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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1857
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.
   

Click here for Superintendency correspondence 1844-1900.



Grand Ronde Agency
    Jany. 1st 1857
Capt. A. F. Hedges
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir
            I send you by your messenger Mr. Brown my report of sick & if he had been two days later I would have been able to have sent you my property return, with explanations of particular expenditures.
    I am satisfied that there is an influence operating with a view of creating an impression unfavorable to me in regard to the manner in which I have discharged my official duties. If such be the fact I know your sense of justice will induce a suspension of opinion until you receive a full official account of my acts.
    A war has been waged against my brother & Mr. Coburn with a view of making vacancies for their favorites, and for the purpose of gratifying a personal pique against them & myself.
    They have influenced Mr. Miller to recommend my brother's removal for reasons that affects his reputation & which if true should drive him & Mr. Coburn from the reservation in disgrace.
    No intimation was given by Mr. Miller of being dissatisfied with them until after he had executed punishment, then he gives an opportunity for explanations, which I am satisfied has convinced Mr. Miller that he has done them very great injustice. I am confident he has been made the victim of a most vile & wicked conspiracy, and I think I am justified in demanding a full & fair investigation of the changes preferred. We recognize the right & we should not complain of its exercise--of giving the preference to personal favorites--but if done at the expense of reputation, it becomes another matter altogether. When Mr. Coburn returns he will, I have no doubt, join with my brother in demanding an investigation into the matter, and I am confident you will give them a patient hearing.
Very truly
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. G. Henry
P.S. I learn this evening that Mr. Miller has certified to Mr. Strang's beef account in which the hospital is charged $2000 for the past month. This is "soup material" in the shape of the shanks, which was distributed to the "sick in camp." My property return explains the matter fully. Without explanation it looks like a most extravagant expenditure of beef to feed on an average about 10 persons daily.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 5.




Abstract of Indians now on the reservation that was engaged in the late Indian War in Southern Oregon
Men Women Boys Girls Total
John, Shasta Chief 12 22   7 14 55
Joe, Klamath Chief 13 19 10 10 52
George's Band 18 30 15 18 85
Limpy's Band 17 25   6   5 53
Grave Creeks   5 14   4   7 30
Upper Applegates   8 21   8   8 45
Lower Applegates 17 22   7    9 55
Cow Creeks 10 15   5   7 57
Galice Creeks   8 15   7   8 40
Indians brought in by J. McKay
Cow Creeks    2    5   1   4 10
Galice Creeks 10 11   3   7 31
Umpquas   4 11   6   7 25
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, enclosure to No. 4.



Monthly Report of Grand Ronde Hospital
For the Month of January 1857
Character of Disease Remaining on Hand Received into Hospital Discharged Cured Remaining in Hospital Total Prescriptions for Outside Patients Total Number Outside Patients Total Deaths in Hospital Total Deaths in Camp
Consumption 1 2 1 7 2
Acute Pneumonia 1 4 4 1 43   18   5
Chronic Pneumonia 1 1 30   14   1
Dysentery or Flux 34   27   2
Chronic Hepatitis 11   11  
Diseased Joints 1 1 1 1 12   4
Rheumatism 1 2 2 1 47   21  
Acute Bronchitis 1 1 51   22   1
Chronic Bronchitis 21   9
Sore Eyes 82   47  
Catarrh or Cold 127     96  
Intermittent Fever 1 1 2 13   13  
Typhoid Fever 3 3 45   21   6
Typhus Fever 2 2 7 3 4
Burns 5 3
Old Ulcers 2 2 19   11  
Syphilis 2 2 4 28   15   1
Gonorrhea 1 1 66   65  
Scrofula 11   5
Abscess 1 1 1 1 2 1
Diarrhea 23   23    
Secondary Syphilis 1 1
Wounds                                                        
    Totals 8 23   23   7 685     434     1 23  
Remarks
    Not more than one third of the number of patients have been treated in hospital this month that there were last month, but the average number on hand has been about the same, the cases being of a more chronic character. The number of patients prescribed for outside is about the same, and the number of deaths nine less than for December. Full four fifths of the cases that prove fatal outside of hospital fall victim to their superstitious opinions and imprudences. If we could secure the entire control of all the sick (judging from the results of our hospital practice), the mortality would be comparatively small. One doctress has been killed the past month.
    The number of lung complaints have been increased, and since the snow has gone off quite a number of cases of "bloody flux" have occurred, and it will most certainly become epidemic with the opening of spring, unless active sanitary measures are adopted speedily.
    I certify that the foregoing report is correct as regards hospital, and as correct as can be made in regard to the sickness outside.
A. G. Henry M.D.
    Resident Physician
        Grand Ronde Agency, Jany. 2nd 1857
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 35. Evidently the "January" report is meant to tally cases of December.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Jany. 2nd 1857
Sir
    In reply to yours of 20th December referring to supplying the Indians east of the Cascade Mountains with beef, I have to say that I will receive a proposition from you (if made immediately) to furnish beef for those Indians, if you are willing to furnish it on the credit of the government. I have no money to pay for beef with, and cannot agree to pay at any definite time.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
John T. Jeffreys Esq.
    Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 293.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City January 3rd 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to forward herewith certain claims for property destroyed by Indians within this Superintendency as follows, to wit:
      John T. Hill, by Coquille Indians Nov. 24th 1855 $  252.47
John Creighton by Coquille Indians October 1855 1194.00
Isaac K. Davis by Cow Creek Indians October 1855 2923.90
Mary H. Harris by Rogue River & Cow Creeks October 9th 1855 3862.00
A. B. Colver by Coquille Indians December 1855 498.75
Joseph Rocquebrune on Rogue River October 1855     501.50
Amounting in aggregate to $9232.62
    These depredations appear to have been committed at the commencement of and during our late Indian war.
    The treaty with the Coquille Indians (included among the coast tribes treated with 11th August 1855) has not been ratified. I think, however, that in a majority of cases the particular tribe or band engaged in these acts of plunder are only conjectured, and in view of this opinion and particularly of the uneasiness of the annuities of the Rogue River and Cow Creek tribes, I think a direct appropriation by Congress, based upon a report of commissioners who might be designated to examine into the matter, would be much more just than to retain these amounts from the annuities of the Indians, already too small. There is also on file in this office a claim of Daniel K. Baxter for property destroyed by the Rogue River Indians in Jackson County in October 1855, amounting to $11,530.00, which the claimant requests me to retain until he collects additional evidence.
    In this connection I will also state that there are some claims of a different nature on file in the office which I would like instructions about, viz: Two claims, one of $258.27 for subsistence furnished to Indians at Port Orford in March, April, May and June last; the claim appears to be a just one, but as it dates under late Supt. Palmer's time of action, I am unwilling to pay it without some special authority. The other claim is for $300, for carrying an express in March last with a schooner from Port Orford to Crescent City, at request of a special Indian agent Jerry Maguire, who certifies to the fact. This account is in the same situation as the other. It may also be proper for me to state in this communication that by report from agents Metcalfe and Miller I find that the following number of the Indians (men) under their charge were engaged in the late war, viz:
267  of coast tribes
103  of Rogue Rivers
5   "  Shasta Scoton & Umpquas
12   "  Cow Creeks
    4   "  Umpquas & Calapooias
391  men in all
    The families of these men sum up as follows, to wit: 566 women, 217 boys, 217 girls besides infants; making all 1391 souls, exclusive of infants.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon City O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 293-294.  Joseph Rocquebrune is apparently not the same person as Joseph Rockburn. See letter dated September 5, 1872.



