the death of Mr. Wright we called a meeting of the citizens of the place & formed a company of all in the place for the purpose of standing guard & to erect a place of security for the women & children. I was chosen as captain, or leader, to proceed in the erection of a building or fort for the citizens & to detail the guard. That night about 2 o'clock I went to the Indian ranch, called Chilliman, the old interpreter, & told him at daylight in the morning to start for Sixes River & bring the chiefs by noon to have a talk with me. About 10 o'clock the next day Tagonecia & Whiskers, chiefs of Elk & Sixes, came in. I had been to Major Reynolds early in the morning & told him what I had done & also requested him to see them & talk to them if they came in. I also suggested to him the propriety of getting all the friendly ones in, get them to give up their arms, place them on a reserve & feed them as long as they remained peaceable. The Major at first was doubtful of his ability to do so from the fact of having so few soldiers under his command at this point, but finally concluded to do so.
    That day he saw the chiefs. They agreed to come in & give up all of their arms & remain under his protection. The same night (I think) he sent an express to Wm. Chance, local agt. at the mouth of the Coquille River, but Mr. Chance had heard of the outbreak below & started down before the express reached him. The people living at & near the Coquille immediately started for this place. Some of them induced the Indians Chance had left to come down & place themselves on the reserve. The Major received them & has taken their arms, with their consent. Since then the Port Orford & Coquille Indians have lived on the gov. reserve. Until Major Reynolds left him with his forces for the mouth [of] Illinois River I acted as his interpreter. Since then Mr. Chance has acted for Lieut. Chandler, that is since Friday last. I think we can look for the return of the Major in about twelve or fifteen days. The course he has taken throughout this affair is deserving of much credit. The most trouble has been given him by the men who have been living with squaws & wishing to be constantly running to the ranches & having intercourse with their squaws.
    Your presence is very necessary here at this present time. Should you not be able to come down by the return boat I would recommend the appointment of a suitable sub-agt., well supplied with provisions, to feed the Indians until you can come down, for should they get the least discontented & leave where they now are, the whites will kill them.
    Should you be at a loss who to appoint, or have no agt. with you to send to this point, I will, should it suit you, act until your arrival. My brother & former partner will be here on the next steamer to take charge of the store & I shall in consequence be hand & foot loose, to attend to the business without any drawbacks. Should you conclude to accept of my services please let me know at your earliest leisure.
    I have dated my letter two days in advance, but should any news arrive from Rogue River or any other point before the arrival of the steamer I will acquaint you of it. I feel satisfied could you come down soon it would save much difficulty with the Indians now on the reserve.
I am
    Sir
        Your
            Obt. servt.
                S. H. Lount
P.S.
April 1st.  The Coquille Indians left this reserve some six days since & returned in the night to the Coquille. It is believed they were led away by Capt. Davis of Coquille. A company of minute men left here on Saturday under Capt. Creighton for the Coquille. The next morning J. N. Hall, one of the company, was fired at by two Indians just north of Sixes River. Yesterday morning they, that is the company, attacked the Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River & killed I believe nine & took some prisoners which are now on [their] way to this place. The remainder of the company are going up the river to attack all Indians found. The company number I think 29 men.
    I send this by Mr. Northrup who is employed by Colonel Buchanan to carry an express to Fort Vancouver.
    The supplies here are about exhausted & if the steamer should pass again on her upward & downward trip the fort & citizens will be left without provisions of any kind.
    The Colonel I believe has been obliged to stop issuing rations to the Port Orford & Sixes River Indians which have remained contented on the reserve. I still consider it very important that you should come here as soon as possible.
I am
    Sir
        Your
            Obt.
                Servt.
                    S. H. Lount
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 145.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March 25th 1856
Col.
    The Rogue River Indians under charge of Indian Agent Ambrose will, it is expected, reach the Grand Ronde Reservation today. I started out on Sunday morning to meet them and found them at Dallas, moving forward very slowly. There are but twenty troops with them under Lieut. Hazen which I think wholly insufficient to preserve order and maintain discipline upon the reservation. A force of forty or fifty is in my opinion requisite to ensure the necessary maintenance of order and preventing disturbance on whatsoever form or quarter arising. I have therefore to request you will furnish to the Grand Ronde the twenty additional troops mentioned in the instructions of Col. Wright conveyed by me.
I am sir
   Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            [Joel Palmer]
To
    Col. T. Morris
        4th Infantry U.S.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 91.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March 25th 1856
Sir,
    In accordance with my advices of the 8th inst. I proceeded to the Dalles of the Columbia, anticipating a journey into the Cayuse country with a view of confederating the friendly portions of those Indians with the Wascopam and Deschutes bands and removing them to the Warm Springs Reservation, but prior to my departure for the Dalles, Agent Thompson had visited the Superintendency upon business connected with his district, leaving in charge Agent Olney, who dispatched a messenger to the friendly Indians in the Walla Walla Valley advising them to leave their country and temporarily join the Nez Perces, upon which advice seconded by the fear of additional ill-treatment towards them they removed their camp into the Nez Perces' country. I therefore went no further than the Dalles.
    By an arrangement previously made Agent Thompson on his return to the Dalles notified the chiefs of the several bands included in the Wasco treaty of his desire to examine the reservation designated, and accordingly, accompanied by Agent Olney and all the principal chiefs and headmen, they proceeded to the Warm Springs Reservation, and after a thorough examination the Indians were satisfied that the location designated by the treaty was the best that could be selected, and they all agreed to accept of that tract as a permanent reservation. This step was taken in furtherance of the last proviso of Article 1st, Treaty of 25th June 1855.
    The Deschutes bands desired to remove immediately to their new home, but those of the Wascopams residing near the Dalles and who have farms, owing to the lateness of the season and the consequent delay in preparing fields and preparations for planting, desired to remain until they could put in their crops of grain and vegetables, and at the same time avail themselves of the fishing season to prepare food for the coming winter. This plan has been finally adopted and preparations are making to construct a sawmill, smith shop &c. upon the reservation, and putting in large crops of fall wheat. Barrels and salt are to be furnished the Indians to prepare a sufficient stock of salmon. The continued commission of acts of robbing and theft by hostile Indians or what is equally probable by organized bands of lawless whites, who infest that country, render it unsafe to commence operations for the removal of these Indians unless protected by a military escort. Accordingly I called upon Col. Wright, commandant at the Dalles, who has assured me that one full company will be in readiness to escort them and will remain upon the reservation to enable us to carry out the contemplated movement. No advices have as yet been received as to the disposition of the President and Senate in regard to the treaty with these tribes., but in consideration of the facts that they must be submitted by the government where they now are, it was better in my opinion to remove them to a point more remote from the settlements where they may themselves contribute to their subsistence by hunting and procuring the usual variety of roots and berries, at the same time preparing a permanent home, should this tract be confirmed as a reservation. The suggestions in a former letter in relation to placing these Indians upon the Coast Reservation I now regard as likely to meet with strong opposition by our citizens and [be] objected to by the Indians themselves, and whilst it may be looked upon as ultimately feasible and desirable, it may not be prudent to urge its adoption at this time.
    No further important advices has been received from the Port Orford district since my last communication, but such only as are confirmatory of previous advices. There is no longer any doubt as to the murder of Special Agent Wright and some twenty others by the hostile Rogue Rivers. Agent Nathan Olney is now here to receive his instructions; he will leave tomorrow and take passage in the steamer. Going down and during my absence to the Dalles, I made such partial examination as could be into the allegations against them, but found nothing of a positive, tangible or reliable character--his own reports called for by me have just been received and will be laid before you the next mail. The business at the Grand Ronde is progressing to my satisfaction; all there is peace and quiet, and the Indians generally assigned to small parcels of land upon which they are making improvements.
    The friendly bands of Rogue River Indians, numbering 391, will reach within a few miles of the Grand Ronde today and will be placed in possession of a tract purchased to be used as wheat farms, upon which they will remain until improvements are made near the coast. They appear highly pleased with the prospect of obtaining a home where they can at length have peace. I learned from Agt. Ambrose, in charge, that a party of some twenty-five Indians heretofore acting with the hostile bands met them on the route and earnestly solicited the privilege of accompanying them, avowing they did not want war and had not sought it, but had fought in self-defense; the agent, however, fearing it might involve the entire camp in difficulty, declined to receive them. I shall leave here tomorrow morning for the Grand Ronde and personally superintend the location and make provisions for those tribes.
I am sir
   Very respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            [Joel Palmer]
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 93-95.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 619-622.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. March 25th 1856
Sir,
    My letter of 14 inst. designated you to take charge of and collect the Indians residing along the coast in this Territory south of the Coquille River, preliminary to their removal to the Coast Reservation. No later intelligence has been received from that district demanding a change of the plan indicated in the letter referred to. You will therefore proceed by the next steamer and carry out the plan proposed. And upon the collection of the bands and the procurement of the necessary escort you will proceed with them to the reservation designated. Upon your arrival at Coos Bay and Lower Umpqua, you will confer with Sub-Agent E. P. Drew, who will be instructed upon the subject and take steps to remove all the Indians upon those two streams to the same reservation. The Lower Umpquas may be left on the Siuslaw River with the Indians now residing there, and if the Coos Bay Indians prefer that location, they may also be left there. But the Indians now residing south of Coos Bay will be taken north of Cape Perpetua, along the coast and on the streams of Alsea and Yaquina. And those between the two it is believed [are] good locations of sufficient extent to accommodate them.
    A number of fish seines have been ordered and may be in readiness to ship to you by the time an escort can be had, in which event you will be able to almost wholly subsist the Indians without incurring the expense of purchasing and transporting provisions along that rough coast road. Suitable persons should be put in advance to secure subsistence and provide means for crossing the streams. Ferries are kept at Coos Bay, and I believe at Umpqua, but contracts should be made so as to secure the passage of those streams at less than such exorbitant rates usually charged. If the keepers of those ferries should insist, however, on demanding an exorbitant price, you may take charge of them and cross the Indians, leaving the matter of compensation to be settled hereafter. As you will necessarily be compelled to remain some time in camp at Port Orford, and the Indians restricted from their usual sources of obtaining food, I have given directions for the shipment of three tons flour by the mail steamer to your care for which you will apply to subsisting the Indians whilst at that point and en route to the reservation. I am informed that flour is selling at Coos Bay at fourteen dollars per hundred. It can be undoubtedly packed from Port Orford at a less cost than that. It is possible that I may be able to procure the use of some small craft to land flour at the two points named, in which case you will be duly advised. There may be a few persons among these tribes who are unable to travel; in such cases you will secure means to transport them. Should there be a calm time, portions of their canoes might possibly be taken along the coast, but of this matter you must be the judge. After ascertaining all these facts in relation to the mode and cost of carrying out the contemplated removal, you will advise me fully. And if an amount of transportation be needed beyond what may be obtained in reasonable terms in that neighborhood, I can furnish animals for such service, sending them by way of Scottsburg. Their [omission?] to alienate as many of the Indians from the war party as possible, as from the demonstrations made by our troops in Southern Oregon since the commencement of hostilities, it is evidently as sure to obtain peace by negotiations than by a war of extermination. And whilst it may be important for the future peace of Oregon to effectually conquer these Indians by arms, the interest of our people and preservation of the lives of our citizens demand the most effectual and efficient mode for restoring peace. We have pretty reliable information that the greatest proportions of the tribes now engaged in hostilities are really desirous of peace and are willing to come in [and] deliver up their arms and go to such parts as may be designated for their residence, throwing themselves unconditionally upon the faith of the government for protection. This however may not be the case with portions of the tribes along and near the coast who are flush with recent victory, headed and goaded on by that notorious half-breed Eneas, whose arrest and execution, if found guilty, would have a beneficial influence in bringing the Indians to terms. Jerry Maguire has been recommended as a suitable person to engage as local agent, and I am satisfied his services may be very useful in the management of those Indians. Jenny, a female, has heretofore acted as interpreter.
    It is expected a due regard to economy will be exercised in all your movements, and that you will incur no expenses not demanded by the public service.
    In regard to the public property and accounts of the late Special Agent Wright, I desire you especial attention; such property as may be on hand you will collect and take an account of and ascertain the manner of disposal, and the use to which the balance has been applied, procuring where it is practicable certificate of persons to the distribution of articles given to Indians. One thousand dollars was advanced Mr. Wright in January last, no return of which has been made. Whether the papers and vouchers belonging to the Department were destroyed at the time of his death I am not advised. You will ascertain the facts and obtain all the evidence in relation to his expenditures practicable and forward such papers and evidence to this office. Mr. Dunbar of Port Orford, and Mr. Maguire of Rogue River, will be able to give you information on this subject. The public funds with which you will be furnished prior to your departure; you will account for under the head of removal and subsistence of the Indians.
Very respectfully
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    Nathan Olney
        Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 95-97.



Washington D.C.
    March 25, 1856
Sir,
    I have learned within the last few days that Joel Palmer Superintendent Indian Affairs in Oregon in a communication to your department under date of December 22nd 1854 renews several different charges made by him on the authority of our Mr. Huddleston in September of the same year, and which in November he stated to me that "he was satisfied, after investigation, that there was no truth in." And up to the time that I reached this city I supposed that his opinions and representations were in accordance with his convictions as expressed to me then.
    As these charges are now upon record, and reflect upon my character, and may prejudice the settlement of my accounts, I have the honor to ask that I may be permitted to place my answer thereto on the record of your office also. And to make the answer understandingly and to do justice to Mr. Palmer and myself I respectfully ask that I may be supplied with a copy of his said letter. I have the honor to be
    Respectfully your
        Obt. servt.
            S. H. Culver
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
Commissioner Ind. Affairs
Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856.  The original is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 32-34.



The Only Safe Way.
Editors True Californian:
    In view of the fact that mutual murders are of frequent occurrence between the Indians and whites, wherever the races are in proximity, and as there is reason to believe much if not all might be avoided if the Indians were more fully protected in their natural rights, and proper means adopted to restrain the evil-disposed of both races.
    To effect this it is necessary to press the subject upon the attention of the government and the people at large. Private war should be forbidden, and all, without distinction, should be protected by the civil law. Heretofore the Indian has not had much occasion to respect our laws or esteem our justice, for he has often felt their severity to punish, and but rarely their power to redress. Hence his wrongs and his religion alike prompt him to retaliate, and circumstances often leave him no alternative but to subject victims to his vengeance, who as individuals were innocent of offense.
    We, as a people, have despoiled them of their heritage; we have taken possession of all the pleasant valleys of the Pacific, and soon we shall occupy the pleasant places of the interior; and, therefore, as a people having honor, magnanimity and Christian principle, we are bound to give them an equivalent in thorough protection in the means of support, and ample facilities for progress in the arts and civilization. It is a great mistake, which some try to propagate, viz: That Indians will not improve, and they are doomed to perish from the earth, and that the races cannot live in peace contiguous to each other.
    The fact that they learn our language, adopt our dress, and imitate our manners, and when furnished with motive and means soon adapt themselves to the labors of the mine, the mechanic, or the farmer; they also soon learn the value of money and the modes of commerce; all of which proves the reverse of a too current opinion. Mr. Hervey, of Oregon City, formerly an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, informed me that on one occasion he had a thousand acres of wheat and only three men. The harvesting was done, and well done, by Indians.
    And as for peace, Dr. McLoughlin, who has been a trader for fifty years, and [for] twenty-two of which he was Superintendent for the Company, informs me that although their commerce extended from the coast to the headwaters of the Columbia and the Sacramento, yet in all that time they had no wars or serious difficulties with the Indians. "But," said he, "we administered impartial laws." And when this is uniformly done, it is well known the Indians are proud of the white man's friendship and patronage, and willingly submit to the guidance of his superior intellect.
    It does by no means follow, that because the Indian tribes have to a great extent perished before the march of civilization, therefore they always will. It only proves that the proper means have not been taken to prevent it, and when a more philanthropic policy is pursued, it will not be the case.
    The wars in Oregon and California, which are yet scarcely brought to a close, may be purely attributed to the mischief-making policy of Squatter Sovereignty. Numbers of a floating population have pursued a course alike inimical to justice and the true interests of the country, on the plea that they could, and had a right to, do as they chose, and thus the great object of good government--the preservation of life and liberty--has been cast aside, and violence and outrage substituted to a dreadful degree.
    The unfortunate Indians are the special victims of this class of men, for whatever they do of a warlike character, no matter though it be in just retaliation or an act of self-defense, it is generally published as an act of aggression, of murder or massacre on the part of the Indians, whilst they have no means of access to the public ear. Whatever their enemies choose to say or do must be endured in silence, or suffer the punishment due only to the vilest criminals. I write this in hope that benevolent persons everywhere will interest themselves to inquire into the cause, whenever difficulties occur, and expose to public censure the conduct of those who would oppress the poor, or take advantage of the ignorant. We should do this not only as a matter of justice to the Indian but as a matter of self-interest to ourselves. Wars are destructive and costly--we might prevent them. Protect and civilize these outcasts, and they will contribute to our glory and strength. Neglect doing this, and we allow the growth of violence and wrong, which will fill the land with mutual robbery and outrage. Nothing is more true than that if the rights of any class are neglected, the rights of all others are in jeopardy, and the only permanent safety consists in universal justice.
    Respectfully yours,                        JOHN BEESON.
Undated newspaper clipping (probably early 1856), Letter to the Oregon Statesman of October 8, 1856, NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frame 22.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
Dayton O.T. March 25th 1856
Sir:
    In accordance with my advices of the 8th instant, I proceeded to the Dalles of the Columbia, anticipating a journey into the Cayuse country with a view of confederating the friendly portions of those Indians with the Warcopum and Deschutes bands, and removing them to the Warm Springs Reservation, but prior to my departure for the Dalles Agent Thompson had visited the Superintendency upon business connected with his district, leaving in charge Agent Olney, who dispatched a messenger to the friendly Indians in the Walla Walla Valley advising them to leave their country and, temporarily, join the Nez Perces: Upon which advice, seconded by the fears of additional ill-treatment towards them, they removed their camp into the Nez Perces' country. I therefore went no further than the Dalles.
    By an arrangement previously made, Agent Thompson, on his return to the Dalles, notified the chiefs of the several bands included in the Wasco treaty of his desire to examine the reservation designated, and accordingly accompanied by Agent Olney and all the principal chiefs and headmen they proceeded to the Warm Springs Reservation, and after a thorough examination the Indians were satisfied that the location designated was the best that could be selected, and they all agreed to accept of that tract as a permanent reservation. This step was taken in furtherance of the last proviso of article 1st, treaty of 25th June 1855.
    The Deschutes bands desired to remove immediately to their new home, but those of the Warcopum residing near the Dalles, & who have farms, owing to the lateness of the season and the consequent delay in preparing fields and preparation for planting, desired to remain until they could put in their crops of grain and vegetables, and at the same time avail themselves of the fishing season, to prepare food for the coming winter. This plan has been finally adopted, and preparations are making to construct a sawmill, smith shop &c. upon the reservation, and putting in large crops of fall wheat. Barrels and salt are to be furnished the Indians to prepare a sufficient stock of salmon.
    The continued commission of acts of robbery and theft by hostile Indians, or, what is equally probable, by organized bands of lawless whites who infest that country, rendered it unsafe to commence operations for the removal of these Indians unless protected by a military command; accordingly, I called upon Col. Wright, Commandant at the Dalles, who has assured me that one full company will be in readiness to escort them and will remain upon the reservation to enable us to carry out the contemplated movement.
    No advices have as yet been received as to the disposition of the President and Senate in regard to the treaty with these tribes, but in consideration of the fact that they must be subsisted by the govt. where they now are, it was better, in my opinion, to remove them to a point more remote from the settlements, where they may, themselves, contribute to their subsistence by hunting and procuring their usual variety of roots, at the same time preparing a permanent home, should this tract be confirmed as a reservation. The suggestions in a former letter in relation to placing these Indians upon the Coast Reservation I now regard as likely to meet with strong opposition by our citizens, and objected to by the Indians themselves, and whilst it may be looked upon as ultimately feasible and desirable, it may not be prudent to urge its adoption at this time.
    No further important advices have been received from the Port Orford District since my last letter, but such only as are confirmations thereof. There is no longer any doubt as to the murder of Special Agent Wright & some twenty others by the hostile Indians there.
    Agent Nathan Olney is now here to receive his instructions; he will leave tomorrow and take passage in the steamer going down. During my absence to the Dalles I made such partial examination as could be into the allegations against him, but found nothing of a positive tangible or reliable character--his own reports, called for by me, have just been received, and will be laid before you the next mail.
    The business at the Grand Ronde is progressing to my satisfaction; all there is peace and quiet, and the Indians generally assigned to small parcels of land, upon which they are making improvements. The friendly band of Rogue Rivers &c., numbering 391, will reach within a few miles of the Grand Ronde today & will be placed in possession of a tract purchased to be used as wheat farms, upon which they will remain until improvements are made nearer the coast. I learn from Agent Ambrose, in charge, that a party of some twenty five Indians, heretofore acting with the hostile bands, met them on the route, and earnestly solicited the privilege of accompanying them, avowing they did not want war and had not sought it, but had fought in self defense. The agent, however, fearing it might involve the entire camp in difficulty, declined to receive them. I shall leave here tomorrow for the Grand Ronde, and personally superintend the location &c. of these Indians.
Most respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 617-620.



Territory of Oregon
    Executive Office
        Salem, March 26th 1856
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            I beg to enclose herewith a petition received today from Mr. Charles Wells and sundry other citizens of Benton County, in reference to apprehended depredations by certain Coast Indians. Be pleased through your efficient agencies to afford such action in the premises as may tend to allay the excitement existing in the minds of that portion of our people.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Geo. L. Curry
            Governor of Oregon
   
Benton County O.T. March 22nd 1856.       
To Geo. L. Curry, Gov. of Oregon Territory
    The undersigned, citizens of the frontier situate along the Coast Range, bordering on the Pacific, beg permission to represent to your excellency's mature and sympathetic consideration that there are many Indians located on the coast, from Tillamook Bay to the mouth of Umpqua River, and also that they can and do pass up and down the coast between these two points, whenever they may desire to do so, uninterrupted, unheeded and unrestrained.
    Now, be it known that we, your humble petitioners, citizens of Benton County, have good cause to believe, and we do verily believe, that there is a correspondence kept up between these Indians and those engaged in open and absolute warfare with the whites. To doubt this, knowing what we do, would be to violate the plainest principles of positive testimony. We believe the Saltchucks have been with the southern hostile Indians in several of their fights and murdering excursions (for instance the battle of Hungry Hill, and recently at or near Fort Orford at the time Wright, the Indian agent, was killed) as the report of these two occurrences came to the Alsea Valley to old Bill, a Calapooia Indian who is living in Alsea. This old Bill knew and told the white settlers of Alsea, before the express brought the news of the aforementioned battles to Corvallis. This Bill, Calapooia, has a Saltchuck klootchman ["woman"]. This, in connection with several other circumstances equally convincing, is proof positive that certain of the pretended friendly Indians residing on the coast, on the Alsea River &c. are not altogether as trustworthy as might be supposed, or as wished for, in these days of Indian wantonness and savage cruelty. We know these Indians; they are unworthy [of] the confidence of civilized men; they are mere demons in human form, thirsting for blood; they only wait a favorable opportunity to wreak their hellish vengeance on the unprotected and defenseless frontier pioneers, their wives and their unoffending children.
    Now, Gov. Curry, we pray you to deliver us from This Evil, by sending a company of citizen volunteers to patrol the coast and keep these evil redskins within their proper limits and duty. And we will continue to implore until these ends shall have been accomplished and peace and quiet reign supreme.
Most respectfully
    Your obedient friends and fellow citizens
        And sincere petitioners

Charles Wells E. Rexford
Allen Haden W. [illegible]
A. Williams Ichabod Henkle
Geo. Haden Samuel McLain
Jesse Henkle Joseph Kellum
David Thing John W. Kellum
A. J. Williams E. Winkle
James Edwards Joseph L. Evans
    We are quite certain from recent intelligence just received from Alsea Valley that the Saltchuck Indians are not friendly to the whites, as they have lately made a secret visit to their friend Bill's, the Calapooia as before mentioned. They brought word of one of Bill's relatives having a very sore leg and arm; we suppose he has been engaged with the southern Indians in some of their marauding parties, where he may have received the just reward of his temerity. These particulars was obtained from old Bill's klootchman, as the six Indians as she says went off without letting the Bostons know they had been up from the chuck ["water"].
    They will do some mischief if they are not seen to.
    The entire coast is open to them and their confederates; they are neither numbered, clothed, nor fed, cared for nor thought of by the public functionaries.
    And as we conceive, our situation is rendered doubly dangerous since the location of those Indians brought from the south is contiguous to their hunting ground. That they do correspond with each other we are quite certain.
    And unless some measures be taken to check and restrain their restless savage propensities (if they have not been engaged with the hostile Indians against the whites they will be) war is their trade; they will pitch in and take their chance for a share of the booty, as we have heard that the Rogue River Indians had proposed to give them (the Saltchucks) all the plunder they could take from the whites if they would help them fight.
    The settlers of Alsea Valley all left there last fall for fear of the Indians from off the coast. They however returned back soon after. And if they are refused the protection herein prayed for, they must again abandon their homes, their property, their all to the mercy of these reckless barbarians.
Charles Wells
    One of the subscribers to this petition
To His Excellency Geo. L. Curry
    Acting Gov. of Oregon Territory
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 111.



Dayton March 28th 1856           
Sir:
    The undersigned, the committee named in the enclosed proceedings of a public meeting, having called at the Superintendency as required & finding none of the officers present, have enclosed the copy in this note. We request your answer to the interrogatories in writing. One of our number will wait upon you at your residence on Monday next. As there will be a good many persons present in Lafayette on next Tuesday, and as we have no doubt they would be glad to hear any further explanations you might desire to make, we hope you will improve the opportunity.
James A. Campbell
    S. B. Alvey
        A. S. Watt
Genl. Palmer
    Superintendent
        Indian Affairs
   

    A meeting was called on the 28th inst. for the purpose of obtaining information with respect to the Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation and to appoint a committee to wait upon the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for such purpose.
Mr. James A. Campbell
    Chairman
Jas. Barnhart
    Sec.
   

    The following preamble and interrogatories were read and adopted, viz:
   

To Superintendent of Indian Affairs
    We the citizens of Yamhill Co. in view of the existing state of Indian difficulties and in consideration of the numerous reports in circulation throughout the country greatly agitating the public mind, rendering many fearful of their present safety and of the safety of their property, and in view of the very little reliable information possessed by the public in relation to the manner of taking care of the Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation and securing them from committing depredations upon the whites of this valley we would ask the immediate answer to the following interrogatories.
    1st. How many Indians in all are there upon the Reservation & how many of each class, men, women and children.
    2nd. How many of those Indians are permitted to carry arms, and of what kind and how many of each kind of arms there is among the Indians.
    3rd. What amount of ammunition is allowed to the Indians per day, or per week.
    4th. For what purpose, how, when, for how long a time, in what manner, and by what numbers Indians are permitted to leave the Reservation.
    5th. Are there Indians in the valley not included in those numbered on the Reservation. If so, how many and whether so permitted to reside outside of the Reservation by the Superintendent.
    Whereupon a committee consisting of
James A. Campbell
S. B. Alvey
A. S. Watt
was appointed to wait upon the Superintendent and present a copy of the proceedings of this meeting.
    On motion the meeting stands adjourned until Tuesday next at 2 o'clock p.m. when the committee are required to make their report.
Jas. A. Campbell, Chairman
A. Barnhart
    Sec.
   

Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. 31 March 1856
To
  Messrs. Jas. A. Campbell )
S. B. Alvey and )
A. S. Watt )  Committee                          
Gentlemen:
    In the absence of the Superintendent [of] Indian Affairs, who was yesterday called away upon urgent business, it devolves upon me, as the person in charge of the office, to make reply to the interrogatories propounded and adopted by a meeting of the citizens at Lafayette on the 28th inst.
    In reply to the 1st interrogatory: The census of the Indians upon the Grand Ronde Reservation is not yet completed. The number of Indians of the various tribes is estimated at about 450 men and 550 women and children.
    2nd interrogatory: The Indians at the Grand Ronde Reservation are not permitted to carry arms. Arms, when needed for the purposes of hunting, are allowed them. I am informed the agents in charge have a repository for all arms at the reservation and that the issue is made to small parties of Indians therefrom, and when they return from their hunting excursions, their arms are returned. The aggregate number of guns of all kinds at the reservation, I am informed, is less than twenty-five.
    3rd interrogatory: No allowance of ammunition is made to Indians. A certain number of charges is given them when on hunting excursions, the amount of which is discretional with and regulated by the agents in charge of them.
    4th interrogatory: The Indians of the reservation are not permitted to leave it unless as teamsters, driving teams, and then accompanied by white men in the employ of the Department.
    5th interrogatory: The Indians residing in the valley are not included in the number stated in the reply to the first interrogatory. The number of Indians residing in the valley, with white persons, doing service, I do not know, but suppose they are few. General Palmer has in two or three instances since I have been in the office granted applications of settlers to permit Indians (specified by name & tribe) to labor for them; the question of service and pay being left between them.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        C. D. Blanchard
            Secy.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, Nos. 109-110.



Gen. Joel Palmer Sup. of Indian
    Affairs for Oregon
Sir
    We the undersigned citizens living immediately in the vicinity of Grand Ronde Reservation would respectfully ask of your honor that you would cause said Indians to be kept upon said reservation and not allow them to leave it with any arms.
    We would further show to your honor that said Indians have and are still prowling about the county with their firearms begging and where the men are not about frightening the women to give them whatever they may wish, we would respectfully ask that our prayer be complied with or we will be compelled to resort to such means as will render our houses safe from their intrusion.
    Your petitioners will ever pray.
D. Garrison Job Burden                                
P. Henshaw A. Bolejack
J. Stoner J. P. Dickey
S. Edwards T. Dickey
J. W. Knifong G. Short
W. Cox Abraham Eads
J. H. Hunsaker R. Roads
James Murray E. Harper
N. J. Kennedy J. Ridgeway
T. A. Kennedy W. B. Springer
Spencer C. Foster N. Hussey
O. Osborn G. Matcher
W. Hall
J. Eldridge
J. Dickey
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 126.   The transmittal records the petition as having been received March 29, 1856.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. March ----, 1856
Sir,
    Referring to the conversation had in reference to boarding or subsisting employees, I have now to direct that from and after the 1st instant, the wages of employees will be arranged so as to cover the cost of subsistence. You can either make arrangements with Mr. Hash to do the cooking, or each man furnish his own board as may best suit him. Whoever may be engaged in boarding the hands, provisions may be drawn from the supplies about equal to afford rations for such as are employed, and the rate per week for board will be applied to the replacing such articles as one draws on the boarding master, [who] may purchase his own supplies and charge by the week for board, and this plan I think would be preferable as the accounts would then be numbered with these details. No subsistence can be accounted for in the accounts but for issues to Indians and supplies for hospital use, so that if purchases are made by you for other objects they cannot be brought into the accounts, and must be a separate arrangement with the boarding master and employees. In the purchase for seed, the vouchers will state for what object and tribe it has been purchased, so also for labor performed. Induce the greatest possible number to commence the cultivation of tracts for themselves, as now when they are subsisted they may easily perform service, as no time need be spent in seeking food for themselves and families.
    This ball playing should if possible be discouraged, or at least confined to one day in the week, and the balance of the time employed in something that will be useful to them. Those who obtain passes, of course, will not draw rations.
    You will I think be under the necessity of taking the census of them and calling the roll at least twice each week, as unless this be done they may be charged with offense committed by others, besides it will guard against impositions.
Respectfully yours
To
    Hon. W. W. Raymond
        Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 98.



Headquarters Fort Vancouver W.T.
    March 30th 1856
Sir,
    I have the honor to inform you that some time ago I received your letter of the 20th instant with one from Col. Wright, and very recently your communication of the 25th inst.
    You are aware of the exposed situation of this post and the town adjoining, the buildings scattered over a large extent of ground, and but one company left to garrison and defend it in case of an attack. That company has just returned from the Cascades, where I had sent it to endeavor to succor the inhabitants and relieve the blockhouse; the inhabitants in the vicinity of this place are much alarmed and many are moving in with their families. It would be imprudent and wrong for me to detach any of my force, and I regret that I will not be able to send you the troops you require. I know full well the necessity of having a large force on the Grand Ronde Reservation; at least one company ought to be there. I think Genl. Wool will come up on the next steamer, when I will communicate with him on the subject; probably he will send a company to the reservation as soon as practicable. I regret that I did not see you when you passed here from the Dalles.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        T. Morris
            Lt. Col. 4th Infy.
                Comd.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
        Dayton
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 132.



Crescent City
    March 30th 1856
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of 21st instant in reply to my note of 15th instant in which I endeavored to describe the condition of Indian affairs in this part of the state and asking for intentions relative to the Indians on an island at this place.
    It is true there is nothing on the reserve except its natural products for the subsistence of these Indians in case of their removal, but it is thought that these together with what they have on hand will furnish them with a supply of food nearly sufficient.
    How much expense will have to be incurred in the purchase and transportation of subsistence it is impossible for me to form a correct estimate, as it will depend on the contingencies of the fishing season &c., but it is my opinion that the additional expense for provisions incident to their removal need not exceed two thousand dollars. But should it be necessary to expend a much larger sum, the advantages to be expected by their immediate removal would richly repay the outlay.
    It must be remembered that these Indians have always lived heretofore near the line, and are more or less connected with those at war with the whites farther norther, and should they be allowed to return to their homes they would either join the hostile bands through inclination, or to avoid their vengeance, or would be suspected of giving aid and comfort to the enemy and would be found to assume a hostile attitude from the treatment they would receive from the whites, thereby augmenting the savage forces and bringing the war into our midst.
    These Indians do and must sympathize with the Rogue River Indians, and the Klamaths with these, and as they do not regard state and territorial lines, they must be entirely separated and all communication cut off, or they will all become hostile so sure as this war continues one or two years longer, which from present prospects is highly probable.
    Up to this time no hostile act has been committed by any Indian living this side of the line so far east as I have exercised any jurisdiction, since the war commenced, but the Oregon Indians have in one or two instances committed outrages within the borders of this state. I refer to the murders near Indian Creek and on Upper Klamath last fall. That they (Oregon Indians) should ravage the country about here when hard pressed in the interior I consider within the range of a rational probability.
    An agent would require a wonderful influence over his Indians as well as the white settlers to restrain them and maintain peaceable relations between them if they are to remain scattered all over the country. I confess I cannot hope for such power over the passions of the two races.
    The loss of stores of which you speak has been caused by bad weather, which always prevails during the winter on this coast. We can hope for better fortune during spring and summer. There should be a trail constructed from the lower station to this place, which would supersede the necessity of sending by sea unless the weather should be perfectly favorable.
    I suppose that a statement of the situation of affairs would explain the necessity of an additional force of working men upon the reserve. It will require at least two men for months in the removal and creation of the Indians now on the island and to place them in a situation to support themselves.
    It will require an experienced fisherman to manage the seine. Another person should be employed who is a blacksmith and willing to make himself useful at anything the agent in charge may direct. Such a man I can employ for $100 per month. The necessary tools can be purchased here at a cost not exceeding $150. This arrangement will prove a saving as well as a very great convenience.
    The Indians so far as they can are willing enough to work, but in their present ignorant state they cannot be expected to do more than assist. They can no more take a team and break up this land than they can build a steamer. When they are taught they will do well, but at present are little better than so many children at most of the labor to be performed on the farm. With nine working men instead of five as at present the reserve can be improved and the Indians taught to work so that another year a less number of men may be required.
    The detachment of troops at Capell should be increased to a full company, so that upon request of the agent a detachment may be sent to any part of the reserve, and that without first sending for authority to do so to Fort Humboldt, or any other distant part of the country. We need while the war is so near us a small number of soldiers on the lower end of the reserve. The agent in charge should be a man whose judgment in a matter of this kind can be relied upon. He ought to know more of the character of the Indians on and about the reserve than an officer at Fort Humboldt or he is unfit for the position.
    The military commander in Northern California and Southern Oregon, Col. Buchanan, argues that if the "moral force of a detachment of 30 men at 'Capell' will not keep the Indians of the reserve in order, then ten men at 'Waukell' can be of no service."
    Moral force is no doubt a great lever in society, but with Indians I choose to be able to show them that I can protect myself & punish them if they are unruly, as well as afford them protection from their enemies.
Very respectfully
    S. G. Whipple
        Specl. Indn. Agent
            Klamath Reserve
Hon. T. J. Henley
    Supt. Indn. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 816-819.



Grand Ronde 31st March 1856           
Dear Sir,
    I have the honor to submit the following report of my official acts during the quarter ending March 31st 1856.
    Agreeable to instructions recd. from your office I left Dayton on [blank] November to visit the Rogue River and Umpqua districts, there to act in conjunction with Agent George H. Ambrose in removing the Rogue River and Umpqua Indians to the Coast Reservation or Grand Ronde encampment; I arrived at the Rogue R. Agency on 2nd December & found most of the houses on the road from the Cañon to the agency (distance about sixty miles) burned to the ground and a large number of horses, cattle and hogs killed on the way by the present hostile band of Indians in that district. After consulting with Agent Ambrose and Capt. Smith of Fort Lane we determined that it would be bad policy if not impracticable to remove those Indians during that inclement season and I there concluded to return to the Umpqua to ascertain the condition of the Indians in that district, where I met you on the 24th December and there receiving additional instructions from you for the immediate removal of the Umpqua Indians, I commenced making the necessary preparations to accomplish that object, purchasing wagons & teams and providing clothing suitable for their journey, but a snow storm which commenced falling on the 25th December covered the ground to the depth of eighteen inches and followed by intense cold weather up to the first of Jan. 1856 rendered it impossible for me to move camp until the 10th Jan., at which time the weather had moderated and the snow began to disappear. I moved camp from the reserve on the 10th Jan. & brought the Indians up one and a half (1½) miles to Mr. Cadwallader's house, but was unable to continue my march owing to not having recd. all of my teams at the appointed time. Here there were many objections [in] regard to leaving the land of their nativity where the bodies of their forefathers rest and many of them expressed a desire to die in their own country, and I found it necessary to move with what teams I had to quiet them, so I decamped on 11th Jan. after much trouble, leaving several families in camp, [and] moved about four (4) miles to Calapooia bridge.
    Saturday 12th. Remained encamped, awaited the arrival of the remainder of my teams and sent two wagons back for the families left on the 11th.
    Sunday 13th. Decamped and moved up to Baker's mill about seven (7) miles. It was necessary to move on Sunday to get supplies and to prevent the Indians from scattering. Here "Lewis," the head chief of the Umpquas, came to us from his farm and reported others that would join us in the morning, which made it necessary to purchase three other teams.
    Monday 14th. Lewis "chief" has expressed a desire to remain in the Umpqua, as he had a large amount of property which he could not take with him and would have to sacrifice too much if he left then. This created a general dissatisfaction in camp, and it was with the utmost difficulty I got them to leave camp, though by traveling until dark we made ten (10) miles to Mr. Wilson's through a country entirely destitute of vegetation of any description, having been destroyed through the summer by the grasshoppers, and I had to purchase dry wheat straw at thirty dollars per ton for our starving teams.
    Tuesday 15th. During the night some Indians deserted, and when I arrived at Mr. Lindsay Applegate's I called to get some Calapooia Indians (15) who were encamped there. They positively refused to come. Mr. Applegate appeared to sustain them and encouraged them in their determination. Finding the whites and Indians both against me I sent a request to Col. Martin for 15 or 20 men from the army to enforce their removal and moved to Elk Creek, where we were detained by high water, but as my stock was in a starving condition I determined to cross at all hazards. I had the wagons unloaded and the baggage packed over on a footlog, then swam the teams with the empty wagons, reloaded and moved on, making four (4) miles during the day and found the same scarcity of forage, only having about one thousand pounds wheat straw to feed one hundred and twenty-five animals night and morning.
    Wednesday 16th. During the night an Indian woman died (chronic disease). After she was buried we resumed our march over very bad roads. Made six (6) miles to Mr. Estes's at the foot of Cal. Mts. & encamped.
    Thursday 17th. After seeing the train under way I left Mr. Walker in charge and returned to meet the detachment of troops which I had requested of Col. Martin to meet me at Mr. Applegate's, but he refused, without assigning any reason, to render any assistance, so I was compelled to leave the Indians encamped at Mr. Applegate's house and return; the train marched ten (10½) [sic] miles.
    Friday 18th. I overtook the train which had traveled three and [a] half (3½) miles & encamped.
    Saturday 19th. There being a great many old people who complained so much of being leg weary, I thought it advisable to remain in camp, where an Indian boy died.
    Sunday 20th. There being much complaint by the whites of the Indians cutting their timber for firewood, I thought it best to remove to avoid trouble & traveled eight (8) miles.
    Monday 21st. Nothing of interest. Traveled about ten (10) miles.
    Tuesday 22nd. Roads very muddy. Traveled eight (8) miles.
    Wednesday 23rd. Rained through the day. Road very bad. Moved four (4) miles. Met an express from Supt. office with funds.
    Thursday 24th. An Indian child died during the march and a woman of the Umpqua band died after we arrived in camp. Moved eight (8) miles.
    Friday 25th. I found it necessary to hire another wagon and team, as our marches were getting much shorter and many of the old and infirm were very late getting into camp. Moved about six (6) miles. Encamped near Corvallis.
    Saturday 26th. Decamped & moved to Reed's, about seven (7) miles. During the day we had several fights on the road caused by liquor sold them in the night by some reckless whites.
    Sunday 27th. Remained in camp and went back for some Indians who were drunk and did not get in until Sunday noon.
    Monday 28th. Decamped & went to the Luckiamute Creek, distance ten (10) miles.
    Tuesday 29th. There was an Indian man missing in the morning and could not be accounted for by any person in camp. After searching some two hours we found his blood where he had been murdered and thrown into the creek; the trace of the murderer suspicion rested upon a Klickitat Indian (Joe). Rained through the day, road very bad, traveled about five (5) miles.
    [several lines illegible]
    . . . left on the road [illegible] seven (7) miles.
    Friday, Feb. 1st 1856. Decamped [illegible] to the Yamhill River, distance six (6) miles.
    Saturday 2nd Feb. Decamped & moved five (5) miles to the Grand Ronde encampment. Discharged most of the Ind. bands and took charge of the sub-agency by your order and there remained until 28th Feb./'56 where I recd. an order from you to proceed to the Rogue River Agency to carry funds and aid in the removal of the Rogue River Indians to the Coast Reservation, leaving Sub-Agent Raymond in charge of Grand Ronde until my return. I met Agent George H. Ambrose at the Cañon with the Indians and returned with him, rendering such assistance as was in my power to facilitate the march, and arrived at the Grand Ronde Sub-Agency on 25th March A.D. 1856.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Sub-Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 214.




Canyonville April 2nd 1856       
Dr. Ambrose Sir or Genl. Palmer
    An Indian known as James Oldman has signified his intention to go to the reserve & as he was among those attacked on the head of Myrtle Creek he has fears that appear to be well grounded that those persons that attacked them on Myrtle Creek have still a disposition to kill them. There are some persons wishing to be brought in communication with the old man for some reason whether to kill him or to take him to the reserve I know not. But inasmuch as the old man has made known to me that he would feel safe in my charge & I believe I can conduct him to the reserve as cheap as any other person, I only await your sanction to move him immediately. There are 2 males & 3 females in the co. The Indian spoken of gave up his gun to Clark & co., has never done the whites injury to my knowledge, & I believe the Indian should not be refused the opportunity to go to the reserve.
Yours respectfully
    David Ransom
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 155.



Coos Bay April 2nd 1856
Sir
    I have just arrived from Port Orford. The news from there is that the regulars & volunteers have had a fight at the Mikonotunne ranches. They killed 8 Indians that they found on the open ground. There was a good many killed in the brush, how many they did not know. Also another fight on Pistol River by the volunteers under Capt. Abbott from Crescent City, don't know how many Indians killed. The volunteers fought them for 36 hours. The Indians stole 30 of their mules and run upon the regulars coming up. Capt. Tichenor was their guide from Crescent City and says he thinks he killed the Red River Indian Eneas. If it was not him it was at least a tyee ["chief"]. [He was mistaken.] The Coquille Indians left the reserve at Port Orford and came back to the river. Last Monday the volunteer company under Capt. Creighton came up and killed 12 of the bucks and 1 squaw. 3 Indians got off, 2 of them Coos Bay Indians, the other a Coquille. We are very badly off here for ammunition, provisions and arms; in fact, unless there is something done very soon to help the people we will have to leave the country as we cannot fight Indians and work at one and the same time. There is neither provisions nor ammunition to be bought here even if we had the money to buy with. Nothing more at present.
From yours respectfully
    Wm. Romanes
E. P. Drew
    Umpqua City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 140.



The Last Trail of the Red Man.
    Strange emotions of sorrow and pity take possession of us, as we rend the accounts of the new Indian wars which have sprung up in Oregon--the last stopping place of the red man on his sullen retreat to the Pacific--the last fierce struggles of a doomed and dying race. Yet a few years, and the red man of North America, once undisputed lord and baron of the whole continent, from the St. Lawrence to the Atlantic and Pacific, will have disappeared forever. A race of men, occupying for unknown generations and centuries, and still possessing no memorials of their existence, save childish and feeble traditions, will have passed away forever, leaving no native trace of their existence, and being known to posterity only through the imaginative personations of Cooper, the truthful records of Flint, and the graphic pencilings of Catlin. History scarcely offers anything more melancholy than this rapid and complete extermination of the Indian race in North America.
    Of course, the passing sympathy which we pause to expend upon the inevitable fate of the red man does not lessen our interest in the misfortunes of the white settlers who have thus made themselves the pioneers of civilization, and are subjected to all the horrors of savage frontier warfare. We unite with the journals and correspondents from Oregon in urging upon the general government the necessity of prompt and energetic action in protecting the lives and property of our fellow citizens on the far western frontiers of our gigantic empire.
Plymouth Weekly Banner, Plymouth, Indiana, April 3, 1856, page 2



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, 3rd April, 1856
Sir:
    I have just received a telegraph dispatch from General Palmer informing me there will be 200 Indians up here tonight, and to have the necessary provisions made for them.
    Therefore, it is necessary that you should, with all dispatch, repair to this place, which you will do on reception hereof. I hope you may be able to reach here tonight.
Respectfully &c.
    C. D. Blanchard
To
    Mr. John Flett
        Interpreter
            Wapato Lake

Beinecke Library WA MSS 370



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. April 3rd 1856
Sir,
    You are appointed as special agent in the Indian Department to take charge of and direct a party of armed citizens who have been employed as guard to protect the citizens and Indians along the boundary of the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, and to perform service in constructing a line of fences along such boundary and open a wagon road from the Indian agency to the coast through the Yamhill and Neachesna Pass, as also such other labor as may be assigned them by the agents in the Indian Department. You will act in the capacity of captain, enroll the names of men, and generally to direct the movements of the company so as to allay the fears of the inhabitants and protect them from offenses, alleged so likely to be committed by Indians located upon the reservation. The line will be pointed out to you by the agent in charge, R. B. Metcalfe Esq., and you will seek to so guard that line as to prohibit any Indians from passing out, unless accompanied by a white man properly authorized to afford him protection, nor will any white person be permitted to cross the line unless having business with the agency, and you will in conjunction with Lieut. Hazen, U.S. army, now in command of a detachment of twenty men, so arrange the guard duties as to effectively cut off all communications from the reservation to the settlements of whites save with the above exceptions.
    And all persons, citizens and Indians violating the rule or attempting to cross the line clandestinely you will arrest and retain in confinement until the party or parties can properly be turned over to the regularly constituted authority. The object of this guard is to give security to the inhabitants, both whites and Indians, and to prohibit any improper intercourse between the two races, to do which a line of demarcation must be established and none permitted to cross that line.
    The Indians upon the reservation will be notified by the agent of these arrangements, and any attempt by them to cross the line secretly or clandestinely will be regarded as evidence of hostile intentions, and he will be treated accordingly. So also with whites, but instead of the latter summarily being punished, they will be arrested as disturbers of the peace and dangerous to the safety of the country. You will take measures to erect a blockhouse at some convenient point near the road and contiguous to the line of reservation to be of suitable dimensions for storing supplies and quartering the men on guard duty, and the retentive [sic] of such persons as you may find it requisite to retain in custody. This line of fence will be so constructed as to require the passway by a gate near this blockhouse, and a quarters there kept up that all persons going to and from will be passed through this gate. The Indians are in the habit of throwing down the fences when in their way of travel, and the stock are liable to break it down in many places. To avoid the occurrence of this, it is necessary that in its construction you secure these fences by setting stakes and placing on the top long and heavy poles extending over as many panels as the length of a tree may reach, so that to remove one of them would require the combined efforts of several men. The company will be divided into messes of guard and workmen as may suit convenience and promote the service. The subsistence, camp equipage &c. will be furnished by John Fleming Esq., who has been appointed commissary, and who will deliver the messes upon your requisition.
    Mr. Edward Cluff has been appointed orderly sergeant. Should you require additional aid in the direction of this business giving efficiency to the service, you will select such persons from the ranks of the company as you may deem proper. After examining this line upon which the fence is to be constructed, it may probably be deemed proper to divide it into sections, putting the force upon that portion likely to cut off the communication first; in this manner the lines would not be so greatly extended, a few points only requiring a guard.
Very respectfully &c.
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    Capt. J. S. Rinearson
        Comd. Co. Armed Citizens on
            Guard at G. Ronde Reservation
                now at Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 99-101.



Grand Ronde April 3rd 1856
Dear Sir
    Since I recd. your instructions requiring me to take the census and call the roll of Indians at this encampment I have had one man employed at that business but have not as yet been able to make out a complete roll. It is next thing to impossible to get them all together so as to take a correct census. I have learned from experience that if we wish to accomplish anything here it must be done by white labor or by contracts. So far the Indian labor has cost the government for more than it would have cost to perform the same service by white labor or by contract. I have been trying to get them to make rails on the line of the reservation, but they seem unwilling to undertake the job. I think we had best have this fence built by contract and employ Indians to work where there is no particular hurry nor anything likely to suffer from their carelessness and irregular attendance. I have not taken the arms from the Rogue River Indians yet from the fact I have no place to put them. They are all willing to deliver up their arms or to submit to any arrangement I may think best for them, and we have but little to fear from them at this time.
    When I arrived here I found everything in confusion and nothing apparently being done, and I find it hard to put the ball in motion again. I hope to see you soon, when by your advice and assistance we will be able to establish order and have the business move on smoothly.
Yr. obt. servt.
    R. B. Metcalfe
        Sub-Ind. Agent
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 125.




Office Sub-Ind. Agent
    Umpqua City O.T.
        Apr 5th 1856
Sir
    Your favor of the 16th inst. with a remittance of twenty-one hundred dollars to this Agency I have the pleasure to acknowledge.
    The receipts for the same I hope ere this have reached your office.
    By the instructions therein contained I fear I have exceeded my authority & your instructions in furnishing rations [to] the Indians along the coast.
    About one-half (½) rations as specified in general order from your office under date of Aut. 13th 1855 have been furnished the Coos & Umpqua bands in this dist. during the quarter just passed (see quarterly returns).
    Continued & repeated complaints have come to this office regarding the rations furnished as the citizens deemed the quantity insufficient & alleged that the peace & safety of the community was endangered thereby.
    Until the present time I have considered their complaints grumblers, yet have given them all the attentions that they could possibly demand.
    Until I am instructed from your office the Indians will be retained in the temporary reservations at the smallest possible expense.
    Since the massacre at the mouth of Rogue River the excitement has been increasing & still continues to increase. Petitions have been forwarded to Gen. Wool for troops &c. &c., all of which will (I suppose) have little or no effect.
    I have been called upon & urged to furnish full rations to all Indians on the reservations & not permit them to leave as heretofore to fish & hunt & since the late attacks on the Coquille & along the coast south I have adopted more strict & stringent rules & regulations in that respect. A full & reliable account of the late difficulties south may not have reached your office & I enclose a letter received this morning from Wm. Romanes which may be relied on as strictly correct.
    I am led to believe that letters & petitions have been sent to your office & so far as they may relate to the furnishing of full rations for a limited time I would endorse.
    At Coos Bay there is no provisions to be bought. Since the first of this month the Indians have supplied themselves & must continue to do so unless flour is supplied them from Umpqua Valley at an expense of ($12) twelve dollars per hundred delivered at Coos Bay.
    And I find it difficult to obtain even at that price & do not feel justified in a purchase at that price without instructions. A letter from this office in regard to the removal of the Coos bands to Umpqua River must have reached you ere this & I await your order in the same.
    & A. C. Gibbs of Gardiner has removed to Scottsburg for protection & the citizens there are anticipating an attack & much excitement prevails throughout the whole region as usual.
I remain yours
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
                Umpqua Dist.
To Gen. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 137.



Calapooia April 5th 1856
Mr. Joel Palmer
    Sir, by the request of several of the citizens of this settlement I make communication relative to one Skookum John, an Indian who inhabits this region. He has a small band with him consisting of 3 men and 4 or 5 squaws. They have generally been considered friendly Indians, but from some recent maneuvers the settlers are becoming alarmed, fearing that he is not genuine. The facts relative to the case are these. He keeps himself along a route leading from Klamath Lake to Oregon City through this hilly region and is in the habit of building large fires near the trail and keeping them up during the night. He is now located on the South Santiam at the edge of Sweet Home Valley, where the trail crossing the Cascade Mountains connects the Klamath trail, and has lately stuck up a painted pole with a bunch of feathers on it right on the trail that comes down the Santiam. He has been known to have former communication with the Indians east of the Cascades previous to the present Indian difficulties. There has also been other strange Indians reported to have been seen among them occasionally. These Indians are of the Molalla and Klamath tribes. This John is a very smart and brave Indian and is well calculated to do great damage to the settlement if he is so disposed. On account of the present weak condition of the settlement a large number of our ablest bodied men being volunteered and absent, and our exposed condition to the two inroads from across the mountains. We therefore solicit a speedy removal of these Indians, as we neither consider them nor ourselves safe. They now are regarded as enemies and for their protection and safety should be on the reserve. I was told by a Mr. Woodfin well acquainted with John that he said if you would send for him he would go to the reserve.
Yours respectfully
    P. V. Crawford
    Robt. Johns
    Thomas Fields
    William Fields
    John Fields
    James Huntrucker
    Joe Fields
    Henry Crasner
Mr. Joel Palmer
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 153.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. April 6th 1856
Sir,
    W. F. Beatty and Green C. Davidson have been awarded the contract for supplying the Indians at the Grand Ronde Reservation with beef for six months commencing April 1st 1856. You will accordingly assist them in the erection of slaughterhouses &c., and allow them to occupy the large Cooper field for pasturing the beef cattle, not to exceed however fifty head at any one time. They will probably be able to furnish you for the next issue. The beef will be slaughtered on the ground and the quarters only weighed; all the offal will be regarded as belonging to the agency with the exception of the hides, which will be the property of the contractors.
    The contract furnished is eight cts. per lb. net. I presume it will be necessary to have two points for slaughtering: one near the agency and one convenient to the Rogue Rivers and Umpquas, but of this matter you will determine. It should be slaughtered at least one day before issuing when the weather will permit, as it is exceedingly difficult to cut up before it is cooled. When cooled it will be weighed and turned over to the commissary, who will under your directions make the necessary issue. The contractors will have nothing to do with issuing, but will simply turn over the quarters and receive their receipts for the number of pounds delivered you. Payments will be made at this office periodically for the quarters of beef delivered and specified upon such receipts given by you.
Very respectfully
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    R. B. Metcalfe
        Sub-Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 103.



"Miners Fort"
    Gold Beach, O.T. April 7 / 56
To Genl. Palmer
    Indian Agent
        Dr. Sir
            We take the liberty
to address you at this time in reference to matters pertaining to the interests of all persons who have been sufferers by the recent Indian outbreak in this district. You are probably aware of the fact that the people residing at the mouth of Rogue River apprehended an outbreak of the Indians and frequently solicited assistance, but our appeals were not responded to. The fearful time came. Men & children were massacred and helpless women carried off captives--our property destroyed, reducing many of us in a few short hours to want and poverty. In this condition we are left without even the means of leaving if we were so disposed. Our object in writing you is to ask of you to point out the proper course for us to pursue that our losses may as speedily as possible be brought before the proper tribunal for adjustment.
    Have the kindness to give this your earliest attention and believe us
Very respectfully
    Yours &c.
        Alex Sutherland
        J. B. Blake
        Wemus Tejon
        Isaac Warwick
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 180.



Winchester Apr. 8th 1856
Gen. E. M. Barnum
    Sir, having at length some leisure time I take the liberty of writing you a few lines merely to let you know that I am still above dirt, notwithstanding all the efforts that has been made to kill me off. The war still drags along as slow as ever notwithstanding I have quit the field and left it in possession of all the great Indian fighters. Still I hope to see the end of the war soon. Still it can't be yet; we will all know when the end comes. We yet must lose many good men. The Lord knows that if we should never have another legislature like the last it will be well for Oregon. They well nigh played the devil in general and turned up Jack. Still all things taken together I think it will all work together for the best. I will be at Salem as soon as I can leave the office for a short time. I wish very much to see you and Gov. Curry, as I have many things to say to you both that I can't write. There is a great move behind the curtain that will be brought to light in due season. Some men must rise or fall, and it seems to me that they can't rise. All things must find their level sooner or later.
    I would have been down before this if it had been in my power to have left. I left the service owing to being appointed receiver of the land office at this place, which was unexpected to me. Still I had rather be in the service if my circumstances would warrant me in doing so. My duty to my family compels me to try and provide for them, which I can't do in the volunteer service. Still, when the right time comes I think I will take the field again but never to play second fiddle again. Next time neck or naught please give my respect to Gov. Curry and tell him that the storm may rage, nevertheless he will always find me the same firm unflinching friend at all times ready and willing to sink or swim with him or Gen. Lane.
    Please accept my kindest regards for yourself and family.
Yours truly
    Wm. L. Martin
Gen. E. M. Barnum
    Salem Oregon
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 2, Document 607.



Scottsburg, O.T.
    April 8th 1856.
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        for Oregon
            Dear Sir,
                The undersigned residents of Umpqua County, considering the exposed condition of the lives and property of the citizens of this county,
    And also the fact that the Indians at the mouth of the Umpqua River and Coos Bay are collected and placed in charge of local agents who are delivering to said Indians only a small amount of food, we would respectfully but earnestly recommend the making of immediate arrangements to supply said Indians with full rations--believing that present policy will lead to the most disastrous consequences.
    We would also respectfully request you to use your influence to have a company of U.S. troops stationed at the mouth of the Umpqua River with a view of providing for present dangers and preventing future outbreaks, after the Indians should have been moved onto the Coast Reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your friends
        And obt. serts.
R. J. Ladd Addison C. Gibbs                                    
J. Thompson Madison Scobey
J. N. Knott Charles G. Hinderer
J. P. Sand I. M. Fox
W. W. Hubbard J. H. Searle
J. B. Hamblin G. Oppenheimer
Thomas Stephens James Train
Jas. T. Cooper D. W. Stearns
Isaac Oppenheimer E. Spicer
T. E. Delauray A. B. Kellogg
Daniel Wiles Wm. A. Mills
Robert Smith Anderson Long
William C. Burk
C. F. Booth
J. T. Savoy
Thos. G. Colvin
Thomas Baly
Shadrach Hudson
S. Hinsdale
F. M. Tibbetts
I. N. Smith
E. N. Merat
Wm. Romanes
J. R. Thompson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 142.



Scottsburg Apr. 8th '56
Sir
    By express just arrived from Port Orford brings information to the effect that the volunteers & regulars have had an engagement with the Indians on the Coquille, killing & mortally wounding twenty Indians & taking some forty squaws & children prisoners. The volunteers are still in pursuit. No account of any whites killed. A party from Coos Bay have gone to the assistance of the volunteers on the Coquille. A general destitution of supplies are complained of, no steamer having touched at Port Orford for several weeks.
    Nothing can exceed my anxiety to hear from your office. The excitement here is great & complaints of neglect numerous as usual. I entertain no fears of the Indians in this dist. if funds can be forwarded me for the purchase of supplies. I shall endeavor to contract on time before I leave this point for a limited supply of flour & hope it will meet with your approval.
In haste
    I remain yours
        Most respectfully
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
Gen. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 136.



Oregon Linn Co. April 9th 1856
    Mr. Palmer, we the undersigned wish to inform you that we have met this day for council to see what can be done with a certain little band of Indians, Skookum John and company, which is roving the country, insulting people and frightening our families.
    We wish you to take charge of all the Indians that is traveling to and from through our country or inform us what to do with them.

E. H. West Asa Hull                                          
R. McPoland Richard Finley
J. H. Luis H. Malone
Thos. S. Woodfin M. Cary
D. Cary A. R. Breeden
W. Oplann N. A. Russell
E. Fields Wm. McHargue
Joseph Seely Wm. Matlock
J. Joslin J. Robinett
J. Johnson Wm. Robinett
D. Fields R. Gass
William Fields J. Huntrucker
Matison Kirk T. Fields
Jesse Barr J. Fields
James P. Lewis
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 139.



Port Orford
    April 10th 1856
Sir
    I landed at this place from the steamer Columbia early this morning, and finding an express messenger on the point of starting to the north I take the opportunity of laying before you such facts in regard to the accounts of special Sub-Agent Wright and the condition of Indian affairs at this place as I have been able to procure in the few hours I have been on shore. I find encamped at this place 230 friendly Indians of the Floras Creek, Sixes, Elk River, Port Orford and a few of the Coquille bands. All other Indians in this district are considered at open war with our people. The Coquilles came in to this place but after remaining a short time fled in the night to the mouth of the Coquille River. They were followed by the citizens of this vicinity and attacked. Fourteen men and one woman were killed, a number wounded, and twenty-five taken and brought back to this place.
    Col. Buchanan is now at the mouth of Rogue River with 220 men in search of the hostile Indians. Major Reynolds is with him. Capt. Smith is at this place but is to start in a few days to join Col. Buchanan with 24 men. The settlers from the surrounding country have all collected at this place for safety.
    Jerry Maguire is with the troops at the mouth of Rogue River. I shall send for him today. Jenny is in the village.
    I find William Chance in charge of the friendly Indians at this place as local agent employed by Wright. I understand that he has been very industrious and efficient.
    I shall have a talk with the Indians in the morning. Major Reynolds  has in his possession 604.37 dollars. He also issued in the public fund belonging to Wright. He has also issued to the Indians 84 sacks of clams brought here by Wright.
    I shall be able to procure a part if not all of Wright's papers. He had used at this place some property and at which his liabilities to the Department can be found if he proves to be behind hand.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
To
    Gen. Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Supt.'s Office
                Dayton
                    O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 176.



Office, Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. April 10th 1856
Sir:
    I have the honor herewith to enclose two letters from Agent Nathan Olney, under dates of 18th February and 1st March, respectively. The former, in reply to mine of 12th December--disapproving his course in appointing servants of the Hudson's Bay company as local agents or interpreters--seems to be a retort upon me for having employed a portion of the interpreters at the Walla Walla treaty who had originally been servants of that company.
    I do not deem it necessary to attempt a reply to the letter further than to say that his entire action therein has been regarded by me as highly injudicious and improper. His going to Walla Walla with, and acting as aide to camp to, Col. Kelly and taking part in the fight, holding the commission of the President as an Indian agent, and placed on duty in another Territory, was in my opinion conduct unofficer-like. By his advice the chief was induced to come into camp--as he admits sending him a message asking an interview. After he had been wounded with a pistol shot which felled him to the ground--but from which the agent thought he might have recovered, though his head was scalped and entirely peeled--and whilst yet alive Mr. Olney approached him and putting a pistol to his head fired and instantly killed him--to put an end to his misery, as he states.
    Agent Olney's going there was in violation of an express understanding between him and myself. He there sent a message to this Chief Peu-peu-mox-mox, who came in, under a white flag, was taken prisoner, afterwards wounded and scalped, and whilst breathing, his brains were blown out by the very agent who had sent a message that he wished to see him. Whether he was justified in the eyes of the troops in this act does not affect the result so far as his acts as an agent. He was at the time outside the limits of the Territory in which he had been appointed to service & consequently had no jurisdiction as such officer. And the violation of the respect due to a flag of truce which these Indians had been taught by us by those acting in the capacity of agents of the government in the Indian Department is well calculated to destroy all confidence and make them distrustful of our every act.
    With reference to the subject matter contained in his letter of the 1st ultimo, I have no comments to make--but may be permitted to say that the party to which he refers as coming down with him are, with one or two exceptions, believed to be of the most disreputable persons and regarded by the community as a lawless band of ruffians congregated in that country for no other object than plunder and robbery--several of whom were encamped for a long time near his dwelling.
    There is not, to my knowledge, any evidence of his having any immediate connection with this gang--though he has been upon intimate terms with them so far as outward appearances can indicate.
    In a former letter I alluded to the information I had received of Agent Olney's giving a written order to the members of the Hudson's Bay Company and others in the Walla Walla Valley to abandon that country. This I find to be the case--such orders were given by him, and were, he states, predicated upon the supposition that there was danger of an outbreak among the Indians in that vicinity. I have no reliable evidence fastening any improper motive upon Mr. Olney in giving these orders, but that they will be made the basis of numerous real & imaginary and exorbitant charges against the government for property thus abandoned, I have good reason to believe.
    With these remarks I submit the case of the agent to the consideration of the Department.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your mo. obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 834-836.



Grand Ronde
    April 10th 1856
Private letter.
Dear Sir
    Please find enclosed a list of articles necessary for this agency. I have been looking for you for several days and feel disappointed that you have not been up. Everything is in confusion here, caused in a great measure by the scarcity of materials and tools to work with. I have not paid the Rogue River Indians their annuities from the fact there are not enough blankets, pants &c. for them. They are becoming very much dissatisfied from this delay, but I have run myself to death almost trying to attend to a thousand things at once and consequently doing nothing right, so I have neglected to attend to their wants.
    I send in another envelope my resignation and hope you will receive it in the proper spirit. It is not without mature reflection I have arrived at this determination. I have held onto this situation several months longer than I should have done under the supposition that Dr. Ambrose would resign and give me that situation, but now he has determined not to resign until the end of this qr. and at the end of this I suppose it will be the same it has been for the last six months, so I have nothing to expect from that quarter, and my present salary does not justify me in continuing in a situation where there is so much responsibility. The losses that I would unavoidably sustain would consume a large portion of my salary, and my expenses added would have me in debt at the end of the year. This is my reason for resigning, and no other. I have ever entertained the most kindly feeling towards yourself and family and shall ever feel grateful for the many acts of kindness shown me whilst at your house.
    I think Dr. Ambrose would like this situation and hope you will give it to him. He is a good man and has a family to support.
    Or perhaps Olney would like it, but Raymond is unworthy [of] the situation or any other. I regard him a snake in the grass, but you must be the judge.
    I have only allowed myself time to make out my accounts, but if you think I should bring up my accounts in my own time I will do so and give way immediately to any person whom you may designate to fill my place.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 138.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton, O.T. April 11th 1856.
Sir:
    Since writing my letter of the 25th ultimo, events of the most stirring and exciting character have transpired in this country, caused by the bold and successful attack on the Cascades by hostile Indians, attendant with the loss of many valuable lives and destruction of much property. I enclose some newspaper slips [frames 661 and 662 of the link below, from the April 5 Oregon Weekly Times] which will give you the details, and the retaking of the place by U.S. troops.
    The first reports of such outbreaks are often contradictory and erroneous, and this instance may not, perhaps, be an exception to the general rule. It is, however, but too true that from ten to fifteen persons were killed and a large amount of property destroyed.
    These outrages and those in Southern Oregon have created a state of feeling among our citizens almost uncontrollable. Active operations were on foot to gather in the scattering bands upon the Grand Ronde and Coast Reservation, but this unexpected outburst of popular frenzy came well nigh upsetting and defeating the whole project. Not a little of this unnecessary excitement, I am forced to believe, grew out of efforts of disappointed politicians who strove to verify the predictions made last winter by members of the legislative assembly by circulating the most outrageous, exaggerated and groundless reports in regard to the acts of Indians and the agents in this Department to excite the fears and prejudices of the people. Meetings were held by the citizens simultaneously in different parts of the Territory, and prior to the late attack on the Cascades, petitions and memorials, resolutions and remonstrances were drawn up by the few present and passed condemnatory of almost every movement made by the Indian Department, tending to inflame the minds of the people (who were ignorant of the facts) and drive them to acts of desperation.
    The order for furnishing me with troops to guard and protect the reservation could not be complied with. A lieutenant with twenty privates are all that could be obtained. The threatening attitude of the community led me to apprehend a general and combined attack upon the camps of friendly Indians located at the Grand Ronde and the slaughtering or driving into a hostile position all who might be residing in this valley. I consequently deemed it necessary to organize a force of armed citizens and place them upon the eastern line of the reservation, cutting off all communication of the settlements and the Indians, and whilst thus engaged in guarding this line to construct a fence from mountain to mountain as a line of demarcation across which none could pass. This I have attempted putting into execution and have good reason to believe will be successful. It will require a force of about sixty men and to remain until relieved by the promised company of U.S. troops. I have in the meantime taken the necessary steps to collect all the scattering bands in this valley, and, in addition to the one thousand now upon the tract recently purchased, there is at Dayton awaiting means of transportation to the reservation four hundred and forty Indians, one hundred of whom start today. I have been compelled, in consequence of hurrying from their homes many who had not expected to be called upon so soon, to remove, and finding others in a totally destitute condition, to distribute a much larger supply of merchandise than had been anticipated. We have among those friendly bands quite a number from remote points of the Territory, portions of whom if not provided for would necessarily suffer or if left to shift for themselves would be driven into the ranks of the enemy. Among these may be named the Upper Klamaths, one hundred and forty-one souls, who have for several years past been in the habit of residing in this valley during the winter season. We have also a number of Spokanes, Klickitats and others from Washington Territory, and a few from California who came to this country with miners and others and have become identified with our tribes.
    With the exception of a few families scattered along the Columbia River, below the mouth of the Willamette, all the bands of this valley are now here, and upon the Grand Ronde purchase, as also those of the Umpqua Valley and three hundred and ninety-one friendly Rogue Rivers. The travel through the country and arrival of the last-named Indians at the encampment is made the ground of serious complaint, and false and exaggerated reports of a few designing public agitators has so wrought upon the fears of the citizens that nothing short of the knowledge of their being wholly disarmed and a strong guard constantly kept up would allay their apprehensions, and even now, when these Indians are wholly defenseless, it may be regarded as doubtful whether we shall be able to pacify the public mind and prevent an attack upon them, under the plea of someone having left the reservation and committed some act of violence. Almost every device imaginable is resorted to for the purpose of creating a panic and abusing the minds of the public against those entrusted with the management of Indian affairs in this Territory. The confidence of the Indians, though shaken at times, still appears unbounded. They cheerfully come forward & deliver up their arms of every description, guns, pistols, bows & arrows &c., and appear willing to conform to any rules which may be imposed--save only that which would require them to an immediate removal to the coast. Short as the distance is, but few have ever visited it, and there is a natural aversion to a residence there, but if allowed to first see the country and ascertain its facilities for subsisting them, and the ease of communicating with these wheat farms, their repugnance will disappear. All appear pleased with the idea of having a road to the fisheries on the coast, and by occupying these farms, which have been owned and used by whites, for a limited period, all the tribes may be peaceably and properly located, but to force, by compulsory measures, any movement which may appear objectionable to their uneducated and whimsical minds, would prove disastrous to the whole policy of the government. No movement beyond that attainable by persuasive means can be ventured upon at this exciting time--looking to a settlement beyond the Grand Ronde, unless supported by a military force, for the fears of the Indians from attacks of hostile bands are apparently as great as that of our own citizens, and to be placed unarmed along the coast in proximity to tribes with whom they have but little acquaintance, and constantly menaced by the encroachments of whites without any means of self-defense, is a requirement beyond their conception of justice and strenuously opposed at this time.
    So long as these bands are unsettled and there be continually kept up an intercourse between them and the whites, so long will we be unable to maintain order and discipline, or enforce anything like system among them. As docile and well-disposed as these Indians are, an unprovoked and unwarranted attack upon them would be followed by the most disastrous consequences. It would deluge the entire country in blood, for it is folly to talk about exterminating these Indians with the number and class of people in this Territory. Should we be furnished a company of regular troops to guard this end of the reservation we will be able to maintain peace with those tribes, otherwise (unless an enormous expense be incurred in employing citizens to do the duty of troops) we must be plunged in a war with them.
    No recent intelligence has been received from the Port Orford District. Agent Olney went down on the steamer of the 28th ult. with instructions to collect the Indians at an encampment near the fort, and as soon as an escort could be obtained to remove them to the Coast Reservation, which when done will require a company of regular troops to be stationed on the coast upon the southern end of the reservation, at Umpqua, Siuslaw or in the vicinity of Cape Perpetua. Agent Olney has been directed to locate the Indians of the Port Orford District north of Cape Perpetua, and Sub-Agent Drew to have those of Coos Bay and Lower Umpqua located on the Siuslaw River.
    No decisive blow has been struck in Southern Oregon giving any hope of a restoration of peace; on the contrary, the Indians have been victorious in every engagement where war parties have met. The difficulties to overcome in subduing these tribes through the medium of firearms has been greatly underrated, and whilst I feel confident that the war might be brought to a close by negotiation within, perhaps, a few hours after an interview with the hostile bands, if guarantees could be given of protection to such as might surrender and give up their arms, I would by no means seek to effect such an object unless sustained by a force having the physical strength to maintain fully the faith of the government. This force is not now, nor has it been, in the country since the commencement of negotiations with Indian tribes. This is the cause of our present war and will continue to curse the land until the strong arm of the government is extended to afford protection to the ignorant, weak and downtrodden aborigines of the country--protection against the cupidity, prejudice and licentious treatment of these people.
    Considerable progress had been made in the purchase of materials, tools, teams and subsistence for carrying on [of] operations upon the Warm Spring, or Wasco, Reservation, but the countermanding [of] an order for a company of U.S. troops to accompany and afford protection to Indians and employees, and the closing [of] the communication between Vancouver and the Dalles, unless by water, will materially retard operations in that quarter.
    In another communication I submit several letters from Agent Thompson, which will advise you more in detail of the condition of affairs in that district. At present nothing can be accomplished in the removal and arrangement of those Indians, and unless we have an additional military force, and one sufficiently prepared to meet the enemy and properly check him, I fear we will be compelled to fight the entire Indian population in that country--and this fear may be properly applied to all the tribes in the Territory. Instances of treachery on the part of those professing friendship have been known, but it is by no means as general as reports would seem to indicate. Common sympathy and fear induce many to give aid and comfort to the enemy who if kept aloof and properly cared for would remain neutral. An impression is among them that the hostile Indians are abundantly able to maintain their position, and that they will ultimately rid the country of the whites.
    I have upon several occasions in my communications urged the necessity of changing the character of troops to operate in Middle Oregon and Washington Territory. Recent operations prove conclusively that infantry are entirely unsuited to that service, unless so far as garrisoning the posts and escorting supplies &c. The Indians in that quarter are well mounted and during the summer season have facilities for traveling to be unapproachable by infantry. Nothing but cavalry or dragoons can control the movements and guard against sudden attacks of these savages. The establishment of military stations at not remote distances from each other throughout the country, with sufficient force to operate in a circuit around each post by infantry and cavalry to make quick marches to different points so as to give protection to settlers (and thus effectually to occupy and hold possession of the country) would in time effect the object, but such a process would be very likely to drive the enemy, unconquered, to remote points unfrequented by our troops and probably without the line of our Territory, from whence they might return to wreak their vengeance upon the defenseless and unsuspecting. Negotiations might also bring the war to a close, but goaded on as they have been and encouraged by their successes, it is questionable whether they would have a just conception of our power to deter them from similar outbreaks. Matters have, in my opinion, arrived at such a point that nothing short of an additional and an efficient military force to conquer at once a peace will have the desired effect, and the longer it be delayed the more formidable the enemy. There are certain chiefs known to be implicated in fanning up dissensions; no false sympathy should screen such from a just punishment, but a proper discrimination should be made between them and others who have been driven into a hostile attitude.
    Before closing this communication I must be permitted to again refer to the unnatural and unprecedented hostility of a portion of the people, who are urged on by a few fanatics in their opposition to the policy sought to be carried out towards these Indian tribes. Their actions give evidence of the most bitter and hostile feeling towards myself, and apparently regard less of all feelings of justice or common humanity towards the Indians, dictated by prejudice, passion and hatred towards these people, which if permitted by the government to be acted upon would be a lasting blot upon our reputation as a nation.
    The dissensions between the different functionaries of the government, civil and military, tends greatly to destroy the efficiency of the service: crimination & recrimination but adds to the flame, and whilst a considerable portion of the energies of the respective parties are exhausted in striving to gain the ascendancy and convince others of the correctness of their policy, the enemy goes unwhipped, their forces continually augmenting, our citizens slaughtered, and our settlers cut off and destroyed. One party, apparently, looks and acts to a great extent of the result in a political point of view, another in a military point, whilst both, with the means and elements at work, only tend to protract the war, give encouragement and hope to the enemy and render less secure the rights of person and property. There has not been, nor can there be, any concert of action between the regular forces and volunteers, so long as the present commanders remain in the field, and if it is desired to give protection to our people and deal justly with these Indian tribes, the regular military arm of the government must be strengthened in these two territories.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 647-662.


Camp at the mouth of Rogue River
    April 12th 1856.
Sir,
    I have just learned of you arrival at Port Orford to take charge of the Indians on the reservation at that place. During the excitement consequent on the outbreak of the Indians at this point I took charge of all Indians in the vicinity of my post, as the comdg. officer & under the general authority of the army regulations in the absence of any proper civil agent, collected them on the military reservation, fed and housed them.
    The provisions were furnished principally from the stores on hand for the troops, save about [blank] sacks of flour which Mr. Wright had previous to his trip to this place purchased & stored in Port Orford, and I will request the Com. Dept. at Washington to make the charge against the Ind. Dept. and have it settled then. The lumber I purchased of Mr. Tichenor at Port Orford and have requested him to hand his bill to you.
To him I issued none, nor authorized the issue of any by anyone.
    Sergt. Kelly, the com. srgt., will give you an exact account of the amount of flour found stored in town belonging to the late agent Capt. Wright and the blank above can be filled up.
I am sir very respectfully &c.
    John F. Reynolds
        Capt. & Bvt. Maj. 3rd Arty.
Capt. N. Olney
    Ind. Agent
        Port Orford O.T.
    I received $664.37 from Mr. Dunbar, public money in Mr. Wright's hands, when he left Port Orford for the mouth of Rogue River, and which he had deposited then in the safe of Mr. Gerow, merchant. This money when I left Port Orford I was instructed by the comdg. officer of the district to turn over to Lieut. Macfeely, who has been ordered to turn it over to you.
J.F.R.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, probable enclosure to No. 171.



Office Indian Agency
    Grand Ronde Reservation
        April 13th 1856
Dear Sir
    As my personal and domestic affairs will require my attention to such an extent as to interfere with my duties as Indian agent, and would prevent me from devoting my undivided attention to that office, you may therefore inform the Department of my inability to discharge the duties of the Agency and accept this as my resignation, to take effect at the close of the present quarter on the thirtieth day of June next.
    And accept my thanks for the many favors shown me during the brief period I discharged the duties of office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Indian Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 148.



Office Indian Agency
    Grand Ronde Reservation
        April 13th 1856.
Sir,
    I have the honor to tender to you my resignation as an Indian agent for Oregon, to take effect at the close of the present quarter the (30th) thirtieth day June next, 1856.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 855-856.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. April 14th 1856
Sir,
    On my arrival here this morning I learn that not a little uneasiness is manifested among the Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation, owing to the unwillingness on the part of the Rogue River Indians to give up their arms. This unwillingness appears to be in consequence of an apprehension that they might be attacked and thus be entirely defenseless. Others of the various tribes have done so, and they express dissatisfaction at the Rogue Rivers retaining theirs, as are also the citizens generally. Some bitter difficulty also has occurred between the agents, either as an excuse to have an opportunity to resign or from real cause I know not which; at all events, there is a disposition to avoid facing the music when the time requires firmness and unity of action. In the dilemma in which I am placed, between disaffection among the Indians on the reservation and the alarm and excitement among the citizens and backing out of agents (for two have resigned this morning), I am likely to fail in the entire plan unless I can obtain aid from the Military Department. We have now on the reservation, and here awaiting transportation, about fifteen hundred Indians. It is of the utmost importance that they be kept there and quiet, and with a citizens guard we will I fear be unable to maintain order.
    There is a moral influence, depending upon the presence of regular troops not attainable by volunteers. Those which I have hired, some sixty men, may serve as auxiliaries, but unless we can obtain troops at once, everything may be lost. I have the request also to be furnished forty stand of arms to place in the hands of employees on the reservation. I shall endeavor to call upon you in person before you leave. In the meantime, I wish you would send me help. I depart immediately for the Grand Ronde Reservation and shall personally investigate the precise condition of affairs and take such steps as may be advisable with my limited means.
I have the honor to be Genl.
   Most respectfully
        Your obt. servant
            [Joel Palmer]
To
    Major Genl. John E. Wool
        United States Army
            Commnd. Dept. Pacific
                Fort Vancouver O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 116-117.



Department of the Interior
    Washington April 15, 1856.
Sir,
    I enclose herewith a copy of my letter of the 12th inst. to the President of the United States on the subject of the $300,000 appropriated by Congress for the preservation of peaceful relations with the Indians in the Territories of Oregon and Washington, and request that you will prepare the necessary instructions to the Superintendents of Indian Affairs in those Territories, to be transmitted to them by the next steamer.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
   

Department of the Interior
    Washington April 12th 1856.
Sir,
    By an act of Congress approved the 5th inst. the sum of three hundred thousand dollars was appropriated to be expended under your directions "for restoring and maintaining the peaceable disposition of the Indian tribes on the Pacific."
    I respectfully recommend that the execution of this law and the expenditure of the money thereby appropriated be committed to the War Department, and that so far as the feeding and clothing of the Indians who are or may become friendly towards the government and people of the United States may be employed as a means of restoring and maintaining the peaceable disposition of the tribes, the respective Superintendents of Indian Affairs may be consulted by the military commandant of that division.
I am sir with great respect
    Your obt. servant
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
To the President.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 295-297.