At home, near Butteville
    Jan. 3rd, 1857.
Joel Palmer, Esq.
    Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Dayton, O.T.
            Dear Sir,
                On the 30th ultimo I received a long communication from you bearing date 8th August 1856. It appears that it had been enclosed to the Office of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior and by Commissioner Manypenny transmitted, under date 23 October last--seventeen days after my departure from the Atlantic States for Oregon--to our Delegate Gen. Lane and by his kindness forwarded here to my address. As I was in Washington until near the close of September, it is somewhat remarkable that your letter did not reach me.
    Your communication is intended to be a reply to a note I addressed you on the 23rd of June last, on the eve of my departure for Washington. You say "that letter is not now before me, and I cannot recollect its precise language." It is to be regretted that it was not before you, as your "impression" and "memory" have served you incorrectly.
    Your communication in part is open to consideration, as however you say that it is not intended for an official communication, yet you have affixed your official signature to it and addressed it to me officially, "or to be heralded to the world to be criticized and perverted." Notwithstanding it has doubtless been made public property by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, I hesitate to answer as I would desire, else I might show you the injustice you have done to a large body of your fellow citizens and myself when you charge upon them and me as being "Indian exterminators," and also take occasion to make appropriate rejoinders to other issues you have raised and in which you are as sadly mistaken.
    I have never asked or invited individual approval of the policy which an imminent crisis compelled me to pursue; that matter has met its legitimate consideration and judgment. Whether it was right or wrong is immaterial now, except to myself personally. I did not, however, anticipate that it would have occasioned the aspersions and insulting ridicule of my fellow citizens and false testimony as to the occurrence and events of the war from army officers and their attaches, here and in California, as well as some two or three of our own citizens who from their attachment to the female portion of the Indian race chose to take sides with the enemy.
    You have evidently misconceived the object of my note of the 23rd June last. It was not for the purpose of drawing you out in a lengthy communication which would require as extended a reply from me. For long years we had been friends. I believed you to be as true and faithful as the sun. Some of your official communications had placed you in an equivocal position with your fellow citizens, who conceived that you had unwarrantably assailed their reputation. From personal intercourse with you I was led to infer that the language of those official communications had been misconstrued and that your feelings were mingled with regret on that account. My note would give you an opportunity to say as much, and to make public what you said, that your fellow citizens might understand you. Be pleased to do me the justice to believe that I had no personal motive in addressing you other than what my note expressed in its brief terms.
    Since writing the above I have noticed an endorsement in pencil upon the back of your communication, which goes to show that a copy of it was taken for the Office of Indian Affairs. I say suppose. I now have to request that I also may consider it as an official affair.
I am very respectfully
    Your obedient servt.
        Geo. L. Curry
            Governor of Oregon
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 155-157.



Siletz Agency
    Jan. 5th 1857
Dear Sir
    We have been entertained during our Christmas holidays with another free fight amongst the Indians, which lasted two days and a half. There were five men killed and twelve wounded, two of them mortally. The cause of the fight is the result of superstition. Tyee George has been sick for some time past, and being told that one of Joshua's doctors had made him sick he sent his men down to kill the doctor, but Joshua was unwilling to give him up, when the fight commenced, the Klamath band taking side with George, the 
Tututnis, Mikonotunnes and Shasta Costas siding with Joshua.
    I would respectfully ask to be informed if I shall order out the military to suppress these difficulties between the Indians. I have not done so for fear of getting some of the soldiers killed, which would probably result in a combination of all the Indians against the whites. When I protested against their killing the doctor they charged me with protecting a murderer and said that he would kill all of them if he were suffered to live.
    The schooner has not yet arrived but we still have enough to eat (potatoes & wheat).
    My returns for the 4th qr. will soon be completed.
    In examining my account current for the 1st qr. 1858 I find Mr. Hand has failed to bring forward a balance of $1620.00 in favor of the United States due 31st Decr. 1857 as will be seen from the acct. current for that qr. under the heading "Pay of 2 smiths &c. &c." and that he has brought forward from the same qr. for pay of interpreter five hundred dollars in favor of the U.S., when it should have been only $291.67.
    You will please have Mr. Brooks examine the acct. currents for the 4 qr. / 57 and the 1st qr. 1858, and if the same error occurs there I will credit the United States with the amount as per error on acct. current 1st qr. 1858.
Yours respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 15.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City January 7th 1857
Sir
    My indefatigable messenger, James Brown, has just returned from the agency of Agent R. B. Metcalfe, Coast Station, Coast Reservation.
    Mr. Brown has had a very unpleasant trip, toiling through snow and mud and swimming his mule across the swollen streams between Grand Ronde and Coast agencies. He reports the snow falling rapidly when he left Coast Station, and on arrival at Grand Ronde he found twelve inches of snow and many of the Indian horses dying from starvation. He informs me that there is but one week's supply of flour and beef at the Grand Ronde.
    Mr. James Strang, the beef contractor, declines furnishing any more beef upon his contract bearing date 29th September last, as I had no funds on hand at the close of the last month to pay for the beef furnished, according to contract; he stating that he had taken the contract at a very low rate, expecting his money at the end of each month, as per contract--that if he had received his pay accordingly he would have been able to fulfill his part of the contract, but that it is utterly impossible for him to buy beef upon credit and furnish the Department at the low rate contracted for, in a country where money cannot be borrowed at a less rate of interest than two percent per month.
    I regard Mr. Strang as an honest, upright man, who is not disposed to do injustice to the government or to an individual. The throwing up of his contract was nothing more than could be expected under the circumstances, and is what may be expected of everyone with whom I have made contracts unless I shall receive funds by the next mail in answer to my estimate of 10th October.
    Now, my dear sir, what am I to do. Shall I have the odium of allowing these poor Indians to starve and thereby force them to commit robberies and murders to obtain the means of sustaining life? God forbid! I will run the risk of incurring your displeasure by using the funds sent me for other purposes to feed these people so long as there is a dollar of it left. I regret that I should be compelled to disregard your instructions in any particular, but this is a case that will admit of no delay. I am well satisfied also that Commissioner Geo. W. Manypenny, so long conversant with Indian affairs, cognizant of their wrongs and sympathizing with them in their sufferings, does not require that in the midst of an inclement winter, with a heavy snow upon the ground, I shall suffer these Indians to starve or oblige them to commit robberies and murders, when I may, by disregarding instructions even, prevent it.
    I enclose some extracts from Agent Metcalfe's letters, brought by Mr. Brown, showing the situation of things at the Coast Reservation.
[See extracts of Dec. 29, 1856.] The cargo of the schooner Calumet was received by Agent Metcalfe and all but one thousand pounds (of flour) carried away by the storm referred to in the extracts from his letters forwarded to you in my communication of 19th December. [See extracts of Dec. 12, 1856.] A large proportion of the flour came ashore again, I am informed, and was picked up by the Indians.
    Agent Metcalfe is consequently issuing beef only to the Indians in that vicinity.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 240-244.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Jany. 8th [1857]
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith abstract "A" of disbursements for current expenses and abstract "B" of disbursements for fulfilling treaties with Indians upon Grand Ronde Reservation for the fourth quarter 1856. These two abstracts include all my disbursements for the fourth quarter. Voucher No. 4, abstract "B," will be forwarded by next mail.
    My account current will be made up for this mail, if possible; if not will go by the next.
    I have paid to Gen. Palmer five hundred dollars, to be used in making roads from Willamette Valley to Siletz Valley for the benefit of his work on Coast Reservation, contracted for 20th September last, for which amount I have as yet received no proper vouchers.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
     Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 254-255.