Department of the Interior
    Washington April 17th 1856.
Sir
    Under the supposition that the appropriation for restoring and maintaining the peaceable disposition of the Indians on the Pacific coast, which was the subject of your communication of this date, will be placed under the charge of this Department, it is presumed therefrom that you are fully prepared to submit an economical plan of expenditure of the same, and can readily draft proper instructions to that end. I have therefore to request that such plan and instructions may be prepared as soon as practicable and presented to this Department for consideration. I have also to request that the papers on this subject, which you have this day received, may be sent to me.
I am very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 298-299.




Salem 17th April 1856
Joel Palmer,
    Superintendent Indian Affairs
    for Oregon Territory
Dear Sir,
    Yours of January 10th has been received, and you are correct in your recollection of my desire to present a claim for losses sustained by the Indians when acting under the direction and request of Superintendent Dart in the year 1851. And I thank you for your suggestion in relation to presenting my claim against the department for allowance and I here will avail myself of doing so. Accompanying this you will find an account which I have made out for the several losses and the value of each item with my affidavit accompanying.
    I wish you to instruct me if anything more will be required and if so what testimony will be required. My losses and my defeat at the Coquille are matters of public notoriety. The genl. government sent troops immediately to chastise the Indians; this is a matter you know personally yourself. The claim should have been presented long ago but my situation was such I could not attend to it in fact I really did not know how the matter could be reached in any way short of a memorial. I would be glad if you would pass on it at an early date. Please to write me by return. As Mr. Hayward takes this to you, please to write me by mail and if you should want of further testimony (which I hardly think you will from the notoriety of the affair) please say what particular fact or circumstance needs further evidence. By your attention to this for me at this time it will much oblige me, as I have to leave tomorrow for Jacksonville, or immediately on the return of Mr. Hayward, by his bringing your letter, it will expedite my business much.
Yours Respectfully
    W. G. T'Vault
   
Office, Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Oregon City Aug. 14th 1851
Dear Sir,
    Enclosed is a letter to James Gamble Esq. at Port Orford in which you will see I have requested his aid in taking the first steps towards attempting to negotiate with the Rogue River Indians for their lands in Oregon.
    Knowing your desire to restore peace and harmony in that country as well as extinguish the Indian title to the lands I am induced also to ask your cooperation in the attempt to collect these Indians for treaty purposes at Port Orford. Your extensive knowledge of the country will enable you to render us essential aid in this matter without interference, I would hope, with any other business in which you may have embarked in their country, I have sent an express to the crossing of Rogue River to notify the chiefs and headmen there, to come down to Port Orford to attend this treaty. It is our wish to treat if possible with the whole tribe at that place, therefore should it become necessary for you to step out of the line of your other business to promote this much desired object you will be remunerated for your trouble.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your obt. servt.
            (Signed) Anson Dart
                Superintendent
Wm. G. T'Vault Esq.
The foregoing is a true copy from the letter book page 155 in Supt's. Office O.T.
Edward R. Gray, Clk.
   
Indian Department of the
Territory of Oregon
    To
         Wm. G. T'Vault                                                                           Dr.
1851
Sept. 14th for services rendered from Augt. 21st to Sept. 14th in the Indian department 24 days at $5 per day $120.00
" " six horses lost during service valued at $150 each 900.00
" " five pack saddles and fixtures valued at $25 each 125.00
" " one American riding saddle valued at 75.00
" " nine guns lost in service valued at $25 each 225.00
" " one Sharps rifle, valued at 100.00
" " one dragoon Colt's revolver 50.00
" " one pair pistols        50.00
Total           $1645.00
Territory of Oregon
    Be it remembered that on the 17th day of April A.D. 1856 personally appeared before me Joseph G. Wilson clerk of the Supreme Court for the Territory of Oregon the undersigned W. G. T'Vault and made oath that on the 21st day of August 1851 he started from Port Orford on the Pacific coast in Oregon Territory, that he had with him six horses, five pack saddles and fixtures, one American riding saddle, nine guns, one Sharps rifle, one dragoon Colt's revolver, one pair of pistols, that he proceeded south along the coast to the mouth of Rogue River notifying the Indians as requested by Dr. Dart Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon Territory, from thence up Rogue River twenty five miles to the north bend from thence to the Coquille River thence down the Coquille River to near the coast notifying the Indians. On the route of said request of Dr. Dart, when near the mouth of the Coquille River himself and his party of nine men were attacked by the Indians, five of his men were killed and himself and four others making their escape, severely wounded, which attack occurred on the 14th day of September 1851, the said Indians having committed depredations on the whole line of march and finally capturing all the property contained in the foregoing account, that said property was taken by the Indians while he was performing the duties as required of him in the annexed letter of Dr. Dart Superintendent &c. and that the value put upon the services and the property taken by the Coquille Indians is a fair and just value in cash and that he is justly entitled to receive for the same the sum of sixteen hundred and forty five dollars.
W. G. T'Vault
Subscribed and sworn to before me at my office in Salem O.T.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed
the seal of our said Supreme Court this 17th day
of April 1856 at Salem
J. G. Wilson
(  seal  )                Clerk of the Supreme Court of Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 746-753.



Port Orford O.T.
    18th April 1856
Sir
    Since writing to you on the 10th inst. no material change has taken place in our Indian relations in this district.
    Capt. Smith has since started to join Col. Buchanan at the mouth of Rogue River. Lieut. Macfeely is in command of the post,with thirteen (13) men for duty. A large amount of the settlers that had collected at this point left on the S.S. Columbia on her downward trip for Crescent City and San Francisco, so that the place is almost in a defenseless condition.
    I had a talk with the principal men of the friendly bands of Indians at this place on the 11th inst. They appeared anxious to remain on friendly terms with our people and expressed a willingness to listen to and obey their agent.
    Since the death of Spec. Sub-Indian Agent Benj. Wright, they have been confined to very narrow limits, and not allowed to provide for themselves the means of subsistence that they have been hitherto accustomed to, but have been compelled to depend for subsistence upon the rations issued to them by the comd. officer of the post. They were not satisfied with the change of food, and expressed a wish to be allowed to provide themselves with some of the articles of food that they had heretofore been accustomed to using. In compliance therefore with this wish, and in order to carry out your instructions, I allowed them to go along the beach on the other side of their village to gather food, using my own judgment as to how far they should go, and the time of absence.
    As soon as the people of Port Orford discovered that they, the Indians, were allowed this privilege, they commenced collecting and arming themselves for the purpose of pouncing upon these unsuspecting women and children scattered along the beach gathering the means of subsistence, and murder them.
    I was apprised of this fact, and by promptly collecting and sending them to the village saved their lives. A meeting of the citizens was then called, and Indians and Indian agents denounced in the most unmeasured terms--expressions were used by our citizens at this meeting that would have disgraced the most barbarous tribe of Indians.
    I was given most decidedly to understand that the only way I could save this remnant of Indians was to keep them confined within very narrow limits, and feed them. I am therefore compelled to furnish them a larger amount of subsistence than had been anticipated.
    The troops in this district are all actively engaged in the field against the hostile Indians, and the necessary escort for the removal of the friendly Indians could not at present be procured.
    The animals required for the transportation of provisions and the sick and infirm en route to the reservation cannot be procured at this place, except at exorbitant prices, and I do not know whether a sufficient number could be procured at all.
    The Indians have of their own some six or eight horses, which can be used, and in addition to that number twenty more animals will be required, also ten pack saddles and four riding saddles complete.
    I am now issuing flour to the amount of two hundred and twenty-five (225) lbs. per day.
    I commenced issuing on the 10th inst. at the above rate; the six thousand (6000) lbs. received will be consumed by the 6th of May.
    Arrangements cannot be made to move from here before the first of June; it will take until the 6th of June to arrive at Coos Bay, and to subsist the Indians up to that date will require six thousand (6000) lbs. of flour in addition to the amount on hand.
    As to the amount that should be shipped to Coos Bay and Umpqua, or other points on the coast, for their subsistence after leaving Coos Bay, I will not presume to advise. As far as I have been able to learn, Spec. Sub-Indian Agent Benj. Wright, his employees and Major Reynolds have contracted debts to the amount of five thousand ($5000) dollars for the subsistence and providing for the friendly Indians in this district. Three thousand ($3000) of that amount is for lumber purchased by Major Reynolds to build houses for those encamped at this place. Some of these accounts have been presented to me for settlement, but not having received funds for that purpose, or instructions in regard to such liabilities, I declined to act until authorized by you.
    I shall require two thousand (2000) dollars, in addition to the funds now on hand, to defray the expenses of the quarters ending June 30th and September 30th 1856, and as it may be inconvenient for me to receive funds after leaving this place, allow me to suggest that the amount required be furnished me before starting from this place.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servt.
        [Nathan Olney]
            Indian Agent
Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Supt.'s Office
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 171.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. April 19th 1856
Dear Genl.
    In accordance with the intention expressed in my letter to you of the 14th inst. I proceeded to the Grand Ronde Reservation, where I found considerable uneasiness and alarm had been gotten up by representatives, apparently for no other purpose than to cause trouble, but as mentioned in that letter, the Rogue River Indians decline giving up their arms for the reasons stated. And whilst I have no fear that they meditate any hostile movement, yet in the popular frenzy and feeling among our citizens I regard it highly impolitic to permit them to retain even the few guns they possess, as it serves a few agitators means of creating alarm and keeps the community in constant agitation. There appears to be a determination on the part of the people to take steps to disarm them, and a failure to effect the object on my part will be followed by the most unwarranted assaults against the Indian Department and having the community in direct conflict with all the tribes on the reservation. I dare not attempt disarming them with the force at my disposal. Doct. Newel, who has visited the Ronde, can give you may details and explain to you the necessity of an increased force at that point. I cannot but express my fears that a failure to obtain them will prove disastrous to the whole scheme and end in deluging the whole country in blood. I need not say that every effort will be exerted to avoid such a calamity. The fears of the Indians are apparently for a time somewhat allayed, but with the denunciation of political demagogues and interested politicians, reward effects to create alarm and provoke retaliations [that] may enable those agitators to wean the confidence of the Indians entirely from us. In conclusion, permit me to hope that the forces under your jurisdiction may be so arranged as to afford the aid so essential to the maintenance of order and the preservation of peace.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servt.
         [Joel Palmer]
To Genl.
    John E. Wool
        U.S.A.
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 121.




Benicia Headquarters Dept. of the Pacific
    Fort Vancouver, 19th April 1856
Sir,
    On my return to this post from the Dalles on the evening of the 17th I received your communication of the 13th instant. Expecting every hour your expressman I have delayed a reply. He has not yet made his appearance.
    I have ordered Lieut. Sheridan with a small detachment of dragoons to join the detachment ordered for the protection of the Indians on the Coast Reservation. As soon as you call send an agent for forty stand of arms; they will be sent you with a due proportion of ammunition. This is all I can do for you at the present moment. As soon, however, as the war is brought to a close in Southern Oregon I will be able to send you a company, and if necessary two, to protect both the inhabitants and Indians from attacks of either Indians or white men.
    The news from Puget Sound is highly satisfactory. From the information received from Colonel Casey I think peace and quiet will soon be restored to the inhabitants of that region. It would seem that the hostiles have passed from Puget Sound to the Yakima country.
    Herewith you will receive a requisition for forty stand of arms and receipts which you will please to sign and send with the agent you may send to receive the arms and ammunition.
    I shall probably leave in the steamer Columbia on her downward trip about the 27th instant, previous to which I should be much pleased to see you in order to confer with you on several subjects.
I am, very respectfully,
    Your obedient servant
        John E. Wool
            Major General
To
    General Joel Palmer
        Supt. of Indian Affairs
            Dayton
                O.T.
Vancouver 23rd 1856. Captain Newell this morning handed me your favor of 19th instant. Come and see me before I leave. You may depend on my sustaining you to the extent of my power. Lieut. Sheridan is a gallant soldier and will do good service. He will keep intruders from the reserve. He will do just what you may desire.
John E. Wool
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 160



Department of the Interior
    Washington, April 19th, 1856.
Sir:
    Having previously had an interview with the President and Secretary of War, at which it was determined that the $300,000 appropriated by the act of Congress approved the 5th inst. for the purpose of restoring and maintaining the peaceable disposition of the Indian tribes on the Pacific should be transferred to this Department, I addressed a letter to the Secretary of War on the 17th inst., with a view to having the matter formally laid before the President for his order to that effect
    In submitting my letter to the President, the Secretary of War said, "I deem it proper, however, to suggest that so much of the fund as may be necessary should be used to replace the subsistence stores which have been furnished to the friendly Indians from the army supplies, or which may be so furnished before orders can be sent out to prohibit any further issues of the kind."
    If previous to arrangements being made by your agents the War Department should issue orders prohibiting any further issues of subsistence stores for the benefit of the friendly Indians, may it not cause difficulty and embarrassment and result in disaster? Would it not therefore be advisable to request the War Department to withhold such orders until you can hear further from Gov. Stevens and Supt. Palmer--and in the meantime agree to pay for such stores out of the said appropriation and, so far as it can be properly done, likewise for those which may have been already furnished by the army for like purposes?
    These suggestions are made to elicit the views of the Indian Bureau and to enable the Department to reply at once to the Secretary of War, as the prohibitory orders alluded to by him may possibly go out by the next steamer.
Very respectfully
    Your obedt. servt.
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Com. of Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 300-302.



Department of the Interior
    Washington, April 19th, 1856.
Sir:
    In regard to your suggestion that the subsistence which has been furnished to the friendly Indians on the Pacific coast from the army stores by officers of the army, or which may yet be furnished until orders can be sent to prohibit further issues, should be paid for out of the recent appropriation of $300,000, I have the honor to state that it is the disposition of this Department to do so as far as may be found practicable and proper, and I shall be glad to know the precise amount of such issues, whenever you may be advised of it.
    I have read the various communications which have been recently received by the Indian Bureau from the Pacific, and intend sending you copies of such of them as would be likely to interest you as soon as they can be prepared.
    Whatever subsistence may have been furnished to the Indian agents by the officers of your Department for distribution among those friendly Indians, and whatever they may continue to furnish to the officers of the Indian Department until they can otherwise procure them, will be promptly paid for, and I shall therefore be glad if the countermanding orders alluded to in your endorsement on my letter of the 17th inst., in submitting it to the President, should be so framed as to permit the officers of the army to continue letting the Indian agents have such supplies--they paying for the same--until they shall have completed their arrangements for purchasing them.
    I send you, herewith, extracts from the instructions which go today to Supt. Palmer and Gov. Stevens, and also an extract from a recent communication from Supt. Palmer to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        R. McClelland
            Secretary
Hon.
    Jefferson Davis
        Secretary of War
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 304-306.



Department of the Interior
    Washington, April 19th, 1856.
Sir
    I have just been handed your letter in reply to mine of this date. The Secretary of War, as well as myself, had reference to reimbursements for subsistence furnished the Indians from the army stores by the officers of the army, and not by the officers of the Indian Department, and, fearful that my suggestions may have been misapprehended, I wish to ask whether if, in consequence of the inability of the officers of the Indian Department for want of means to subsist the friendly Indians on the Pacific in order to protect them from conflict and association with the hostile bands, that subsistence has been or shall be furnished by the officers of the army, from the army stores, and with the like purpose and effect--it is not incumbent upon this Department to reimburse the War Department for such subsistence--and whether, in your opinion, any part of the $300,000 in question is, or is not, applicable for that purpose.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obedt. servt.
            R. McClelland
                Secretary
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Com. of Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 312-314.



Grand Ronde Reservation
    April 21st 1856
Dear Sir
    The weather being so unfavorable I was fearful of venturing out and as I am quite anxious to return home, I avail myself of the opportunity to transmit my papers to your office by the messenger sent by Mr. Metcalfe. By reference to these papers you will see the Agency is indebted to the amount of eighteen hundred dollars or near that. I state the amount from memory, which I desire to settle as soon as possible. My object is to close the business & leave for the States at the earliest possible moment, although in my resignation I stated a period to allow me full time to do so, but as the season is far advancing I am exceedingly anxious to start before June and would so modify my resignation if I head [south] again; however, I apprehend that will make no difference as I can send you another as soon as the business is closed which I hope to be able to close in a few days after my arrival at home. I have not examined these papers as much as I should have done if my health had been better. I hope you will keep them in the office until my return from Rogue River. And in the event any of them should require fuller explanations I will be able I trust to give it. In my property return of last quarter I notice a mistake which had entirely escaped my observations at the time. In the receipt for cattle it shows that I have but eight yoke on hand whereas it should have been eight & half [a] yoke or seventeen head. I have corrected it on these returns & on the copy sent from your office you will please make the correction on the other copy or keep it on hand until I return which will be some time in May, probably the latter part.
    If it is desired that I should settle the outstanding liabilities contracted by Mr. Culver I will do so according to instructions already given & it would be very acceptable to the contractors who have already waited a long time for their pay, and some of whom I know to be very needy & greatly in want of money. I have already stayed too long away from home & were it not that I were so very anxious to get my family away from those difficulties south I would call & see you, but I recollect of nothing but what can be done as well on my return from the south as at the present time & again it would allow you time to examine my accounts more fully than you would have time to do now.
    Upon examination I find the outstanding liabilities of this quarter to amount to eighteen hundred and twenty-three dollars & ninety cts., the precise amount of liabilities during Mr. Culver's term of office I do not recollect, but I believe it amounts to a little over three thousand dollars.
    It will probably require about five thousand dollars to pay the debts of the Agency & if you have not the cash I could probably get a draft of that amount cashed, or if you have not that amount to spare at present, you will confer a great favor by sending me the amount necessary to liquidate the indebtedness contracted by myself, as I had to pledge my personal credit I believe in every instance & the pressing necessity to get the Indians away was the reason of my doing so. I send blank receipts by Mr. Davidson, who will deliver you this & bring to me any return communications which you may choose to send. If it should be deemed necessary to send any word to George & Limpy's people I can convey it to them, indeed they will look for some on my return, as it was promised them. I told them I would lay their proposition before you & return your answer & they are looking for me before this time & should I stay away much longer I fear they will attribute it to some improper motive & I may thereby endanger the safety of my family, as I left them at home on my claim. I had thought of taking Ben back with me to hold a talk with them & if nothing more could be done for the present they might be removed to Fort Lane & kept under charge of Capt. Smith until such times as it would suit your convenience to remove them; at any rate something ought to be done with & by taking them under charge you will no doubt save the life of many whites, however I will abide & be governed by any instructions you may send me, but of one thing I am quite confident that if those Indians are informed this is to be a war of extermination the whites will be the sufferers greatly.
    As Mr. Davidson is in considerable haste to start you must make all necessary allowances for mistakes.
Yours &c.
    G. H. Ambrose
        Ind. Agt.
    Mr. Babcock & others are here and were here yesterday. I really believe some trouble is brewing in that quarter. You had better come up if you can; things are growing worse every day. On Sunday night several Indians were very drunk, had plenty of whiskey. Don't know where it was obtained. I believe it requires attention in time.
Yrs.,
    G.H.A.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 163.



Union Farm Apr. 21st 56
Mr. Joel Palmer
    Dear Sir
        I see that you have had the kindness to cause the last squad of Indians sent to the Grand Ronde Reservation to be placed on and adjoining my place so that their stock will be certain to live off of my place. Now, sir, there is a point from whence forbearance ceases to be a virtue, and that time has now come with me. If you think that you can place the Indians and their stock upon my place and run over me you will soon learn that you have fallen into a great error.
    I have my rights, and I think I know them and knowing them I dare defend them.
    If you think that you can coerce me into measures in reference to the sale of my place you will find yourself mistaken, and I warn you, sir, to be careful how you impose upon me any more or you will have a warm time in this region certain.
    All I ask and all I have asked is that you, sir, comply with what you promised (without any solicitation on my part), that is, to use your best endeavors to keep the Indians and their stock from annoying me. This, sir, you promised to do, and is this the way you fulfill your promises; is this the way that you take to keep peace; is this the way, sir, that you take to throw the responsibility if there should be any difficulty upon the head of others; if so you have hit upon the right one.
    Now, sir, I tell you that if these Indians and their stock are not removed from my place by the eternal I will take the responsibility of doing both with a vengeance.
    You talk about using your best endeavors to keep all quiet and peaceable, and before the sound of your words has fairly died away give orders that you must know, sir, that no man that is worthy [of] the name would submit to, that of having two or three hundred Indians put upon and adjoining and their stock upon their place.
    Now, sir, I hope that you will take this hint and not try to tramp upon or impose upon my good feelings any further or you will hear from me.
Yours &c.
    A. D. Babcock
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 164.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. April 22nd 1856
Sir,
    Your menacing letter of yesterday is just received. My first impression, of throwing it aside as too contemptible to make answer to, has given way and I will endeavor to answer it, as impudent, threatening and bombastical as it is. You well know I did not seek to coerce you in selling your land claim to the government. I was desirous to purchase of you and offered you a large sum, $4750, for it--much, indeed, above its intrinsic value--but you saw proper to refuse it, thinking you might compel me to pay the exorbitant demand you made for it. You had a right to do so, and I have no more to say.
    Every effort has been made, and shall continue to do so, to render the proximity of the Indians as little annoying to you as possible, yet the position of your land is such that Indians & their stock may sometimes get upon it without a possibility of being prevented. I gave no orders to have any Indians located upon your ground, and I much doubt if there be any upon it--should there be, however, they shall at once be removed. As soon as the line fence is completed we shall be able to keep all the stock of the Indians within the limits of the reservation.
    Perhaps you have it in your power to make it a warm time in that region as you threatened, and you may (possibly) commit some lawless act against them or their property, which might cause retaliation by them. Should you do either let the consequences that may follow be upon you. Remember this, that I hold your letter as an evidence of such design, and it shall stand forth in judgment against you. We live in a country of laws, where every man has his rights, and if aggrieved can be righted and justice done him.
    You ought not to lose sight of the truth that these Indians are removed to the reservation by order of the United States govt. and that they are under its protection, and any wanton act--such as you threaten in your letter--will be visited upon you [by] its heaviest punishments. The letter of yours which I know dismiss was doubtless written in anger; had you given yourself time for sober reflection you would not I think have sent it. Let me advise you to be governed by the usages and courtesies of gentlemen should you ever write a second.
    The point you speak of as having been reached by forbearance is not in my opinion attained, nor will it be until you shall attempt to carry into execution some of the threats of vengeance your letter is filled with.
Your obt. servt.
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    Mr. A. D. Babcock
        Union Farm
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 124-125.



Scottsburg, Umpqua
    Co. O.T. April 23rd 1856.
Gen. Joel Palmer,
    Dear Sir,
        I am truly glad that you have so promptly responded to our call for additional security against Indian depredation. You have the thanks of our citizens generally.
    Mr. Maulsby, special agent, arrived here last evening with instructions, I am informed, to Agent Drew to move all the Indians in his district to the Grand Ronde Reserve. This will relieve the people of this section from all danger unless by some means the Indians should escape from the reserve and come down the coast to their old homes.
    I do not believe the Indians will be easily persuaded to leave the coast. The Coos Indians have expressed a desire & willingness to leave Coos and come to Umpqua. The Siuslaw Indians have not been fed, I think, and have not expressed any opinion on the subject.
    In my opinion Drew and Clark do not wish the Indians removed from the southern part of the reserve and would prefer to have the reservation moved down south to the Umpqua. Then they could continue to act in their respective offices without moving. I think the people along the Umpqua would not object to that arrangement or change, provided a company of U.S. troops could be stationed between the Indians and whites. The moving of the Indians south of here onto this part of the reserve would meet with very general opposition, unless troops were so stationed.
    Under all the circumstances I cannot tell how successful Drew will be in inducing the Indians to leave this section for Grand Ronde, but I have no doubt should you come in person but that the arrangement could be made.
    If you have decided to move all these Indians, or all in Drew's dist., I would recommend that you come at your earliest convenience to superintend the starting of them, as I consider it a rather critical time. Should they refuse to go and Drew attempt to urge them, they might be more easily induced to join the hostile Indians not far south of here, with whom they have constant communication, in my opinion.
    Still I do not believe Drew will strongly urge them to leave till he hears from you again and learns that your policy in moving them to Grand Ronde is settled.
    For safety I have moved my family and most of the government property in my charge to Scottsburg, and feeling a deep interest in our Indian affairs at the present time, should be happy to receive a line from you by return mail.
Very respectfully
    Your friend and
        Obt. servt.
            A. C. Gibbs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 177.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. April 24th 1856
Dear sir,
    Your letter and enclosures by the hand of Mr. Donidsee [sic]  have been received.
    In reply to your suggestions that George and Limpy were expecting an answer from me as to the course they should pursue &c., I have to say that my advice to them is to repair with all possible speed to Fort Lane with their warriors and families and quit the war party. That if it be true that they were not engaged in the first outbreaks and only took up arms in defense, and after they were attacked by the whites, that by going to Fort Lane, giving up their arms and remaining quiet they will be protected, and as soon as the war is over they may come to the Coast Reservation, when they shall be cared for and secured in their rights so long as they are good people. That if I were to permit them to come now, our people would say we were taking to the reservation bad people, and it might be cause of trouble here. Our warriors are engaged in punishing foolish and hostile Indians; we have but few, but others will come--and unless all Indians abandon their foolish and bad conduct they will be destroyed. I know we have some foolish and bad people who do wrong to the Indians. I am sorry for it; our Chief is sorry for it, and we have been trying to get the Indians where they could live by themselves and not be troubled by bad whites, but our Chief lives a long way off and it takes a long time to get his orders, and if they had waited a little longer and not done wrong, we might have saved their people. My heart is that they must quit fighting and go to Fort Lane and deliver up their arms, and then we [will] know they have got good hearts, or if they prefer it they may send word to Capt. Smith, who is now at Port Orford, and meet him or a command that he may send, and go with them to Port Orford and come on the reservation with the Indians who now live at that point, and this is perhaps the best way for them to do. But they must not go by themselves or else they will be attacked, for that is the war ground. I have heard that they want peace; if so they can have it by doing as I say; either go to Fort Lane or Port Orford. If they go to Port Orford they must inquire for Mr. Olney, who is now the agent there, and he will take care of them and go with them to the reservation when he gets troops to protect them, and prevent any of their foolish people from doing wrong. I am not able to come and see them now, but if they can get to Port Orford I will come by water and see them and all that may be there as friends to try and have peace once more.
Very respectfully
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    Geo. H. Ambrose
        Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 126.



Office Sub-Agency
    Umpqua Apr. 24th '56
Sir
    By your express messenger Mr. I. L. Maulsby I am in the reception of instruction from your office under date of Apr. 14th, also fifteen hundred dollars to carry into effect those instructions.
    Measures have already been taken preliminary to the removal of the Coos Band of Indians to Umpqua & I shall at once proceed to remove them to this point.
    The Coos band are anxious to be encamped here & are ready at any moment to leave their present encampment.
In haste
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
Gen. Palmer
    Dayton O.T.
(P.S.) Mr. Maulsby has drawn on this agency to the amount of twenty-five dollars for which he is to account at your office $25.
E.P.D.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 181.



Port Orford O.T.
    April 24th 1856
Sir
    Since last reporting to you I have had a talk with Col. Buchanan.
    He informs me that the force under his command is so small he will not be able to furnish me the desired escort for the removal of the Indians at this place until he has reduced the hostile Indians in north California & Southern Oregon to complete submission. When that will be of course is very uncertain; it cannot be before the first of June next, and may not be before August. I would however respectfully suggest that horses, saddles and provisions &c. &c. be provided at as early a date as practicable so that no time may be lost in making preparation after troops are furnished. I am very anxious to carry out your instructions in regard to the removal of these Indians at as early a date as possible. I learn that the Coquille Indians who fled from the military reserve at this place are on their way back under the escort of a company of volunteers. I sent a messenger to them on my arrival, apprising them of my arrival and promising them protection if they came again to the reservation at this place. The officers of this company of volunteers agreed to assist me in inducing them to come in and to see them safely to this place, which it appears they have entirely succeeded in doing unless they should unfortunately take another fright before their arrival, which however I do not consider probable. An Indian supposed to belong to the S.S. Columbia, sent to me by S. G. Whipple, Spec. Ind. Agt., Crescent City, Cal., this Indian was found prowling about the settlements in that vicinity, was arrested by the volunteers who were about to hang or shoot him. Mr. Whipple, however, interfered and sent him to me at this place, as he belongs to this agency.
    I am now engaged in making out a census list of the Indians encamped at this place on my arrival. When completed I will forward a copy to the Supt.'s office. On enumerating them I find there is 270 two hundred and seventy. On the arrival of the Coquille
I will report their numbers and condition &c. &c.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Supt.'s Office
            Dayton
                Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 185.



Grand Ronde Reservation
    April 24th 1856
Dear Sir
    I avail myself of the politeness of Mr. Woodcock to send a few lines to you. In my haste the other morning I omitted to enclose a memorandum of unpaid accounts & also a small package of papers belonging to your office, which I had borrowed to enable me to complete my quarterly returns. I have nothing additional to add to my letter of Tuesday, but am waiting with a great deal of anxiety to start home. I presume the necessary arrangements can be made without my going to Dayton. If my health were not so impaired I would certainly come for more than one consideration. I would like to speak with you on matters connected with the reservation for your own interest, as well as the efficiency of the agency. Your policy which you have devised for the government of the Indians is certainly the best & it only requires to be carried out promptly & energetically to ensure complete success in order to do so efficiently. Everything pertaining to it should be harmoniously arranged. Such I very much fear is not the case at the present time. My resignation leaves the southern district without an agent, where one could be employed to a good advantage. Pardon me for making the suggestion to you, but I believe it would add much to efficiency of the Department to send Mr. Metcalfe to that district, which arrangement would meet his approbation. Indeed, he is desirous of going. I presume you have the power to fill his place here by special appointment & no doubt could do so in a satisfactory manner to yourself & government & alike promote the interest of both. No man could do more with those Indians south than Mr. Metcalfe. He is personally & well acquainted with all or nearly all of them & it certainly is a duty the government owes to the citizens of that portion of our territory to use every exertion to secure them against the ravages of hostile Indians. I am well satisfied that those Indians can be collected & taken to Fort Lane & that country saved from impending danger. It can be done as soon as a sufficient military force can be stationed at Fort Lane, which in all probability is the case at the present time. The Indians will doubtless be whipped in a general engagement soon, if not done before this time. They can then be gathered together & the war brought to a close. Your presence is certainly needed here & if you have leisure I would advise you to come up soon as possible. By so doing you may save considerable confusion. Mr. Hash talks of leaving tomorrow; however, I hope he will not.
    Since our acquaintance I have held you high in my regard & still continue to do so. My personal friendship for you prompted me to drop these suggestions, which I am aware may be regarded as gratuitous, but I have no motive other than that which desires your success & prosperity in your many arduous duties.
Fraternally yours
    G. H. Ambrose
Joel Palmer Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 170.



Indian Reservation
    Grand Ronde April 25 / 56
Genl. J. Palmer
    Dayton O.T.
        Dear Sir
            Mr. Worden was over yesterday, said he was not aware that it was the intention of the Indian Department to take and occupy his land without his permission until that morning and that he had come over to know the worst. I told him I did not think such was the case, that Lieut. Hazen would make a military reservation for blockhouse &c. You no doubt would pay him a liberal price for the remainder. He left satisfied and said it ever had been his opinion you was an honest man and would do what was right. Babcock no doubt had been over gassing. He tells the boys that he will allow no fence & gate to cross the road; he will tear down &c. Indians all quiet. The fencing goes on well for a day or two since the rain seared [sic--started?].
Yours truly
    J. S. Rinearson Capt.
        C. Guards
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 173.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton O.T. April 27th 1856
Sir:
    I have the honor to transmit, enclosed herein, twenty one claims (numbered from one to twenty one inclusive) presented by citizens of this Territory for alleged spoliations committed by Indians, and which have been accumulating in this office for some time. A portion of these claims were found among the files of miscellaneous papers when I entered the service, and, in a few cases, the items were mentioned to the Indians at the time of negotiating treaties with them, but in most cases the circumstances were such as, in my opinion, to render it inadvisable to urge their allowance in negotiating. The lapse of time intervening between the commission of these offenses and the dates of negotiations were so great, and the constant rambling and migratory character of portions of the alleged perpetrators, as well as the absence of all satisfactory evidence in their greater portion of the claims, induced me to omit making any specific provisions to cover them in the treaties. The meager amounts allowed those Indians (the Rogue Rivers) would not warrant the payment of these claims from their annuities even if found equitable, and the only remedy, in my opinion, is by direct application to Congress.
    The claim of Jacob Comegys
(No. 1) for timber destroyed and hogs killed by the Yamhill band of Calapooya Indians was presented to the chiefs at the time of negotiating the treaty of purchase for their country, but they would not allow it, alleging a right to the occupancy of that tract as having existed with them from time immemorial, and averring that they had only used timber for the accustomed buildings and for fuel, and denied having wantonly destroyed the property of others. It was admitted as possible their dogs might have killed some pigs, but that the high waters and ravages of wolves had doubtless done what was alleged against them. Judge Comegys is a meritorious citizen, and would not be likely to urge a claim which he believed to be unjust, but there may be a difference of opinion as to any legal right he has against the government on account of those Indians. I submit the claim, however, with the others, so that if the evidence be found sufficient to warrant its allowance by the Department, the necessary steps may be taken for its payment.
    The claims of John Meldrum (No. 2), Arthur Saltmarsh (No. 3), Cyrenius Mulkey (No. 4), William Wilkinson (No. 5), and William Gage (No. 6), who were, in August 1849, attacked by a band of Indians in Rogue River Valley, are believed by those conversant with the facts to be meritorious claims. The two latter, however (Wilkinson and Gage), failed to present theirs within the time specified by the 17th Section of Act of 30th June 1854; yet, should they be found legitimate as against the government that fact might not, perhaps, to be held as a bar to their allowance and payment.
    It has been, and still is, a matter of question as to the particular band of Indians who perpetrated these outrages. No treaties had then been made with any of the tribes in that portion of Oregon up to the date of the alleged offenses, and these claimants were merely traveling through the country.
    The tribes through that region, up to 1846, had generally been regarded as hostile, but during that season, and the two following, evidences of friendly feeling were abundantly shown by them. The attraction of a numerous class of persons passing through their country to and from the California mines often led to disputes and bloodshed. I am personally cognizant of the general feeling of hatred and animosity that existed against the Indians in the latter part of '48, by those traveling through that district, and the but too common practice of firing upon all [Indians] who might venture in sight. It cannot, then, be considered surprising that retaliatory steps, such as these, should sometimes occur against a people whom they regarded as natural enemies, and upon whom they were impelled to revenge the wrongs committed against them whenever opportunities to do so might be presented.
    At the time of negotiating the Rogue River treaty in 1853, it was deemed inexpedient to bring up these old claims and make their allowance a condition of its terms. Had it been understood that all such claims would have been considered, I think it probable an amount so great would have been presented as to swallow up the entire annuities allowed them for their country; besides which, the condition of the country was such as not to afford the time requisite for a due and proper investigation of the claims.
    It may be proper here to remark that the claimant William Gage belongs to a family proverbial for its hostility to Indians, and that they have been engaged in attacks upon them subsequent to treaties of peace, and that, too, against the Rogue River Indians alleged as the perpetrators of this outrage.
    The claim of Virgil Quivey (No. 7) appears unsupported by other testimony than his own affidavit; the fact, however, so far as regards the loss of life of David Dilley is well known but it is not known as committed by these Indians--save so far as the claimant's affidavit may reach. I regard the claim as of a doubtful character, and think it needs additional and positive testimony.
    The claim of R. W. Bragg (No. 8) for the loss of hogs--an account of which had been previously transmitted your office--I regard as unsustained by the evidence accompanying it. It is possible the Indians may have stolen some of them, but I think it more than probable the greater number were destroyed by wolves. It is well known that Indians are averse to hog meat, and with some few exceptions will not use it. The claim I think requires additional proofs.
    The claim of Washington L. Riggs (No. 9), for the payment of one hundred and thirty head of beef cattle, I regard as a grand, though but poorly supported, scheme to swindle the government. The point at which they are said to have been grazed, and from which, it is alleged, they were stolen, is in California, and there is in my opinion but little doubt that, if his cattle were taken away at all, they were driven off by white men, and at the instance of interested parties. A claim involving such an amount as is here set up should be fortified with every character of evidence as would clearly show all the points in the case from the time the cattle came into the hands of the claimant, and in what manner up to the actual commission of the alleged depredations.
    The claims of Edith M. Nickel (No. 10), William B. Hay (No. 11), Gabriel Smith (No. 12), David W. Beckley (No. 13), George Philpott (No. 14), Charles Ward (No. 15), George Collins (No. 16) and Obadiah Wheelock (No. 17) may be provided for, if found equitable, by the provisions contained in the last clause of Article 3, Treaty of 18th November 1854, with the Shastas, Scotons and Umpquas, as the Indians alleged to have committed these depredations were parties to that treaty.
    The claim of J. M. Claymer (No. 18), for merchandise &c. said to have been taken from him by Indians in the Siskiyou Mountains on the 18th of May 1854, was undoubtedly the work of a lawless band which has been infesting that district for many years, and whose residence has usually been in California on the waters of the Klamath River. Not the least shadow of evidence has been adduced to show that the robber was committed by any band with whom treaties have been negotiated within the limits of this Territory--or by parties with whom we are likely to negotiate--but by remnants of predatory bands alternately collected and scattered for plunder and flight.
    The claim of James Bruce (No. 19), $675 for one hundred and fifty bushels of wheat, alleged to have been stolen by "Jake's" band of Rogue River Indians, is regarded by me as having been forfeited, even if the fact of the theft be substantiated. In November 1854, whilst at Rogue River, Mr. Bruce complained to me that the Indians had stolen his wheat. I informed him that, by submitting his claim properly authenticated, it would be acted upon in accordance with the 17th Section of the Intercourse Act of 1834, but no such claim was presented and the matter rested. on the 8th or 9th of October last. I am informed Mr. Bruce was one of a party of armed men, under the command of Mr. Lupton, who attacked this same "Jake's" band of Indians whilst on their way to the Reservation near Table Rock, and killed between twenty and thirty men, women and children. Notwithstanding he states under oath, on the 15th of December, that "he has never taken any personal revenge."
    The claim of William G. T'Vault (No. 20), for loss of property whilst in command of a party of men exploring the country along the Coquille River, has for its support the affidavit of the claimant only; still, the fact of his party having been attacked is well known, but until the presentation of this claim, I had no knowledge of the assumed position of the claimant that he was acting under a letter of advice from an officer of this Department, but understood he was exploring the country for objects wholly disconnected from the public service. From a careful perusal of the letter of Superintendent Dart addressed to the claimant (a copy of which is attached to the claim) I cannot view its construction as employing Mr. T'Vault, or giving him any directions as to his course, route, or in any manner having to do with his trip. It does not appear from the affidavit that the property stolen was his own, and I presume it belonged to the persons jointly composing the party, but have no knowledge of any [of] the facts in the case beyond what is set forth in the affidavit.
    The claim of E. A. Vaughn (No. 12) for property destroyed by fire on the 29th May '52 I do not consider a legitimate one as against the government. It appears to me, from the testimony adduced, to have resulted purely from accident. The Indians were traveling in their canoes, and at night stopped near the home of Mr. Vaughn and built up their usual campfire, which, it appears, spread after their departure. There is no evidence whatever that it was the work of design.
    In the consideration of most of these claims a question arises in my mind as to whether the government is bound to indemnify citizens for loss of property sustained at the hands of Indians prior to any treaty of peace or purchase of their country. My own opinion is averse to such indemnification.
    It is unquestionable that the frequent commission of offenses by Indians against the persons and property of the citizens, and the long delays consequent upon seeking proofs and obtaining indemnity for such losses, has tended materially to induce those bitter feelings of animosity which exist against the red man on this coast. These considerations may possibly sustain the policy of the organization of some tribunal by which claims of this character may be adjusted more speedily than under the present system; or the passing of an act by Congress authorizing individuals aggrieved to commence suits in the supreme or circuit courts of the Territory where negative as well as affirmative testimony could be obtained, eliciting all the facts & attendant circumstances, usually so vague and indefinite in the claims as presented.
    These suggestions I respectfully submit for your consideration.
I have the honor to be
    Most respectfully
        Your obedt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Supt. Ind. Affairs
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 668-678.



Vancouver
    27th April 1856
My dear general,
    I have the most favorable news from Southern Oregon. Much has been done by the troops since I came here. Now is the time. Can you not go down with me to meet Col. Buchanan at Fort Orford. Go with me if it is possible. Do not fail and I think we will put an end to the war in Southern Oregon.
Most truly yours
    John E. Wool
        Major Genl.
To Joel Palmer Esq.
    Superintendent of
        Indian Affairs in
            Oregon       
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 174.



Scottsburg, O.T.
    April 29, 1856.
Gen. Joel Palmer,
    Dear Sir,
        Since I last wrote you I have been to the mouth of the Umpqua and seen your instructions to Agent Drew. I was mistaken in supposing that our Indians were immediately to be removed to Grand Ronde.
    Drew has commenced feeding the Indians again at the mouth of Umpqua, and now gone to Coos to bring up all of those friendly Indians. It is understood that Agent Olney is to come up with more Indians and some U.S. troops. This arrangement has quieted the fears of the people in this vicinity and is generally approved by them.
    There is no such opposition to placing Indians on the reserve in this section as you have met in the Willamette, and we hope and believe, with proper management, all will be right hereafter.
    We have just received a report which came up the coast that the Indians in the vicinity of the mouth of the Klamath River have broken out.
    I fear the war will not close for a year.
Very respectfully
    Your friend
        and obt. servt.
            A. C. Gibbs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 184.



Port Orford O.T. April 30th 1856
To Adjutant General Barnum
    Sir I have the honor to inform you that in consequence of depredations committed by the Coquille Indians who had deserted from the Port Orford Indian Reserve I called out my company of minute men for the purpose of chastising them then and to induce them to return to the reserve at this place. On the 27th of March I proceeded to the Coquille River, meeting some Indians on the route, who fired on us and fled. Upon reaching the mouth of that river I found one tribe of Indians encamped there and attacked them on the morning of 30th March, routing them with the loss on their part of 15 men, all their canoes and provisions and provisions &c. and 32 women & children prisoners. The latter I have sent to Port Orford where they have been taken in charge by Mr. Olney, Indian agent for that place. Learning that there was a party of Indians near the forks of that river I started the same day for that place and succeeded in killing three men belonging to the "Jackson" tribe, also taking several prisoners, principally squaws & children. Since then I have been in pursuit of the others belonging to those tribes and a party of twenty-five from the Umpqua Valley who had been engaged in the difficulties there last fall. We have succeeded in taking some four or five Umpquas and twenty Coquilles of the "Washington" tribe, also twenty-three of the North Fork Indians. The company has been in actual service from the 26th of March to the 30th day of April, both days included. I have also stationed guards at Coquille, Sixes & Elk river ferries according to request of S. S. Mann, quartermaster for this place. These men are still on duty. I do not know what is required of a minute company exactly, so if you could give me any information you would much oblige me.
Your humble servant
    John Creighton
        Capt. Port Orford Minute Men
Adjutant General Barnum
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 1, Document 310.



Union Farm Apr. 30
    A.D. 1856
Mr. Joel Palmer
    Sir
        Your very polite note of the 22nd inst. is before me and would have had an earlier answer, but I concluded that I would have my north and east boundary established before I answered so contemptible a document.
    It becomes very convenient for you, who have not the ability or courage to do right in your official capacity, to resort to innuendo and the game of brag and threat to accomplish your nefarious designs.
    You say "You well know I did not seek to coerce you in selling your land to the government." Now, sir, I know no such thing. I know that you did not say so in so many words, but, sir, you know that actions often speak louder than words, and I have come to my conclusions from your actions in the premises and not from your words, for if your words amounted to anything you would exculpate yourself from all blame in the premises, but, sir, what are your acts. You gave orders that the Indians (before named) should be placed near my place. You knew when you gave that order that it would be impossible to keep them and their stock off of my place. You knew that they had a large amount of ponies. You knew, sir, as well then as you do now that that stock would run on my place. And you now know or you will soon find that I will stand no such game.
    You say that you gave no orders to have Indians placed upon my land; nevertheless, they were placed there. And you say "should there be, however, they shall at once be removed." Now, sir, now is it a week has passed since the above was written and still between twenty and thirty lodges are upon my place and their stock is still turned loose upon it. How does this tally with your word, with your professions. Now, sir, how does your actions speak. It is after this wise, sir, if you do not sell your place to the government at my figures I will annoy you until you are willing to do so and [are] glad to get away from that point. Again, sir, you advised the location of the regulars upon the eastern boundary of my claim in a situation to cut off my egress to and from my place, and you, sir, are now making preparations to fence up that pass, the only one that I have to get out with a team during more than one half of the year. Now don't you blush at the silliness of your word while your every act goes to give them the tic.
    When you talk try and make your actions keep strictly with your words if you wish to sustain an unsullied reputation. In reference to your offer for my place I have only to say it is not such as I can accept and I shall let all go to the Devil before I will accept anything but what I think is near its true value. You say "You saw proper to refuse it, thinking you might compel me to pay the exorbitant demands you made." Now, sir, you know that that assertion is false. You know that last fall when you first came to me my price was within a little of what it is now, and I have made improvements that more than make the difference between then and now. I told you then that I did not want to sell and that I would not take the figures that I then offered too if it was not for your bringing the Indians in so close a proximity to me. I told you the same the other day, but if you wanted it at my figures--you could have it.
    You quote from mine, and then say "You may commit some lawless act against the Indians or their stock." Now, sir, I shall do nothing but what the law and my country will amply sustain me in doing. I am a law-abiding citizen, and I am no novice in what the law requires of every citizen, but my rights I will maintain at all hazards, and where it is necessary will use such force as the law clothes me with to drive any and all trespassers from my place.
    You come down on me with a threat that would do honor to Jack the Giant Killer. Now, sir, a fig for your threats. I do not fear you in the least. You say that "I hold your letter in judgment against you." Now should you happen to misplace or lose it, just call and I will furnish you with a copy, for I always keep them when writing to such stock. I am, sir, fully aware that the Indians are removed to the reservation by authority of the U.S. government, but, sir, I am not aware that they have ordered them and their stock removed upon the lands of citizens. If it has, please let me know and then I will know how to proceed. I am much obliged to you for your kind advice, and would inform you that when I am treated like a gentleman you nor any other person will have any reason to complain of me, but when I wish to take lessons upon the ways of [a] gentleman I shall apply to someone that has some qualifications aside from his badge of office to recommend him.
    I am now, sir, done with your letter and with this kind of a controversy unless you provoke it. I have another request to make of you, that is to cause the Indians to discontinue burying their dead upon my place immediately.
I am respectfully
    A. D. Babcock
Joel Palmer
    Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 183.



Port Orford O.T.
    May 1st 1856
Sir
    In my report of the 18th inst. I made a mistake as to the amount of indebtedness of the Indian Department for lumber purchased by Major Reynolds. Instead of three thousand as there stated, it is three hundred and seventy-nine 29/100 dollars.
    The amount of indebtedness of the Ind. Department in this district however I do not think will fall short of four thousand dollars for lumber, subsistence and services of employees to take charge of the friendly Indians.
    Enclosed please find receipts for the articles remaining on hand at this place, and for the tents shipped to this place by you to the care of Mr. Dunbar and received from him by me.
    Since my last report fifty-eight of the Coquille Indians have come in and encamped on the military reservation. I have Indians out hunting for the remainder of that tribe who I am satisfied will return to this place as soon as they are satisfied that they are safe from the murderous attacks of unprincipled white men.
    Yesterday an old squaw arrived from Rogue River, sent by the different bands of the coast Indians below this place, with a proposition from them to make peace on any terms the Americans may dictate. In a few days Col. Buchanan will start from this place to Rogue River for the purpose of treating with these Indians. From present appearances I am induced to think that he will succeed in restoring peace to this part [of] Oregon within the present month.
    This is written in haste to be sent by express. I shall give you a full report by the return steamer.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Supt. Office
            Dayton O.T.
P.S.
    I have concluded not to send the receipts mentioned over land as they may be lost, but will send them with my report.
Yours &c.
    N. Olney
        Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 192.




Port Orford O.T.
    May 6th 1856
Sir
    I have the honor of herewith transmitting to you the enclosed receipts for tents and other articles received by me at this place, as advised by my last communication.
    The amount of indebtedness for lumber furnished the friendly Indians on the military reserve by Brevet Major J. F. Reynolds is three hundred and seventy-nine 29/100 dollars, instead of three thousand as stated in my letter of the 18th April.
    From such information as I have been enabled to procure I now estimate the amount of outstanding debts against the Indian Department in this district at about four thousand dollars including the amount charged for rations furnished by the commanding officer of the military post at this place. It may exceed that amount.
    By an enumeration of the Indians found by me encamped on the military reserve on my arrival here, I find their number to be two hundred and seventy; that number has since been increased by the addition of ninety-nine Coquille Indians, who have been induced to return to the reserve, which makes a total of three hundred and sixty-nine.
    I found it necessary to furnish the Coquille Indians rations while being collected, and on the road to the reserve and since their arrival. This increase in my issues of provisions and to save transportation, made it necessary for me to purchase small supplies of provisions on the Coquille River and on the road to this place. I have also contracted for the purchase of five thousand lbs. of potatoes to be delivered to me at the place for the subsistence of the Indians, one thousand to have been received and issued.
    I have but a small quantity of flour on hand, not sufficient for another issue. If however the remaining four thousand lbs. of potatoes are delivered to me here as per contract, I shall be enabled to subsist the Indians until flour can be shipped by you to this place.
    An old Indian woman arrived here a short time since, bringing word that all the hostile bands of Indians below the Big Bend of Rogue River were anxious to make peace. Acting upon this information Col. Buchanan (who had come up to this place) started yesterday accompanied by two friendly Indians from this place and my interpreter Peter McGuire for Rogue River to hold a talk with the Indians above mentioned.
    An express arrived here from Rogue River today bringing news that the troops had had another fight with the Indians, killing six of them, with the loss of one man killed and one wounded, and that the majority of the Indians were not in favor of making peace, as stated by the old woman above mentioned.
    An Indian belonging to the Chetco band found prowling about Crescent City was sent to me a short time since by S. G. Whipple Esq., Spec. Sub-Ind. Agt. Klamath Reservation. As he belonged to a hostile band I turned him over to the commanding officer of the military post at this place.
    One of the Coquille Indians, who came in a few days since, was pointed out to me as one of the murderers of two white men who were killed on Coquille River two years ago. I caused him to be arrested and ironed and lodged in the guardhouse of the military post. His people acknowledged his guilt and expressed a willingness to testify against him and a desire that he should have a trial and be executed, as he was a bad man and might make trouble between the whites and Indians.
    Accordingly, the citizens of Port Orford by my request organized a court by electing a judge and empaneling a jury, and today gave the Indian, in the presence of the principal men of the different friendly bands of Indians encamped at this place, a fair and impartial trial.
    He confessed his guilt and implicated another Indian of the same tribe, who had been stopping in the village, but who fled to the woods as soon as he learned of the arrest of his accomplice.
    The prisoner will be hung in the presence of the Indians and citizens tomorrow at one o'clock.
    Three of the murderers were hung some time since at Coos Bay.
    In a conversation with Col. Buchanan upon the subject of an escort being furnished me for the removal of the friendly Indians collected at this point, he expressed a willingness to furnish one at the very earliest moment, but that the number of troops under his command was so small that none could be spared for that service until peace was made with the hostile Indians on Rogue River. He also stated that the escort could not be detained on that service longer than it would take to move the Indians in the most expeditious manner, except the guard that would be left with them after their arrival on the reservation.
    Allow me therefore to suggest that a number of beef cattle be purchased to be driven along to be slaughtered as required, so that they may not be detained to fish and hunt for their subsistence on the road.
    In anticipation of your adopting the above plan of furnishing subsistence to the Indians en route to the reservation, I have made arrangements to have the beeves furnished at this place or any other point on the route at 15 cts. per lb. at any time you may order me to close the contract.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Supt.'s Office
            Dayton
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 200.



Oregon City, Oregon Territory
    May 8th 1856.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir,
            I trust you will excuse me for writing a few words to you touching the Supt. of Ind. Affairs for Oregon, Gen. Joel Palmer. An attempt to remove him is understood to be zealously urged by certain gentlemen who last year were connected with our legislative assembly. I am unwilling to judge of the motive that prompts to such efforts, but feel quite at liberty to say to you what I solemnly believe, that no good, either to the Indian Service, the public interests, or the Democratic Party, can or would come from gratifying the General's enemies (who are enemies of the red man) in his removal. On the contrary, I feel confident that, by his removal, injustice alike to personal and political truth would be commended, and an outrage upon a faithful officer encouraged. That should not be.
    Gen. Lane, our Delegate in Congress, may not feel at liberty to oppose Gen. P.'s removal--the movement for that purpose emanating, as it does, from members of the legislature--but I am sure if you will so far favor simple justice as to refer the subject of this letter to him with an inquiry as to my fitness from age, long residence in the country & knowledge of public affairs, to judge correctly of such matters, he will, I am sure, so reply to you as not to do harm to the cause of truth and correct motives in seeking its vindication. I have neither business nor personal connections with the Superintendent, and my social relations with him have for two years past been interrupted, but this shall not deter me from doing him justice. He has not desired me, nor has anyone on his behalf, to say a word to you in support of his acts--that, however, cannot deter me from saying that I think he has been a faithful public servant, and I hereby do so with as hearty good will as I have ever done any act of my life, either public or private.
    Saying this much, I do not assume to condemn others for expressing, either by petition or otherwise, a contrary opinion, but simply discharge a duty which longer omitted would leave me unsatisfied. I am unable to withhold, through mere personal history or other motive equally discreditable in the eyes of public justice, the expression of a trust which I honestly entered and which it is thought is shared in common with thousands of good men through the length & breadth of the Territory.
    It is not deemed necessary to go into a vindication of Gen. Palmer's acts as Superintendent. Those had & done by him through his own counsel and exercise of his discretion the past twelve months, so far as they have come under my notice (& I am a close observer of passing events) I am free to admit I warmly approve. Believe me, but a few months will pass away before a large share of those who now so warmly urge the General's removal will have occasion to regret that their energies were not devoted to objects of a higher public good. Time will vindicate Gen. P.'s policy and action touching Oregon Indian affairs.
    I have no further apology for addressing you this letter than to add that I could not longer remain silent, without reproaching myself for criminal indifference in seeming to sanction what I do not doubt would amount (if allowed) to gross private and public injustice.
Very respectfully yours
    O. C. Pratt
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 764-767.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. May 10th 1856
Sir,
    I wish you to cause two blackboards constructed for the school house, say 3½ by 6 feet each, and have seats and desks constructed. Mr. Maulsby will assist and give directions as to form and number to be constructed. So soon as these be finished Mr. Maulsby will commence a school. Mr. VanSchuyver, who has been engaged as an assistant teacher, will also aid in the preparation of seats and desks. The name of each pupil, age, name of parents &c. will be recorded, and when so done suitable clothing will be provided for them. The quality and character of such will be as directed by the teachers, and any material required for this will be furnished by the agent in charge. To induce parents to take an interest in sending their children to school it will doubtless require great care and counsel on the part of the agent, and as the education of the children is the main lever by which we can hope to civilize these people, it is important that we get a right start. But whilst the general direction and arrangement in details of the matter should be left to the teachers to ensure a favorable result, they must have the aid and cooperation of the agent, and all persons upon the reservation. The salary of teachers will be such as to cover the cost of board at present; upon the return of Mr. Chamberlain he will take charge of and erect a school house for the use of Rogue Rivers and Umpquas, and any requisition for teams, tools &c. for such object will be filled by the agent in charge at Grand Ronde.
    I start for Portland tomorrow and shall probably return here Wednesday and very likely be at the Grand Ronde during the week, but it is by no means certain.
Respectfully yours
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    R. B. Metcalfe, Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 134.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton, O.T. May 10th 1856
Sir
    Since my letter of 11th ultimo, matters have remained nearly in a state of status quo in this country; no decisive movement has been made either by the Indians or our troops from which an inference may be drawn as to the general result. The occasional murder of a single person and the driving off bands of horses by the Indians constitutes the extent of movements on their part, and the troops, regulars and volunteers are generally unsuccessful in attempts to find their whereabouts when in search of them. A forward movement into the Yakima country has been made by the regular troops under Col. Wright of the 9th Infty. In the meantime the volunteers have mostly left the field in the north and are now returning to their homes.
    They were so unfortunate a few days since whilst encamped five miles north of the Dalles to be robbed by the Indians of over two hundred head of horses which were appraised, I am told, at over sixty thousand dollars. Agent Thompson informs me that the friendly Indians at and near the Dalles of the Columbia still remain quiet and firm in their friendship. He has been instructed to form encampments at the fisheries near the Dalles so that the Indians may avail themselves of the benefit of the salmon, now about commencing to run. Salt and barrels have been forwarded for the purpose of putting up for winter use, but we shall I fear be disappointed in obtaining the requisite supply of seines and fishing tackling [sic] which I had ordered from the East by express. Still the Indians will be able to take large quantities in their accustomed way. No reliable information has been received of the condition of the friendly Cayuses, Walla Wallas and Umatillas, since they joined the Nez Perces' camp. The citizens at and near the vicinity of the Dalles appear to be in greater dread of certain organized bands of whites engaged in and about that place in acts of violence, plunder and robbery than from the attacks of hostile Indians.
    In Southern Oregon matters remain nearly as by previous advices. Agent Olney, however, had arrived at Port Orford and has taken the census of the Indians at that camp, numbering 240 souls. The remaining Coquilles (who had once been at the fort but took fright and ran away, were pursued by volunteers and many of them killed) were on their way back to Port Orford under an escort of volunteers. On a recent visit to Fort Vancouver, Genl. Wool informed me that if there was good reasons to believe that peace could be obtained by negotiations in Southern Oregon, he would when consummated furnish two, if necessary three, companies of regular troops to protect Indians and citizens. Having long entertained an opinion that such an object could be attained, I have determined to proceed to that district and shall start in the course of eight or ten days, probably taking the route of the Cañon, Grave Creek Hills, Meadows, Big Bend of Rogue River and thence to Port Orford. Sub-Agent Metcalfe will accompany me to Grave Creek Hills, whence he will proceed to Illinois River with a view of effecting a cessation of hostilities in that quarter, and the removal of those Indians (Jake's band) to Port Orford, where if possible I propose concentrating all the bands and then proceed with them to the Coast Reservation under escort of the promised troops.
    There appears a calm among our citizens at this time in relation to the Grand Ronde Reservation; one-half of the sixty men hired as citizen guards have been discharged, the remaining force are now engaged in the construction of the line of fence at the entrance of the reservation. The unusual amount of rainy weather the past month has retarded materially the progress of that, and of the work on the reservation, as also the opening the road to the coast, but it is now going forward.
    We are constantly getting accessions to the number of Indians on the reservation. Their aggregate by a statement of the sub-agent in charge reached 1557 on the 18th inst. The necessity for confining the Indians within the limits of the reservation and the withholding of firearms from them has thrown a heavy expense upon the Superintendency in subsisting them. The contract price of fresh beef delivered slaughtered on the reservation is eight cents per pound, that of flour three dollars and twenty-five cents per hundred; sugar, coffee and tea are necessarily furnished them as a part of their rations, but in a limited quantity. We are now fitting out a party of Indians with their families under charge of a local agent to proceed to the coast on a hunting and fishing excursion, portions of whom will be engaged in opening the road from the Grand Ronde purchase to the coast and thence to Siletz River. It is expected that this arrangement will familiarize them with that part of the reservation and will enable them to obtain sufficiency of their accustomed food and thereby materially lessen the expenses of the government in future. It has been deemed by me important in order to carry out as fully as practicable the policy in colonizing those Indians, to construct dwellings, shops, an agency building &c., among which, in addition to the temporary buildings for the Umpqua and portions of the Indians of this valley who were removed during the winter, we have the following: One farm agency house 16x20 feet, 2 rooms and one story high, design ultimately to be an L to a larger building. One frame dwelling house for physician 16x20, two rooms, one story not yet quite finished. One frame store and warehouse 20x40 feet, two rooms, one ware room and one distributing with an addition of 12x40 feet, two rooms. One frame tin shop 18x20, one story. One frame blacksmith shop, nearly complete, 18x36. One frame school house, 24x50 feet, one story high, one log wagon maker's shop, heretofore used as smith shop. The siding and roofing for these buildings as well as for the temporary Indians' houses and the boarding houses for employees were split in the adjacent forests. Those of the permanent buildings are neat and put on in a substantial manner. None of these buildings are, however, fully finished on the inside, and an additional expense will necessarily be incurred in putting on a coat of paint to preserve the work. These permanent improvements, in addition to the necessity for immediate use, tended greatly to satisfy the whims and superstitious notions of the Indians and convince them that we were really acting for their good.
    Several other buildings are much needed, but I have deemed it better to await the completion of a sawmill before constructing them. The removal of the Umpquas and Rogue River Indians to this reservation, and the fact that the greater proportion of cereal grains for their use must be grown upon and in the vicinity of this purchase, and the desire of many of those Indians to have buildings erected in the neighborhood, has induced me to take steps for the erection of one sawmill and one flouring mill of sufficient capacity to cut the lumber and manufacture the flour for all the Indians located in the vicinity.
    And in order to secure a quantity of water to propel both of those mills I have contracted for the construction of a mill dam below the forks of two creeks which necessarily involves a heavier expense than across either one of the branches, but there is an insufficient supply of water in either singly for both the mills. From this dam it will require a race about five hundred yards in length to the point where the mills will be erected, the upper end of which will require a cut of seven feet.
    I have contracted with responsible persons to construct the dam, dig the race and erect the sawmill complete for seven thousand dollars, to be in readiness for running by the 1st of October next. A copy of the contract with specifications for the work will be forwarded to your office at an early day. The cost of this dam & mills is above my former estimates for work of a similar character; the amount estimated for the erection of mills for the Molalla tribes may be applied to this object should that treaty be ratified. The following mills will be erected by day work under the supervision of the Department but will not be pushed to completion until after the sawmill is finished.
Very respectfully &c.
    [Joel Palmer]
To Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 135-137.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 756-763.



Empire City May 11th 1856
Dr. E. P. Drew
    Sir
        The Indians that you left here with the expectation of their removal to the Umpqua on the return of the wagons have left the reserve and refuse to comply with your instructions. As soon as you had got out of sight beyond the sand hills, a delegation of the old settlers crossed the bay and had a very long talk with the natives. They say that their business was to buy some canoes, as they brought one back with them to town. Whether this party had anything to do with regard to influencing the Indians to take the stand they have since done, I cannot tell. Some of the Indians commenced removing their property that afternoon, and the next morning they were all gone, some to parts unknown and others to the second point below town, just above their old camping place. The Indians are evidently acting under the influence and advice of the party styling themselves the "old settlers." The Indians say that they do not want to have anything to do with you, and if Palmer wishes anything of them he will have to come himself. They also say that according to the treaty they cannot be removed until next summer. Their manner of conversation shows conclusively that they have been counseled by the "old settlers" in all matters pertaining to their removal. I am unable to do anything towards starting them for the Umpqua and think that you will have to come down with authority to enforce their immediate removal before anything further can be done. I understand that your instructions from Gen. Palmer do not allow you to remove the Indians against their will. If such is the case I hardly know how you will make out.
Yours in haste
    S. Scholfield
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 225.



Portland O.T. May 13th 1856
Dear sir,
    From the news I get by this steamer I am induced to go at once to Port Orford by return trip and therefore wish you to remain at the Grand Ronde until Mr. Raymond's arrival, when you will turn over to him all public property belonging to that sub-agency, or which may be in your hands not required for the service to which you are herein assigned, and his receipt will be your voucher for the same. You will then proceed to visit such of the Indians as may be found in the Rogue River District and express to them my wish that they at once go to Port Orford, where they will join the emigrating party and proceed to the Coast Reservation under an escort of U.S. troops. After ascertaining their whereabouts, and if practicable visiting them in person and giving such directions as you may deem proper to accomplish the object, you will visit the Indians, if there be any, in the Illinois Valley, which though in the Rogue River District may require a separate consideration. The known hostility of Old John and a part of his band and the fact that they were the first to take up arms against our people--though they may have cause of complaint--requires an unconditional surrender of that chief and of such of his men as were engaged in the first outbreak on Rogue River and Jump-off Joe Creek. The whole tribe must be required to give up their arms and go and remain at such place as may be required. The chief and parties accused may be guaranteed a fair trial by a court martial of U.S. officers, or by the civil authorities as may be determined upon. They may be assured, also, of the protection from lawless persons by U.S. troops, and hereafter secured in their just rights, to secure which they must deliver up all firearms or other weapons at such place and at such time as you may agree upon, and proceed with you or such discreet persons as you may direct, to Port Orford, or at such point as the U.S. troops may be stationed, and be subject to such orders as may be given touching their travel to and departure from such camp. In other words, it is the object to close the war in Southern Oregon, and every energy of those entrusted with the management of Indian affairs in the Territory must be devoted to the consummation of that object. The safety of the settlement, the peace of the country and the voice of humanity demand that it should be done. Though we might conquer a peace, it would be at the sacrifice of many valuable lives and at an enormous expense to the government and a blight upon the prosperity of our Territory. And whilst peace is important and desirable, it by no means follows that we should secure it on discreditable terms, but demand a rigid compliance with such reasonable and just terms as will be likely to ensure a continuation of it in future and giving such guarantees of protection as the circumstances in which you are placed will warrant. The only hope of securing peace is by removing the entire Indian population from that country and in thus attaining it we are promised a sufficient number of troops to fully guarantee any terms requisite to ensure their safety. In my arrival at Port Orford I will proceed to Rogue River and advance as far into the country in the direction of the Meadows or into the Illinois Valley as practicable, meeting the Indians on the way and with such an escort as will be likely to secure a safe passage to Port Orford. Captain Rinearson will be directed to proceed to Port Orford with thirty horses to aid in the transportation of subsistence and baggage from that point to the Coast Reservation, the saddles for which go down by this steamer, as does also six tons of flour. I gave instructions to Agent Ambrose to send a messenger to George and Limpy and direct them to go to Port Orford, or if they preferred it to Fort Lane, but that I preferred them to go to the former place.
    You understand the object to be obtained, peace in Southern Oregon. There may be those who will oppose the policy of negotiating, but it is useless to try to please all. If peace is not made before the drought comes on, the entire country is ruined. There is more at stake than the gratification of satisfying the whims of fault-finders. The lives of our citizens will be sacrificed unless the war can be closed, and I cannot but believe that all good men, lovers of justice and those desiring the real welfare of the country, will approve the course.
    I have instructed Captain Rinearson at once to dismiss the men under his charge, retaining Mr. Fleming, Mr. Cluff and three others of the men of his selection to aid him in taking the horses to Port Orford. Mr. C. Taylor has also been directed to purchase twenty-five horses. I desire you to turn over to Captain Rinearson any horse on hand belonging to the Indian Department which with those to be purchased will be branded and taken to Port Orford.
    Should you find it advisable to take any Indians with you from the Rogue River camp as messengers, it would be well to allow them to carry guns--but they might have revolvers if deemed perfectly trusty. Have a keen lookout for them, however. I would think it well to have at least one white man with you. Be discreet, run no risk, but try and meet me at Port Orford.
    Should you need funds for your traveling expenses, call upon Mr. Blanchard, who will advance you such amount as may be necessary, provided he has any on hand. The recent heavy expenditures may, however, have nearly exhausted the funds on hand--but remittance is anticipated [in] the next mail. I will add, in conclusion, that I much rely upon you for the prompt and discreet performance of the important duties herein assigned, and hope to meet you, well and hearty, at Port Orford or vicinity.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde Reservation O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 138-140.



Portland O.T. May 13th 1856
Dear sir,
    I have directed Mr. Metcalfe to turn over to you all the public property in his hands not required for such service as he is assigned to. You will receipt to him for such articles as may be turned over, being particular and enumerating each article, and so arrange the memorandums as to enable you to know precisely every article, however trifling, belonging to the government. You will then take charge of the entire business of that agency, turning over to the respective mechanics and farmers the tools which they may require for efficient service, taking their receipt for the same; all property should be called in and an investing [sic--"inventory"] of each article turned over to the respective employees taken so that you can show it any time in whose hands the same may be.
    Any property not required for the use of the respective mechanics, farmers, physician, superintendent of farming, teachers &c. you will secure by returning in your custody and using it only for the benefit of the service. Each employee should be held to a strict accountability and required to perform the services for which he may have been engaged--and a failure so to do should be reported to the Supt. office--with the facts connected therewith.
    There will be in the service the following employees:
1. One Blacksmith For the Willamette tribes
1. One Carpenter   "      "             "           do.
1. One Superintendent Farming Operations   "      "             "           do.
1. One Farmer For Willamette tribes
1. One Blacksmith For Rogue Rivers & Umpquas
        (Jointly working in same shop with Willamette tribes)
1. One Farmer For Rogue Rivers
1. One Farmer For Umpquas
1. One Tinner For all the tribes jointly
1. One Physician   "     "     "     do.       "
1.  Wagon Maker   "     "     "     do.       "
2. Two Men For the agency in charge of teams and whatever may be required; getting materials &c.
1. One Carpenter For Umpquas
1. One Carpenter For Rogue Rivers
2. Two Carpenters For agency
    The physician will be allowed a hospital steward. The supt. of farming operations for Willamette tribes will be allowed to employ and hire under his control four Indians, and each of the three farmers will be allowed two Indians; the compensation for Indian service will be at present $1.50 per day. Each smith and carpenter will be allowed to take one apprentice (an Indian boy) and the tinner two--each one to be clothed and rationed at the expense of their tribe to which he belongs, the articles being furnished by the person in whose charge they are on the approval of the agent, and at the end of each quarter obtaining a certificate of the head chief of the tribe for the articles furnished.
    The salary of Indian employees to be paid out of the annuity funds from whose benefit they labored. There will be a commissary and one assistant commissary for the agency, whose duty will be to receive and ration out the provisions in accordance with instructions of agent. The Indians who are engaged in labor for themselves or employed on the farms or elsewhere will receive as a ration:
    One pound, two ounces flour; one and one quarter pounds of fresh beef or three quarters of a pound of salt meat per day; with twelve pounds sugar, six pounds rice and 2 quarts salt to the one hundred rations, six pounds coffee or one and one half pounds of tea the one hundred rations.
    Those who do not labor will receive:
    One pound flour and one of beef only and no sugar or coffee but salt as in the other cases--all above the age of twelve years are to be considered so entitled to full rations; below that age one half in proportion to size.
    Teams, tools and farming implements will be turned over to the respective persons in charge of the business department and they will be held accountable for their proper application and security of the same. The clerk in the Superintendent office will furnish from the treaty book a copy of each treaty, under which employees are in service to the agent in charge. The agent will encourage the Indians to solicit a tract of land upon which to erect his dwelling and commence cultivating the soil, and where tracts are to be designated for the Willamette tribes the agent and supt. of farming operations shall act in conjunction, and for other tribes the agent and farmers--but each tract designated before regarded as permanent shall be approved by the Supt. Ind. Affairs, but temporary locations may be assigned by the agent and supt. of farming and farmers as above.
    It will be the duty of the farmers to assist each Indian who wishes to cultivate the soil or in selecting suitable ground, in erecting his building, in making his fence, cultivating his land &c. to devote his services exclusively to the benefit of the tribe for whom he is employed, to secure the cultivation of crops for the joint benefit of old and young and indigent persons, by means of his own labor and contribution of the members of the tribe severally in proportion to their ability to labor, explaining to them the necessity of this as a contingent resort, but urging individual action so as to secure support for their respective families.
    The farmers will assist in planing [sic] their fields, preparing their tools and have a general supervision of the farming commenced on.
    The carpenters for the respective tribes will assist in erecting their houses, making furniture and doing what may be required to promote the general welfare and prosperity of the tribe.
    The smiths and tinner will bestow their services exclusively to the benefit of the tribes upon the reservation and shall furnish to the individual members necessary articles in their line upon the requisition of the agent in charge or such articles as may be required by the mechanics and farmers &c.
    The agent in charge will have a general supervision over all the business department, and see that each person performs faithfully his part. Monthly reports will be made by him to the Superintendent office--giving in detail the condition of the agency, number of employees, the manner in which they have discharged their duties, amount of labor performed, improvements made, health of the people &c.
    There will be one teacher (school teacher) for the Willamette tribes and one for the Rogue Rivers and Umpquas (jointly). The teachers will have the direction of those schools, selection of books &c., and make requisition upon the agent for such clothing as may be necessary to comfortably clothe the pupils. They shall allow such awards for merit to scholars as will ensure attendance and distribute presents to encourage the children to attend school.
    At the end of each month a settlement will be made with contractors for furnishing beef and flour, and the agent in charge will give a certificate for the amount forwarded.
    The agent will settle with and pay for all Indian labor performed on the reservation, but mechanics, farmers and salary employees will be paid at the Superintendent office upon a certificate of the agent showing the time of service, date of commencement and ending and rate of pay.
    Requisitions for supplies will be made on the Supt.'s office and forwarded in time to meet the necessity of the articles needed. The persons contracted with to erect buildings, to plan land &c. will be required to perform faithfully and in a workmanlike manner whatever may have been agreed upon, and it is the duty of the agent in charge to supervise such work, giving a certificate of service &c.
    The wagon maker will prepare materials in advance to be seasoned fit for use, and perform whatever duty may be required in his line, making or mending wagons, plows, barrows &c.
    The mechanics, farmers and other persons having charge of any branch of business will report to the agent the condition of the respective departments, monthly.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    W. H. Raymond Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 140-143.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T. May 13th 1856
Sir,
    By directions of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, you will at once discharge from service the remainder of the men now constituting the guard company under your command at the Grand Ronde Reservation. On the same being done you will render to the office a complete muster roll of the said company, duly certified. The public property remaining in the hands of Mr. John Fleming as quartermaster and commissary of the company will be transferred to the sub-agent at the Grand Ronde, taking dup. receipts therefor in the name of the Supt.
    The oxen, wagons, chains &c. received of Mr. Lamson will be brought down to this Superintendency:
    The instructions of the Superintendent, which were this evening read to you in detail, touching the necessary preparations to be made in going to Port Orford District with a party of men and animals, will be embodied in another communication. It is necessary however to remark herein that the Superintendent has designated Mr. Fleming, Mr. Cluff and Mr. Smith to accompany you, with three others of your own selection of the men in your company.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        C. D. Blanchard
            in chg. Suptcy.
To
    Captain J. S. Rinearson
        Commanding Company Armed Citizens
            Grand Ronde Reservation
                now at Dayton
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 143-144.



The Indian War in Oregon.
    We have been favored by Mr. Alexander Campbell, of Portland, O.T., who arrived here by the last steamer from the Columbia with some interesting information as to Indian matters in the north. It appears that the season for active operations against the Indians has gone by for the year. The Oregon volunteers had pursued the Yakama Indians to their own country, and while the winter lasted prevented them from doing indiscriminate mischief over the northern territories. It was expected that the Indians would have been completely subdued during the campaign, but that was not the case; they were only kept in check. As the season advances, the Indian will drive their stock of horses and cattle to the mountains, where, during the summer, plenty of pasturage will be found for them. In inaccessible mountain gorges the women and children will remain in safety, while the "fighting men" will be set at liberty to roam over the whole country. Divided then into small bands, they will, it is expected, attack and destroy in detail the different outlying white settlements. The remote settlers have all deserted their farms, and sought the lower and more peopled valleys. Perhaps, therefore, not much life will be lost in the maraudings, although the stock that has been left on the ground and the farm improvements will probably be all destroyed. If the Indians, emboldened by success, meeting with no opposition (as indeed no force can track and prevent their rapid movements during the summer months), should venture to approach and attack the lower valleys, much loss in life and property may be sustained by the settlers.
    The volunteers in the Yakama country during the winter months numbered about six hundred men, all well mounted. These have been withdrawn and disbanded, except two companies of about eighty men each. The regulars are about to erect various forts and small military posts in that country, although it seems not much good is expected from that course. Except a small force of dragoons, the regulars are not mounted. The Yakamas are splendid horsemen and will be able to ride round the proposed forts at will, in utter defiance of their enemy. These Indians are said to entertain no apprehension of the regulars, although they do fear the mounted volunteers. During the next six months it is probable that the Indians will have it all their own way. The best method, apparently, to resist them is to discreetly retire as far as possible from the more exposed settlements. Next winter, it is expected the Indians will be completely subdued. They will then be forced to bring their families and stock to the lower valleys from the physical impossibility of finding food for them in the mountains, and then large bodies of both regulars and volunteers will, doubtless, be prepared to meet and crush them. The Yakamas number fifteen hundred fighting men, although their real force is probably nearer two thousand. There is a large number of Indians in the north who are attached to no particular tribe, but who are always ready to join any tribe when plunder and fighting are going on. Perhaps nearly five hundred of such loose Indians have attached themselves to the Yakamas in the present struggle.
    Rapid communication, by means of distant signals and fleet runners, is continually going on among the different tribes in the most remote parts of the country. The skirmishes, successes and defeats of the Indians in Southern Oregon, on the Columbia River and about Puget Sound, are speedily made known among all the Indian tribes.
    The friendly Indians living among the whites generally know much sooner than the latter all that has passed in distant quarters between their hostile countrymen and the whites. This widespread, speedy intelligence has had a wonderful effect in encouraging the hostile Indians. The war appears to have long been premeditated. Mr. Campbell, our informant, has met and conversed on this subject with numerous mountaineers, both white and red, and they commonly agree in saying that long before the present war broke out it was understood among the Indians that general hostilities were to be commenced against the whole white population at the first convenient opportunity. L. C. Gray, of St. Helens, who visited the Yakama country in the summer of 1853, informed Mr. Campbell that he then had a conversation with the celebrated chief Kamiakin, to the effect stated. Kamiakin is the political head of the Yakamas; his brother, Schuloon, is the military chief. Kamiakin, who may now be about fifty years of age, is an intelligent, well-informed personage. He fears, while he believes in, the "manifest destiny" of the "Bostons," as he calls the people of the United States. He is fully posted as to all that has passed, for many years back, between the Americans and the Indians along the line of the Pacific coast. The Boston, he sees, are gradually hemming his people in, and he hopes that he may only delay the inevitable moment when he and his tribe must vanish from the earth. If he is to die, he feels that he may as well die "with harness on his back." In Kamiakin's conversation with Mr. Gray, he impressed the latter with a deep sense of his extraordinary ability, and his power of making political combinations among the Indian tribes. Before the present war broke out, he sent emissaries to the scattered tribes in the lower valleys, urging them to be allies in the common movement. The Klickitats were persuaded, but none of the other tribes who lived among or near the whites joined in hostilities.--S.F. Bulletin, May 13.
Sacramento Daily Union, May 15, 1856, page 1




Umpqua Sub-Agency
    Umpqua O.T. May 15th / 56
Gen. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Sir
            Your favor of the 15th ult. came to hand this evening & I hasten a reply.
    Immediately on the reception of your instructions under date of Apr. 13th & 14th I proceeded to Coos Bay & made the requisite arrangements for the removal of the Coos Indians to Umpqua. All of Jim's band & a great part of Taylor's were ready & willing to come up & after a "short talk" will give their consent to remove provided I could make arrangements to pack or team some of their goods up the beach. I engaged four teams, thinking they would be sufficient to bring all that was requisite. I accordingly had the goods loaded & found a part must be left for the return teams.
    With some (135) one hundred & thirty-five I left Coos, telling those left behind, about 98 in all, that the next day the teams would return for them. They said it was good & they would be ready to come up. I left Mr. Scholfield in charge to attend to their removal. Enclosed please find a letter received from him a few days subsequent. The letter explains itself. Some men at the bay have told the Indians not to come up & no doubt officers in the volunteer company there, as some of the Indians inform me.
    I shall return immediately to the bay & if possible ferret out evidence &c. &c. against those white men.  I know them all--proof is what I want. I think no trouble need be entertained in regard to their removal. They will all come.
    I have now in hand at the agency some (7) seven tons of flour, which I purchased at 6½ cts. delivered. It may be requisite to purchase a small quantity of beef, provided the canoes cannot be got up, as with them they could fish.
    Instruct me in regard to the Indian squaws living with white men. There is at Coos Bay three Coquille squaws & five Coos Bay squaws residing with the whites. There has been no trouble with the Indians within this dist. excepting that made by the whites. Were there nothing but Indians to deal with the task of the squaws would be meager. By the next express I will give you a more detailed account of affairs here.
In haste
    Most respectfully
        E. P. Drew
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
(P.S.) This encampment now numbers in all two hundred & sixty-five (265). About ninety-eight (98) left at Coos Bay yet--I think to go down tomorrow & take a few canoes on board of the steamer Newport, which is bound to Umpqua from Coos. The expense will be trifling.
E.P.D.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 234.