Grand Ronde Hospital
    January 12th 1857
A. F. Hedges Esqr.
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir
            We shall need the most or all of the following articles within the next two or three weeks, and some of them we need now. Please forward them at your earliest convenience and oblige.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. G. Henry M.D.
            Resident Physician
1 lb. gum asafoetida
¼ oz. sulphate morphine
8 oz. Fowler's arsenical solution
12 bottles port wine
4 lbs. race scilla
8 lbs. ext. licorice
4 gross 1 oz. vials
2 gross 1 oz. vials
10 gross vial corks, assorted
½ gross small bottle corks
10 lbs. balsamic copaiba
10 lbs. sweet spirits nitre
6 large sized cupping glasses
2 oz. corrosive sublimate
4 oz. nitrate silver (in crystal)
2 oz. lunar caustic
10 lbs. spirits ammonia
12 bottles olive oil
2 gallons castor oil
3 lbs. gum camphor
1 gallon spirits turpentine
12 camel's hair pencils (assorted)
1 bbl. of cider or wine vinegar
1 bbl. soda crackers
30 lbs. flaxseed meal
    If it is thought advisable to continue the distribution of sugar, tea, rice, soap &c. as explained in my report, we shall need the following articles for the present quarter, as will be seen by referring to my estimates.
    I should prefer having everything (except flour & meat) furnished through your office, or by the merchant, and I will take special care not to exceed the estimates, unless some very extraordinary contingency should arise to justify an excess of expenditure.
2000 lbs. sugar (200 lbs. of it crushed)
150 lbs. tea
10 boxes soap (20 lb. boxes)
1000 lbs. rice
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 21.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Jany. 12th 1857
Dear sir
    I desire to call your attention to the provisions of "an act (of Congress) to regulate trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes and to preserve peace on the frontiers," approved June 30th 1834, which I suppose is in your office, and to suggest to you that I expect an enforcement of that act upon the reservation under your charge, particularly as to the introduction of spirituous liquor and the presence of improper persons upon the reservation. A certain class of persons bent only upon the gratification of beastly passions and appetites are disposed to make Indian reservations a resort, where with Indian women and whiskey and unrestrained by the presence of civilized society they hope to revel in unrestrained debauchery. I therefore direct that you enforce the law in regard to the introduction of liquor strictly, and that you order every man to leave the reservation who is not in government employ, and establish a system of "passes" by which, with the aid of the military, no man can gain admission to the reservation except by permission of the military or Indian Department. In regard to the case of Mr. Coburn, I would be pleased to have more explicit information in regard to his deficiencies before removing. him.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
John F. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 298.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City January 15th 1857
Sir
    Your communications of 24th, 29th and 31st December were received by hand of Mr. Brown. I do not find the issue of provisions to employees authorized by the regulations of the Indian Department and if expedient to discontinue it upon your reservation, shall expect you to do so. The government expects to pay every employee a certain established salary for his labor without contingencies attached except such as are specially provided for. You have nothing to do with paying the board of the blacksmith or with paying any employee of this office, unless specially instructed to do so.
    You being the recognized agent of the United States in her dealings with the Indians under your charge, it is expected that you are the competent judge of their necessities--if they are naked, suffering and you have clothing with which to alleviate that suffering, you are certainly best able to judge of your duty in the case. Humanity is a strong governing principle in the dealings of the United States government with her Indian children, and you should suffer the same principle to have a due influence upon your treatment of those under your immediate charge. If they are suffering, and you have the means to alleviate that suffering, your duty certainly appears plain.
    Also in reference to calling upon the military to disarm the Indians; if necessary, do it, of course.
    If you find it necessary to hire a clerk to assist you in making up your accounts, I am willing to give my approval to a reasonable expenditure for the purpose and I think the Commissioner would allow it, if the necessity for it was properly explained by you. General Palmer informed me some time since that he should turn those cattle over to you, if I approved of it, which I did. I learn this moment, General Palmer being here, that the cattle belong in charge of Sub-Agent Raymond. Probably Mr. Raymond will turn them over to you.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Coast Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 299.



Pacific Mail Steamship Company
    New York, Jany. 15 1857.
Sir,
    Our agents at San Francisco advise me that Mr. Hedges has referred to you a bill for transportation of 75 Indians between points in Oregon. Mr. Tichenor engaged such transportation & approved the bill, as per copy enclosed. He was regarded and treated as an agent of the govt. by Capt. Dall.
    The enclosed original statement of Capt. Dall gives the facts in the case. I deem it unnecessary to add to that except to say that it has frequently occurred before that small companies of troops have gone forward on precisely the same terms as passengers by our steamers, that in making contracts for large numbers a gross amount has been fixed for the service.
    This transaction of Mr. Tichenor was distinct from all previous transactions or contracts.
    I have therefore to request that you will order this approved bill paid. I have instructed our agents & officers to give every facility to the agents of the government in meeting the Indian troubles in Oregon & in this transaction I cannot perceive that such instructions have been disregarded. The Indians went as ordinary passengers & were charged as such.
I am respty.
    Your obt. servt.
        Wm. H. Davidge
            Prest.
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
    Comr. of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 187-189.  Copy on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 911-993.  Cover letter, Tichenor's endorsement and duplicate invoice not transcribed.



Dayton O.T.
    15 Jan. 1857
A. F. Hedges Esqr.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon City
            Dr. Sir
                Per last mail I recd. a letter from my brother Joseph Davidson in Jackson County, who request I inform you that there are about 37 Indians (10 or 12 men) in the neighborhood in which he is living, and he has had frequent interviews with them & says they are willing to come down to the reserve, and he says if you will authorize him he will conduct the Indians to Grand Ronde. If you see proper to do so, please send me word (with authority to him to bring in the Indians if you decide to do so) at the earliest time convenient, and I will forward to him. He says further that the whites there threaten to take their lives if not removed.
Very respectfully yours
    Green C. Davidson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 23.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Jany. 17th 1857
Sir
    Your communication of Dec. 20th enclosing your statement of facts in relation to your accounts as Indian agent came duly to hand and the statement was mailed to Office Indian Affairs with my communication of 7th inst., but as our mail failed to connect with the steamer it did not go out. I am not authorized to pay anything upon the $400 supposed to be allowed you, no mention being made of this branch of the subject in the communication of the Commissioner.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
A. A. Skinner Esq.
    late Indian Agent
        Astoria O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 300.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Jany. 17th 1857
Sir
    In reply to yours of 15th inst. I have to say that much as I deplore the situation of the Indians referred to, and though I would gladly do anything in my power to place them in safety upon the reservation, I cannot authorize it this winter. The heavy expense attending such removals, the entire want of funds in my hands, with other reasons which it is unnecessary here to mention, renders it necessary for me to defer all such operations until the summer season.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
Green C. Davidson Esq.
    Dayton O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 300.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        January 20th 1857.
Sir
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th instant, enclosing a letter to Wm. L. Dall, captain of the steamship Columbia, relative to an account for transporting seventy-five Indians with a conductor or special agent, Mr. Tichenor, from Port Orford to Portland, Oregon.
    A letter from Superintendent Hedges on this subject, dated the 19th Novr., has been received here, the statements of which are very similar to those of Capt. Dall, unless I except a single paragraph, as follows: "Capt. Dall bases his charge upon the ground that there was no contract, and consequently he has a right to charge what he pleases, and that he charges them as steerage passengers, although they laid upon the deck, in the rain, unsheltered except by some old tarpaulin."
    It appears to me that the Superintendent has been sufficiently liberal in his offer, and as the funds out of which at present the claim could be settled have been remitted to him, it seems most proper to refer the entire matter back for his disposal.
    I have accordingly taken copies of the enclosures of your letter, to be forwarded to him, and return the originals to you herewith.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
W. H. Davidge Esqr.
    Prest., Pacific
        Mail Steamship Company
            New York City
                N.Y.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1001-1002.  See correspondence of January 15, above.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City January 22nd 1857
Sir
    In reply to your communication of 26th November enclosing copies of printed schedule of prices of Indian goods, under contracts for 1857, and suggesting that it is for the interest of the Indian Department that I should order from your office such of the articles as are needed for this Superintendency, I have the honor to enclose such an order and to urge upon you the fact that our Indians are in great need and that the articles should be forwarded at once and by express.
    I would also suggest that a similar invoice be shipped around Cape Horn per clipper ship so as to arrive here for distribution as the necessities of the Indians may require during the winter of 1857-8, and also that the flouring mills, burrs, cut nails, round and bar iron, steel and sawmill irons called for by late Supt. Palmer under date of 8th March last be sent at the same time. I have called for shoes, hats and soap, articles which are not found upon the schedules forwarded from your office, and would request that if not convenient to purchase them, the funds for the purpose, as well as for the purchase of other small articles which it may be desirable to give the Indians, be remitted to this office.
    I would also call attention to the fact that remittances to this office will be necessary for the purchase of farming implements and stock for the Indians located upon reservations.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Comr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 247-249.  Itemized schedule of articles not transcribed.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Jany. 22nd 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the accounts of A. G. Henry, resident physician Grand Ronde Reservation, in the administration of the hospital affairs under his charge to December 31st 1856, together with his letter of explanation and remark upon matters connected with the health of the Indians, present and prospective. As the laws and regulations of the Indian Department do not contain any directions for the proper conducting of hospitals, for the condition of the accounts of physicians, or anything connected with their duties, and I found no forms or papers or instructions on file in this office to guide me in the matter, finding no physicians on duty and compelled to appoint immediately after taking charge of this office and to furnish the appointees the medicines and other materials to operate with, I hope that any deficiencies in the manner of making up their accounts will be pardoned. The hospital under the charge of Dr. Henry is by far the most expensive one in the Superintendency, and knowing the doctor to be a high-minded, honorable man, I am well satisfied that he has conducted matters as was best for the interests of the government and of the Indians.
    I should be pleased to receive some definite instructions as to the manner in which these accounts should be kept.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Comr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
   

Quarterly Report
of Grand Ronde Agency Hospital for the
Months of October, November & December 1856

Names of Diseases Patients Treated
in Hospital
Prescribed
for in Camp
Died in
Hospital
Died in
Camp
Syphilis 11 40 4
Rheumatism   9 30
Consumption   2 14 2 8
Pneumonia 35 71 7
Acute bronchitis 14 78 2
Chronic bronchitis   5 24 2
Pleurisy   3   8
Acute hepatitis   1
Scrofula   5 27 1 1
Typhoid fever 12 26 3
Continued fever   2 3
Intermittent fever 34 80
Irritable ileus   7
Scarlet fever   1 1
Erysipelas   9
Old ileus 11 52
Diseased joints   2   4
Typhus fever 15 3
Typhoid pneumonia   8 50 9
Gonorrhea or clap 447  
Catarrh 312  
Killed intentionally 5
Wounds, gunshot   2
Dysentery   7 87 1 5
Chronic hepatitis            
Totals     169   1383     4 53  
Remarks:
    It will be seen that we have prescribed during the quarter for 1383 patients in camp and have treated in hospital 169. If you add to this number those treated in hospital and in camp as shown by my report for September (a fractional quarter) you will perceive that the whole number upon which medicine & hospital stores have been expended is as follows: 215 treated in hospital, 1950 treated in camp.
    This I think will very satisfactorily account for the expenditure as shown in the accompanying property return.
    For further explanations, see my letter herewith transmitted.
    There is probably some errors in relation to the sick in camp in regard to their disease, and there may have been more deaths than reported.
   

    I certify on honor that the above report of hospital is correct, and that the report of sick and number of deaths in camp is as correct as can be made under the circumstances.
Grand Ronde Agency Hospital Jany. 1st 1857
    A. G. Henry M.D.
        Resident Physician
   
Abstract No. 3
Showing the Names and Duties
of the Hospital Employees.

Samuel Howard--steward
Oliver Cantrell--nurse $2 per day
Ann Irwin--cook $50 per month
Calapooia Sarah--matron $1 per day
Shasta John--fireman &c. .75 per day
   
    I certify on honor that the above list is correct & just.
Grand Ronde Agency Jany. 5th 1857
    A. G. Henry M.D.
        Resident Physician
   

Remarks
    Mr. Howard having performed the duty of assistant physician as well as hospital steward, I have left his salary to be fixed by you. I have referred to him more particularly in my letter herewith transmitted.
   

Abstract No. 4
Showing the Estimated Amount of Money Required
for the Quarter Ending March 31st 1857

    Articles Quantities Cost
Sugar 2000 lbs. 280 dollars  
Tea   150 lbs. 90 dollars
Coffee     80 lbs. 13 dollars
Soap 10 boxes 30 dollars
Candles     75 lbs. 40 dollars
Flour 1000 lbs. 40 dollars
Meat 1000 lbs. 100 dollars  
Butter     80 lbs. 28 dollars
Eggs 30 dozen   7 dollars
Chickens   4 dozen 16 dollars
Rice 1000 lbs. 150 dollars  
Dried fruit   100 lbs. 18 dollars
Sundries for kitchen 20 dollars
Brown sheeting 500 yds. 60 dollars
Calico 150 yds. 24 dollars
Blankets   40 yds. 140 dollars  
Surgical dressings 30 dollars
Medicines 100 dollars  
Fuel 50 dollars
Forage for 2 horses 100 dollars  
Resident physician's salary 500 dollars  
Assistant physician & steward 250 dollars  
Pay of cook 150 dollars  
Nurse & wardmaster 180 dollars  
Nurse & "boy of all work" 90 dollars
Matron 90 dollars
Contingent expenses 50 dollars
    Total for ensuing quarter $2646
    This estimate has been made on the supposition that the policy of distributing sugar, tea, rice &c. to sick in camp will be continued. If this is changed or discontinued, the expense will be reduced about six hundred dollars.
A. G. Henry M.D.
    Resident Physician
Grand Ronde Agency Jany. 3 1857
   