    The report [of the Oregon Superintendent of Indian Affairs] further states that "these outrages and those in Southern Oregon have created a state of feeling among our citizens almost uncontrollable. Active operations were on foot to gather in the scattering bands upon the Grand Ronde and Coast Reservation, but this unexpected outburst of popular frenzy came well nigh upsetting and defeating the whole project."
    The order for furnishing troops to guard and protect this reservation could not be complied with. A lieutenant and twenty privates were all that could be obtained, and the threatening attitude of the community caused apprehensions of a general and combined attack upon the camps of friendly Indians located at the Grand Ronde, and the slaughtering or driving into a hostile position of all who might be residing in that valley. Consequently a force of armed citizens were organized and placed upon the eastern line of the reservation, thus cutting off all communication between the settlements and the Indians. Instructions were also issued for the construction of a fence from mountain to mountain, as a line of demarcation across which none could pass, which course it is thought will effectually protect these friendly Indians.
    In the meantime, active measures were taken to collect all the scattering bands--many of whom were found to be in a destitute condition, and if left to themselves, would, most assuredly, have gone over to the hostile tribes--and place them on this reservation. Among those who were provided for are named the Upper Klamaths, who have for several years past been in the habit of residing in this valley during the winter season. With the exception of a few families, scattered along the Columbia River below the mouth of the Willamette, all the bands of this valley have been placed on the Grand Ronde purchase, together with those of the Umpqua Valley and three hundred and ninety-one friendly Rogue River Indians. The confidence of these Indians, it is stated, though shaken at times, still appears to be unbounded, and they cheerfully come forward and deliver up their arms of every description, and seem to be willing to conform to any rules which may be imposed.
    No recent intelligence had been received from the Port Orford district. Agent Olney went down on the steamer on the 28th of March last, with instructions to collect the Indians at an encampment near the fort, and, as soon as an escort could be obtained, to remove them to the Coast Reservation.
"Department News: Interior Department," Daily Union, Washington, D.C., June 7, 1856, page 3



Port Orford Correspondence of the Statesman.
Port Orford, O.T., May 18, 1856.
    Mr. Editor--The Indian difficulties in this section of the Territory are yet in an unsettled and very unpleasant situation.
    Since writing you last, a very important although small skirmish has been had with a few Indians, principally chiefs and influential men of the different bands on Rogue River, in which Capt. Bledsoe, Lieutenant G. H. Abbott, and privates of the volunteer corps distinguished themselves and won the approval and congratulations of Capt. Smith of the U.S. troops, who was at the time encamped within two miles of where the engagement took place.
    The party of Indians consisted of fifteen persons, namely twelve men and three women. Two of the latter, and one of the former, escaped.
    Within a few days after the above transpired, an Indian woman came to this place from the seat of war and said that the Indians were anxious to make a treaty and were willing to comply with any terms that the whites should propose, yet little or no confidence has been placed in her statements, although Col. Buchanan when he left here, and we believe by the request of Mr. N. Olney, our Indian agent, took some two or three of the friendly Indians, who have been stationed upon the government reserve for some time past, for the purpose of carrying intelligence or wishes of the belligerent parties from camp to camp, but judging from what Col. Buchanan has promised the citizens of Southern Oregon we do not look for a cessation of hostilities for some time yet to come.
    On the 29th ult. a detachment of U.S. troops numbering some sixty men was attacked by about the same number of Indians at a small river, called Chetco, some thirty-five or forty miles south of Rogue River, whither they had gone for the purpose of escorting a large government pack train of several hundred animals, which is employed between Crescent City and the mouth of Rogue River. Sergeant Smith was killed, and one or two privates were wounded. The Indians sustained a loss of six killed. The Indians were routed and fairly driven from the field.
    On Monday last, an Indian was arrested on the government reserve, whom it was confidently believed was the principal actor in the murder of Messrs. Venable and Burton on the Coquille some time since. There being no organization of this county, and consequently there being no administrator of the law, the Indian agent, Mr. Olney, called a meeting of the citizens, and laid the matter before them in a worthy and satisfactory manner, and after a candid and minute consideration of the matter, the citizens proceeded to choose a judge to preside at the court, and then the names of all, or nearly all the inhabitants were procured and arranged in a proper manner, from which twelve names were drawn to serve as jury men on the trial. On the day following the Indian was arraigned for trial, and Mr. Olney appeared as his counsel. When the court convened, he was informed by the judge, through his interpreter, of the charge that had been preferred against him, and he immediately answered that he was guilty, and at once proceeded to make a full confession of the whole transaction. There have been four men now executed who were engaged in the murder of these two white men; this one said that one of those was innocent, and he thought that the life of the innocent one ought to atone for his, but finding this to be of no avail, he then stated that there was one more Indian who had not been arrested who was equally guilty with himself. His confession rendered the introduction of testimony unnecessary; consequently the jury retired, and after mature deliberation rendered the following verdict:
    The jury empaneled by the citizens of Port Orford, in the case of citizens vs. Indian John, engaged in the murder of two white men on the Coquille, Messrs. Venable and Burton, render the following verdict: We find that the Indian is guilty of murder in the first degree, and we recommend to the court that he be hung on Wednesday, the 7th of May, at 1 o'clock p.m., and the place of execution be "Battle Rock," and that the citizens keep charge of him until the time of execution.
    This document was signed by all the jury men and then publicly read to the citizens.
    The Indian was executed according to the report of the jury, and in full view of two or three hundred Indians, who are now being fed by government, and strictly kept upon the reserve.
    In this case too much praise cannot be awarded to Mr. Olney, the Indian agent, who took an active part for the prisoner and the administration of justice in the premises. His course was marked with that degree of independence and conscientiousness of the fulfillment of his duty, that it met the hearty approbation of a large, exceedingly large mass of the population of this country, and when the vote of thanks was presented to Mr. Olney, not a single dissenting voice was heard.
    Subsequent to the execution, however, we have heard that the commander of the military post had made up his mind to inform Gen. Joel Palmer who he had appointed to office in this district. We anticipate that Mr. Palmer has heard of this same Nathaniel Olney before; if not, who has had the boldness to appoint Mr. O. to the responsible office of Indian agent?
Yours, &c.,
    J.C.F.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 10, 1856, page 2


Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        May 18th 1856.
Sir
    I arrived at this place on the 11th inst., but for lack of mail facilities I could not address you earlier. I have had no opportunity of communicating with the Indians since my arrival, although I am more convinced than ever that they desire peace. I have been informed by persons who were at the meadows during the last engagement & that the Indians called for quarter and were very anxious to have a talk. In my opinion immediate steps should be taken to collect them together and place them on a reservation. They are now scattered over a large extent of country, and it will require some little time and trouble to gather them together, but justice as well to the Indians as to the whites requires it should be done. Unless it should be done this valley will in a manner be nearly ruined. Small marauding parties of Indians who have become discouraged at ever accomplishing a peace will set to, to do all the mischief they can. A few days ago on Butte Creek a small band made their appearance, capturing some stock and destroying some more, and like outrages may be expected all summer if some pains be not taken to collect the Indians and place them on a reservation. In fact they have no other means of living than by pillage; chased from their homes like wild animals into the mountains, it becomes a
denier resort ["last resort"] with them. I know of no way of collecting these wandering savages, except "Sam" and a few of his people be brought here to search them up. It is useless for the military authorities to endeavor to do it. In the first place they cannot find them; secondly they are so distrustful of the whites of treachery they would not stop to talk. In every engagement lately the Indians called for quarter, and none was granted them. Now it strikes me the policy of our government would be to collect these people together, and most certainly humanity as well as the best interest of the country alike require it should be done and that too at an early a day as possible. Both whites and Indians desire peace. The country is tired of war, but if the present opportunity be lost to make peace the season of the year is fast approaching that a few Indians can destroy vast quantities of property and many valuable lives will be sacrificed in consequence.
    In the want of your arduous duties requiring your attention at the Superintendency, I think it would be well to send Mr. Metcalfe with a few of Sam's Indians for that purpose. If I had a few Indian messengers I would make the effort to collect these scattering bands, but I have not got them, nor can they be obtained here. I have not heard from Capt. Smith since my arrival. Rumor says he is making a treaty with the coast Indians. As soon as I adjust the unsettled business of the agency here, I will repair to the Superintendency. I am undecided yet whether I shall go to the States this spring or fall. I shall this spring if I can.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
I was told a few days ago by a Mr. Smiley Harris that he had received a letter from a person at the Grand Ronde Reservation saying that he intended to remain there no longer than an opportunity offered for him to kill "Sambo." The individual was a volunteer, was in the fight at Butte Creek on the 8th Oct. 1855. I could not learn his name.
G.H.A.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 216.  No. 222 is a shorter copy.




Port Orford May 19th 1856
Sir,
    Considerable complaint is made by the Indians now on the military reserve that white men are permitted to visit the Indian village and often remain after night violating the persons of the women, and citizens allege that those claiming to be in the employ of the Indian Department not only do not seek to prevent such annoyance, but encourage it by clandestinely going to the lodges and by their licentious conduct give reason for Indians to believe that it is for their benefit and use of their women that these Indians are located here, and that these many hangers-on whose sole objects appears to [be to] vie each other in actions of debasement. Since my arrival I have had good reasons to believe many of these charges well founded, and I have now to direct that you will dismiss from the service all persons who have been guilty of cohabiting with their Indian women since their location upon the military reserve.
    No countenance will be given by those in the service of the Indian Department encouraging such licentious and disgusting practices--and agents will cause the arrest of all persons guilty of attempts to gratify their animal passions by taking advantages of the weak and defenseless condition of the Indians, who are made dependent upon and rely for subsistence and protection upon the agent of the government. Should an employee or other white person choose a woman from among these bands and marry her in accordance with the laws of the country, no obstacle will be thrown in the way, provided it be assented to on the part of the band to whom she belongs, but unless by such marriage and the procurement of a certificate in writing from the party authorized by the laws of the country to solemnize matrimony, it will be prohibited by the agent, and the persons attempting to enforce such acts will be arrested as disturbers of the peace and unfit to reside in an Indian country.
    The good morals of a community, the welfare of these Indians, and the peace and safety of all parties demand that those licentious actions should be prohibited, and the energies of the government officials should be exerted in its abrogation, instead of countenancing it by precept and example; no person will be returned in the service found guilty of such practices.
    I am unable to see the necessity of employing more than one person to issue rations and attend to other duties of camp.
I am, sir,
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    N. Olney Esq.
        Indian Agent Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 151.




Empire City, Coos Co. O.T. 20th day of May 1856       
To Genl. Joel Palmer Supt. Ind. Affairs O.T.
Dear Sir
    I am instructed by Captain W. H. Harris, O.V., to inform the Genl. that he would be ready at short notice to furnish an escort of twenty to thirty men for the purpose of escorting the Indians to the Reserve.
    Capt. Harris sends his compliments to the Genl., and as he is informed the Genl. stands in need of an escort in moving the Indians to the Reserve, and is confident that his company can be relied on with as much confidence as any soldiers in the country, he hopes the Genl. will, should any volunteer companies be selected for the duty, accept of and give the preference to his (Capt. W. H. Harris') company, Coos Co. Vols., in the forming of an escort for the above mentioned purpose.
Very respectfully
    Your most obdt. servt.
        Wm. H. Packwood
            1st Sergt. Co. Coos Co. Vols.
To Genl. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs O.T.
        Port Orford
            O.T.
P.S. Please to send word whether the services of the "Co." Coos Co. Vols. will be accepted of or required for the above mentioned service by the return express.
W. H. Packwood
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 201.



Canyonville O.T. May the 20th 1856
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Dr. Sir, I wrote you some time since relative to a small band of Indians in this neighborhood. Since that I have learned that four have
given J. P. Day charge of them. There was six in number in the first place but now there is but four. One died from sickness & the other (a man) a few days since was murdered in cold blood & the others are threatened. Now sir if you want them taken to the reservation in your part of the country I would like to get the contract. My family are at Col. Farris' on the Rickreall & I will start soon after them with a team. I will bring the four to your place or take them to the reserve for one hundred dollars & you bear their expenses or I will bear their expenses & take them for one hundred & fifty dollars. If you conclude to let me have the contract let me know by return mail, as I will [leave] by the first of June for my family.
Yours resp.
    J. T. Boyle
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 219.



Grand Ronde Ind. encampment
    21st May 1856
Sir
    I herewith
enclose requisition for articles required at this agency, which you will please bill as soon as practicable. I shall probably send a team down to Dayton tomorrow or next day as some of the articles are required for immediate use.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your most obt. servt.
            W. W. Raymond
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
To
    Gen. Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Dayton
                O.T.
Requisition
                4   gr. 2     in. screws       3   mortise chisels ½ in.
12   "    1½  "       do.   3      do.         do.    ¾  "
12   "     ¼   "       do. 2 large drawing knives
  "     1    "       do.   1 birch sash plane (wood screw)
6 papers 1½ in. brads 1 ea. ¾ ⅞ in. Hillin auger with bits
6     do.   1¼  "     do. 1 ea. ¾ ⅝ ½ ⅞ ⅜ 1¼ bits
6     do.   1     "     do. 1 keg flooring brads
24 pairs 3½     "   bulls 6 boxes glass 10x14
12    "     3        "      do. 60 window sash 6 light 8x10
12    "     2½     "      do. ¼ ream sandpaper (fine)
1 dozen crosscut saw files 20 pounds chalk
1 cupboard lock 4     do.    Venetian red
1 doz. sheets perforated tin 4 papers each 12 & 16 oz. tacks
500 pounds fine salt pieces India rubber for office
300     do.    coarse do. 1 box wafers
6 pieces office tape 1 gross matches
6 tinner's mallets 6 dozen large envelopes
    I certify that the articles above specified are actually required at this Agency for the benefit of the public service. Note: 48 window sash 6 light 10x14 can be obtained; they would be preferable to these. Glass therefore would not be required.
W. W. Raymond
    Sub-Ind. Agt.
Grand Ronde Indian encampment O.T.
    21st May 1856
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 204.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affrs.
    Dayton, O.T. 21st May 1856
Sir:
    By direction of Joel Palmer, Superintendent--who is now at Port Orford on official business--I herewith enclose contracts entered into with Davidson & Beatty and Rowell & McKune for supplies of beef & flour for Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        C. D. Blanchard
            Clk. in chge. Suptcy.
To
    Charles E. Mix, Esq.
        Actg. Commissioner &c.
            Washington
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 773-774.



Port Orford May 23rd 1856
Sir,
    Your letter of 20th inst., making inquiry whether we would accept of the services of the Coos County volunteers as an escort in removing Indians to the reservation, has been received, and in reply I would state that it is not expected any movement will be made until the war is closed in Southern Oregon, so as to afford U.S. troops not only for an escort but to establish permanently a military post upon the reservation.
    Whilst I thank you, and through you the captain and the members of this company, for their kindness and disinterested offers of aid in carrying out the policy of the government in concentrating the Indian tribes upon a reservation, I feel satisfied that the interests of the settlers would be promoted and the prosperity of the country generally advanced by allowing those who have been called into the volunteer service to return to their various avocations at the earliest moment. There is now a favorable prospect of closing the war, and the number of regular U.S. troops in service will I think be abundantly sufficient to afford protection to the citizens and keep the Indians in proper restraint upon the reservation.
    The Coquille Indians, unless it be fragments of families, are now all upon the military reservation at this place, and from advices just received but little fears need be apprehended from the Indians in your immediate vicinity. I regret, however, to hear that there should be found persons advising those Indians to disobey the instructions of their agent by refusing to join the encampment at Umpqua City. No other construction can well be put upon that refusal but a meddlesome interference by some evil-disposed person whose inconsiderate acts might result in consequences to the community, the end of which cannot be foreseen. It is hoped all persons will give their aid and countenance to enable the agents in the service of the government to carry out their instructions and subserve the interest of the people and the cause of humanity.
I am sir
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To W. H. Harris
    Capt. Comp. Volunteers
        per
            Wm. H. Packwood
                Lieut. Compy. Vol.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 152.




Empire City, Coos Co. O.T. 28th day of May 1856       
To Genl. Joel Palmer Supt. Ind. Affairs O.T.
Dear Sir
    Yours of the 23rd inst., in reply to one from me on the 20th inst. (written by instruction of Capt. Harris) has been received. The captain (W. H. Harris) & his company made acquainted with the Genl.'s reasons for not accepting of the services of the Co., Coos Co. Vols.--the policy of the Genl. in wishing not to remove the Indians until he is fully able to keep them on a reservation by having U.S. troops on the Reserve--the Genl.'s cause for not accepting our services and policy for the removal of the Indians has been properly appreciated both by Capt. W. H. Harris & his company, who have & hold themselves ready to assist the Genl. in his efforts to concentrate the Indians in a reserve, and although our services have not been required as soldiers, as citizens the Genl. will find a hearty support in this, for the impartial and just manner in which the Genl. has administered the Ind. affairs of this O.T. But we do not mean the above to endorse or uphold the acts or the means used by some of the Genl.'s assistants in carrying out the Genl.'s instructions.
    The last clause in the Genl.'s letter alluding to evil-disposed persons was a clause which I did not properly understand. Capt. Harris thinks it best to inquire of the Genl. to whom allusions were made, the nature of the charges &c., for he feels satisfied that no transaction or bad advice has been given to the Indians here. The Genl. will I have no doubt inform me on the subject as from the nature of the clause, above alluded to, I may be one of the persons alluded to. If such should be the case I expect to be allowed the privilege of showing such accusations be false. The Genl. will oblige Capt. Harris by sending in return mail an explanation as to who are the persons alluded to as he conceives it his duty to prevent such advice being given to the Indians & to arrest all such offenders.
I remain very respectfully
    Your most obdt. servt.
        W. H. Packwood
            Sergt. Coos Co. Vols.
To Genl Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs O.T.
        Port Orford, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 212.



Port Orford O.T. May 28th 1856
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Respected Sir
        Not knowing whether I will see you again before your departure from this place on your return north, I embrace this method of communicating with you, my object being to apply for a situation in the Indian Department.
    If you succeed in concluding a treaty you will undoubtedly require the services of several persons on the reservation. Considering that you would prefer persons in whom you can place confidence and who are acquainted with and have the confidence of the Indians, and being certain that the service would be congenial with my taste, I take the liberty to address you on the subject. You are to a certain degree acquainted with my sentiments with regard to the Indians. As to compensation anything reasonable will be satisfactory.
    For character, for honesty, integrity, ability etc. I refer you to Capt. A. J. Smith, U.S.A.
    Hoping that you will give my application a favorable consideration I have the honor to
Remain yours respectfully
    G. H. Abbott
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 392.



Umpqua Sub-Agency
    Umpqua O.T. June 1st 1856
Sir
    Your favor of May 23rd by last express did not come to hand in time to answer by return & I improve this the first opportunity since.
    A portion of the Coos band of Indians yet remain at the Bay. I shall again visit that point & be able to induce them to come to Umpqua, I think, yet have delayed going down immediately in order to permit the excitement to cool off a little inasmuch as there seemed no object in pressing the matter. They can all be collected in a few days & be moved to Umpqua.
    Six canoes came up in the steamer Newport for which transportation I paid $100. It was a big bill for a small affair, yet by having canoes they are enabled to fish & supersede the necessity of purchasing beef, which is no small item.
    Enclosed you will please find a bill of Boyd & Blakely, editors of Umpqua Gazette, amounting to $3375. I was induced to pay the same & took duplicate receipts in your name for the same according to instructions sent from your office to Boyd. The vouchers are subject to your order. Boyd has left for the States; may he have a quick passage & never be induced to return.
    No news of importance by today's mail; business is entirely prostrated in this section. The only question asked is when is the war to end.
    The train for Port Orford passed down yesterday. I hope that you will be able to perfect a treaty with all the tribes below. Should you desire my services at Port Orford in the removal of those Indians I hold myself in readiness. Affairs can be arranged here with Mr. Clark and not materially injure the service in Umpqua Dist. by a few weeks absence. Everything here is quiet & all the tribes are perfectly satisfied & agreeable to any arrangement the Department may desire to make.
    I send by this express a few of the Oregon papers--persons like to see them, often if they contain no news.
    Hoping to see you at Umpqua before you leave the coast,
I remain
    Most respectfully
        Your obt.
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
Gen. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Port Orford
    P.S. I am again forced to say that a remittance would be exceedingly acceptable at this time. There is no money to be obtained in the country & cash is good at par. Thinking you might intercept funds on the steamer, I have been induced to mention the matter.
E.P.D.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 233.




Camp at Big Bend Rogue River
    June 1st 1856
Sir,
    Whilst here yesterday I made inquiry of you whether you would feel justified in delivering into my hands the female adults and children prisoners now in the custody of volunteers under your command, and being answered in the negative I did not feel free to urge such measure. Since you left, it has been a subject of reflection to me, and I therefore bring the matter to your further action.
    The tribes to which those prisoners belong are now in the custody of the troops who have been detailed to escort them to the reservation, and as the husbands of those women are already in custody, no other prisoners can be induced to come in by retaining them in your camp. The officers in the Indian Department, being the legitimate persons to whom the class of persons referred to be surrendered, it might leave you less embarrassed and economize the expenses of the government in their removal by turning them over at this point, that they might all be removed to the reservation together. It has been customary when prisoners have been taken to turn them over to the Indian agents or Superintendent of Indians, not only by officer in command of companies and battalions but by the executive of the Territory, and such will undoubtedly be the result of those in your hands should they be delivered to his excellency George L. Curry. I refer of course to such as are not found guilty of committing capital or other offenses, demanding a hearing before a civil tribunal, or those cleared by court martial.
    The presence of those women and children in your camp, whilst in the enemy's country, cannot but lessen your efficiency in the service, and should an emergency arise by which any in command might feel justified in putting them to death to avoid their escape, as in the event of an attack by hostile tribes as indicated by you in your conversation yesterday, it would seriously militate against the reputation of troops who have responded so nobly to the call of the Governor, and place a weapon in the hands of his enemy. We as a people and a Territory have a reputation to maintain, and as citizen soldiers it behooves all to not sully it by acts the evidence of which may be so entirely complied with [sic]. The credit and applause due you as soldiers and defenders of the rights of our country will be none the less full by surrendering the Indians here than in the Willamette Valley, and should you require it I will give a certificate of the number and character of prisoners delivered over.
I beg a reply as early as convenient
    I have the honor to be obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To Maj. Wm. Latshaw
    Comd. Battalion Oregon Volunteers
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 153.



Roseburg June 2nd / 56
To Geo. L. Curry
    Governor of Oregon
        Respected sir
            Today I will start from this place in company with Mr. Bob Metcalfe and two of old Sam's Indians from the Coast Reservation to the Meadows. I am satisfied that we can make a good treaty with George, Limpy and the Cow Creek Indians and I think all of the Indians in Southern Oregon. I have no doubt but the war is now about to close in this section of the country.
    Should a treaty not be made I wish you would appoint company officers for three or four companies besides Captain Barnes' spy company and notify me immediately. Should anything occur I will inform you of it.
Respectfully your obedient servant
    John K. Lamerick
        Brig. Genl. O.T.
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 3, Document 822.



Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        June 2nd 1856
Sir
    Since I last wrote you nothing has transpired worthy of note. No Indians have been seen or heard of in this valley. I am well satisfied they have fled to the mountains, and are lying in wait endeavoring to see you or someone empowered by you to give them peace. Nothing has been heard of Capt. Smith since my arrival in this valley. If the Capt. was here some efforts could be made to collect the Indians together, but it is useless to do so until there is a proper military force in the valley. As my term of office expires this month, should no one come to relieve me I will leave what public property is in my charge in the care of Jno. Swinden, who will be found at my place of residence, and who will deliver it to any person authorized to receive it. Owing to the inconveniences, and also the dangers of traveling between this valley and the Superintendency, I have determined on taking stage and going by way of San Francisco, at which place I can leave my family until I repair to Dayton to render an account of my stewardship before I leave for the States. I have not yet succeeded in closing the business of this agency, but will try and settle it all before I leave. Some few of the persons to whom the government was indebted have left and those accounts as a matter of course I cannot settle.
Very respectfully
    Your obt.
        Servt.
            G. H. Ambrose
                Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 236.