Grand Ronde Agency Hospital
    January 5th 1857
A. F. Hedges Esqr.
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir
            I have made report of the condition of the medical department under my charge, without reference to the regulations prescribed for the medical department of the regular army. If I could have obtained a copy of those regulations, I would have followed them as far as they are applicable to the very peculiar circumstances connected with the medical department of this agency. Not receiving any specific instructions from you until the 20th ultimo, I was left to my own judgment of what would be expected of me.
    I have in my return of property received given you an exact account of everything that has come into my hands since I have been in charge, showing the manner and amount of expenditure, as will be seen by an examination of my Abstract No. 1.
    In my Abstract No. 2 I have reported the whole number of patients received into hospital for the last three months, the character of their disease and the number of deaths; also the number of cases prescribed for in camp during the quarter, number of deaths &c., as accurately as is possible under the circumstances, and which I think will very satisfactorily account for the expenditure of medicines, hospital stores, provisions &c.
    Abstract No. 3 will show the names & duties of individuals employed in hospital, and the amount of compensation allowed to each.
    Abstract No. 4 the amount of money required for the ensuing quarter.
    On taking charge of this department the latter part of August last, I found that very little preparation had been made for the comfort or successful treatment of the large number of naked, diseased Indians, who had been collected together suddenly from all parts of the Territory. I found them sick & dying under circumstances which appealed most strongly to the sympathies of the human heart.
    I was instructed by you to make requisitions upon your office for such things as I deemed necessary for a proper organization of the hospital department. I made those requisitions with as much regard to economy as was consistent with the objects contemplated, and I think your own personal observation has satisfied you that I could not have done with less.
    I trust the explanations I have made in my abstracts of the expenditure of large quantities of particular articles will not only prove satisfactory to you, but the Department at Washington.
    The great proportion of the sick remain in camp, where it is extremely difficult to treat them successfully. We find them most generally destitute of every [omission] necessary,  often suffering extremely for want of sufficient covering, and in such cases we could not refrain from loaning them a blanket. Some have been returned; others have been buried with their dead.
    We have also been in the habit of distributing to the sick in camp sugar, tea, rice, crackers, and in extreme cases a chicken. The quantity consumed of those articles will not I think be regarded as unreasonable.
    As a sanitary measure, aside from the influence cleanliness has upon civilization, I have used every effort to induce them to use soap, and my only regret is that I have not expended double the quantity I have. If we can't teach them cleanliness, we can do but little towards their moral and physical improvement.
    The most of the patients come into hospital naked or "clothed in filthy rags." We are obliged to clean them and cover their nakedness. The latter we have done by making shirts of common domestic and sacks of calico or linsey. To send them out naked after curing them of pneumonia or other lung disease would either cost them their lives or return them to the hospital worse than at first.
    It is not to be disguised that the southern Indians are suffering very severely from change of climate, food &c., and let the government do everything possible for their health and comfort, from present indications, there will be but few adults left at the end of three or four years.
    The Indians from the Willamette Valley enjoy comparatively good health, their principal disease being venereal & its consequences, and so long as they are allowed unrestrained intercourse with licentious and unprincipled whites the disease cannot be eradicated, and all effort to improve their moral & physical condition will prove unavailing.
    In my opinion the Indians of Oregon are as susceptible of a high degree of civilization as were the Cherokees & Chickasaws. It is known that there were comparatively few whites living in their vicinity to counteract the influence of the benevolent Brainerd & his associates.
    In my judgment there is but little to be hoped for in the moral and physical improvement of the great mass of the Indians on this reservation under existing circumstances, but much can be done, more especially with the rising generation, provided they are cut off from vicious associations and brought under proper moral influences.
    The Indians generally have a strong prejudice against the "sick house" (hospital), and their own doctors use every effort to excite prejudice against the "Boston doctors" and keep them away from hospital. This involves as large amount of extra labor upon the resident physician, which would have been impossible for me to have properly discharged without the assistance of Mr. Samuel Howard, who has performed the duty of assistant physician, in addition to that of hospital steward. He is a very safe and judicious practitioner, a good interpreter, and competent to discharge the double duty of assistant physician and steward. I would urge the propriety of allowing him a reasonable salary per annum for the service performed.
    I learn from an army officer that the "regulation of the hospital department of the regular army" allows to a hospital where five or more companies are stationed one steward & wardmaster, one cook, two matrons and four nurses.
    It will not be questioned that a hospital for the accommodation of an encampment of two thousand destitute, sickly Indians would necessarily involve a much larger amount of labor and expenditure, and yet it will be seen that we have but one steward, one cook, one matron and two nurses--three less than are allowed for four or five hundred strong, healthy men. I anticipate that we will not be regarded as extravagant in our hospital employees.
    Indians are worth comparatively nothing as nurses and cooks, hence the necessity of employing whites with the one exception (and he is mainly employed in keeping up fires).
    The prices paid are less than paid on the agency for common white labor.
    I would suggest the propriety of applying the regulations of the "medical department of the United States army," as far as they are applicable, in regulating this hospital. If this course is adopted, I shall expect to be furnished with a copy of the regulations. If I receive no instructions, I shall continue the course adopted for the last quarter.
    Four or five hundred dollars will be sufficient to replenish our stock of medicines for the ensuing twelve months, and the furniture of the establishment will require but little addition unless the number of patients are greatly increased.
    I called your attention in my monthly report for December to the importance of adopting sanitary measures for guarding against an epidemic camp distemper (bloody flux) such as prevailed here last spring among the Umpquas and which proved so destructive to life. The same causes which produced it then exists now in greater power, and if not counteracted by a timely resort to proper sanitary measures, I anticipate the most disastrous consequences.
    It must be borne in mind that the entire subsistence of the Indians heretofore has been made up of a variety of wild game, fish, fruit & vegetables. Their mode of living has been suddenly and radically changed, together with climate, habits & associations. They have already felt the effect of this change very sensibly, especially the southern Indians.
    It was not in their power to provide themselves with wild meats, berries and with vegetables in the shape of roots, which are found in abundance south. The few berries and nuts they were able to gather were consumed during the season of them; consequently from October until the opening of spring they will subsist entirely upon fresh beef and flour. Some few of the more provident and enterprising among them secured more or less fruit, vegetables &c., but the great mass of them live exclusively on the ration of flour & beef furnished them by government.
    The long rainy season in this part of Oregon, compared with the Rogue River country, prevents their taking their accustomed exercise and of performing their usual ablutions. Living on gross, and to them unnatural, food, becoming filthy in their persons and in and about their houses, the first few warm days of spring will be likely to convert the entire reservation into a hotbed of disease and death.
    The large number of cases of typhoid disease in their quarters as shown by my report for December fully justifies my apprehensions of the future, unless the appropriate remedies are applied speedily.
    In a letter transmitted with my report for October, I called your attention to my apparently large expenditure of spirits. I then said, and now repeat, that a large number who apply for medicine are suffering mainly from mental depression. In such cases we given them a little gentian or other bitters, to be taken for three or four days, and all is well. We also prepare our tinctures of laudanum, camphor, paregoric, capsicum, gentian, rhubarb &c., of which we use a large quantity, avoiding the use of mercurial preparations as much as possible.
    It must be remembered that my receipts and expenditures as shown by my Abstract No. 1 covers four months and eight days, the whole time I have been in charge.
    After the intimations given in your letter of the 10th ultimo, I shall not feel at liberty to incur a single dollar's expenditure over and above what is required for the use of the sick in hospital and the necessary expenditure of medicines for the sick in camp, without specific instructions from you or the agent in charge.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. G. Henry M.D.
            Resident Physician
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 267-288.




Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        January 23, 1857
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the reference by your chief clerk to this office of a copy of the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 19th instant, requesting the President to furnish to the House "all the correspondence and documents not incompatible with the public interest relating to Indian affairs in the Department of the Pacific--those of the Interior, as well as those of the War Department."
    If by the "Department of the Pacific" it is intended to include the superintendencies of California, Oregon and Washington and that copies of all the papers relative to Indian affairs therein are to be furnished, then I must express my belief, from the magnitude of the work, that it would be impracticable to answer the resolution this session of Congress, even though the whole clerical force of this office were constantly engaged upon it. I presume the mover of the resolution had some object in view which might be attained more speedily and as effectually by the correspondence directly relating to it, as by "all the correspondence and documents" pertaining to Indian affairs in the Pacific Department, and I would respectfully suggest that the resolution might be so modified as to specify the subject or matter concerning which the papers or correspondence is desired.
    With these remarks I return the resolution and await your direction.
Very respectfully
    Your obd. servt.
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Hon. R. McClelland
    Secy. of the Interior
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 354-355.




Washington 26th Jany. 1857
To the Hon.
    The Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
Sir,
    Will you please to inform me whether there is any evidence on file in the Indian office that makes the United States title doubtful, or questionable, to the lands on which stands the Indian Superintendent's House on the bank of the river opposite to the town of Milwaukie in Oregon.
I have the honor to
    Be very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Anson Dart
                Late Superintendent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frame 190.




Mouth Rogue River O.T.
    Jany. 29th 1857
To A. F. Hedges
    Superintendent of Indian Affairs
        Office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs
            Oregon City
                O.T.
Sir
    We the undersigned residents at and near the mouth of Rogue River O.T. would respectfully ask your attention to the following facts--
    That since the declaration of peace in Southern Oregon the route from this point to Crescent City cannot be passed in safety in consequence of numbers of Indians being suffered to remain in the vicinity of "Whaleshead" and "Chetco" that to this time have not been subdued or removed.
    In the month of October last Capt. Wm. E. Tichenor (being duly authorized by you) came to this place and took some fifty men, women & children which we had by our efforts through threats and negotiation collected together with the most positive assurance on his part that he would return with a sufficient military force to compel the Indians at Whaleshead & Chetco to come in and go to the reservation.
    He did return it is true but with so meager a force that with the particulars of his failure you are probably made aware of through his report to you.
    We have since that time been anxiously expecting that some steps would be taken by which safety would be secured to parties wishing to go to Crescent City. Were it not for the dangers of the route our principal business would be transacted with that city as before the war.
    We do not come before you as supplicants but demand as a right to ask you to adopt and execute such measures as will ensure peace and security to us for the future and throw around us the shield our country cheerfully guarantees to all "American citizens."
    We therefore all upon your official capacity as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this Territory to relieve us from an unpleasant situation, believing those principles of promptness, energy, efficiency and humanity etc. claimed for you will be acted upon and our unpleasant condition relieved. Awaiting your reply, we remain
Very respectfully
    Yours &c.
S. B. Blake
G. H. Pond
Wm. Crage
John Walker
Michael Fox
O. W. Weaver
Enos A. Boyd
J. W. Jewell
L. T. Myers
M. B. Gregory
James M. Hunt
Alexr. Sutherland
C. Maight
Thos. B. McCullough
Henry Woodruff
Lyman Woodruff
Jas. Monaghan
John Lynch
A. W. Sypner
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 42.



San Francisco, Feby. 2nd 1857.
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
    Dr. Sir,
        Gen. Palmer, late Supt. of Ind. Affairs for Oregon, who will hand you this, visits Washington to adjust his accounts with your Department and to pay his respects to you personally. I am glad that he is going. His presence with you will enable much to be successfully explained pertaining to his official acts & the acts of others touching our Indian relations in Oregon, which it is not possible for you to as well know as through him in personal interview & I am satisfied he can make a satisfactory personal vindication of himself and have you fully impressed with the belief that he is what I solemnly believe him to be, an honest man and an able, faithful public servant. I served many years in that Territory in a judicial capacity; my opportunities to know him both publicly and privately were ample to enable me to correctly estimate his character as a man and his capacity of public usefulness, and I am proud to bear testimony in any place and in all time that I regard him as a valuable man in any country and better fitted by his peculiar qualifications and experience in managing Indians for the position of Superintendent than any man in Oregon.
    If he will again consent to take the office, and it is agreeable to the President to place him there, I am confident I am only performing a public service in earnestly recommending him to your consideration. As a Democrat I unhesitatingly bear my humble testimony in his favor, and should be more than pleased that the incoming administration could secure in all its high places of public trust men as true to principle & to duty as Gen. Palmer.
Yours very respectfully
    O. C. Pratt
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1201-1203.



Grand Ronde Hospital
    February 3rd 1857
A. F. Hedges Esqr.
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        Sir
            I received your letter of January 19th this morning, and my attention has been directed particularly to the following paragraph.
    "Your accounts for the fourth quarter 1856 are received and I must say that there are some things that do not meet with my approval. I have now only time to note that the issue of chickens to Indians is entirely inadmissible, as also the issue of sugar, coffee, tea &c., except in cases where the sugar, coffee or tea may in your judgment be necessary as a medicine or means of cure."
    I am not aware of having issued anything from hospital, except such medicines and hospital stores, "as in my judgment were necessary as a medicine or means of cure," in case of sickness. I have carefully examined my reports, together with my explanatory letters, and I find nothing to justify the censure expressed in the foregoing paragraph. I conclude therefore that you are laboring under a misapprehension of the true state of facts in connection with the expenditures of the articles enumerated.
    I shall therefore defer for the present my defense of my course, feeling very sure that when the proper time arises I shall be able to vindicate my official action to your satisfaction, and that of the Department at Washington.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. G. Henry, M.D.
            Resident Physician
P.S. I send you enclosed my report for January 1857.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 41.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Feby. 6th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of 11th and 18th December respectively. I am gratified to learn that you intend to protect my drafts from dishonor, and I confidently hope that a special appropriation of funds has been made by this Congress and also that the treaties with the coast tribes and with the Wascos & Deschutes have been ratified, that thereby the officers of the Indian Department in this Territory may be enabled to do a good work during the present year for the government and for the Indians committed to their charge.
    My funds being exhausted, as anticipated the beef and flour contractors have refused to furnish on their contracts after 31st December, and I have contracted anew, upon the credit of the government, at reasonable prices, for such quantities of beef and flour as are necessary and shall continue to feed the Indians as heretofore until I receive peremptory orders from your office to the contrary.
    I have so constantly urged upon your attention the fact that to desist from feeding these Indians is tantamount to a declaration of war with them, that I deem it unnecessary to say anything more in extenuation of the course I have adopted in this matter. Our Indians are as well satisfied as can be expected. The failure to furnish their annuity goods produces, of course, a general feeling of dissatisfaction among them, and the uncertainty which hangs over the fate of the treaties with the coast tribes and with the Wascos & Deschutes causes considerable discontent among the large number of Indians included in those treaties.
    Having left their own lands and placed themselves under the guidance and protection of the agents of the government, they rightfully expect that the government will comply with the agreements made with them, and when almost two years have passed and so little is done towards complying with those agreements, they cannot be blamed for expressing dissatisfaction, and unless this office receives authority to warrant action in compliance with those treaties, in the opening of farms, erection of buildings and otherwise providing for the comfort of those Indians upon the reservations set apart for them, prior to the opening of spring, say by first of April, I fear that an outbreak will occur, and our hold upon the faith of these Indians be sacrificed irrevocably.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Comr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 296-298.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Feby. 16th 1857
Dear sir
    I transmit herewith a letter received from James D. Burnett of Round Prairie, Douglas County, O.T., enclosing a petition from sundry citizens for the removal of certain Indians therein referred to. I also transmit a letter received from William K. Ish of Jacksonville O.T. referring to Indian difficulties in his neighborhood.
    If the condition of Indian affairs upon the Grand Ronde Reservation is such as to admit of your being absent for a sufficient time, you are hereby authorized and directed to proceed to Jacksonville, and, if possible, to collect and protect the Indians referred to in the letter of Mr. Ish, or any other Indians whom you may find scattered along your route of travel, and bring them to the reservation.
    You will endeavor to contribute to the relief of the citizens petitioning from Round Prairie, if you find it practicable to do so. You will take with you such Indians from the reservation as you may deem necessary to aid you in collecting the Indians referred to, being careful to choose, if possible, such as will keep sober and are reliable. I will leave it to your judgment to decide as to the time when and the manner in which you will remove the Indians to the reservation, simply impressing upon you that every dollar of expense must be avoided which is not indispensable to the performance of the duty entrusted to you. Your acquaintance with the citizens of Jackson County will enable you to judge with whom you can with safety advise, and whether an immediate removal of the Indians from that locality is necessary. Their removal during the prevalence of such weather and roads as we now have would be attended by an enormous expense, which it is desirable to avoid, if possible.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
John F. Miller Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 308-309.



Rogue River Feby. 1857
A. F. Hedges
    Sir, Some time in Dec. '53 Mr. Culver Indian agent for the Rogue River Indians purchased beef of me to the amount of $125.00 for the use of said Indians, the same he says was entered in quarterly returns in the spring of '54. The account is just, but through some neglect of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs I have not received the pay for the same. You will confer a favor by advising me in regard to the above account as the general government is much more able to pay me I am to lose the same. I think that it has been through some neglect of Gen. Palmer that it was not paid long ago.
Respt. yours David N. Birdseye
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 52.



Salem  O.T.
    February 18th 1857
Sir
    In passing through the Umpqua a few days since on my way to this place I was solicited by residents there to call your attention the fact that hostile Indians are yet prowling about in that section of country destroying property and jeopardizing the lives of its citizens. The late attempt by the Indians to take the lives of Messrs. Richards and Day has greatly alarmed the people of that region of country, and in some instances they have betaken themselves to the forts or other places of security occupied by them during the late war. This is the case in the neighborhood of the Mr. Day above alluded to. It is hardly probable that here are more than fifteen or twenty Indians in the immediate vicinity of where the late depredations were committed, but even this small number is capable of doing much harm, and the close proximity of the Klamaths and other hostiles, whose reinforcements can easily be procured, renders the situation of the people of Southern Oregon extremely dangerous, and threatening the accumulations of evils utterly at variance with the general prosperity and well being of the people of the territory at large. In fact, judging from present indications and a tolerable knowledge of Indian character another war south seems inevitable, unless prompt and speedy measures are taken to thwart the designs of the enemy now being matured.
    The unfriendly relations existing between some of your friends and myself, arising from a difference of opinion upon the subject of Indian affairs, deters me from treating of this matter in detail at this time, as you doubtless partake of the sentiments of those friends, controlling as they do the political organization to which you belong. In view of this I respectfully refer you to James Burnett Esq., Roseburg O.T. for further information should you desire it.
Respectfully your obt. servt.
    C. S. Drew
To
    A. F. Hedges Esq.
        Supt. Indian Affairs Oregon
            Oregon City O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 47.