Janesville Wisconsin
    June 5 1856
Sir
    While at Washington in March last I was kindly permitted by your office to examine correspondence of Mr. Palmer Superintendent Indian Affairs for Oregon with your office wherein the same pertained to myself. And to my surprise I found another "report" from him relating to my conduct as Agent, dated Dayton Dec. 21, 1855. You will better understand why I am surprised when I say that Mr. Palmer arrived at the Indian Reserve on the 1st November, which day & also on the 2nd he pursued his investigation, visiting the Indians & all of the whites on his way up Rogue River to Fort Lane. He also went several miles above the Fort to see the other two employees, two sons of his informant, Mr. Huddleston. He saw them all, returned & stayed at Fort Lane. I was absent when he reached there & had been for a day or two on Indian service, but I also returned the same evening. I found it necessary to go down the river a few miles that night & before I started Mr. Palmer said to me that he desired to have a conversation with me on the subject of my suspension in the morning. I replied that I should return in time; that I was willing to have an interview with him & review the entire subject; provided that it should take [place] in presence of third parties, to which he consented & suggested that Judge Deady & Deputy U.S. Marshal Drew had arrived then with him & could be present, also Captain Smith, commanding officer at the Post. I returned in the morning and the interview took place in presence of these gentlemen. It was a long one, during which everything that had been referred to by him, or his informant, both in that & the Port Orford District [was discussed]. At the close Mr. Palmer said that he had been misled; that there was no truth in any of the statements to my prejudice, & that he took pleasure in reinstating me to the full exercise of my duties which he then did. To which I replied that there was reason why I had a right to doubt his entire sincerity (which he admitted during the interview, though he denied the fact); that if he was not entirely satisfied his duty as a man & as supt. required that I should know it; that I was ready then & there to meet it all with evidence not to be mistaken, or to be doubted; that if he would give me his word of honor as Superintendent & as a gentleman that he had examined all to his satisfaction that I would continue to act. Otherwise that I should cease & devote some time to defending my character & to those, if any, that chose to attempt to cast a shade upon it. And he then & there replied that he had seen all of the citizens who resided near to the Reserve, & the Indians; that he had seen all who bought grass & planted potatoes, Mr. Huddleston's son, also Capt. Smith; that he had investigated it perfectly & that it was all explained to his entire satisfaction.
    With this assurance I continued to act, supposing the subject to be definitely & satisfactorily settled, being with him for a long time after & he giving me no intimation to the contrary. But it seems according to his own statement that he violated this pledge immediately.
    If it was general that officers of government are suspended upon unsupported verbal assertions of one irresponsible man, which was the fact in this case according to his own version it would exhibit credulity to weakness. But after having so done to "reinstate" without knowing whether even such information was true or not develops vacillating imbecility. To state that all was settled & specially request that all remembrance of it be forgotten, for the public good, which he did in presence of "the witnesses" and to receive an affirmative answer. Then to pursue a secret "investigation" & as secretly "report" what he had himself, after investigation, admitted to be untrue, exhibits traits of character that man never gets beneath.
    In March last I submitted a letter, directed to yourself, from M. P. Deady, U.S. Judge in that district, to which I have the honor to ask your special attention. Also [a letter from] Deputy U.S. Marshal Drew dated July 21st 1855, written eight months after Mr. Palmer reinstated me at Fort Lane & six months after this last "report" was dated. In which Judge Deady says & Mr. Drew adopts it, "The Indian Agency in Southern Oregon is within my judicial district. I was passing over the country all of the time holding courts & the facts above stated are within my personal knowledge as of such general notoriety as to be assented to by everyone in the vicinity. I am further satisfied from my own personal knowledge & the universal testimony of the settlers in Southern Oregon that Mr. Culver while in office performed the duties of his office faithfully & efficiently, that the charges preferred against him by the supt. were altogether untrue & his subsequent suspension & removal was without cause."
    I make this quotation because both of these gentlemen were present at "the interview" when I was reinstated, also because they have since continued to hold courts there, & if the facts, as then known, had not proved to be in all respects true that they must have heard at least an intimation of it.
    This matter is sprung upon me here & I am compelled to use the means that chance to be at hand. I will first take up his letter to me dated September 2nd 1854, and then his "report" to you bearing date December 21st 1855 and will be as brief as the case will admit.
    The first information that he speaks of is "that I had early in the spring contracted with Indians residing on Table Rock Reserve (among the number Sam) for the privilege of cutting hay for which I was to pay them $250; again "that during or before the time of cutting I sold the privilege of gathering the hay to one Bruce, reserving for myself the right of cutting as much as I might want, he paying me the same price that I was to have paid the Indians originally." Nothing could be further from the truth. I never spoke to an Indian in Oregon about buying grass from them. During the spring some white persons spoke to the chiefs Jo & Sam about purchasing the grass that would be upon the Reserve & they very properly spoke to me about it. I did not encourage or discourage it, but told them that it was not time to sell it because it had yet to grow. But if there was no food in it for them, which they assured was the fact & which I afterwards learned from personal observation to be true, & if it could be put to no other better use for them, that I saw no objection to their selling it, and at the proper time that I would assist them to make the most of it, if such proved to be for the best. The same conversation was in substance repeated at different times & I believe always in presence of Captain A. J. Smith, commander of the Post, at whose quarters or house the Agency was kept. At first they spoke of having the proceeds added to their annuity, but afterwards concluded to use it for charitable purposes. The proceeds was to be placed in my hands, they to make whatever use of it that they deemed proper, provided only that it should meet my approval. I will here quote the closing paragraph of Captain Smith's affidavit before the investigating committee; a copy of their "report" is on file in your office. "The witness says that the sale of the grass was talked of among the Indians months before it was made & they wished Mr. Culver to effect such a thing if he could when the proper time came. That their annuity might be increased & that Sam was present when it was sold & assisted to promote the transaction & was pleased with its terms." The Chief Jo was sick at the time & hence was not present. As you will observe, I told them that I would do all that was in my power to assist them to sell it, if it proved to be for the best, and as time would permit I gave the subject attention & found that they made no use of it as food or for any other purpose. I was occupied constantly in settling slight difficulties & misunderstandings between the two races & for that purpose found it necessary to be quite a large portion of the time in another part of my district, near Indians that no treaty had ever been made with. And was so engaged when I received a message from Jo saying that "the grass was now full grown & that the white me
n were anxious to buy it now if at all" & requested me to come if possible at once, or if not to send word how much they ought to get for it. If I had examined the subject sufficiently & was able to answer the question "how much they ought to get for it" I should have sent to Captain Smith & requested him to assist them to make a bargain & be a witness to it, to prevent a misunderstanding. I should have felt at liberty to do so because Captain Smith always exerted himself to promote the interests of the Indian Department. I did not deem it prudent to be absent from the post that I was then in, but was not prepared to state how much they ought to get for it, because I did not know the expenses that might be attending its transportation to market, nor its value when there. I was troubled not a little about it because I feared that Jo & Sam would feel that they had reason to complain if I failed to attend to it until it was too late. If I devoted all of my time to bad Indians they would reason that there was not much inducement to be good, and I regretted that any white person had ever spoken to them about it. I finally concluded to start early on the next morning for Jacksonville & Fort Lane, 50 miles distant, to see all who would be likely to want it on my way there & have them meet me & the chiefs upon the Reserve the next day to go over the ground on which a road must be built, also to look at the grass. I found that hay was selling in the streets of Jacksonville at from $18 to $25 according to quality. I saw all of the buyers & reached Fort Lane that night. During that evening I asked Captain Smith if he would like to have the quartermaster buy the grass upon the ground. He said that he had been over most of the ground where a road must be made & that it would cost nearly the value of the hay to deliver it, to say nothing of the price of the grass upon ground or the cost of cutting it. On the next morning I went over the river with Sam & found Mr. Frisby & Mr. Bruce (the other buyers had been upon the ground in my absence). Mr. Frisby had looked at the grass before & duly looked at the chance for a road, when he left saying that the road would cost too much & that he was not in [the] market. I examined the whole with Mr. Bruce & Sam. I estimated the amount of hay that could be cut to advantage, besides what was wanted for Indian stock, at 100 tons. Mr. Bruce & others who examined it thought there was about that amount. At last $250 was agreed upon by Sam & Mr. Bruce, with my advice & concurrence, deeming it all that any person could afford to pay for it. In cultivated meadow lands when the bottom is smooth & the grass stands even upon the ground, it is a fair day's work for a man to cut & put up into bunches or cocks one ton of hay per day; most of this ground was quite uneven. Forty or fifty tons of this stood in a body & it was from this that I reserved what was needed for the Indian Department; the rest was scattered about here & there in patches containing from one to four or five tons. On account of the unevenness of the ground & the grass being scattered in such small patches a man could not do more than two thirds as much as he otherwise could. Labor was worth $5 per day, board included. I do not think that a single ton was put up for less than six dollars. A team & driver was worth from 10 to 12 dollars per day. As this must be hauled over a mountain & through Rogue River more teams was required than ordinary, but say $10 per day. It was a fair day's work for an ox team, & no other could be used to draw, one load per day. On a few occasions two loads per day were drawn, as Mr. Bruce has since told me, but it occupied a part of the night. Say ten dollars for hauling & I know that none was or could be done for less. A grindstone was worth $20 a scythe $10 each & all incidental expenses in proportion. How much it did cost them to make the road I am not informed but know that it required great labor, which I saw them bestowing from time to time upon it. I do not see how the actual cost could have been less than from 22 to 25 dollars delivered at the edge of the Reserve where Fort Lane is. And not less than $30 per ton delivered at Jacksonville. The foregoing facts are what I had before me when I advised the chief to sell & are what I estimated its value from. It is true, as Mr. Palmer says, that the contract price between the quartermaster & Mr. Bruce was $32.50 but he omits to mention that it was considered too high by that officer & that in consequence of the high price they only took half of the amount that they advertised for & wanted, and that they determined to limit the horses to half rations unless the rest could be obtained on more reasonable terms. In less than ten days after, they purchased 50 tons more at $25 per ton, which was drawn down from towards Jacksonville. This was all within Mr. Palmer's knowledge & he ought to have mentioned it, because without it an impression is conveyed that is entirely untrue. As I have before remarked we rode over the ground. I assisted to make the best sale of it that I could, after which I returned to Fort Lane, took tea & after dark rode 30 miles towards the place that I had left the day previous, because I did not deem it prudent to be longer away from there at that time. There were Indians in the mountains near there who really belonged in California & who came over to commit depredations upon the whites in hopes to exasperate them until they would take vengeance upon friendly Oregon Indians & in retaliation the Oregon Indians would commit acts of violence; one act would bring on another until both being exasperated war would follow. It was easy to prevent such things taking place if it received a little attention at once, but next to impossible to avert the consequences after it was well going. The California Indians would be the only gainers because they would murder or rob & run horses to where there was peace & where they could enjoy their booty. It was for such reasons that I found it necessary to be absent from the vicinity of the Reserve so large a share of the time. And to show that Mr. Palmer knew of "the other duties" that required the constant attention of the Agent & precluded the possibility of his bestowing daily personal attention to potato planting I will quote what he says in the latter part of this same letter. "The critical time too at which such an affair should take place, when the interest caution & vigilance on the part of the Agent is required to prevent the breaking out of another Indian war which must result in their extermination renders it the more to be regretted." I was in this manner kept in distant parts of my district most of the time. As soon as I reached home on one occasion my interpreter who I had left at home & he was a son of Chief Jo & a nephew of Chief Sam told me that Sam had been scaring Mr. Bruce; that he had told him unless he gave him something that those bunches of hay might take fire some night at the same time assigning as a reason that there was food in it for Indians, which was the reason why he ought to have the payment. And the young Indian laughed heartily to think how Sam could have the assurance to say that Indians eat grass, for there is not a seed upon any that is one quarter heavy enough to mow. I asked the boy why he did not go & make known to his father Jo, the principal chief, what Sam was doing & he replied that his father was much worse [in health] & was not able to take mush; that his friends did not wish anything of an exciting or business nature to be said to him on account of his delicate situation, which he said that Sam very well knew or he would not have dared to attempt such a thing. In the morning I went over to Sam's house & while on my way there I met a brother of chiefs Jo & Sam & next to them in authority. He told me that one day when a large number of Indians were collected just after a hunt, that they were having a gay time together & Sam proposed to bet that he could scare Bruce & make him let him have a horse or mule, if the rest of the Indians would agree to keep still. They asked him how he would do it but he would not tell them. The wager was made & the Indians agreed to keep still. Soon after this Sam went to Mr. Bruce & represented that their bunches of hay might be burned some night unless he gave to him a certain mule. In short that he induced him to believe that the only way that the hay, cut & bunched up, could be rendered safe was to give him the mule saddle & bridle. I saw Mr. Bruce & his representation was the same as above represented, except that Sam first suggested that some flour would have the desired effect & that he afterwards preferred the mule. I next saw Sam; he stated that it was easy enough to get the mule out of Bruce, for the dry grass was upon the ground & any boy could put fire to it in the night & that he frightened him to it in a short time. He seemed to look upon it as so much clear gain & was surprised when he saw that I did not approve of it. For he said that if an Indian gained by it he did not see why I should not approve of it. I explained to him why it was not right. One of the first things that I tried to impress upon them as necessary was that whenever they desired to make a bargain with whites to consult me if possible (the laws prohibiting a general barter between whites & Indians is a dead letter in Oregon), if not, to consider the matter well before completing it, but not to think of receding or deviating from the bargain when once made because it would lead to disputes; that in this instance he & his brother had talked about & thought of it for months & long enough to make up their minds; that he had made a fair bargain by & with the best advice that I was able to give him; that his honor was at stake as a chief; that in many instances he had rebuked his people for doing the same thing, but that he could not expect his people to abandon their old Indian practices of "backing out" unless he by example showed his sincerity. That he had requested me [to] assist him to make the most of it which I had done with pleasure; that it rendered me awkward, for after my assisting them, & on account of my profession I might & very justly be censured; that if the Indians generally in the district should pursue such a course, one moon could not pass without finding us in another war; that when I first came among them there was said to be many whites that were sworn to kill him on account of his past supposed bad conduct & that he early applied to me to disabuse the minds of whites on the subject & give them the strongest assurances of his good conduct in future; that I had taken great trouble to cause it to be generally so understood & that he could see that he was now treated by them as a friend; that such a course was not calculated to confirm their good impression of him. He expressed to me regret for what he had done in the strongest possible terms, stating that he did not properly consider it or its effects, only acting upon the principle that whatever an Indian could get out of a white man was all right. He desired me to tell him how he could make proper amends to Bruce, but he stated that he had exchanged the mule for a horse with a traveler, or he would return it. I showed him how he had not got a horse that was in value equal to the mule, & that it was universally the case when improper means were used to obtain property that it resulted in no gain in the end. He said the he was willing to make all amends that was within his power & from his future conduct I believe that he was entirely sincere. I told him that I was glad to hear him express such sentiments, & that when I could get time we would talk of the matter more fully & see what might & could be done to promote entire justice to all concerned.
    Mr. Palmer states that while the men were hauling hay they were stopped by Sam "on account of dissatisfaction growing out of the hay cutting." Mr. Palmer knows what the facts are, which I will repeat. Some three weeks after all of the cutting was done & it required only a day or two more to complete the hauling, this chief Sam & some members of his own band had a serious altercation in which three or four were cut with knives & one of Sam's horses shot dead. On the same day Sam went over to the Fort & when [he] was there he met the men & teams going after hay. He told them what had happened & advised them not to go over there that day & gave as a reason that the fellows were then excited & might shoot at them or anyone else
that came in their way, but that he would have it all quiet by the next morning. He stated that he did not think the fellows would shoot, but that they might do so & the safest way was to keep away for the time. The men followed his suggestion. This trouble among themselves grew out of domestic affairs & had no connection with any other matter. You will observe in Captain Smith's affidavit that he says "he never knew of any excitement among the Indians on account of the hay." This excitement he knows all about & he was the first to tell me of it on my return.
    Mr. Palmer then goes on to say that if upon learning that the meadow lands upon the Reserve could be made to yield a
revenue warranting its cutting & hauling to market instead of being seized as a matter of speculation by the Agent or other persons through hire, it should have been secured & the whole proceeds applied to the use & benefit of the Indian; that then three men (the Huddlestons) were employed to labor for the Reserve for their benefit. And if during the proper season their labor could be usefully turned to securing hay upon which to subsist the teams & other stock belonging to the Indians or for sale, that it was well so to employ them, but in such a case the hay designed for their use should have been left on the Reserve & the proceeds of that sold employed for their benefit.
    The "three men" were so employed during the whole haying season & as long as Bruce was cutting. To show how much the Indians would have made if I had adopted the course that Mr. Palmer says would have been right I will state in figures what my returns show. The three men were employed so from the 10th to the 30th June at the rate of $200 per month; for their labor 20 days amounts to 133 33/100 dollars which does not include the food consumed by them during the time or the cost of implements. Two of them were engaged 25 days hauling it to Fort Lane at $65 per month each $108.33. The use of oxen & wagons (at half price) $5 per day $125 total $366.66 as before observed, not to take into account the food consumed by them or any other expense. Mr. Palmer afterwards states that there was not more than 7 or 8 tons, well, say eight tons, which makes the cost per ton $45.33 as before
remarked, not to take into account the food consumed, or any other incidental expenses. I do not introduce anything that these Huddlestons did or said because it is good evidence, on the contrary it is of the most worthless kind, but I may be justified in using it to disprove what Mr. Palmer states when they are as satisfactory a standard for him.
    From the fact that war
existed in that district when I went there, & the state of things that has since followed, you will readily understand why the Agent was so occupied in endeavors to keep peace as not to be able to devote only a chance moment now & then to these three laboring men. Though I would call your attention to the fact that Mr. Palmer did not discover that the employees lacked for tools, seed, provisions or any other thing necessary for their work & I am sure that if he had he would not have failed to mention it. I was there often enough to see what was required & always saw that it was there; they did not lack for anything except a disposition to do their duty. When I was there they represented to me that they had cut more than afterwards proved to be true. They pointed to some that had been cut by Mr. Bruce.
    Mr. Palmer says that "the hay intended to keep the cattle should have been left upon the Reserve." Generally in Oregon cattle do not need hay in the winter, though it occurs once in 3 or 4 years that hay is required & a large number of cattle die at each time for want of hay or
straw during two or three weeks that snow remains upon the ground. A portion of this hay I intended for such a contingency if it should arise. I intended up to about the time that the hauling was commenced to have enough for this purpose on the other side of the river. But at that time I became convinced that no funds would reach that Agency in time to put up any buildings upon the Reserve & if so no one could be there to feed the hay to the cattle, because the river is so high that it cannot be forded during the entire winter & to go around to the nearest ferry then running would not be less than 25 miles to it. If snow should fall & the cattle require to be fed I could have them drove around & fed until it was not further necessary & then send them back. I adopted it as a matter of necessity, and no funds did arrive & no buildings were erected.
    Next he says that "rails were drawn away by settlers & appropriated to their own use." On receipt of his communication I examined the matter closely & found that none had been disturbed.
    Then he says that the remaining rails lay rotting on the ground while the crops remained unenclosed. There was no crops except potatoes, there was no stock near except cattle & horses, which would not injure them. Since the first work was done upon that Reserve I willingly advanced all of the money that was actually necessary to get in those crops, believing as I did that they would be of great service to me in keeping peace during that summer, for when the treaty was made with them Mr. Palmer
sacredly promised that it should be done. And I believed that it would be the means of keeping many of the feeble ones from starving during the next winter. Another reason why I did not cause these men to draw & lay up the rails around those crops was that they were so shiftless & slow that their wages would amount to so much while they were engaged in it that I could not certify that the amount was correct & just. But if they had been worthy men my private means would not admit of my advancing money to support them longer than was absolutely necessary.
    Again he says, "It was expected that as soon as the season had passed for putting in spring crops they (the Huddlestons) would be engaged in hauling rails for enclosing them, in erecting suitable buildings & in preparing ground for wheat." I will here quote from the latter part of this same letter, he says, "The great length of time intervening between the date of treaty & its ratification & the absence of funds to carry into effect its stipulations naturally leads them to question our sincerity." It is true that it was expected all of these things would take place, though he omits to mention another thing that was "expected," the means with which to do it. And when he was writing it he knew that by my own money & exertions I succeeded in fulfilling all agreements that were directly promised up to that time. In answer to what he "expected," that suitable buildings would be erected, I hardly know what language is proper. He knew that there was nothing in my hands to do it with of course. The taste exhibited by such soaring expectations you will appreciate & I will pass it without comment.
    He also "expected," it seems, that ground would be prepared for wheat as soon as the spring work was done. I am safe in saying that such a thing as breaking up "good wheat land" in the months of July, August & September never did & never can take place in Oregon because the ground is so dry & hard as to render it always entirely impossible at that season of the year.
    He next refers to Lewis the interpreter who laid under a tree two weeks during his sickness & died there. Captain Smith & others who testified before the "committee" state that he was always well cared for. He was sick several weeks. In the early of it & subsequently I urged him to let Dr. Crane the U.S. surgeon at the Fort give him medicine, but he always objected, saying that white doctors know how to cure white people but did not know how to cure Indians. He insisted upon having Indian doctors & while I found that he was not willing to take medicine I sent for such Indian doctors as he preferred to have. The Indians always sleep in the open air in summer & he did so as a matter of choice. During his sickness I did all for him & his comfort that it was in my power to do.
    Again he says another reason for suspecting my correctness & fidelity as Agent is my loose manner of discharging the duties as Sub Agent at Port Orford. This it never had "but lately come to his knowledge," he says. "It appears that while Sub Agent at Port Orford he had a gold claim at or near that place on which he &
Chilliman, his interpreter, an Indian, were much of their time employed, he (Culver) securing the profits of their joint labor, both at the same time drawing salaries from the United States." This purports to be the result of an investigation, because he says that it but lately came to his knowledge. I entered upon duty in that district on the 5th day of August 1852. In the last days of April 1853 some beach mines were discovered. They were novel in their character & different from any that had ever been discovered. The particles were so fine that it was a question whether they could be saved. As an experiment I placed a small machine on the beach immediately in front of my office & about 4 or 5 rods from it. At times I put sand into it & my interpreter did the same when he pleased. I found that the fine & in part invisible particles were intermixed in much of the beach sand & that a considerable portion of it could be saved. By reference to my annual report for 1853 you will find that I refer to it. As before remarked, the mines were discovered in the last days of April. I left the district in the early part of July following, only a little more than two months after they were first discovered & I let another person have my machine on the 14 June. I am not able to account for the discoveries that Mr. Palmer makes in his "investigations," & will pass this without comment.
    Again he says that the interpreter Chilliman had not received any of his pay although he had
signed receipts. I had already showed this to be untrue which Mr. Palmer afterwards admitted before the three witnesses. This interpreter had not a cent when he went there, which he admits. Board was $10 per week. I paid for his while I boarded & when I kept house I only charged him $3 per week for himself & $3 per week for his wife. I had showed to him that what they actually consumed cost more than I charged them & the receipted store bills against him & cash amounted to about $40 more than his pay. It was true that the money was not usually paid to him in presence of the witnesses because he had already waived it, which he acknowledged when he signed the receipts.
    I will now take up his "report" to you bearing date Dayton December 21, 1854 & his letter enclosing it dated next day. In the latter he states that he did reinstate me &
expresses regret therefor. He regrets it because in consequence of his strong desire to find me innocent that he gave undue weight to the statements of those with whom he conversed & the report of the investigating committee which he says "was gotten up at the instance of Mr. Culver." The manner in which Mr. Palmer speaks of this investigating committee would suggest the question whether it was not a packed arrangement & I will mention who the persons are. Gen. J. F. Miller, chairman, was a member of the preceding Legislature, was appointed by Mr. Palmer to act as Special Agent in my place while I was suspended & is now quartermaster gen. of the Oregon Volunteers. Thomas Pyle was sheriff of Jackson County. Lycurgus Jackson was clerk of the United States District Court. S. H. Taylor was postmaster at Jacksonville & George H. Ambrose is the gentleman that was appointed by the President to succeed me. It would have been in good taste if Mr. Palmer had refrained from stating how anxious he was to find me innocent, but allowed his actions to indicate it.
    Mr. Palmer in his "report" then goes on to say, in substance (then in so much repetition that it is unnecessary to repeat answers to the same thing though he repeats the expression); that he Palmer inquired of persons presumed to be acquainted with the facts who almost unanimously declared their conviction of the correctness & efficiency of "Mr. Culver" in the discharge of his duties; that these considerations & the
respectability of the investigating committee induced him to give credence to their version of matters; that he directed Mr. Gary, his secretary, to inform you that he was unable to obtain positive evidence to sustain the charges. The idea which he evidently intends to convey is that though there was some kind of evidence to sustain them, that he could not get any that was positive.
    In the commencement of this communication I stated as a fact, within my knowledge which Mr. Palmer admitted in presence of the "three parties present" when he reinstated me, that he did before he reinstated me see & converse with every man that ever cut grass upon that Reserve; that he did see every man that bought hay; that he did see every person that planted potatoes; that he had seen the two sons of his informant (Huddleston) who were also employees with their father & dismissed
for the same reason; that he had seen all who knew anything of the facts. And I know that he knew as much of the material facts as he ever did afterwards. He says that his secretary made the statement a little too strong, but he himself says that he "was unable to obtain positive evidence to sustain the charges." Is it possible that he could not ascertain that 50 tons of this hay was sold for 32.50 dollars per ton, & if he did not ascertain that it cost more than $12 per ton to cut & transport it that it must have been a fraud? Is it possible that if $45 per acre was paid for a crop of potatoes which ought not to have cost more than $20 per acre that he could not find evidence to sustain the charges? If it was a fact that fences & Agency buildings ought & could have been built & nothing [was] done towards it that he could not ascertain the fact? If it was necessary that the Agent should go upon the Reserve to reside, under a tree, for there was not any other place, could he not find evidence of the fact. If wheat ground could have been broken up during the dry season could he not ascertain that fact. If part of the hay, as he said, ought under the circumstances to have been left on the Reserve could he not have learned that it was not. All of these things are of a general nature & the idea that positive evidence concerning them could not be obtained at any time is an insult to reason. One of two things must be true, either he failed to keep the money back & allowed those Indians to be swindled, or he has prostituted his official position to utter official falsehoods to gratify private spleen. He cannot say that he did it, while he was laboring so hard to believe me innocent, "on account of the universal testimony of the citizens & the report of the committee" because he did not pay me until the 14 December 1854, only seven days before this report was written.
    The contract for putting in potatoes Mr. Palmer thinks must have been a swindle. He does not remember whether he knew how much the contract price was for those that were being put in when he was there in April or not. I fear that he does not remember some I remember distinctly that he did know all about it; that he & myself made an estimate to see which would be the cheapest, those put in at the contract price or those to be put in by the team & then were to be left by him & we both agreed that it would cost about $45 per acre either way. But suppose that he did forget all about that estimate, during the before mentioned interview, in presence of the third parties. I showed him how it must cost about that amount per acre & he admitted it to be correct. I will now repeat that estimate. When Mr. Palmer was there in April he purchased about 100 bushels [of] potatoes & issued them to the Indians; he paid two dollars per bushel in cash & sent his own team after them. I mention this to show the price of potatoes. This took place about one week after I made the first contract & about ten days before I made the last one; $2.50 was the common cash price for potatoes delivered within a reasonable distance. Ten bushels of seed was planted upon an acre, which would make a cost of $25. The common price for breaking (plowing) was $12 per acre, which makes $37. It requires one man to drop the seed in the furrow at $5 per acre makes $42, then the ground was harrowed not less than five times over which certainly could not be done for less than $3 per acre. These prices were the
ruling ones at the time. I verily believe that the contractors did not make more than fair wages for themselves & teams while employed on the work. And in this connection I will remark that the potatoes put in by the three men that Mr. Palmer left for that purpose (Huddlestons) cost, taking into account only the wages of the men, provisions consumed by them while engaged on the work and planted & repairs on plow $51.69 per acre, to say nothing of the cost or use of their yokes of oxen, yokes, chains, plows, wagon, horse (to hunt cattle) or one item of food, flour, that was consumed by the men while they were at work. These are facts that I know Mr. Palmer was aware of because I explained it to him in presence of "the witnesses" & my quarterly return shows it. But I do not mention it as proof because it is good as against any except Mr. Palmer & his informant. These crops that were put in by the three "informants" cost too much & it was one of the reasons why I dismissed them.
    He also says that he directed me to plant 30 or 40 acres. He directed me to plant 40  or 50 acres, & some corn, peas, pumpkins &c. As I explained to him at the
proper time I could not plant anything besides potatoes & as he made a subsequent arrangement with an additional band to come upon the Reserve I thought best to be sure & not fall short of the 50 acres, but come as near as I could to it. By the first contract & the one upon which they were at work when Mr. Palmer was there, the parties were to put in 25 or 30 acres, but in a few days I saw that they would not be able to comply in amount. I told them so, & by consent I let to another person a part of this amount.
    Again he says that he left with me oxen, plows
&c. and with his approbation that I employed three men to work. I did not employ the men (Huddlestons) nor did I ever speak to them upon the subject until they were actually employed by Mr. Palmer & I [was] notified of the fact by him. They had been in his employ for months & came there in his employ, for some reason that I know now, but did not know then, he preferred to leave them under my charge which he did.
    Referring to the crops he says that "
some of the expense incurred on account of them has been paid." This statement is not true & I ask you to note the last that now had been paid except those three Huddlestons. And they were paid in full before our dollars was ever received by me for services as Agent in that district or for any other purpose in that district & while he was representing to me that no funds were received from Washington. When he says then that none of the expense has been paid it is not correct. The Huddlestons were paid. And the amount going to them is the only item that is in the least doubtful. Mr. Palmer took funds that were appropriated for other purposes & paid them, for he says that no funds had arrived "applicable to their payment."
    Again he says that he suggested to me the importance of dividing the potato crop among the several bands, & that I replied saying that I had not time to do so, nor did I regard it as my business not being employed as farmer. And he says that I made the same answer to the inquiry why I had not removed to & resided upon the Reserve. Whether I was employed as farmer or not I certainly performed the duties of one, when other & more important duties did not require my attention. Mr. Palmer did not make such reference to the subject in my presence. I referred to it in our first interview in presence of "the witnesses" & he then admitted its utter absurdity. The potatoes were not large enough to use or divide until after he arrived then. When he mentioned his "expectation" that I would remove to the Reserve in his first communication I thought he must be laboring under a strange, but honest, misapprehension but after he admitted before the witnesses that it was absurd to express it; that in all respects my location at the Fort was as good even if there was Agency buildings, but as there were none it was the very best place then to make the allusion which he does to it in this last "report." Much charity is required to believe that his is an honest misapprehension. The Military Reserve lay between the Indian Reserve & the principal white settlements & practically it was a part of the Indian Reserve. It was incomparably better than for the Agent to reside in the middle of the Reserve because both Indians & whites could always have access to him, all of which he admitted at "the interview." And please note the fact that my successor has not resided upon the Reserve since. But in justice to him I will say that he is located much better than
as though he was; he is as I was on the border between the two, about one mile from the Fort.
    The rails he refers to, & says that he could find many. As he went in search of them without my knowledge &
concealed the fact that he could not find them from me it cannot be expected that I would show him where they were, though if he had expressed such a desire I would have done so.
    He then refers to some roads that leads to timbered land on the Reserve, as he says, on which some claimants among the number Mr. Bruce had hauled rails from said timbered land. Mr. Bruce & several other persons had land claims that joined the Reserve. They made &
drew rails from the mountains that lay at the north of them. I do not think that any of these persons cut & made rails on land included in the limits of the Reserve. But as the boundary lines had never been run out I cannot state that I know it to be a fact. I can state though that there is timber enough on the same mountains surrounding the valley portion of the Reserve to fence it into acre lots & not use one quarter of it.
    He then says--"I visited them both, they acknowledged the fact & promised to pay a fair valuation for the timber." They told me that Mr. Palmer said that he thought they had cut some upon the Reserve & that they told him in case it is so proved they were willing to pay a fair valuation therefor, but that they did not think that it was.
    Again he says, "In a subsequent conversation with Mr. Culver on this subject he alleged entire ignorance of the matter although a frequent visitor at Mr. Bruce's." If Mr. Palmer means to be understood that I alleged ignorance of the fact that claimants had cut timber in the mountains near to the Reserve & their claims it is not true. When I was with him one day he asked me if I did not think that the claimants adjoining the Reserve had cut some timber over the line. I told him that I thought not, though it had never been surveyed & hence I could not know, but that I went to the break in Table Rock, the landmark, & sighted through the best that I could & made the line some distance west of them.
    I was never at Mr. Bruce's house until the principal chief Jo was very sick, when Mr. Bruce was kind enough to take him into his house & show him great attention, for which I felt thankful. I visited the chief then several times & once took Dr. Crane the surgeon at the Post over to see him. I mention this because the particular manner in which Mr. Palmer mentions that "I was a frequent visitor at his house" might lead to a sorry impression when taken in connection with the fact that he bought the grass. I will here state that Mr. Bruce's character in that country stands high & Mr. Palmer does not impeach it there.
    He again refers to grass & says--In passing along the border of the Reserve I found that the grass had been cut at various points by the neighboring citizens. This was done by permission of Mr. Culver. When the persons cutting this grass were interrogated by the Indians as to their authority they were told that they were authorized by the Agent & when they inquired of him why they cut their grass he explained that he did not know (in short) giving the Indians no satisfaction whether they were to be paid at all. This last information I obtained from Mary daughter of the head chief & a very influential person in the tribe. Then Mr. Palmer goes on to state what I said when questioned about it by him & the Indians. "Mr. Culver when interrogated as to the privilege granted to settlers along the river to cut hay on the Reserve & as to the consideration received he replied that Chief Jo & his family had been sick a long time & that some people had assisted them, that a part would be applied for this service & that the balance would be paid to them this winter. On my suggesting that a knowledge of the time & manner of payment would have quieted the apprehensions of the Indians he replied that no trouble existed on that account, that Sam desired all for himself & did not care for others, but Jo wished it applied to help the aged & infirm this winter, but from Jo's statement to my interpreter he was as ignorant of its application as others, for he had sent directly to Mr. Culver to learn whether he had given these persons permission to cut grass & that Mr. Culver had refused to give him any information about the matter. This is Indian testimony but I
nevertheless believe it to be true."
    I will here say in justice to Mr. Palmer that any statements that were made to him by the Chief Jo or his daughter Mary can be
relied upon and true. Their characters for truth & veracity when they are all personally known will not compare unfavorably with his own.
    The grass that he refers to as having been cut by persons residing on the border of the Reserve was along the margin of Rogue River & was on the south side of the Reserve. This has no connection with the grass cut by Bruce, the latter being back of the two Table Mountains. The level ground between Rogue River & the base of the mountains below Table Rock, or mountain, from there to Evans Creek 12 miles is from 10 to 80 rods wide. On our side the whites are settled & on the other the Indians are. In several places between these points little streams flow down from the mountains & along the margin of these little streams some grass grows that is large enough to cut being from ½ to 4 tons in a place. There was a general time of sickness among the Indians; there was hardly a wigwam in the eastern distance that had not in it more or less that were sick. As I was passing down the river one day the Indians asked me if they might sell the grass to the whites who lived opposite & get in payment such things as would relieve & be a comfort to the sick. Of course I told them that they might do so. And as I passed along down I took occasion to [call] on those white persons & said to them that if they could buy it of the Indians that they might do so & pay them in such things as were
needed for the sick, provided: that the question as to whether the Indians had received sufficient compensation should ultimately be left to me. That when they were all through I would estimate the value of the grass cut & compare it with the amount paid, an account of which they were to keep & the Indians do the same with sticks. In this way every Indian family along the line, except two, received flour, rice, crackers, tea &c. in proportion to their sick. At the proper time I estimated the value of grass cut & the compensation paid for it. Those that had not paid enough were so informed & paid more. It is just to say that all of the whites paid full value & some of them more. And I state positively of my own knowledge that every Indian & white person who resided along that stream know the facts as above mentioned. Though Mr. Palmer in "his investigation" did not discover it. The chief Jo after leaving Mr. Bruce's was then he and his family sick & every day for a long time he received assistance which was on account of this grass; his daughter "Mary" went after most of it & when she did not she sent for it. Enclosed is a paper marked A. It is the items that were furnished to the chief's family & by them in part distributed to sick families near them. This is the only amount exceeding four tons in a place. The rest I examined at the time, the amount cut & the value paid, & did nothing only to see that it was equal. This being a larger amount & longer being paid I preserved the item & it is particularly to the point because these items were all furnished to Jo & Mary, of whom Mr. Palmer so particularly inquires. Another paper marked B. explains itself. It shows what use was made of the $100 that was paid into my hands by Mr. Bruce, before referred to. The certificate to each is made by citizens who reside nearest to this point. Mr. Palmer is furnished with a duplicate of both of these papers.
    He refers quite often to the seed that was destroyed by Mr. Bruce. I was not surprised at his mistake in the first instance, because he did not know anything about it & could easily be misled. But when he wrote this last "report" he did know that they never gathered seed from this ground. There is grass that grows on the side of the mountains in stands of from 10 to 30 spears of grass which are unusually heavily laden with seed. These stools stand from 4 to 8 feet apart, but the squaws can walk from one stool of grass to another & gather the seed rapidly. But they do not gather seed from any grass that grows on the east bottom when it is heavy enough to mow. And to show that there is not a mistake in this matter I will further add that in an hour after the last hay was removed the Indians set fire to all of the grass on the bottom land. They did so in order that they could see where certain roots grow on this cut land that they used for food. Seed cannot be gathered until grass is ripe. The moment this grass was ripe they burned it up, which they always do.
    Again he says, "It seems singular to me that Mr. Culver should be so resolved to screw [sic] Bruce & so earnestly insist that the mule saddle & bridle should be regarded as in part payment of the original contract price, which had been arranged by himself while the whole matter in regard to the mule was between Bruce & the chief without Culver's concurrence & wholly another bargain." I never spoke with Mr. Palmer on this subject but twice up to the date of that "report." The first time was in presence of the witnesses in our first meeting & once afterwards when we were riding together he referred to it & we talked some upon the subject. When he represents that I insisted that the mule should be regarded in part payment &c. or insisted upon anything in the matter he proves that his is a fruitful memory. On this occasion after referring to the fact that Mr. Bruce
declined to pay any more because as he said the mule was extorted from him, I observed to him that the whole subject had of course become a delicate one to me, and asked him if he was willing to relieve me of it & settle it himself & he consented to do so, at the same time he requested me to give him the result of my investigation of the subject which I did. It is not necessary here to repeat it because it does not differ from what is detailed in the early part of this communication; I will only refer here to one point. I learned in my examination of it from Chief Sam's Indians & from the chief himself that he tried to make Bruce believe that his bunches of hay would be burned unless he went & bought the mule for him. The chief told me that he intended to frighten him into it & that he succeeded in doing it. Mr. Palmer asked me if I had ever told Mr. Bruce what admissions the chief or his people had made to me. I answered that I had not. He then asked me if I thought he would be able to make the extortion appear by any other evidence than mine, if suit should be brought. I answered that I thought he could but did not know. He then asked me if in case I should be placed upon the witness stand & requested to state all that I knew about it if I should repeat what admission the chief & his men had made to me. I told him that in such a case I should state all that was within my knowledge. He said that it would cause them to lose the $150. I told Mr. Palmer that if that or any other sum claimed for Indians depended upon my stating one part of a fact & suppressing the others that they never would realize it. He then asked me what I thought was morally right in the premises & I said that if the chief did extort & his men did wink at it that it ought to be deducted from the $250. I told him that to encourage such double dealing would bring war upon that country in an incredible short span of time.
    Again he says that Mr. Brownlee called upon me several times to buy the grass but that I put him off agreeing to let him know before it was sold, but did not &c. I take it that Mr. Palmer obtained this information from Mr. Brownlee
, and it is only necessary for me to state that he was a notorious bad character & in a few days after Mr. Palmer obtained his information his informant left Southern Oregon for parts unknown, at the same time he was accused of an offense against the law. He did not apply to me to purchase the grass.
    Mr. Palmer refers to a letter from Mr. Taylor to show that the committee did not report the evidence correctly. It appears in Mr. Davis' statement that "they went to the Indians to purchase what they wanted up to 100 tons." He says that Mr. Bruce states that he bought it all. The mistake is a natural one. Mr. Bruce did buy all that was back of the two Table Rocks, except what was wanted for the Indian Department, and the amount sold to him was estimated at about 100 tons, which he was to have, more or less. This did not include all on the Reserve, but all within given points "back of the Table Rocks" or "the 100 tons more or less." It was during that investigation before the committee ofttimes referred to as "the 100 tons more or less" than in any other manner, hence the expression as it appears.
    He says that Bruce admitted that there was 300 or 400 tons that might have been cut. I cannot positively assert that Mr. Bruce did not so say, but I know that no such amount was there to cut. Mr. Brown could have gathered some more than he did, how much I cannot say. The best grass was in the west & low places & either way on the ground because higher the grass was lighter. I picked out the best places for the employees & then he mowed the rest, the best places first & it continued getting poorer & poorer.
    He says that he made arrangements to induce all of the bands to reside on the Reserve &c. they were collected & brought to the Reserve and arrangements made for the Agent to reside among them (what the arrangements were he don't specify). That instead of aiding to plant crops I gave them (Indians) permits to return to their old haunts; that instead of confining my distribution of flour according to instructions to those engaged at work that I gave it out promiscuously & without regard even to those residing on the Reserve. He does not state what arrangements he made to induce all of the Indians [to] remove to the Reserve. I do not know that he made any. The Indians in that district could not sustain life if confined in the limits of the Reserve; there was not food sufficient. The only way that it could be done was to supply them in part & they could obtain the rest. This must be done before they could be brought there in mass. I had a standing arrangement with those Indians that if any one band of them, or a band of California Indians, came into the district & were hostile that on notice from me at any moment they would all travel night & day until they reached the Reserve. The reason was that if they remained outside that they would become confounded with the hostile ones. In the early part of April 1854 a band [of] mostly California Indians under Tipsey (he speaks of it) did come over & try to involve the two races in another war, but the Indians of my district were true to their agreement & on notice from me were upon the Reserve in an incredible short span of time & before the hostile band could manage to involve them. They all came except a part of two small [bands]; they were detained by sickness & were in a condition that rendered it impossible. It was three or four days after I gave this notice to them to collect that Mr. Palmer arrived there. He did not collect them or know that they were being collected until he reached there & then the idea that they could sustain themselves for any length of time was not even advanced, but it was understood that until this band could be driven out or subdued that they must be fed at the expense of the Indian Department & while he was there only a few days he bought several loads of potatoes & issued them to the Indians as subsistence (at $2 per. I refer to this to show that it was necessary & that he knew it to be so. I issued some flour to the Indians "promiscuously" as he says, because if they were not helped in that way five times the force that was there in that country could not have compelled them to remain; because they would have starved to death if they were not so helped & had compelled to remain; because if they did not remain until it was settled they must become involved with the rest & a general war follow; because humanity, the public good, policy & every worthy consideration required they should be kept from starving. I did give some of them permits to leave there temporarily on the terms stated because I had nothing to issue to them & they must either starve or run away unless I did so, but not one of them left until Tipsey & his band was disposed of. When Mr. Palmer made that "report" he knew that it was necessary to grant them permits. And to show that there is no mistake in my statement & the spirit that has dictated that "report" I will further add that in the November following when he made his treaty he gave them all permission to return to their homes for the same reason. After making the treaty & granting them general permits it seems that he went to his office & one of his first acts was to make it as a charge against me.
    Many of those Indians worked at times for the whites, generally mining. One band that I permitted to leave temporarily earned in the month succeeding the date of the permit six hundred & forty dollars in mining operations with which money they purchased clothing & provisions & this month's labor was worth more to them [than] their portion of the yearly annuity. There is not an Indian in that district but can by mining operations earn more that is valuable to himself in ten days than his portion of the yearly annuity & they know it. But they always said that they were willing to go upon the Reserve & even suffer if peace depended upon it, but to remain there & suffer to gratify someone's whim that they would not. After Tipsey was driven out I do not think that the presence of 3000 regular troops could have forced them to remain during that summer unless they were assisted in the way of food. Nothing could be more clear than [that] to attempt to force them to remain would cause war. I believe that I know it would have done so then. Mr. Palmer has since, by special direction, attempted it & war has followed. I do not intend to refer to any conduct or policy adopted by Mr. Palmer unless my own self defense demands it. But I will show what has been produced by this policy in order that you can see what would have been the effect of the same course on the year previous. As I have stated, they can all get a fair living by labor & hunting if they can go to the best places & they know it. The moment that they are compelled confined to the Reserve they suffer. Mr. Palmer gave special directions & it was attempted. By means of persuasion & force a portion was removed to it; they did suffer & one by one they stole away & again as they were found were sent back to the Reserve. During all of this time ill feeling was being engendered & petty thefts became frequent. Also in their ill feeling they would take up fine horses that belonged to whites & ride them so hard in two or three days that they were ruined & then bring them back in the night. Such & kindred depredations became daily more & more frequent. Property of all kinds was stolen & destroyed & every day it grew worse. These acts by them irritated the whites & they in anger retaliated. At first all of these incidents were trifles, but each act on the part of one provoked the other to greater. Such a condition of things could have but one end. A person of experience, discrimination & means of personal observation ought not to have failed to see it long before the crisis arrived. If you could see a list of the depredations that were committed a short time previous to the present war you would be surprised. At last the bomb burst; Major Lupton's party struck the final blow. If they had not done so some other party would. I do not wish to be understood as in any manner endorsing the act of this party, on the contrary it was wrong. But many engaged in it I know personally & their standing is a guarantee that there must have been a deplorable state of things to have provoked them, for from the first they had been among the best supporters of peace. It is easy to point out how their remedy was worse than the evil, but I fear that many who condemn their act would have done in no wise different if they had been in their stead. The Indians do not deny their acts, but in extenuation said that they were forced to live upon the Reserve & there was not food enough to sustain them, because of the terms of the treaty on the part of the whites had not been complied with. The record shows that those citizens could not keep swine or poultry, their granaries were robbed, their horses rode to death & in the absence of the husband the wife was compelled at the muzzle of the rifle to hand out to those Indians whatever provisions there was in the house, in short as they said, "They were being mere slaves to raise provisions & stock that the Indians appropriated to themselves with impunity."
    Whether the citizens were right or criminally wrong does not affect the question. The officer in the Indian Department who calculates upon a man as he should be, instead of as he is, will only be successful in bringing calamity upon all that are affected by his acts. It was easy to accomplish it & policy to bring those Indians to the Reserve as soon as sufficient provision had been made to enable them, with what they could do for themselves, to get along & not suffer & to attempt it before was madness. I believe it to be so & that is the reason why I did not attempt it.
    Mr. Palmer says that my plan has been to have a few in the several bands in my confidence, to whom I communicated my wishes & allowed them to interpret to the others as best suited their notions & interest. When he made this statement he knew that I could talk to each & every Indian in that district better than any interpreter that he ever had, because I speak all of the "jargon" & as fluently as I can English & it, the jargon, is the only language that any of his interpreters ever could or pretended to speak to them, whereas I could understand enough of their native tongues to detect mistakes besides. The only use that I made of interpreters was that after I had spoken to them in the general Indian tongue "the jargon" which they nearly all could speak fluently, was to have the interpreter translate it into their native tongues, so they would have it all in two languages & all possibility of mistake be avoided. And I never yet heard from Indians or any other source that when I attempted to communicate to them was not understood.
    Mr. Palmer to show that I was partial to some Indians & treated others with contempt says that Chief Jim was a known & tried friend to the whites; that he was active in ferreting out and exposing Indians that were plotting mischief & exciting hostilities against the settlers; that an Indian shot & killed this chief & was met by me soon after & incited to come to the Reserve, giving him assurance that he should be protected.
    Simultaneous with the killing of this chief "Tipsey" & his little band, of whom Mr. Palmer speaks as hostile, went into the mountains. The Indians must be collected then if at all, & any that were left outside would inevitably join this chief. His number was then small & if the others could be prevented from joining him it could be made so hot for that single little band that they must abandon their attempt. This chief Jim was young, impulsive & somewhat overbearing in his intercourse with Indians. He seemed to mean well but lacked discretion & allowed his temper to run away with his judgment & frequently got into trouble in consequence. Two or three weeks before he was killed he & some other Indians while they were off in the mountains had a fight & during it Chief Jim killed one Indian & wounded another. The brother of the wounded man, in retaliation, killed this chief the first opportunity that presented itself afterwards. All that I could do in such cases was to use all of my moral influence to discourage & discountenance such acts & when they did later plan to get the parties together & induce them to settle it & "bury the hatchet." I succeeded in doing it in this instance. But suppose my policy in the matter did not accord with his ideas of right. He was there when the Indian came & while I was settling it & a personal observer of it. If he did not approve of any part he should at least have so intimated to me, or he could have taken it into his own hands, either of which would have been in better taste than to be a silent observer & find fault about it six months after.
    He then says that I evinced great contempt for Chief Sam & he knows of no other reason than because the chief dared to express his disapprobation of "the Agent." I do not think that a man in that district except Mr. Palmer ever heard this chief speak unkindly of me. We were warm personal friends & when I left that country he rode 30 miles with me on my way when he bid me goodbye & returned.
    Again he says that I accompanied him while he visited the scattered bands; that some bands had been in open hostility among themselves; that he had great difficulty in reconciling them & inducing them to assemble on the Reserve; that he observed on visiting a village that I would select someone of the band & take him aside & hold a private consultation, leaving the Indian to interpret & construe or misconstrue to the others as might best suit his notions. To this he objected & through an interpreter explained his wishes to the assembled village & thus "prevented any misunderstanding or treachery on the part of anyone." I did not hear the objection that he speaks of. I have before demonstrated why it was not necessary for me to get anyone to interpret for me & will not repeat it here. In answer to what he says about my taking one Indian aside &c. & the difficulty that he found in inducing the bands to assemble on the Reserve it will be necessary for me to refer to transactions of a previous date. The time of which he speaks was in November a few days after I was reinstated.
    He was there in April previous (while Tipsey was trying to make trouble). I had collected all of the Indians in the district that were upon Rogue River & Applegate Creek & all that were near Tipsey & in danger of being drawn in with him. The Deer Creeks & Illinois River Indians were on the other side of the district & not liable to be affected by him. I visited them both a few days before, when I got the first inkling of Tipsey's intention, & they promised me that when I found it absolutely necessary to preserve peace, on notice from [me] that they would hurry to the Reserve, though they were not a party to any treaty & were of course under no obligation to do so. I did not find it necessary or politic to collect them. Before Mr. Palmer left the eastern part of the district (where Tipsey was) he asked me if I did not think it would be safer to have the Deer Creek & Illinois River bands on the Reserve, if so that he could make arrangements & send them over as he went along. I told him that I thought not, because there was already a large body of Indians along the border of the Reserve & the more there was together the more excitable they become & it would be in the power of half a dozen bad men to make them nearly all unite against us in one night by some outrageous act. For instance a few such persons could steal down to the riverbank in the night [and] fire over into their camp. Kill one or two & every Indian near would under the spur of the moment join in the war cry. Whereas if only a part were near then [they] would wait until they could get the rest to join them & by quick management the whole could be stopped before a blow was struck. And I understood him to say that he concurred with me, but as he went along he sent them over to the Reserve, which of course he had a right to do. On the evening that they arrived near to the Fort I went to see them in company with Lt. Radford who had charge of the Fort. Captain Smith, commanding officer, was hunting Tipsey & one of the first questions that they asked me was how many horses & blankets I was going to give to them. I informed them that I did not have any & they evinced great surprise & said Mr. Palmer had told them that if they would come over & I would give them horses & blankets. I saw of course that they were laboring under a mistake, because Mr. Palmer knew as well as I did that I had none to give them. I told them that they had misunderstood him; that the probably intended to have them understand that if they would come then, that I would give them the blankets & horses when the money comes to purchase them. I satisfied them that I did not have either to issue to them. They said that whatever Mr. Palmer intended to say they could not tell but that he did say that I would give those things on their arrival there. They would not agree to stay only until Tipsey could be drove from the vicinity. They did so & then returned.
    In November Mr. Palmer saw a part of both of these bands while they came on a visit to some of their Applegate friends. While Mr. Palmer was talking to them about treating for their country an Indian from Deer Creek & one from Illinois River asked me to sit with them on a log 30 or 40 feet from where Mr. Palmer was standing. I did so when they commenced talking to me about the "fool's errand" (a literal translation) that he had sent them upon in the spring. I repeated to them what I had frequently said before that it was a mistake & said that he was now here & could explain it himself. And I called his attention to it on the spot. They heard his explanation, told him that they were not satisfied & that they would neither go to the Reserve nor receive goods from his hands. And up to the time that we left their camp they adhered to the same determination, although he told them that if they would come & make a treaty with him that they might return to their country on the next day after it was completed & remain there until ample provision was made for them on the Reserve. And any attempt that has since been made to get them there has been in direct violation of that pledge, which was afterwards accepted.
    I persuaded four of their headmen to meet me at the Fort three days after to have a long talk; they did so. And while Mr. Palmer went over the river to pursue his very worthy "investigation" as I have since learned I spent the whole day in proving to those Indians that he was not a liar (as they called him) & urging them to meet him to make a treaty. They would not, they said, ever meet him on the Reserve, but said that if he saw fit to come to the mouth of Applegate Creek that they would meet him there.
    He then refers to a lot of turnips & potatoes as exhibited in my returns; he thinks the amount too great; that he saw the Indians on their way to the Reserve but did not see any of these articles. Mr. Palmer could not have seen any of those Indians near Jacksonville on the 18th April because none of them were there. There was one family of Indians at Jacksonville at that time but they belonged to another band that reside high up on Applegate Creek. The ones that used the articles referred to belonged to the tributaries coming in on the west side of that stream & low down. The family that he saw acted as express messengers for me & the way that he happened to see them at all then was that I went to their camp in the edge of town to send one of them with a message to some Indian that I was anxious to hurry to the Reserve & he accompanied me. I have before remarked that I removed all of the Indians that were treated with at once except a part of two bands & they were prevented by sickness. These are the ones that consumed those articles. There were a large number of families one member of each at least were sick & could not be removed. The other members were not willing to leave them. I collected them the best that I could & placed them near a white resident who kept watch that none could leave without his knowledge & so could vouch for their good conduct. They remained there some time when they all came over to the Reserve. But not one of them went near to Jacksonville, but they went by a mountain trail that neither Mr. Palmer nor any other white man except myself & two or three others ever traveled up to that time. The articles were issued to & consumed by the Indians as appears by the papers referred to by him.
    He then refers in the same manner to 500 pounds of onions that were consumed by the three employees. This item seemed erroneous to me also. I asked Mr. Huddleston (his informant) if there was not some mistake about it; he said that there was not. I told him that I could not certify to its correctness unless he would state that they were actually consumed under oath. He said that he was willing to do so. I administered the oath to him & he so stated and upon it I certified to its correctness.
    He says that he also found my census report incorrect which is another reason why I was not fit for the post of Indian Agent. To show you that a census of those Indians taken a few months after might not agree I will remark that 1/12 of all the Indians that resided on the banks of Rogue River & in my [district] died in 4 months. By reference to my annual report for 1854 you will find that I state that at times there are many California Indians that come to that district. And when he was there I know that not less than 1/20 of all the Indians that he included & issued goods to actually belonged in California. They so acknowledged to me & I told Mr. Palmer of it. They were present & quitclaimed to Col. McKay their title to lands in the vicinity of Yreka & received all of the pay that they could get & they did the same to Mr. Palmer. To show that I do not mistake I will state that I know personally every Indian in the district.
    Mr. Palmer states in this report that the principal chief Jo was so sick that he could not talk much, "but what little he did say showed a want of confidence in the Agent." This chief had the consumption & was aware that he could not live long. During the time that Mr. Palmer was making a treaty at the mouth of Applegate this chief commenced sinking rapidly & he sent his daughter Mary to this treaty ground after me. She said that her father "desired to have me hear his last words & carry out the wish that they expressed." It is a custom among those Indians that when one dies all that he is possessed of is destroyed with him or her. I had made great efforts to change or do away with this custom & this chief was the first one that I could ever make an impression upon. He desired me to be present & see that his children & friends did not destroy his property but preserve it to benefit them. He had a large store of clothing, blankets &c. that they would need but he feared would destroy, horses he had several, in such cases they kill them. I did attend to it & carry out his wishes; nothing was destroyed, but after his death they were equally divided among his children. If this chief had no confidence in me as he says & so much in him why did he not entrust this which was so important to his children & to him. But he sent his daughter to Mr. Palmer's very side to ask me.
    Mr. Palmer's innuendos about grass & potato contracts & what he terms my "tampering policy with Indians" &c. I will pass without comment because I cannot do justice without indulging in terms that I do not desire to use in a communication to your Department. I am content to leave it as a question of veracity between Mr. Palmer on the one hand, the investigating committee, Judge Deady & Mr. Drew & the unanimous expression of the citizens (which he admits) & myself on the other.
Yours with great respect
    and esteem
        S. H. Culver
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 47-89.  Note that Indian Agent Samuel H. Culver was not the same person as Samuel Colver of Phoenix.



Port Orford June 6th 1856
Genl. Palmer Sup. of Ind. Affairs O.T.
    Sir, About four months ago I traded with a Floras Creek Indian named Tom for a young squaw and since the Indians have been put on to the reserve here at Port Orford she has left me and come here to stay with her people chiefly through their influence and persuasion and partly I suppose from her own inclination. I came down here yesterday for the purpose of reclaiming her, and finding her unwilling to return with me and her people wishing to annul the contract, although for my part I should much prefer that the contract should stand and I keep the squaw. I learn that you have rode the horse away to Rogue River. The squaw was here several days before you left, and they should have returned the horse to me if they intended as they evidently did to break the contract.
    Will you on your return have the kindness to deliver the horse, saddle, bridle & spur to Mr. Jas. H. Saunders of this place. Besides the horse I paid the Indians twenty dollars in money and a lot of blankets, shirts, dresses and beads. As they have broke the contract contrary to my wishes or consent I think it no more than just that they should be compelled to return me the horse & money. The other things they are welcome to keep. I should much prefer myself to keep the squaw.
Respectfully your obt. svt.
    Stephen Davis.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 283.



Coos County Volunteers
    Empire City, June 7th 1856
Hon. E. M. Barnum
    Adjutant General &c.
        General--It is with pleasure that I acknowledge the receipt of your dispatches of the 1st inst. and feel highly gratified that my returns were to you satisfactory. The blank muster rolls--together with the instructions you were pleased to furnish me--will enable me to complete my returns upon the disbanding of my company, which will likely be about the 20th inst.; having received orders to disband on the 10th. The menacing attitude of the Indians in this quarter, however, gives no encouragement to the hope of an immediate peace. Mr. Jas. Flanagan arrived here yesterday from Port Orford, and brings news [that] the Pistol River Indians have fled from the reserve at Port Orford, and have again taken the field. And what is more, that a battle was fought near the Big Bend Rogue River by Capt. Smith of Maj. Reynolds' command of regulars, in which ten men were killed and nineteen wounded. The Indian agents were in attendance and, joining to a man in the conflict, they fought side by side with the soldiers on the field. Genl. Palmer seized the musket as it fell from the hands of a soldier (when dying on the ground) and used it in a manner becoming a veteran of the war. Nathan Olney did signal service. And William Wright, with the memory of his brother's blood fresh upon his mind, entered upon this work and pursued it in a manner becoming a man avenging the death of his best friend. Capt. Smith and his men did well. The fight lasted two days. Maj. Reynolds with a force of 300 regulars came to their relief and commenced the work, at which time the Indians fled. The number of Indians killed were not ascertained. Today news has reached us that the settlers along the coast between this and Port Orford have again left their homes and fled to Port Orford for protection. This alarm was caused by the appearance of some strange Indians in the country about the Coquille, but the extent of this cause of alarm we have no means yet of judging. It is generally believed here that the war on the coast is by no means at an end. And should the Indians treat and come in, the attempt at their removal will likely be attended with great liabilities, insomuch that the cures is greatly dreaded.
I remain dear general
    Your obedient servant
        W. H. Harris
General Barnum
    Salem O.T.
Oregon State Archives, Yakima and Rogue River War, Document File B, Reel 2, Document 464.