Grand Ronde Hospital
    February 23rd 1857
A. F. Hedges Esqr.
    Sup. Ind. Affairs.
        Sir
            I desire to relinquish the position I now occupy so soon as I can make arrangements for removing my family from the reservation and settle up my accounts with the agency & department--say the first of April next.
    My reasons for this course will be fully appreciated by you; consequently any allusion to them at this time will be entirely unnecessary.
Respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        A. G. Henry M.D.
            Resident Physician
                at Grand Ronde Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 55.



Grand Ronde Ind. Agency O.T.
    Feb. 24th 1857
A. F. Hedges
    Sir, Enclosed please find a note written by A. G. Henry, resident physician and directed to me, which I think was partially prompted by your instructions to him stated about the 18th of the present month requiring him not only to report to me but continuing to urge upon him the necessity of accounting for every article of medicine & property issued by him which he says amounts to a removal from office and also said that he was satisfied that there was a deep-laid scheme to remove him. But says that no man had the independence to do it in a manly like manner and in the same conversation said that it was just what he wanted was to be removed. I then told him to consider himself suspended, that I would not be trifled with any longer by him. Now, sir, the conduct with other falsehoods which he has written and had published in the Oregon Statesman from time to time and which was calculated if not intended to excite and alarm the citizens not only of this but of Rogue River Valley. And also the declaration that Ki-a-Kuts the high chief had been urged to join a war party is also a falsehood of the grossest kind, and the large amount of arms and ammunition which he refers to in some of the articles above alluded to is also false. And for which I have taken responsibility to suspend him. But as you see he positively refuses to turn over to Mr. Howard, the assistant physician, the medicines & other property in his charge belonging to the government which is actually necessary to keep up the hospital.
    And again there are not one of the employees on the reservation that would take medicine from him and the Indians complain of him as being very inattentive to their wants.
John F. Miller
    Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 57.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City Feby. 24th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 31st December informing me that certain drafts had been paid, and I am pleased to be able to state that those named close the list of the drafts that I have drawn upon your office. Your instructions will be strictly obeyed in accounting for the funds received under the proper heads. As stated in my letter of 6th inst., I am still feeding the Indians, and with provisions purchased upon the credit of the government.
    Our Indians give us as little trouble as can be expected under the circumstances. The present winter is and has been the most unpleasant one that has been experienced here for fifteen years, and the want of funds to furnish suitable protection and clothing has caused considerable suffering among the Indians in charge of agents Metcalfe and Thompson.
    Agent Metcalfe fears that the coast tribes will endeavor to return to their old homes in the spring and will fight if opposed. Agent Miller thinks those upon the Grand Ronde Reservation can be kept there with but little trouble; the Rogue Rivers express their intention to return to their old homes but he thinks he can control them.
    Agent Thompson writes under date of 4th inst. as follows: "The present winter in this section of country has been unusually severe. Great numbers of animals have died of starvation. The Indians themselves have suffered for want of food, principally for the reason that the snow fell to such a depth that they were unable to reach this point. The Tenino band and that portion of the treaty Indians who remained friendly are exceedingly anxious to learn what disposition is to be made of them in the spring. They have been compelled to leave their homes and gardens and remain in this (Dalles O.T.) vicinity during the past summer, and will [be] thereby deprived of the benefit of their gardens, which they feel a serious loss.
    "They now hold themselves in readiness to go to the reservation (Warm Springs) and are exceedingly anxious that government carry out the stipulations of the treaty (of 25th June 1855) made with them. Something must be done for them or we may expect in case of continuance of hostilities, the greater portion of those who have remained friendly to join the war party."
    Under date of 16th inst. Agent Thompson further writes, as follows: "The news from the interior indicate renewed hostilities during the coming summer. An express just in from the Yakima reports that the Indians seized the Catholic priest, bound and then flogged him, and that he had come in to the military station at Simcoe for protection. With respect to the Indians of this vicinity, if hostilities are renewed, a great many of those who returned last fall, as well as many of those who remained friendly, will undoubtedly join the war party."
    I have received many petitions from Southern Oregon stating that there are a number of Rogue River Indians remaining in that country who are causing much trouble and praying for their removal.
    I feel it my duty therefore to bring them to the reservation, and shall do so as soon as the weather will permit. I am satisfied that this is the only way to prevent bloodshed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 311-312.



Grand Ronde Hospital
    February 24th 1857
J. F. Miller Esqr.
    Indian agent in charge of Grand Ronde Agency
        Sir
            Your letter dated yesterday was received this morning by the hand of your friend Mr. Long.
    I recognize your right to suspend the exercise of my functions as resident physician on your agency, but not your right of absolute removal without specific authority from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon. I cannot therefore comply with your order to surrender to Mr. Howard, or anybody else, the property in my charge, and for which I have receipted to the Superintendent.
    It was to avoid difficulty & embarrassment in the hospital department that induced me to tender through you on yesterday my resignation, to take effect as soon as I could conveniently settle my business here & get my family off the reservation.
    I am not aware of anything to justify your extraordinary course, consequently you are alone responsible for any injury that may result to the service in consequence of it.
Yours &c.
    A. G. Henry M.D.
        Resident Physician
            at Grand Ronde Agency
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, enclosure to No. 57.



Grand Ronde Ind. Agency O.T.
    Feb. 24th 1857
A. F. Hedges
    Sir. Enclosed please find a bill written by A. G. Henry, resident physician, and directed to me, which I think was partially prompted by your instructions to him dated about the 18th of the present month, requiring him not only to report to me but continuing to urge upon him the necessity of accounting for every article of medicine & property issued by him, which he says amounts to a removal from office, and also said that he was satisfied that there was a deep-laid scheme to remove him, but says that [I] no more had the independence to do it in a manly like manner and in the same conversation said that it was just what he wanted was to be removed. I then told him to consider himself suspended, that I would not be trifled with any longer by him. Now, sir, this conduct with other falsehoods which he has written and had published in the Oregon Statesman from time to time and which was calculated if not intended to excite and alarm the citizens not only of this but of Rogue River Valley. And also the declaration that Ki-a-kuts, the high chief, had been urged to join a war party is also a falsehood of the grossest kind and the large amount of arms and ammunition which he refers to in some of [the] articles above alluded to is also false, and for which I have taken responsibility to suspend him. But as you see he positively refuses to turn over to Mr. Howard the assistant physician, the medicines & other property in his charge belonging to the government which is actually necessary to keep up the hospital.
    And again there are not one of the employees on the reservation that would take medicine from him, and the Indians complain of him as being very inattentive to their wants.
John F. Miller
    Indian Agent
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 57.



Oregon City February 25th 1857
Sir
    Herewith enclosed is a certificate given me by the late Supt. Ind. Affairs (Joel Palmer) of this Territory for services rendered, as therein stated.
    The present Superintendent (Mr. Hedges) declines paying my salary upon this certificate, saying that it was Genl. Palmer's duty to have paid me to the time he was removed from office.
    Genl. Palmer, who (I suppose) will be in Washington when you receive this, can give you further explanations if required.
    Trusting that you will give such instructions as will enable me soon to receive my pay,
I am
    Yours respectfully
        Alden H. Steele M.D.
            Late Physician to Coast Reservation
To G. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1257-1258.