Janesville, Wisconsin
    June 7th 1856
Sir
   Enclosed please find my answer to Mr. Palmer's letters and reports in which he sets forth his reasons why my acts as Agent were not correct, which I have the honor to ask your attentive perusal.
    It is extended to a greater length than I wished, but I looked over the manuscript and carefully compared it with his specifications and cannot see how any part can be stricken out. In fact I have taken great trouble to embody all that he says on each given subject and make but one answer, although in some instances he speaks of the same thing several times. In some cases I have been compelled to refer to the same thing more than once, because by his peculiar manner of reference two different answers were required.
    Whether my acts were always dictated by a sound judgment is not for me to say, though it is a source of gratification to know that they were always successful. I only claim the benefit of correct intention seconded by ample energy. I do, and always have received the benefit of all of those in the community when they transpired, the remembrance of which affords me infinite gratification and amply repays me for privations endured while in the performance of those duties.
I have the honor to be
    Respectfully yours
        S. H. Culver
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Department of the Interior
            Washington D.C.
   

No. 1.
The Rogue River Indians
    To Schieffelin & Walker
1854
August 14 To 1 blanket 5.00
3 lbs. bread .75
10 lbs. flour 1.60
15 3 lbs. bread .75
cash to buy medicines 4.00
16 4½ lbs. sugar 1.35
2 lbs. bread .50
17 3 lbs. coffee 1.12
19 2 lbs. sugar .60
1 lb. tobacco 1.00
Sept. 11 7 lbs. flour 1.50
11 ¼ tea .25
11 thread .25
12 1 pint molasses .50
 "  3 lbs. bread .75
1 lb. sugar .25
14 1 lb. beans .25
3 lbs. bread .75
15 3 lbs. bread .75
1½ coffee .60
16 3 lbs. bread .75
2 lbs. sugar .50
½ lb. tea .50
18 1 lb. rice .37
20 1 blanket 4.00
Oct. 8 2 lbs. sugar .60
20 1 lb. dried apples .30
26 18 lbs. beef   3.60
34.59
$34
    Received at Schieffelin's & Walker's ranch, Jackson Co., Oregon T. of S. H. Culver thirty-four dollars in full of the above account which were furnished to Jo, the principal chief of the Rogue River Valley Indians, & his family at the dates mentioned in the above account.
C. Schieffelin
Joseph C. Walker
March 10, 1855.
   

    The undersigned state on honor that they reside in the Rogue River Valley and adjoining the Indian reserve; that the said Schieffelin & Walker did furnish provisions to the said chief and his family on Mr. Culver's order at the time mentioned; that said chief and family were sick and in a destitute condition, that in the time mentioned his wife & two daughters died. And that we believe the above amount was expended in a humane and judicious manner.
Milo Caton
James Savage
N. F. McCoia [McCord?]
D. N. Birdseye
Wm. Miller
J. Young
   
    I certify, on honor, that the within account is correct & just, that said chief and three members of his family were sick at the time they were furnished and in a destitute condition, that the Indians requested that their chief might be provided for out of the proceeds of grass cut on this reserve.
S. H. Culver
    Late Indian Agent
   
(2)
$100.00
    Received at Schieffelin's and Walker's ranch, Jackson County, Oregon T. this 10th day of March 1855 of S. H. Culver one hundred dollars in full for building and completing a house on the Indian reserve at or near Evans Creek for Jo, late principal chief of the rogue River tribe of Indians, and family.
C. Schieffelin
Joseph C. Walker
   
(Duplicates)
    The undersigned state, on honor, that they reside in the Rogue River Valley and adjoining the Indian reserve, that they know the house referred to in the above receipt to have been built, that it was contracted for by Mr. Culver while the above-named Indian Chief Jo was living & while he was very sick. That the said chief was suffering for want of a shelter, that the Indians were anxious to have a house built for their sick chief, and that we believe the above amount was expended in a manner humane and judicious.
Milton Caton
James Savage
N. F. McCoia
D. N. Birdseye
Wm. Miller
J. Young
   
    I certify, on honor, that the house referred to in the above receipt was built at the request of the said Indian Chief Jo and all of his people, that said chief was very sick at the time and would suffer for want of shelter unless it was built. That early in the year 1854 said chief and his people requested me to sell grass that grew on their reserve, and the said chief frequently said that he proposed to have the proceeds used to relieve Indians that might, by sickness or otherwise, be in a suffering condition. And as he and his family was soon reduced to such a condition, after having been of great service to both races in keeping peace, the public good and humanity required that he should be provided for out of this fund.
S. H. Culver
    Late Indian Agent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 40-46.



Port Orford O.T.
    June 12th 1856
Sir
    Your letter of yesterday is received. You appear to doubt that there is a sufficient ground for the excitement existing at this place. Sir, if one half of what I have learned since my arrival as to the acts and intentions of the Indians encamped here and others in this vicinity was known to the citizens, they could not be restrained from attacking these Indians at once.
    They (these Indians) have undoubtedly determined to commence hostilities the first favorable opportunity. Three canoes from Rogue River went up the coast above this place just before my arrival. I have sent an express to Drew apprising him of the fact. Two Indians from Rogue River came to Tagonecia's lodge last night. They brought with them three guns & one revolver for the use of these Indians. The Indians here have some guns hid out in the woods. The two Indians from Rogue River informed Tagonecia & his people that the Indians on Rogue River were pretending to give up their guns to the troops, but that they gave up only those that the whites knew they had and such others as they did not need or were out of repair, but that they had a sufficient number hid in the wood besides plenty of ammunition and that they were determined to still fight. "Tagonecia & his people have determined to join them." This and other information I have procured by means of spies amongst their own people, without as yet being detected or even being suspected by the chiefs. I had a long talk with all the principal men of the village today. They talk well enough, but still I think I can see that something is not right. "It may be imagination."
    I should have made prisoners of all the head men of the different bands at this place before this, but was not seconded by Macfeely. He refused to act unless instructed by Col. Buchanan to do so. I cannot depend for aid upon the military, and I fear to call upon the citizens. I cannot therefore take such steps as I deem necessary, but only such as I have means of carrying out.
    I shall continue to gain all the information I can as to the movement of the Indians, but what better off am I as long as my hands are tied.
    If these Indians join the hostiles you must not blame me, for I have done and am still doing all in my power to prevent it, but those that should assist me in the discharge of my duty refuse to act.
    I rode over to the village today for the first time since my arrival. I am not, however, able to walk. I have been confined to my bed since my arrival until today.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Rogue River
            Oregon
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 237.




Umpqua Sub-Agency
    Umpqua O.T. June 14 / 56
To Genl. Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Port Orford
            Sir--
                Indian affairs at this point remain as when I last wrote you. Everything is quiet. About fifty-six (56) of the Coos band of Indians are yet at Coos Bay; [I] expect them here in five days from today. The encampment are apparently well established. Some little sickness in the Umpqua band caused a little disturbance--"superstition was the cause."
    The Indians here generally insist on a small supply of clothing &c. &c. With the goods taken from the Coquille last August which are still at this agency & a small bill of blankets & fruits they could all be satisfied.
    The full number on this reservation is two hundred & eighty-five (285) Inds.--seventy-six (76) men--one hundred & twenty-two (122) women & eighty-five (85) children.
    Should it be the design to keep them in this vicinity long it would suggest that a school be put in operation which could be done at very little expense. A lady's school where the women can be taught the accomplishment of needlework, dressmaking & the like & thus get them in the road to civilization. I have found it expedient to furnish a small amt. of beef this quarter yet have not furnished them with flour & beef both the same day. After they have completed their fish traps & get everything in operation they will need no beef I think.
Yours truly
    With much respect
        I remain
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
P.S. Since writing the above a rumor has reached this office to the effect that Col. Wright's entire northern division at the Naches River was had an engagement with Kamiakin in which he (Col. Wright) was killed & two hundred (200) of his men.
    The report is not authentic & not to be strictly relied upon. I send you the only paper by express.
In haste
    E.P.D.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 242.



June the 16th A.D. 1856
    Port Orford Curry County
Mr. Palmer
    Sir, in regard to moving the Indian woman, her
people was willing [and] presumed that I will get a situation on the reserve. Mr. Palmer, if you can possibly give me a situation on the reserve I will most assuredly go. You may think strange of thinking so much of an Indian woman. She is not a full blooded Indian. She is a half breed, and she is shrewd and understands business, therefore I think as greatly of her and it is hard for me to see her go away. I bought [her] of the Elk River tyee. I gave seventy fathoms of elkachic ["beads"] and fifty-seven dollars in cash. The whole amount is $238.00. I never would [have] gave so much for [her] if [I] had not expected to keep her. I am perfectly willing to marry her, and she is to marry me. I am not ashamed, Mr. Palmer, to marry her. Mr. Palmer, I hope you will give me a situation on the reserve. I understand farming and blacksmithing; this [is] my occupation, and I hope you give me a situation. Being the way that I am situated give me an answer as soon as possible.
Yours respectfully
    A. H. Hind
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 245.



Umpqua Correspondence of the Statesman.
Deer Creek, June 18, 1856.
    Dear Bush--Since the departure of the last northern express, we have had news here by extra express from along the seaboard of a warlike shade. For several days canoes of Indians have been passing up and down the coast. Many Indians on the reserves have acted strangely toward the whites, and in many other respects things have assumed an unusual character, so much so that the agent at Port Orford wrote to the agent at Umpqua that he was fearful of an outbreak of the Indians under their charge. There is an understanding among them, and a concert of action, which have aroused the caution and circumspection of the agents, who are preparing for an outbreak, as prudent men should. The achievement of old John, and his recent boldness, consequent upon the withdrawal of the volunteer force have stimulated the Indians with the hope of accomplishing their design. But upon philosophic principles I think they will break and run, if not to fight, to secrete themselves. It is natural for mankind and Indians to esteem those rulers the highest of whom they know but little, and seldom if ever see. Familiarity with those in power weakens the respect which the subject should have for the power he is amenable to. This is so. This moderately great Indian tyee has exerted a blind influence over his untutored children of nature by his signal diplomatic ability in apparent, but which should have been real, obscurity until his recent personal visit among them. He visited them--they saw him, and he saw them, and now a breaking out or an outbreak is inevitable. Should not "revolution" be used instead of the word "outbreak." The causes of Indian discontent seem to be as strange as they are numerous. Can't the General stay at home, and thereby permit the agents among us to do as they have, and thereby secure peace and friendship with the flower of his pity and reverence.
    Indians are on the road again; near Wolf Creek, Six Bits House, they were seen but a day or two since. Mr. Huelat of the Quartermaster's Department has sent for an escort to remove the Quartermaster's stores to this valley, from Grave Creek, because his force is too small for any service, if attacked. Two men were killed at Willow Springs, twelve miles from Yreka, by Indians, last week.
    Gen. Lamerick, from last accounts, was at the Meadows, following up the hostile bands. In short, it is considered far more dangerous to travel the road south, at this time, than formerly.
Yours, &c.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 24, 1856, page 2


Crescent City Cal.
    June 19th 1856
Sir
    I sent by the last steamer (the Columbia), in charge of Mr. E. H. Beecher, eight Indians (squaws & bucks) with two infants belonging to tribes in Oregon. The agent for the Klamath River Cal. Reservation having declined to receive them, I regarded it as necessary to send them to you.
    The steamer came in at daylight in the morning & I had not time then to address you a communication on the subject.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            H. H. Garber
                2 Lt. 4th Infy.
                    Commdg. Crescent City, Cal.
To
    Olney Esqr.
        Indn. Agt.
            Port Orford
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 250.



Oregon City, 20 June, 1856.
W. H. Farrar, Esq.
    U.S. Dist. Atty.
        Dear Sir,
            I have received your request that I should give you some information in regard to the suit of Brewster vs. Dart, while I was U.S. Dist. Atty. for Oregon.
    The facts in regard to it are as follows--Mr. Brewster was a carpenter employed by Dr. Dart to erect a dwelling house for him near Milwaukie in 1851. The work was not done by contract, but he employed men & paid them, as his vouchers show, over $3000. He charged $10 per day (the usual price for master builders) for 240 days. Dr. Dart paid him about $2500, I think, and after waiting about a year, Brewster employed Mr. Wait & myself to assist him in collecting his money.
    He refused payment on the ground that he had paid all the work was worth and for other reasons, but never because the work was done for him as Superintendent of Ind. Affairs. The case came to trial, and the jury gave the Pltf. a verdict for about $2300, showing by this that they were satisfied that the work was done for Dart on his own responsibility. Indeed, the idea that it was done for him in his capacity of Superintendent was not seriously pressed till after the verdict, when Judge Nelson, somewhat strangely as was thought by us, set the verdict aside. As to Dart's being compelled to employ counsel, because I was acting for Brewster, I will simply remark that in my conversations and correspondence with him he never pretended that he refused payment because of his position, or even intimated that he desired any defense officially. That is all an afterthought, but entirely consistent with his general conduct.
    In relation to the attachment of goods belonging to the Indian Department, I recollect that when it was supposed that he was about to leave the country without paying this and other debts, it was deemed expedient to attach a lot of blankets & groceries that were stored for him, & from which he was daily making sales to the merchants and traders of Oregon. He then in order to hold the property introduced the bills of purchasing by which it appeared that they were bought by him officially. The property was then given up, though it was notoriously reported & generally believed that these, like other large quantities of goods which he sold to various merchants, were either the property of the U.S. which he was ready to sell if he could do so, or his own property which, to save it from the watchful eyes of his creditors who were following hard after him, he had covered up with the wrappers of the Indian Department.
    I do not think he ever paid a single dollar of costs to witnesses or others, and presume that all he has ever advanced was what he pretends that he paid to his friend, Hamilton.
    I trust the government will not pay him anything, because I believe his whole course here, officially, was fraudulent towards the Department. His object was to make money. I believe he has too successfully accomplished this, and I hope he will be checked in this last picayune experiment. I regret that I am obliged to witness this of one holding office under the same administration with myself, but while I am convinced of its truth, I am perfectly willing when called upon to speak plainly.
Respectfully yours &c.
    A. Holbrook
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 864-867.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. June 23rd 1856
        (written at Portland)
Sir,
    I have the honor to inform you that I have this day arrived here from Port Orford in the steamship Columbia and to acknowledge the receipt of your communications of April 19th and 21st and May 7th, also a letter under date of January 5th relative to adjustment of claim of late Superintendent Dart which had miscarried in the mail.
    The instructions and suggestions contained in yours of the 19th April written in acknowledgment of my dispatches of 11th February and 8th March detailing the operations of the Indian Department in this Territory have been duly and carefully noted.
    It shall be my aim and object to consummate the plans adopted for the colonization of the friendly Indians with the strictest economy consistent with efficiency, and no disbursements will be made or improvements effected not absolutely called for by the exigencies of the service. The precaution to put in crops and prepare land for the subsistence of the Indians upon the reservation has been taken, and it's hoped and expected that nearly if not quite sufficient cereals will be harvested for their subsistence. Due care will be taken in specifying the object of each expenditure made under the late appropriation by Congress, and the same embraced in the vouchers and abstracts.
    Owing to the heavy outlays incident upon the purchase of claims, the keeping [of] a company of armed citizens at the reservation and the removal of Indians &c., additional means are and will be required to carry out the objects in view--to the extent probably of thirty-five to forty thousand dollars within the ensuing sixty days--some considerable portion of which will be requisite to the erection of a sawmill and a flouring mill upon the Grand Ronde Reservation.
    Prompt advices will be transmitted you of all drafts drawn, and detailed reports will be forwarded, showing the operations of the Superintendency, as often as it may be possible to do so.
I am sir most respectfully
    Your obt. servt. &c.
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    Geo. W. Manypenny Esq.
        Comr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 154.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 781-783.




Copy.
Portland, June 23rd. 1856       
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
Dear Sir:
    I am about to leave the Territory for the purpose of visiting Washington City. It will be my duty as it will be my pleasure to meet any and all issues that may come up there growing out of our pending Indian difficulties, wherein the good name of Oregon shall be called in question--In a word, to hold myself accountable for my official acts. For long years we have been upon the friendliest terms. Your correspondence with General Wool indicates an unkind feeling on your part towards our people--at once assails their reputation and strikes at the interests of the Territory in the present Indian war. It would be extremely painful for me to break up our existing friendly relations, but you must easily perceive the natural result. At Washington I shall have to strike at all who are any way against us. In our last interview you led me to believe that your language in your letters to General Wool went further than you had intended, and that you regretted that fact. My desire now is that over your official signature you will so state to the Indian Department at Washington, and relieve me from the unhappy duty of placing myself in a hostile attitude, officially, towards an old and esteemed friend.
    Be pleased to address me at Washington City under cover to Gen. Lane, as soon as practicable.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient Serv't.
        (Signed) Geo. L. Curry
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 892-893.



Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. June 23rd 1856
        (written at Portland)
Sir:
    The departure of the mail steamer early tomorrow (and it being now nearly midnight) leaves me no time to make a detailed report of my proceedings in the Port Orford District: I may say, however, that I reached here today at 11 a.m. with six hundred Indians from that place, on their way to the Coast Reservation. At 3 p.m. they were put en route for Oregon City, and will leave there tomorrow morning for Dayton. I start from here tomorrow, on horse, in time to reach Dayton on their arrival.
    I now regard the war in Southern Oregon as closed. All the hostile bands, with the exception of "John's"--who has about thirty warriors--and the Chetco and Pistol River Indians, numbering, perhaps, fifty warriors, have come in, and unconditionally surrendered themselves as prisoners of war. The two bands last named have sent word they will surrender, and come in, when word is sent them where to go. The old chief "John" has sent in two of his sons asking the retention of other bands at Port Orford until he can get there with his people--that he is tired of war, and has resolved to seek for peace and will submit to go on the Reservation.
    We now have at Port Orford about six hundred, and about two hundred and fifty at the mouth of Rogue River, all of whom have unconditionally surrendered. They will be escorted to the southern part of the Coast Reservation by U.S. troops, together with any of the other bands that may come in.
    I deemed it best, under all the circumstances, to transport by steamer from Port Orford here the six hundred just arrived--the views and causes of influencing that determination will be presented you in my detailed report of the operations in that district, which will be transmitted by the next mail.
    The latest intelligence from the Yakima county indicates a favorable prospect for peace. It was determined by Colonel Buchanan, the military officer in command of the district, to retain and hold all those Indians now at Port Orford as prisoners of war until they reached the Reservation, when they would be turned over to the proper officers of the Indian Department.
    The six hundred Indians just arrived, being mostly of the friendly bands, will be located on the northern portion of the Reservation, near the Siletz River. The company of troops under Captain Augur, 4th Infy., who came up with them--numbered seventy-two men--will be posted at the Grand Ronde, as a permanent post.
    I take a moment to remark that the official acts of Agent Olney have been such at Port Orford as to call for my immediate attention, and that such measures will at once be taken as to effectually shield the Indian Department on account thereof. The next mail will convey to you the specialties [sic] of the matters to which I here refer.
    I have the honor to be
        Most respectfully
            Your obedt. servt.
                Joel Palmer
                    Supt. Ind. Office
To
    Hon. G. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington D.C.

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 773-776.   The original can be found in NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 155-156.  Another original is in NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 775-778.




Portland  O.T. June 24th 1856
Sir,
    I am pleased to be able to inform you that the steamer arrived here on yesterday at 11 a.m. The Indians all well and in good spirits. Not an accident occurred to cause a doubt in the minds of the Indians; a few were seasick, but all was forgotten on entering the Columbia River. They were landed at this point and allowed time to prepare dinner and then took passage on steamer for Oregon City, and today go to Dayton. It was wholly impracticable to take a correct census. I set two men at it, but on leaving the vessel it was impossible to keep them quite long enough to do it. I will do so at Dayton and send you the result by next steamer. Capt. Augur remained at Vancouver and Lieut. Hodges accompanies the troops to the reservation where he awaits the arrival of the captain. I send back two Indian boys, a Tututni and Foo-sheet. If George, Limpy, the Cow Creeks and Galice Creeks could be induced to come up by steamer it would be well, as they are to be located on the northern end of the reservation, but the other bands would require a land transportation from this point as great as from Port Orford. It would therefore, I think, be improper to send them by steamer, for there is but little prospect of effecting a landing along the reservation. The old and decrepit of other bands might however be sent up if you are unable to obtain transportation.
    Colonel Wright is holding a council with the Indians in the Yakima country--so says report--the Nez Perces are all right. I learn that all is quiet at the Grand Ronde, where we have now assembled over fifteen hundred Indians. Upon mature reflection I have determined to suspend Agent Olney, or perhaps give him an opportunity to resign--his functions as an agent of this Dept. will cease immediately on the arrival of this steamer at Port Orford.
    Sub-Agent Metcalfe has been instructed to accompany some one of the detachments to be sent up by you to the reservation and will take charge of the Indians upon their arrival at the Siuslaw. Upon reaching suitable points for temporary encampment upon that reservation I would glad to have you direct an officer to accompany Mr. Metcalfe in examining the reservation with reference to permanent settlements for those tribes heretofore residing on Rogue River below the Big Bend, and along the coast south of Port Orford--settlements south of Tal-quona River.
    In the event of the business of this Suptcy. warranting it I will visit in person that district at an early day.
    Permit me to congratulate you and those under your command in the favorable issue of your campaign and express a hope that circumstances may be such as to enable you to return from that field to your family, leaving the country in peace and quietude, and your command to a district less hazardous and laborious.
I am sir most respectfully
     Your obt. servt.
         [Joel Palmer]
To
    Lieut. Col. R. C. Buchanan
        4th U.S. Infantry
            Port Orford
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 156-157.



Office &c. (written at Portland) June 24th 1856
Sir,
    From the feeling manifested by the officers in the regular service towards yourself, and in view of your position generally, I am compelled to say that I think it would promote the public service were you to resign your position as Indian agent at once. I send by steamer to the care of W. Dunbar one thousand dollars to meet the outstanding liabilities incurred by you, salary &c., for which you will sign duplicate receipts and report forthwith at my office.
Respectfully yours &c.
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    N. Olney Esq.
        Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 157.  A copy is on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 829-830.



Agency Office
    Port Orford O.T.
        June 25th 1856
Sir
    I have the honor of herewith enclosing to you two letters from Aaron Dyre, one directed to yourself and the other to J. S. Rinearson in reference to damage done to the garden and meadowlands of Mr. Dyre by the horses of Rinearson's party while encamped on Elk River on their way to the Coast Reservation in charge of the Coquille Indians. He demands fifty dollars damage; whether or not he has sustained that amount of damage I am unable to say. The men of Rinearson's party will be able to inform you whether or not he has sustained a loss as stated, and if so, what amount.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Supt. Office
            Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 258.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. June 27th 1856
Sir,
    I this day forward to you by special messenger, Mr. James Brown, two thousand two hundred and fifty dollars ($2250) public funds of the Indian Department for use in your agency district, with duplicate receipts written out for your signature for the amt. which, on reception of the funds, you will please sign and return to this office. These funds you will be accountable for under the following heads of account.
For salary of sub-Ind. agent 500
  "        "       "  interpreter 250
  "    removal and subsistence   1500
$2250
    It is of the utmost importance that all the Indians in your district be removed at the earliest practicable moment to the reservation, and the suggestion in your letter of 14th relative to the establishment of a school need not be acted upon until they arrive at their new home. You are aware that we have contemplated locating the Coos Bay and Lower Umpqua Indians on the Siuslaw River, but as that valley will at the end of twenty years be thrown out of the reservation it is I think advisable to fix their location where it would be permanent and where they can have the benefit of improvements designed to accommodate the longest population. The main settlements will be north of Cape Perpetua and consequently the public buildings, shops, schools, mills &c. will be located north of that cape. Those now residing on the Siuslaw may be permitted to remain there, and during the season preparations may be made and assistance afforded in preparing ground for crops suited to their wants.
    It is promised that a military post will be established on or near the Siuslaw, but at what point cannot be determined until after a reconnaissance is made by an officer of the government. It may however be found expedient in locating the post north of the cape, which for the objects to be attained would be very desirable, the Siuslaw being at too great a distance from the main settlements of Indians. It is expected that the first detachment (being the friendly Coquilles) will be under the direction of Capt. Rinearson, who has been assigned by me for that service, and who will proceed up the coast to some point between Yoquoua and Siletz rivers. These will be followed by other detachments escorted by U.S. troops, who are to be located between Cape Perpetua and Alsea except one detachment, who will proceed north of Siletz River. The Yoquouas and Alseas will be located either on Yoquoua or Alsea rivers or between these streams as may be found most advisable. In your intercourse with the Indians under your jurisdiction you will be careful to impress upon them the necessity of conforming to the suggestions relative to the location herein contained, and if any impression has been made going to encourage the belief that they would be permitted to reside on the Umpqua, you will at once disabuse their minds upon that point. On the arrival of Capt. Rinearson if it be practicable you will, with all the Indians at your encampment, join this party and proceed with him as far as the Siuslaw where those under your charge may remain and with the leading men or chiefs. You can proceed to examine the country north of the cape, with a view of selecting a location for the Coos Bay and Umpquas, and it is desirable to have them as near the cape as possible, and south of the other bands that may be removed from the Port Orford District. I have been greatly disappointed in not obtaining the fish seines and nets ordered from the Eastern States, but orders have been given to purchase a few in San Francisco which if obtained will enable us to afford greater facilities in taking salmon and other fish and thus supersede the necessity of purchasing beef. Mr. Clugage has been directed to deliver forty or fifty head of beef cattle, six tons of flour and forty pack animals at the mouth of Umpqua for use and to aid in removing the Indians on their way north from Siuslaw--should he arrive before Mr. Rinearson you will assist him in selecting suitable points for grazing stock north of Umpqua until the arrival of the Indians or he might proceed with them and cross the Siuslaw, returning with his pack animals to aid in transporting such Indians as are usable to travel, leaving the cattle and flour in charge of suitable persons. It would be well for him to drive a few head of cattle as far as Coos Bay to supply Indians and employees on their way up.
Yours most respectfully &c.
     [Joel Palmer]
To
    E. P. Drew Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 162-163.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. June 28th 1856
Sir,
    I have the honor herewith to transmit a letter written on the 10th of April, enclosing 2 letters from Agent Olney, also an extract of my letter to him under date of 24th instant written at Portland. My letter of the 10th was withheld in hopes of obtaining information disabusing my mind in regard to his acts and justifying his continuance in the service of the Indian Department, and as the services of an efficient officer was greatly required at Port Orford and having no agent or sub-agent that could be properly assigned to that duty, I instructed him to repair to that point not doubting but that even if his course had been objectionable in the Walla Walla country, he would feel desirous of reinstating himself in the confidence of the community and those who had sought to place him in the public service and stimulate him to an energetic performance of duty, but his conduct in that district has been such as to destroy all hope of an efficient and proper attention to the duties of his office. It has been so characterized by a degree of recklessness and disregard for law and order and even for the common decencies of civilized society as to wholly disqualify him for the position of an agent with a due degree of allowance for exaggeration. The information is such as to warrant me in charging him with dissipation, gambling and debauchery among the native women. With a disposition to pander to the prejudices and passions of an excited community, leading to lawless acts not only acquiring but actually encouraging and participating in violations of law, and I need instance but a single case. Prior to my arrival at Port Orford and at the invitation of Major Reynolds, a part of the Coquille Indians had come in to Port Orford and were located among the friendly bands upon the military reservation at that point; with those Indians came two men who were charged by the citizens as having two years previously been engaged with others in killing white men on the Coquille River. The citizens demanded their arrest, and one was secured and put in the guardhouse by directions of Lieut. Macfeely, in command of the military post. The other one made his escape. A few days subsequently Mr. Olney called upon Lieut. Macfeely and requested that the Indian might be turned over to him for the purpose of having a judicial investigation of his guilt or innocence. He was accordingly turned over. Mr. Olney thereupon gave him into the hands of a mob and aided in a mock trial by whom the Indian was condemned and executed. It is said that he acknowledged participating in the alleged murder, and upon that confession they passed sentence. The trial was by a self-constituted heterogening [sic] mass of citizens and miners and others. The Indian may have been guilty of the offense; he was in safekeeping and might have been retained, until the sitting of the court, in the guardhouse. Mr. Olney was at the trial, gave encouragement and counsel, and even urged the matter forward. It will be seen by my letter to him I have suggested that he should resign, but his conduct in Middle Oregon and at Port Orford merits dismissal from the service. In connection with this subject I have to say that it is exceedingly difficult securing the services of suitable persons to discharge the duties of agent or sub-agent at the rates of salary now allowed by law. There are numerous applicants, but few however can be found of sufficient capacity and clear of other objections willing to undertake such service. I hope to be able to suggest someone for appointment by the sailing of the next steamer.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            [Joel Palmer]
To
    Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 164-165.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 825-828.



Territory of Oregon Yamhill County s.s.
    On this 28th day of June 1856 before the undersigned personally came Alonzo A. Skinner who being first duly sworn says that in relation to & in explanation of the accounts of Nathaniel C. Dean and John E. Ross, the former amounting to $77.50--the latter to $35.00, for expenses paid in removing Worthington Bills from Rogue River Valley to the office of the Supt. Ind. Affairs at Milwaukie by his order, that said Bills was arrested by him for attempting to incite the Indians of Rogue River Valley to hostility against the whites. That the amount though stated in the account to have been received of Anson Dart Supt. Ind. Affairs was not so received of him, nor has the money ever been paid to said Dean & Ross but that he (the said Skinner) has become personally responsible to them for the amount of their accounts respectively. That Supt. Dart had thentofore [sic] paid accounts of a similar character connected with & growing out of the same transaction, and that it was for that reason the receipts above referred to were taken in the name of the Supt. Ind. Affairs, and not of himself, with the view of having the amount so assumed by him paid to him by the Supt. & by him paid to said Dean & Ross, and the account rendered by the Supt. and not by himself.
A. A. Skinner
Subscribed & sworn to before me this 28th day of June 1856.
John Carey
Justice of the Peace
for Yamhill County
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 876-878.




Office Indian Agent
    Rogue River Valley O.T.
        June 30th 1856
Sir:
    Agreeably to your instructions I proceeded so far as I could to settle and pay the outstanding liabilities of this Agency.
    With reference to the unpaid claims against the Indian Department, contracted by the late agent Mr. S. H. Culver, I have to report that I deemed it my duty, as directed by you, to take in all cases before payment was made the evidence of truthful and disinterested persons to enable me to determine the equity and correctness of the demands. This was faithfully done. None were paid but such as I was satisfied from the proofs rightfully should be paid out of the funds in my hands, and such as in every respect were just and correct. After taking the testimony, coupled with my own personal knowledge of many of the facts establishing their justness, I did not feel at liberty to curtail the amounts but paid them in full.
    In regard to the potato contract, which had been suggested as possibly either fraudulent or that the claim growing out of it was exorbitant, I am happy as well on account of the honor of the parties involved as in justice to truth to say it was clearly shown that the transaction was characterized in every particular by honesty and good faith in the agent and contracting parties. The price I found reasonable and the whole affair attended as well by economy as a prudent foresight and careful regard for the welfare of the Indians.
    It most satisfactorily appears that the price agreed to be paid for the labor done and material furnished in and about the breaking of the ground, furnishing of the seed and planting of the crop was no more than a fair equivalent. I was at the time fully cognizant of most of the facts as they transpired, living as I did near at hand, & I think it but just to say that my own convictions, all along entertained, of the correctness of the claims, and the good faith of the entire transaction, have been amply confirmed by my official inquiries in the premises.
    It may not be improper to add, as well to do justice to yourself who ordered it as to Mr. Culver, who carried out the order, that the expenditure on account of that crop of potatoes was most wisely incurred, inasmuch as it was not only deemed necessary at the time but resulted in furnishing, at comparatively a trifling cost to the government, the principal means of subsistence to several hundred Indians during the following severe winter. Without the aid of the potatoes thus obtained for food, I doubt not they would have greatly suffered. In their destitution they would have scattered through the adjacent settlements to the prejudice of the peace of the country and their own injury.
    In conclusion on the subject generally of claims within the lands of this Agency, I have to say that while they are not entirely paid, the balance of them is but small in amount, and they remain unsettled mainly by reason that many of the claimants have left the district and gone during the late disturbances to other parts of the country.
    My quarterly returns for the second quarter of the current year will show the condition of the Agency, and I am not aware that any further explanation is necessary.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 255.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. June 30th 1856
Sir,
    On my arrival from Port Orford a few days since I found your letter of 12th ultimo inquiring as to whether the Umpqua Reservation was merely temporary "and whether it was now abandoned" &c., in reply to which I have to say that the tract designated by the treaty of 29th November 1854 as an Indian reservation has been abandoned, so far as any action of the Indians or this Suptcy. is answered. I am not aware that there has been any action of Congress upon that subject; nor do I know that it is requisite, but that tract having been declared a reservation by the notification of the treaty may require some congressional action to render it subject to entry and settlement, but none in my opinion to change existing regulations relative to surveys.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    J. S. Zieber Esq.
        Surveyor Genl.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 179.



Port Orford O.T.
    June 30th 1856
Sir
    Upon the receipt of funds I offered to settle with Peter Daugherty for the amount of beef purchased from him by you and turned over to me. He claimed 20 cts. per lb., which I refused to allow him, as I was of opinion 15 cts. was the price agreed upon. As we cannot agree I must beg leave to turn the matter over to you. I have accounted for the beef as received from you. Enclosed please find duplicate receipts covering the amount turned over to me.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        Nathan Olney
            Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Office Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Dayton
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 257.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton, O.T. July 1st 1856
Sir
    You have been appointed by the Supt. Indian Affairs as conductor and local agent for the Indians now residing and to be located upon that portion of the Coast Reservation between the mouth of Salmon River and fifteen miles south of Siletz River, and extending east an average distance of twelve miles. The first object that will claim your attention will be the removal of the coast bands now encamped at Dayton to the mouth of Salmon River or in the vicinity or around Fresh Lake, and for this object you will take charge of the emigrating party and conduct them to that point. Sixteen ox teams, two yoke to each team, will be furnished at Dayton and if possible additional ones at the Grand Ronde. With this number it is believed you will be able to carry all the property belonging to the Indians, the old, infirm and helpless and rations of flour for twelve days. Care should be used and allow the aged and infirm to occupy seats low in the wagon beds, and that they may not be crowded out by able and healthy persons and left to perish on the road. As soon as practicable you will correct the ration list and so arrange that each family will draw from the company the proportion of provisions to which they may be entitled instead of relying upon the chiefs to distribute it. The ration of flour may for the present be one pound per day to each person, not including infants, and one pound of fresh beef to each of the same class, together with a reasonable quantity of salt. The flour will be furnished you on the way and at Grand Ronde; from thence you will cause its transportation in the baggage wagons to your encampment on the coast. The beef cattle will be driven along by Mr. Fuller & Stewart and slaughtered from time to time as you may want.
    It is desirable to throw the subsistence of these Indians upon their own exertions and resources as far as possible and for this end you will seek to induce them as soon as they reach the reservation to contribute something by way of hunting, fishing, gathering berries, roots &c. The object is to locate those people at or near Siletz River, but for a first encampment and until the arrival of other bands they may be placed at any point deemed by you suited to their condition and the convenience of attaining to ensure peace and good order.
    Lieut. Hazen with a detachment of twenty U.S. troops will accompany you to the coast, and you will cooperate with that officer in such arrangements relative to travel, encampments and the general government of the emigrating party as will best tend to promote peace, ensure good order and facilitate the removal of those Indians. Mr. Wm. Chance will accompany you and act as commissary and aid you in all proper duties; he will be regarded as assistant conductor and remain with you until further instructed. You will retain two yoke of cattle which with the wagon now at the mouth of Salmon River will enable you to transmit your supplies and do other hauling at that point. The balance of the teams you will cause to return immediately. Mr. Jeffries will be instructed to examine the country north of Salmon River. You will render him such assistance as to enable him to fulfill his mission. Should Capt. Rinearson arrive at or near your camp before my arrival you will inform him that it is my wish to have the Coquilles placed south of Siletz River--but for a temporary encampment it is not material as to the particular point; he will remain with them until my arrival or until further advised. The flour turned over to you has been purchased by direction from this office; you will therefore sign and forward me duplicate receipts and be particular in your distributions and secure accurate provision returns. You will call upon Sub-Agent Raymond for axes and other tools to use in perfecting the wagon road, receipting to him for the same. The beef delivered you by Mr. Fuller and Stewart as per contract will be certified to by you, showing the quantity slaughtered each day, and at the end of each month a certificate given by you of the aggregate amount used during the month. Monthly returns of provisions issued, properly certified to and witnessed, must be forwarded in duplicate to this office. You will keep me advised of matters at short intervals.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        [Joel Palmer]
To
    C. M. Walker Esq.
        Conductor & Local Agt.
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 177-179.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1162-1165.



U.S. Atty's. Office
    Portland July 2, 1856
Dear Sir,
    With this I send you my report in the matter of the claim made by Anson Dart.
    I endeavored to obtain the information requisite to enable me to arrive at an opinion without traveling to Oregon City, but did not succeed. I have, therefore, made a bill or a/c for services &c., which I enclose, presuming no objection will be made to the payment thereof. If this is a species of service required by the govt. of its officers without making them compensation, I must be content.
    You will find I report against the allowance of Dart's claim. I don't know the man personally, but from what I can glean respecting his official and private transactions in Oregon, he must have defrauded the govt. of a large sum of money by false and fraudulent charges and vouchers.
Yours respty.
    W. H. Farrar
        U.S. Atty.
Gen. Joel Palmer
     Dayton O.T.
   

United States Attys. Office
    Portland Oregon
        July 2nd 1856
Sir:
    Your communication of the 14th of May, enclosing sundry papers respecting a claim preferred by Anson Dart, growing out of the action Brewster vs. Dart, was duly received. With this I return you those papers. I have made as thorough an examination of the case as is possible, and have arrived at the conclusion that the claim made upon the government by Dart is not meritorious, and ought not to be paid in whole or in part.
    The transcript of the record exhibits that this action was entered in court at March term 1853. The pleadings were made up, and the cause tried at the entry term.
    The jury rendered a verdict for the plaintiff, Brewster, for the sum of $2496.24. Deft. Dart moved for a new trial. The court granted the motion, but based upon grounds I regard as erroneous.
    Dart applied at this stage of the case for a continuance, and obtained it. The next term of the court was in Oct. 1853. Dart was not ready for trial and moved for a continuance, which the court overruled, and Deft. excepted. Subsequently, at the same term, Dart renewed his motion and succeeded in obtaining a continuance of the action.
    The transcript of the record does not show that any action was had by either party at the spring or autumn terms of the court. An examination of the papers in the case, on file in the clerk's office, shows that the case was called for trial at the March term 1854. Dart then procured another continuance.
    At the autumn term (1854) Dart again had a continuance of the action.
    At March term 1855 this case was dismissed, and an entry was made that each party should pay his own costs.
    I assign the following reasons for the conclusion at which I have arrived.
    In answering Brewster's declaration in the writ, Dart should have pleaded that he, in his official capacity, employed the Pltf. to the work made the subject matter of the suit. This he did not do. He pleaded the general issue, payment &c., thus admitting his individual liability, so far as the pleadings, if a jury should find against him.
    In a letter of Dart to Amory Holbrook, of Sept. 28th, 1852, he declares that "Brewster did the work of building the house under a contract. The Pltf.'s declaration, and Deft.'s answer, negated this statement.
    At the trial of the action at March term 1853, Mr. Dart did not attempt to prove a contract with Brewster to build the house, but maintained he had paid Pltf. for the full value of the work.
    In the same letter to Holbrook, Dart asserts that the contract price agreed for the work was two thousand dollars.
    In his answer or plea he fails to set up this as a defense.
    This letter to Holbrook I have seen--it was written by Dart.
    In September 1852 Dart proposed in writing to submit the whole matter in dispute to three disinterested men, to be chosen in the usual manner.
    His proposition was accepted, and he then declined to fulfill the proposition.
    I understand Dart to have represented to the Indian Bureau that he has paid the costs made in this suit. This is not true. A portion of the taxable costs have not yet been paid.
    In March 1853 some ten dollars of costs were paid, which I find were paid for and on account of Brewster. Dart has not paid any legal, taxable costs--not one dollar.
    A large proportion of the costs in this case were created by Dart, and at those terms of court when he was wholly unprepared for trial and applied for continuances.
    The papers--the writs of subpoena--show that he was grossly negligent and dilatory in procuring the attendance of his witness, generally delaying the matter until after the commencement of the several terms of court.
    I have endeavored to find Brewster, in order to obtain from him copies of letters and orders sent him by Dart, but am unable to find him. He left the country, as I learn, before the dismissal of the action.
    Among the papers on file in the case I find a letter from Dart to Brewster, of which the following is a copy:
Washington 7th May 1852       
Dear Sir:
    Yours of the 4th inst. is recd. I cannot tell you when I shall get ready to leave for Oregon, but hope to do so by the 24th of this month. As soon as the deficiency bill passes I shall be off. I can give you some money before I leave New York.
Very respectfully yours
    Anson Dart
    The following are copies of two orders on file in the clerk's office.
Oregon City
    27th April 1851
Dear Sir:
    You will please send by the bearer the bundle of hardware and the box of axes.
Respectfully
    Anson Dart
C. Brewster Esq.
    Opposite Milwaukie
Oregon City 14th April 1851       
Charles Brewster Esq.
    Will please deliver to the bearer all the white lead except two 100-lb. kegs. Deliver two bbls. of oil and the small bundle of hardware if you have it.
Respectfully
    Anson Dart
   
    Brewster seems to have been in the service of Dart as a sort of general agent. I entertain no doubt of the indebtedness of Dart to Brewster, and probably the finding of the jury was as near correct as it is possible to ascertain the sum of such indebtedness.
    Dart seems to have been engaged in merchandising while in this country, and his official and individual business transactions seem to me to have been very improperly blended at times.
    I find and report against the allowance of his claim for compensation.
    Enclosed I send you a letter from Mr. Holbrook.
I am resptly &c.
    W. H. Farrar
        U.S. Atty. for
            Dist of Oregon
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 869-875.  Copy on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 269.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Dayton O.T.
        July 3rd 1856
Sir
    Referring to my letter of June 23rd, I have now the honor to submit a report of my doings in the late trip to Port Orford.
    You were previously advised of my intention to visit that district of country, in order, if possible, to induce the Indians inhabiting that region to come to terms and close the war in Southern Oregon. Previous to leaving for that district, I directed sub-Indian Agent Metcalfe to take with him two Indians of the Rogue River tribe, then at the Grand Ronde, to act as messengers, and proceed to the Rogue River Valley, and, if possible, have an interview with George and Limpy, two noted war chiefs, with directions to meet me with their people at Port Orford. He was then to proceed to Illinois Valley and confer with old chief John, the reputed leading war chief of Southern Oregon, and if possible to induce him and his band to meet the other tribes at Port Orford, and go with them to the Coast Reservation.
    I took passage on the steamer Columbia on the 14th ult., accompanied by W. H. Wright as messenger, and arrived at Port Orford on the 16th.
    Colonel Buchanan, in command of the regular troops operating in that district, had been absent some time, and for several days no intelligence had been received as to his whereabouts, and as it was expected that a pack train would be in for supplies within a few days, and [with] the uncertainty of finding the command, I determined to await the arrival of the train, and made use of the time in conferring with the Indians assembled at Port Orford and sending messengers to scattering bands who had not been engaged in hostilities. A considerable number of the Lower Coquille bands had been once induced to come in, but by the meddlesome interference of a few squaw men and reckless disturbers of the peace, they were frightened and fled the encampment. A party of miners and others, who had collected at Port Orford, volunteered, pursued and attacked those Indians near the mouth of Coquille, killing fourteen men and one woman, and taking a few prisoners. This was claimed by them as a battle, notwithstanding no resistance was made by the Indians. A portion of this band were yet in the mountains, and the Upper Coquilles were nearly all at their old homes or skulking in that vicinity. Before my arrival Agt. Olney had sent messengers to those bands, and information had been recd. that those living near the coast were coming in. I dispatched messengers to all the upper bands, and on the 22nd they came into camp and expressed a willingness to remain at any point which might be designated. In reply to questions asked those who had previously been there and fled why they left, [they] replied that they were told that one object in getting them there was to put them to death. This impression, by them, appeared to be very well verified, for among the number who first surrendered of this band were two Indians who had been charged with participating in the murder of two white men two years previous. The citizens demanded their arrest. One was taken and delivered to Lieut. Macfeely, commandant at Port Orford, and was put by him in the guard house; the other made his escape. A few days after, Agt. Olney requested the lieut. to permit him to take the Indian before a civil officer for examination, which request was complied with, when the Indian was turned over by the agt. to a mass meeting of the people assembled for that purpose, tried, condemned and immediately executed, by hanging. (It is proper, however, to state that the Indian is alleged to have confessed his guilt through an interpreter and very likely deserved death, but that could give no justification for the act of the agt. in turning him over and aiding a mob in thus unlawfully condemning and executing him. [I will in another communication advert to the acts of this agent and suggest such action as I think the public service requires.])
    On the 20th the pack train from Col. Buchanan's command arrived at Port Orford, but did not leave before the 24th. I availed [myself of] the opportunity to accompany the escort with this train as far as the mouth of Rogue River, when, with Agt. Olney, W. H. Wright, S. L. McPherson and three Port Orford Indians, we proceeded in advance to the point on Illinois River said to be Col. Buchanan's camp. This we reached, over a mountain trail, on the morning of the 27th, but found the camp deserted. Following down the river to its junction with Rogue River we found a part of the col.'s command.
    Whilst encamped on Illinois River, Col. B. had succeeded in inducing the chiefs of all the bands in Southern Oregon engaged in hostilities, including old John's, George's and Limpy's, to come into council, where, with the exception of John's band, all had agreed to come in, give up their arms, and go to the reservation. John was willing to make peace, but would not agree to leave his country, but would live and die in it. An agreement was made by which Capt. Smith and Lieut. Sweitzer, with their companies, were to meet George's, Limpy's, Cow Creeks, and Galice Creek bands in four days at the Big Bend of Rogue River and escort them to the northern end of the Coast Reservation by way of Fort Lane. Other companies were to meet at the coast, and some of the Rogue River bands at a point near the Mikonotunne village, six miles below the mouth of Illinois River, and escort them to the Coast Reservation by way of Port Orford. In accordance with this arrangement, Capt. Smith and Lieut. Sweitzer went to the point indicated and Capt. Augur proceeded in the direction to the lower encampment. Major Reynolds was ordered to take the trail leading to Port Orford, expecting to meet Capt. Ord with the pack train of supplies and escort them to a point where the trails diverge to the respective encampments, with a view of forwarding supplies to the different companies.
    The colonel had accompanied Capt. Augur's company to the top of the mountain, where a messenger informed him of my arrival at the river camp and that the pack train had taken another trail. This rendered it necessary that he should change his plans, which he done, by ordering the companies of Major Reynolds & Capt. Smith back. About this time a messenger from Capt. Smith's camp informed him that they expected an attack from the Indians in that quarter. The messenger was sent back and the Col.'s or Capt. Augur's companies returned to (opposite) the mouth of Illinois River, which is some 7 miles below the Big Bend, or Capt. Smith's encampment. This point was reached at sunset. In the evening quite a number of canoes filled with Indians came up the river, many of whom appeared anxious to pass on to the Big Bend; others were merely wishing to fish; others desired to inform the upper bands of my arrival, &c. A guard was placed at the river bank and none allowed to pass up; quite a number remained with us through the night. In the morning we had a talk with the Port Orford Indians, from whom we learned that John had about one hundred warriors, who had resolved upon attacking Capt. Smith's command, but as there were about ninety men in the two companies with a howitzer no uneasiness was felt as to their safety. On the morning of the 28th Capt. Augur was directed to open a trail up the river to the Big Bend, but soon after he left, the messenger, who had the day previous returned to Capt. Smith's camp, arrived and reported that those companies were and had been during the night engaged in a fight with the Indians, that the camp was entirely surrounded by them, and that he was unable to approach it. Capt. Augur was immediately recalled and directed to take two days' rations and proceed to reinforce Capt. Smith. With Agt. Olney & W. H. Wright I accompanied Capt. Augur, reaching the Big Bend at 4 o'clock, p.m., where we found the Indians assembled to the number of perhaps two hundred, and the camp entirely surrounded. A charge was made by Capt. Augur, & the Indians gave way, when Lieut. Sweitzer charged those in the rear of his camp, driving them from their position, and the rout became general. The Indians left the field, when the camp was moved to a more eligible position. The engagement had lasted about 36 hours, the last twelve of which the army was without water. Seven men and one Indian ally were killed and eighteen men wounded, one of which mortally up to the time of our arrival. In the charges made by Capt. Augur two men were killed and three wounded. Previous to the engagement two women, wives of Chief Elijah, who is now with Sam's band on the Grand Ronde Reservation, came into Capt. Smith's camp and remained during the entire siege. On the morning of the 29th I sent those two women as messengers to George and Limpy to advise them to come in and comply with the demand made by Col. Buchanan. They returned on the same day with an Indian on horseback who desired an interview with me. I met him outside of camp. He finally came in, and I sent by him a message to George and Limpy, as the women had failed seeing them, but brought a report that the volunteers had attacked their camp, killed George and several others, and had taken several women and children prisoners; but later in the day one of those said to have been killed came with my messenger, who returned and informed me that George had made his escape, but that "one man and one woman had been killed, and one man wounded, and that George and Limpy would be here tomorrow." On the morning of the 30th a messenger was sent to the Cow Creeks, another to the Galice Creeks, and to John's band.
    In the evening George and Limpy with their people came into camp, gave up their guns, and submitted as prisoners of war. They denied being in the recent engagement, and said they would have been in sooner, but John threatened if they attempted it he would shoot them. On the 31st Major Latshaw, with one hundred and fifty volunteers, reached the Big Bend, from the Meadows and remained until the 1st June and then returned. They had taken a number of women and children prisoners. I requested that they might be turned over to me, as the men to whom the women and children belonged were prisoners in our camp. This was denied, with an avowal, on the part of the major, [that] they should not leave his command until they were turned over to his superior officer, and declared that if they attempted to make their escape, or if they (his company) were attacked by other Indians, he would put them all to death, he alleging also in his conversation that the same bands which we were then getting in might have been got in three months ago upon the same conditions that they were coming into us, but that their orders were to take no prisoners.
    On the 9th Genl. Lamerick, in command of the volunteers, arrived at the Big Bend, bringing the women and children previously taken by Major Latshaw, accompanied by Sub-Agt. Metcalfe and the two Indians from the reservation. On Genl. Lamerick's arrival at the Meadows, from which he had been absent some time, he turned those prisoners over to Mr. Metcalfe, and on reaching the Big Bend they were immediately placed under the care of Col. Buchanan with other bands, which had numbered by this time two hundred and sixty five souls.
    On the 2nd of June Major Reynolds and Capt. Augur were directed with their companies to follow down the river as far as the mouth of Illinois [River], and retain possession of that post and collect any scattering Indians which might be found in that vicinity. These companies were accompanied by Capt. Bledsoe & his company of volunteers, who had been operating along the coast between Port Orford and Chetco. Major Reynolds was to remain at the mouth of Illinois River, Capt. Augur to pass down the north, and Capt. Bledsoe down the south bank of Rogue River to the Indian village below, and after interrogating them as to their feelings and intentions in relation to coming under the arrangement with Col. Buchanan & if evidence of a refusal so to do was apparent, they were to attack them. Otherwise they were to receive them in accordance with previous arrangements. Statements of Indians then in our camp went to show that a considerable number of the bands down the river were engaged in the fight against Capt. Smith, and that they had determined upon violating the pledge given Col. Buchanan at Oak Flats on Illinois River. About 5  miles below the Big Bend of Rogue River is a village of Cistocootes [Shasta Scoton] Indians, who were understood to be among the number recently engaged against Capt. Smith, but who professedly had gone below to await the arrival of Capt. Augur. Upon arriving at the village the advance of these detachments discovered a few Indians on an island in the river who, upon being called to, attempted to flee, when they were fired upon, and three Indians and one woman [were] killed; the others made their escape down the river. The village was then burned and the troops proceeded to the mouth of Illinois River, where they remained during the night. On the 3rd, Capts. Augur and Bledsoe proceeded as before indicated, and upon reaching the Indian encampment a few were seen in canoes, who were hailed, but sought to make their escape; a fire was opened upon them by Capt. Augur's company, and in a few minutes a general attack was made upon the encampment, the Indians fleeing into the river and attempting to cross, but were met by Capt. Bledsoe's company of volunteers. Fourteen Indians were killed in this attack & a number (men, women and children) were supposed to be drowned in their attempt to escape, being at the head of a long rapid in the river, which was very rocky and rough. Very little resistance was made by the Indians; no one of the companies receiving the least wound from them. Capt. Augur then proceeded to the camp designated as the point to receive the Indians (having sent a messenger directing them when and where to meet the camp.)
    On the 10th, Col. Buchanan moved his entire camp in the direction of Port Orford, escorting the Indians who at that date had collected to the number of 277 souls. (In the meantime, having recd. information that considerable excitement existed among the citizens & Indians at Port Orford, and having a general stampede among those Indians, I directed Agt. Olney on the 6th to return to that point.) Leaving the command of Col. Buchanan, I proceeded and joined that of Capt. Bledsoe. On the evening of the 10th, a part of the Indians had already come in and delivered up their arms. On the 11th additional messengers were sent, and on the morning of the 12th, 421 Indians had joined Capt. Augur's camp. This, with the 277, made an aggregate of 698 souls, which on the 13th took up the line of march to Port Orford. Whilst at Capt. Augur's camp, two sons of old chief John came in to ascertain the condition upon which his band would be received. By them I sent a message reiterating the conditions offered by Col. Buchanan, and explaining to them the advantage likely to accrue to the tribe by yielding to the terms, which were to come and go to the Coast Reservation under an escort of U.S. troops. The young men (John's sons) agreed to use their influence to induce this band to come in, and to give the chief the benefit of a full knowledge of the treatment extended to the Rogue River Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation. One of the messengers who came with Mr. Metcalfe from the Grand Ronde, and with whom the old chief was intimately acquainted, was sent to have an interview with him. The impression of this messenger was that John and his entire band would come in, and a day was fixed for them to repair to the mouth of Rogue River, a point to which Major Reynolds, Capt. Jones, and Lieut. Drysdale with their respective companies were respectively directed to repair and meet them and the Chetcos, Pistol River band, and a few of those residing along Rogue River, below the Cosotoul village. These bands with those already surrendered comprise the entire hostile parties in Southern Oregon. The encampment of John's party was said to be in the forks below Illinois and Rogue rivers a distance, owing to the nature of the country requiring from 4 to 6 days to go and return with their people to the point indicated. Having adjusted these matters, I returned with my party to Port Orford, where I found the people, Ind. agt. and Indians equally jealous and suspicious of each other. A few Indian women claimed by white men had circulated a report that spies were in the habit of coming from Rogue River and visiting the Indian encampment at Port Orford during the night, and that a plot had been matured by which they were to attack and destroy first the town and next the garrison, and that these Indians had proceeded up the coast for the purpose of effecting a combination among the Coos Bay and Umpqua Indians. Agt. Olney appeared so well satisfied of the truth of this report that he reported the matter to me by express messenger, and had sent an express up the coast to Sub-Agent Drew informing him of the matter and reporting that a volunteer company, which had been stationed at Coos Bay, and which had previously made application to me tendering their services to aid in removing the Indians (see paper marked A), and which services I had refused to accept, and recommended a dismissal of (see paper B), should not be disbanded as their services doubtless would be required. This matter had somewhat subsided, and matters remained comparatively  quiet until after the arrival of Col. Buchanan with his command and the Indian prisoners, when the lovers of excitement succeeded in creating another fresh one, which for a time seemed to threaten abortion to all hopes of effecting a reconciliation. Upon this occasion I visited the Indians' encampment, collected the chiefs, explained to them the report that I had heard, and requested them that they would deliver themselves unconditionally to me and go to the fort and remain during the night said to be fixed upon for the attack. They consented without hesitation. In the morning they were allowed to return to their camp. Very many believed a plan had been arranged among these tribes to cut off the garrison and town and cooperate with those in the field, but I am satisfied the whole thing was concocted by evil-disposed persons to cause a stampede among the Indians, and as a mutual fear existed between the parties, a trifling report caused the alarm. Fearing that similar and more serious and successful efforts would be made to cause a rupture with these bands, and the fact that quite a number were unable from old age and sickness to travel by land, and the absence of the necessary means to transport provisions for so great a number of Indians, I deemed it better to transport [them] by steamer to Portland, thence by river boats to Dayton, from whence they could be transported by teams belonging to the Department to the coast. Another consideration inducing this step was the limited amount of rations at Port Orford and the delay and great expense attending its procurement. The slow rate at which we should have had to travel with this band would have required nearly one month to reach the destined encampment. Rations for that time would necessarily have to be transported, the cost of which alone would have been no inconsiderable amount.
    The passage here from Port Orford was agreed upon at ten dollars per head (usual steerage fare twenty dollars), not counting infants, which fare was to include rations and the transportation of baggage. They were put on board in a hurry and their number could not accurately be taken, but were estimated at six hundred; a subsequent enumeration gives seven hundred and ten souls (199 men, 266 women, 127 boys,  118 girls--ninety five of the boys & girls are infants.)
    The passage fare from Portland to Oregon City was five hundred dollars, and from thence to Dayton five hundred and fifty dollars.
    With the exception of the Upper Coquille bands, all those who have been congregated at Port Orford during the war came up on the steamer, as did also the Euchres and a part of the Joshutes, Mikonotunnes, Techaquit, Klauttaltes, Tututni, Cosatomy, Scotons and Cow Creek Umpquas.
    These bands have been engaged in the late hostilities, and a few had taken a very active part in the murder of our citizens and burning and destroying property at the commencement of hostilities in the war of Rogue River. They had, however, yielded & given up their arms and submitted as prisoners of war, with a pledge from the military officers of a sate conduct to the reservation.
    Very many of those people were in a very destitute condition, their property and effects being chiefly burned with their villages. This consideration had, doubtless, its effect in inducing them to submit to terms. Those who had remained friendly and stationed at Port Orford, owing to the confinement and entire absence of means to obtain clothing, were destitute of essential articles to appear decent, much less comfortable. The goods given them at the time of the treaty had nearly all disappeared, and very many of the bands were nearly in a state of nudity. Upon arriving at Portland I purchased such goods as their necessities required and demanded, directing their shipment to Dayton, where they are now being distributed to the individual members of the families. The non-arrival of a part of their goods will prevent their departure to the coast before Monday the 7th. They are generally in good health and appear well pleased with the trip, but anxious to reach the point of destination, to see their future home. In coming up the coast the steamer had neared the beach along the upper line of the reservation, and the appearance of the country appeared to give them great satisfaction & encouragement. They viewed the point designated as their home with great interest and appeared well pleased with its prospects. They obeyed cheerfully every requirement, and if the proper interest is shown we have nothing to fear from these people.
    It is expected that such of those left at Port Orford and those that may come in who are unable to travel by land on foot will be sent up by steamer, the expense being less than to hire animals to be used for such service. Prior to my leaving home, I directed Capt. Rinearson with a party of eight men to proceed by land to Port Orford, taking with him horses to transport provisions and aid in removing Indians to the reservation; he was at the point in due time, where I left him to take charge of and remove the upper bands of Coquilles; they were to have started on the 30th ult. Col. Buchanan contemplated forwarding different detachments in the direction of the reservation as soon as those bands were collected.
    The first effort made to induce the Indians to come up by steamer was met by great opposition, but when told that I would accompany them and that the trip would be performed in so short a time, and this mode contrasted with the time and hardships attending the trip up the trail, they yielded, and a greater number came than I had at first designed taking.
    A difference of opinion may be entertained as to the kind of treatment the prisoners should receive at our hands. It is evident to me that a proper discrimination should be made between them and those who have remained friendly. The degree of guilt in instigating the insurrection and the part each took in the first outrages perpetrated against our people should also be taken into consideration.
    The importance of closing this war before the periodical drought, which would enable the enemy, with comparative little risk to themselves, to destroy entire settlements, and the great difficulty in prosecuting a war against such a people in a mountainous region, may be regarded as justifying less stringent measures with the enemy than many would deem proper.
    The future management of these Indians and the maintenance of peace hereafter should not be lost sight of in the adoption of measures for the present.
    The unconditional surrender of these Indians to Col. Buchanan had, coupled with it, a condition that they were to go to the Coast Reservation under an escort of U.S. troops, and that of course implied protection. A detail of what was to follow, of course, was not discussed, and the arrest and trial of all the leaders in the attack last made could not be construed by us as a breach of faith, but it would doubtless be implied by some as such. An example, however, made of some of the principal leaders by a trial and punishment would undoubtedly have a salutary influence, but if such were contemplated, that examination and trial, in my opinion, should be made by the Military Department prior to their removal to and location on the reservation. If they refuse to surrender upon conditions that they shall give up their leaders for trial and punishment, it is good evidence that they are not whipped. If they are received without any such expressed conditions, but upon terms which they construe as overlooking the past, it will undoubtedly require additional military force for a few years to ensure their good conduct. An entire reparation from whites, except such as are employed in the service, with discreet, just, and proper agents to constantly watch over them, may reduce them to a state of quietude and order.
    I have the honor
        to remain
            Your obedient servant,
                Joel Palmer
                    Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny,
        Commissioner Ind, Affrs.
            Washington City
                D. C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency, 1856, frames 782-804.   A few corrections were made from the copy in the Superintendency letter books, NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 167-176.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 784-806.




Headquarters Fort Orford O.T.
    Dist. Southern Oregon Northern Cal.
        July 4th 1856
Orders   )
No. 6     )
    I . . . The war heretofore existing in this District having been closed by the surrender of the several hostile Indian bands, the following distribution of the troops will be made, in obedience to instructions from the Commanding General of the Department.
    Compy. "C" 1st Dragoons, Capt. A. J. Smith, will proceed via Fort Lane to take post at the upper pass to the Coast Reservation, halting long enough at the former Post to allow the necessary arrangements for the change of station to be made, and for the settlement of unfinished public business. Asst. Surgeon C. H. Crane will accompany the command to its new Post and 1st Lieut. N. B. [Nelson Bowman] Sweitzer 1st Dragoons, as far as Fort Lane, where he will turn over his public property to 1st Lieut. E. Underwood 4th Infy., and then from his proper company.
    Compy. "B" 3rd Arty., Capt. E. O. C. Ord, will proceed to Benicia Cal. taking passage on the steamer Columbia on her next downward trip.
    Compy. "F" 4th Infy., Capt. D. Floyd-Jones, will proceed on the Columbia on her next upward trip to escort George and Limpy's bands, and the Lower Rogue River Indians, via Portland, to the Coast Reservation, and having turned them over to the Indian Department will take post at the upper pass.
    Compy. "H" 3rd Arty., Bvt. Major J. F. Reynolds, with the detachment of "E" 4th Infy., 2nd Lieut. J. G. Chandler, 3rd Arty., will move on Wednesday the 9th inst. to escort Old John's band, the Pistol River and Chetco Indians to the Coast Reservation, and they having been turned over to the Indian Department Compy."C" will take post near the mouth of the Siuslaw River. The detachment of Compy. "E," having performed such further escort duty as may be requisite to guard the Indians to their several locations, will rejoin its proper company. Asst. Surgeon J. J. Milhau will accompany the command.
    The sick and wounded, in hospital, will remain at this Post, under the medical care of Asst. Surgeon P. Glisan, until further orders from the Headquarters of the Department. The necessary attendants will be left with them.
    II . . . 1st Lieut. R. Macfeely 4th Infy. A.A.Q.M., will furnish the necessary transportation for the commands of Captains Ord and Floyd-Jones, making a separate contract for the passage fare of the Indians to Portland. Capt. Floyd-Jones will perform the duties of A.A.C.S. & A.A.Q.M. to his command, and furnish transportation from Portland.
    2nd Lieut. G. P. Ihrie will assign the requisite proportions of his pack train to the command of Capt. Smith and Major Reynolds, and as soon as the services of any portion of the hired part can be dispensed with, it will be at once discharged.
    III . . . Until further orders, Compys. "D" 3rd Arty. & "E" 4th Infy. will continue to garrison Fort Jones Cal. and Compy. "D" 4th Infy. Fort Lane O.T. The detachments from the companies now in the field will rejoin their former Posts.
    IIII . . . The commanding officer of the District cannot separate from those troops that have formed his command in the field, without acknowledging his obligations to officers and men for their ready, cheerful and energetic efforts to perform the duties assigned them, which have resulted, under Providence, so creditably to themselves, and beneficially to our country. The result of the campaign is the best evidence of the value of their services.
    He takes this opportunity to return his thanks to the officers of his staff, 2nd Lieut. J. G. Chandler 3rd Arty. A.A.A.G., 1st Lieut. R. Macfeely 4th Infy. A.A.C.S. & A.A.Q.M. at this Depot, 2nd Lieut. G. P. Ihrie 3rd Arty. A.A.C.S. & A.A.Q.M. to the troops in the field, Asst. Surgeon E. H. Crane and J. J. Milhau, on duty in the field, and Asst. Surgeon R. Glisan in charge of the General Hospital, for the prompt and efficient manner in which they discharged their various duties.
    He also takes great pleasure in acknowledging the valuable services of Genl. Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, whose presence in our camp, and judicious exertions contributed, in a great degree, to produce the rapidity with which the various bands of the enemy surrendered themselves.
    To one and all of those who have served with him, the Commanding Officer offers his kindest wishes for their future welfare.
By order of
    Bvt. Lieut. Col. R. C. Buchanan
        J. G. Chandler
            2nd Lt. 3rd Arty.
                A.A.A.S.
To
    Genl. J. Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Oregon Ty.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 849-852.  The original can be found on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, no number.




Requisition
Sir,
1 ⅞ in. hollow auger     2 fine planes                                        
1 ¾  "       do.      do. 2 [illegible] do.
2 ⅞  "   auger bits 3 smoothing planes
2 ¾  "      do.   do. 2 large drawing knives
2 ⅝  "      do.   do. 4 doz. asstd. chisel handles
2 ½  "      do.   do. 2 back saws
2 7/16"   do.   do.
2 ⅜  "      do.   do.
2 5/16"   do.   do.
2 ¼  "      do.   do.
1 saw blade for a fellow saw
2 middle size broad ax
1 claw hammer
6 ¼ in. flat files
1 large iron brace stock
2 2 ft. rule
1 1 in. mortising chisels
1 ½ "        do.           do.
    I certify that the above requisition is correct & justified; the articles specified are absolutely necessary for the public service.
W. W. Raymond
    Sub-Ind. Agt.
Grand Ronde O.T. 3rd July 1856
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 248.



Port Orford O.T.
    July 5th 1856
Sir
    On the seventh day of June last the S.S. Columbia landed at this place seven Indians put on board of her at Crescent City Cal. by Lieut. H. H. Garber U.S.A. Enclosed please find a letter from him upon the subject. He claims to have put eight on board, but one was the wife of a white man. Their passage remains unpaid. J. G. Whipple also puts in a claim for the lighterage of the same Indians to the steamer. He claims nine. One of those he claims was a white man, the husband of one of the squaws. Enclosed please find his letter & the lighterman's bill. That bill is also unpaid. Enclosed please find a letter from Mr. J. S. Rinearson stating the number of pounds of beef he used purchased by you from Daugherty, also the number of Indians collected and turned over to him by Creighton. The voucher from the S.S. Columbia for money paid by Wright for freight on flour in January last has not yet been taken. Enclosed please find a letter to you from G. H. Abbott. I found it lying on my table after you left here.
Very respectfully
    Nathan Olney
        Indian Agent
Gen. Joel Palmer
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 263.




Territory of Oregon   )
Curry County              )   s.s.
    Personally appeared before me, a justice of the peace in and for said county, Capt. Relf Bledsoe of Company "K" 2nd Regt. O.M.V. who being duly sworn says, That on the morning of the 23rd of February last the Indians of Rogue River, both upper and lower, including many coast tribes, commenced the fearful outbreak by which numbers of volunteers & citizens were massacred and within a few hours all the horrors of a savage warfare were upon us--residing in our midst were a few who termed themselves friendly Indians and they with our citizens sought safety in our fort--having no supplies of their own it became necessary from the circumstances for me to order an issue to be made of such supplies as in my judgment they required, believing that the Indian Department would not fail to recognize the necessity of my adopting such a course as would provide for their sustenance during the time they were compelled to remain in the fort, and that the Department would in accordance with the wishes of the Commissary Department of the Territory pay for all subsistence issues made by my order to friendly Indians. And that the accompanying voucher clearly sets forth in detail the pounds and ounces furnished--the dates under which they were issued, and the number of friendly Indians issued to and the price per pound paid for the various articles of subsistence--also having captured on the 14th day of May last some twenty Indian prisoners it became necessary for their subsistence to order the commissary to issue to them such an amount of flour as would subsist them until they were delivered over to the Indian agency at Port Orford as per previous instructions from the Agent at Port Orford and that one hundred & twenty pounds of flour was issued at a cost of twenty-five dollars from the 14th day of May to the 22nd day of May 1856 and that on the 22nd day of May the said prisoners were by my order taken into Port Orford and delivered to the Genl. Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Genl. Joel Palmer, who received them from 1st Lt. Geo. H. Abbott and that on the 20th day of June 1856 having in our possession some Indian prisoners it was necessary for me to order a small issue of flour to be made and that from the 20th to the 25th day of June 1856 there was issued to said prisoners fifty pounds of flour at a cost of ten dollars and that the whole amount of issues as shown by the accompanying voucher to friendly Indians and prisoners  is correct and that the cost of said subsistence issues is two hundred & fifty-eight dollars and twenty-seven cents and further deponent says not.
Relf Bledsoe Capt.
    Commanding Company "K" 2nd
        Rgt. O.M.V.
Subscribed and sworn to before me
this 5th day of July 1856
S. B. Blake
    Justice of the Peace
   

Territory of Oregon   )
Curry County              )   s.s.
    Personally appeared before me, a justice of the peace in and for said county, O. W. Weaver, Commissary "Gold Beach District," who being duly sworn says, That he did at the various times specified in the accompanying voucher furnish to the friendly Indians & prisoners the different articles of subsistence therein enumerated at the several dates and times stated and that the same was given by order of Capt. Relf Bledsoe, commanding Company "K" 2nd Rgt. of Oregon Mounted Volunteers and that he, the said O. W. Weaver, forwarded an account of subsistence thus furnished to the Commissary General and Asst. Commissary General, Oregon Territory, and that instructions were sent him to the effect that if the circumstances required an issue to be made to friendly Indians at that time an account should be presented to the Indian Department asking of said department to repay the amount of supplies furnished friendly Indians as it was no part of the duty of the Commissary Department of Oregon Territory to furnish supplies to Indians unless prisoners of war, and further deponent says not.
O. W. Weaver
    Commissary Gold Beach dist.
Subscribed and sworn to before me
this 5th day of July 1856
S. B. Blake
    Justice of the Peace
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, enclosure to No. 262.



Requisition
  500 pounds coffee
1000    do.     sugar
  300    do.     rice
  150    do.     tea
  300    do.     soap
       5    do.     black pepper
       1  barrel  golden syrup
  200    feet    sm. rope
       1 bundle  ¼ in. round iron
       1     do.    1/16    do.     do.
       1     do.    7/16    do.     do.
    I certify the above requisition is correct and just & that the articles specified are actually necessary for subsistence of employees & Indians for the blacksmith shop &c. at this encampment.
W. W. Raymond
    Sub-Ind. Agt.
Grand Ronde O.T. 7th July 1856
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 251.



Copy.
Headquarters Fort Orford O.T.
    Dist. Southern Oregon to Northern California
        July 7th 1856
Orders   )
  No. 7   )
    Agreeably to instructions received from the Commanding General of the Department, officers commanding the new posts to be established on the Coast Reservation will not permit any white man to go on the reserve, except those who are actually employed by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, who will furnish them with the names of all who are or may be employed in the reserve. All and any persons whose names shall not be furnished to the commanders of the several posts, as above directed, will be forthwith removed.
By order of
    Bvt. Lt. Col. R. C. Buchanan
        J. G. Chandler
            2 Lt. 3rd Artillery
                A.A.A.Genl.
A true copy
    P. H. Sheridan
        2 lt. 4th Infantry
A true copy.
    W. W. Raymond
        Sub-Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, no number.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 847-848.



Fort Orford, O.T. July 8th 1856.       
Dear Sir,
    Allow me to thank you for your kind letter of the 24th ult. which was received by the return of the Columbia, and to congratulate you upon the success of the experiment of sending the Indians by sea, as it has produced a very favorable result. Capt. Floyd-Jones will go up on the steamer this time, with George and Limpy's people, and the remainder of the Lower Rogue River Indians, to follow the same route that Augur's party did, and I trust that they will be equally fortunate in their weather. You will be happy to learn that the war is really closed by the surrender of Old John and all his people on the 29th ult. They arrived here on the 2nd and will leave tomorrow with the Chetcos and Pistol Rivers, or rather with such of these latter scamps as have not stolen off with George, as some of them have done--escorted by Major Reynolds and Lt. Chandler. There are some 10 or 15 Indians, perhaps, scattered about in the woods who have not yet come in, but I shall make an effort to have them collected by Capt. Smith at Fort Lane and taken up by him when he goes. I have forwarded you two of my orders for your information, and hope that you will excuse me for mentioning your name in one of them, as although it cannot be of any service to you, it will at least show my appreciation of your efforts in the common cause. I shall leave here for Benicia in the steamer on her return, having been ordered to report in person to the General, and it will give me pleasure to inform him verbally of the value of your services.
I am, sir, with much respect
    Your obt. servt.
        Robt. C. Buchanan
            Lt. Col. U.S. Army
To
    Genl. Joel Palmer
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 609 Oregon Superintendency 1856, frames 845-846.  The original can be found on NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, no number.



    THE INDIANS IN SOUTH OREGON.--The Oregonian of June 28th says:
    It is said that the Indian war in Southern Oregon is at an end. We hope this is so. If the 600 specimen Indians from that region, which passed through this city last week, under charge of Superintendent Palmer, are the sort of warriors to contend against, we wonder it has lasted so long. They were mostly either old decrepit specimens of the race or filthy squaws and naked children. We noticed but few among the whole number able to bear arms, carry a torch or run away. Our opinion is that these were sent off to enable to real warriors the better to plunder and lay waste the country. This idea of the general government protecting and feeding the lame, halt and blind, to enable the young, athletic, bloodthirsty of the race greater scope of operation and more freedom to rob, murder, burn and steal is a kind of patriotic humanity we cannot fully comprehend.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 9, 1856, page 2




Portland O.Ty.
    July 11th 1856.
Dear Sir,
    I arrived in Portland yesterday, from San Francisco on the Columbia, on my way to your office, but learning you were not at home and my health not being good I have concluded to return to San Francisco. I have partially made out my quarterly returns for the second quarter 1856, and find that I am indebted to the United States to the amount of two hundred and eighteen dollars, which sum I transmit by Mr. Blanchard to your office and request you send me a receipt for the same, either by Mr. Blanchard or by mail to San Francisco. I would like to have the necessary receipts before closing my papers. I also left a horse belonging to the Indian Department with Dr. Westerfield which the Dr. desired to keep, for which I did not take Mr. Metcalfe's receipt. The Dr. wanted the control of the horse and I left him with him (the little grey Culver horse). If you are cognizant of the fact I would like your receipt for him. The other articles of property belonging to the government which was in my possession I left in charge of Jno. Swinden, who is occupying my claim during my absence. They were left subject to your order. If any defect or errors should be found in any of my papers you will please address me at San Francisco, where I will be pleased to make any explanations that may be required, or correct any errors that my have occurred. I am unable to say how long I shall remain in San Francisco, but I will inform you of my address when I leave. I shall probably go to the States from there, at least that is my intention at present. As soon as my health will permit of it, but probably not before the latter part of August or the first of September.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        G. H. Ambrose
            Ind. Agt.
Joel Palmer Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 253.



Empire City Coos Co.
    O.T. July 12, 1856.
E. P. Drew Esq.
    Dear Sir
        Yours of July 6th is received, and contents noted. You ask a statement from me in regard to the proposed extension of the Indian reserve so as to embrace the mouth of the Umpqua River as far up as its junction with Smith's River and thence along the latter to the point where the southern boundary of the reserve as it is now located crosses said stream. I am of the opinion that the alteration as proposed will be productive of good results. The Indians who formerly inhabited this region (Coos Bay), as also the coast tribes of the Umpqua and ""Siuslaw," have already obtained a large portion of their salmon from the falls on Upper Smith's River. They also hunt extensively during certain seasons of the year for bear and elk in the region contiguous to this stream. The small neck of land running down to the mouth of the Umpqua, which is proposed to be taken into this reserve by the alteration, can never be of much value to white settlers, while the extension of the reserve will give to the Indians their old fisheries at the mouth of the Umpqua as also the natural communication by water to their best hunting and fishing grounds on Smith's River.
    I have been intimately acquainted since 1850 with the habits of the Indians located on this portion of the coast, and their mode and manner of obtaining a living. The necessity of the proposed alteration must be perfectly apparent to any person at all acquainted with the several localities.
In haste yours truly
    Amos E. Rogers
    Mr. Rogers having submitted the above for my perusal, allow me to say that the views expressed are in accordance with my own, and meet my fullest concurrence.
Yours
    Saml. S. Mann
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 14; Letters Received, 1856, No. 279.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 13th 1856
Sir
    Your letter of the 12th inst. by the hand of Mr. Brown has been received. I have only to say that it is important that your train depart and arrive at its destination at the earliest moment so that we may have the use of the teams, which you will forward back at once.
    729 Indians came up on the last steamer, all of whom will go to the coast, but portions of them may ultimately be located along Salmon River. Col. Buchanan informs me that Old John and his people, and all the other bands along the coast, have come in and are to start the next day after the date of his letter on their way up the coast. He states, however, that 10 or 12 have skulked into the woods, but an effort will be made to get them in. Capt. Jones with fifty-five men came up with these Indians and are to be located at the Grand Ronde. You speak of Sambo, he is to go to the coast, peaceably if you can, but forcefully if you must, and if it requires force call upon the military and take him in chains and do not let him free very soon. An example of disobedience will doubtless have a good effect, and I know of no one more richly deserving it than he; he was in the last fight and is a vicious and crabby fellow and may do great harm. Call upon him quietly, and if he refuses to go take him if it requires all the force at the Grand Ronde. The appeals of the whole Rogue River tribe must not deter you from taking this man. It has been told him that he must go, and I shall not falsify my word, but be discreet; at the same time use no soft soap. I dwell upon this rather because he is the first Indian who has openly violated and disregarded my orders, and to yield in this instance would be the beginning of an evil harm.
    I shall be over on the coast as soon as possible; in the meantime maintain peace, keep good order and get along with as little expense to the government as possible. Inform me as to the amount of flour and other articles required from time to time--I shall send over nails, tools &c. so as to build houses. Encourage them to erect some good houses. No intelligence from Washington.
Respectfully yours
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    C. M. Walker Esq.
        Local Ind. Agent
            Conductor
                Grand Ronde
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 182.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 13th 1856
Sir,
    The steamer came up on Thursday last bringing another batch of coast & Rogue River Indians only, 729 souls. I went down on Friday to Portland not supposing that the steamer would be in before Saturday, but before I reached that point they had left for Oregon City, whence I proceeded and came here yesterday. We will not be able to leave here before Thursday next, and if you have any teams that can be spared I wish you to send them down.The train under Walker will of course start tomorrow, and I wish everything done to facilitate his movement. These will follow as soon as possible. It is highly impolitic to keep them any length of time at the Grand Ronde, as we have a few now there that will sour their minds and make them discontented.
    I know of but one man likely to give Walker trouble, [and] that is Sambo, and he must be taken along easily and quietly if possible but forcefully and if necessary in chains. Try and prevent our Willamette Indians from interfering with these coast people. You must try and settle matters among Indians so as not to embarrass me on my coming to the agency. This system of putting off things for others to settle or postponing it to another time is only calculated to embarrass the whole policy. It is the business of the agent to attend to these little matters and not encourage them to run to the Superintendent for redress. It has arrived to a pitch that indicates a disposition to embarrass and annoy me and materially cripple other and more important duties. I am not unmindful of their wants and know how important it is to conciliate their feelings and redress their grievances, and am always willing to listen to their complaints and suggest remedies, but these duties are not to be attended to to the exclusion of all others. I am informed that Mr. Black is attending to the store of Taylor instead of doing the business for which he is engaged. This you will inquire into and see that the business of farming is properly attended to on that farm, and if there is an appearance of neglect on his part advise me at once that another may be employed. Inform me whether the wagon maker has left. You are not to pay any of the expenses connected with the removal of these Indians, hire of teamsters &c., but the supplying of tools, smithing, teams &c. will be furnished as far as possible. The system giving orders on the trader to pay Indians for services against their will will be disallowed. If they desire the goods in payment, this may be done, but they are not to be forced into the purchase of articles at higher rates than elsewhere by an arrangement which would appear as though the agent sought to cooperate with the merchant. Every reasonable inducement should be given to encourage laboring, but the necessity of its performance in producing something for the benefit of the Indians should be a primary consideration. The getting [of] berries now in the season should be encouraged. It would be well to send down a team for the coffee, grain cradles &c. The articles as per requisitions have not been purchased, but the bills will be sent down immediately, say on Tuesday.
Respectfully yours
    [Joel Palmer]
To
    W. W. Raymond Esq.
        Sub-Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde
                O.T.
P.S.  It must be borne in mind that not one dime's expense must be incurr