    TREATY WITH THE KLAMATH LAKE INDIANS.--La Lakes and several of his warriors--Klamath Lake Indians--in conformity with the treaty stipulations entered into last summer with Gen. Cosby, about the time of the Modoc War, arrived in Yreka on Wednesday, the 11th of February. They have always been on friendly terms with the whites. They encamped outside of town, and on the following day (Feb. 12) a treaty was duly signed. The whites were represented by Gen. D. D. Colton, Judge A. M. Rosborough, and Judge R. B. Snelling; and the Indians by LaLakes, Cum-tuck-na, and Ter-tup-kark.
    "ARTICLE 1. It is hereby solemnly agreed and stipulated that there shall be perpetual peace between the whites and the said Ouk-ske-nah tribe of Indians.
    "ART. 2. It is agreed on the part of the Indians, and they hereby solemnly bind themselves to return any horses, cattle and property that may be stolen from the whites by any of their tribe, and to use all the efforts in their power to prevent the Mo-ah-tock-na, or Modoc tribe, and other tribes, with which they may have intercourse, from committing outrages and depredations upon the whites and their property of every description.
    "ART. 3. It is further stipulated that the said tribe of Indians may, if they desire it, come to Yreka to trade their furs, &c., for blankets, clothing, &c.; and it is agreed by and on behalf of the whites, that the said tribe shall be protected while on their trading journeys to and from Yreka, and that every effort will be made to prevent and punish any whites that may commit outrages upon the said Ouk-ske-nah tribe of Indians, so long as they remain at peace with the whites.
    "ART. 4. It is also stipulated, mutually, between the parties, that in case of any violation of these articles, the injured party shall cause to be made known to the other party the grievance or outrage, in order that the guilty persons may be punished, without a breach of friendly relations between the contracting parties."
    The Yreka Union, in referring to the matter, says:
    "Great advantages may result to the people of Northern California and Southern Oregon, from this treaty, if observed in good faith by both parties. This is said to be a strong and wealthy tribe, and capable, in case of war, of greatly annoying and harassing the whites on the frontier. Their position and influence with other and hostile tribes also, is such that they may do much to prevent outbreaks and aggressions among them. Lalakes stated in the council with our citizens that the head chief of the Modocs had recently been at his camp, and said that he did not want to fight the whites any more, and that he was willing to treat, but was afraid to come here for that purpose. He was told to tell the Modoc chief that he need not fear to come, as he would be protected; he replied at once, when Capt. Ben Wright was fighting the Modocs, he had sent word to the chiefs to come to his camp for a friendly talk, and when they came, and were in his power, he ordered his men to commence shooting and killing them, and that they were afraid to trust themselves in the power of the whites again."
    The Union, in another article, urges the necessity of some action on the part of the general government for the relief of those Indians, who are now dependent upon the citizens of that county, and says:
    "La Lakes' interpretation of the talk and stipulations (chops-ka) entered into last October, at Clear Lake, between Gen. Cosby and Cum-tuck-na, seemed, as he says, to require his presence here, and through all the obstacles of deep snow and and cold he has come. He represents the winter as a hard one, and that he has lost many horses on account of deep snow in the valleys. His people all look tired, half starved, and scant of clothing; the war made against the Indians last summer has broken, it seems, into their arrangements of laying in winter supplies during summer."
Sacramento Daily Union, March 3, 1857, page 4



    RENEGADES AMONG THE INDIANS.--A renegade called Nigger Bill is said by Lalakes, the Klamath chief, recently at Yreka, to be among the Modocs, inciting them to hostilities against the whites. He is a noted horse thief. The Yreka Union adds:
    "From information derived from Lalakes, it is rendered quite certain also that an Indian called Sitkim Bill ["Half Bill"], half Shasta and half Modoc, and some of his companions, murdered the two men on Willow Creek, in Shasta Valley, last summer, which was the immediate cause of the war. The Modoc chief told Lalakes that Sitkim Bill had killed two white men, and taken some mules and a very fine saddle. Lalakes also states that the Modoc chief disavowed any participation in the depredations committed on the whites, and said they had been done by some bad Indians, without his knowledge or authority."
Sacramento Daily Union, March 3, 1857, page 4



Washington City D.C.
    March 9th 1857
Sir,
    I have the honor herewith to transmit to your office, for the use of the Indian Department, a map of the Indian reservation situated on the coast in Oregon Territory, known as the "Coast Reservation," which has by the proclamation of the President of the United States been declared a reservation for the Indian tribes in that Territory, showing the proposed extension to that reservation, together with a diagram of that extension delineating the land claims purchased for use of wheat farms for the establishment of an agency, manual labor school, hospital, mills, mechanical shops, and for the settlement of the Willamette tribes as per treaty of 10th January 1854.
    It has been contemplated to locate upon this reservation, and the extension, all the Indian tribes in that Territory west of the Cascade Range of mountains numbering about four thousand souls--three thousand five hundred of whom are now located thereon--more than one-half being upon the extension.
    The principal agency buildings for these tribes, a sawmill--two school houses--a smith shop--tin shop--wagonmaker shop--a flouring mill frame, with other necessary buildings, have already been erected upon this extension.
    There has also been established upon this tract a military fort designed for two companies.
    The blue lines on the diagram designate the land claims that have been purchased.
    There are however five settlers within the limits of the designated boundary, to wit, Messrs. Babcock, Burden, Mascar, Newbill and Zimmerman, whose titles have not been purchased. There are also fractions of two other claims within its lines, the right to all of which should be acquired by the government.
    It is important that this extension, known as the "Grand Ronde," shown by red lines on the map (being town[ships] 5 & 6 south, part of ranges 7 & 8 west) be declared by the President a part and parcel of the "Coast Reservation."
    The necessity and reasons inducing the purchase of these land claims have been fully set forth in former communications directed to your office.
I have the honor to be
    Your obedient servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Late Supt. Ind. Affs.
                For Oregon Ty.
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1205-1207.




Yaquina Bay Station
    March 9th 1857
Sir
    The bearer, Sambo, a Shasta who has been living with the Coast Indians at this station, has obtained leave to visit the Grand Ronde, for the ostensible purpose of settling a difficulty about a doctor that he killed some months since. He takes a party of Indians from this place with him, and it will be well to watch their proceedings while they are there. The Indians or a majority of them contemplate an effort to leave the reserve about the first of April, and I think this visit is to settle on some definite plan of operations. The Indians here inform me that the Shasta are all favorable to the movement but George and Limpy's bands. It is my opinion formed from the information that I have obtained from the Indians that unless the Shastas are disarmed a war is inevitable.
    You will bear in mind that these remarks are from one who has been the only white man among the Indians here for six months past, and who has superior facilities for obtaining information. In short, the Indians declare openly their determination to return to their former homes, peaceably if possible, but forcibly if necessary.
    But the Coast Indians will not move without the Shastas.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. svt.
        G. H. Abbott
            Local Ind. Agt.
To Gen. Miller
    Indian Agent
        Grand Ronde Reserve
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, enclosure to No. 75.




Washington City
    March 9th 1857
Hon. Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner Indian Affs.
        Sir,
            Allow me to call your attention to the claim of Saml. H. Culver, late Indian agent in Oregon. You will recollect that he was suspended by Genl. Palmer, Supt. Indian Affs., and soon after reinstated and ordered to duty and continued in the discharge of his duty until Dr. Ambrose was appointed and relieved him. It appears to me that there can be no doubt of Culver's just right to his salary & usual incidental expenses for & during the time he served, and [I] feel sure you will see the justice of the claim & have it paid.
Your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 486-487.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City March 10th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith accounts of W. W. Raymond, sub-Indian agent, for the quarter ending March 31st 1856, consisting of
Abstract of disbursements
for transportation, buildings, current expenses &c., amounting to . . . $506.50
Abstract of purchases of property, amounting to . . . 358.69
Abstract of purchases of subsistence, amounting to . . . 2574.89
and return of provisions.
    Mr. Raymond's accounts for the year 1856 are all deposited in this office so far as he has completed them, but I find that they are not complete for any one quarter. I have thought best however to forward those herewith transmitted and will forward others as the examination and projection of them progresses. It is very difficult to determine upon a proper disposition of the disbursements made by Mr. Raymond during the year that he has had charge of the Grand Ronde Reservation. It was originally intended that the disbursements for improvements made upon that reservation for building houses, opening and fencing farms &c., should be considered as payments upon the annuities of the several tribes, but these expenditures are found to reach so large an amount that the annuities would be entirely inadequate to the purpose. Again, the produce of the various farms has not been devoted exclusively for the benefit of the particular tribe for which it was intended, but has been used for mutual and joint benefit of the Indians upon the reservation as their necessities from time to time required. There is, therefore, in my opinion, no more propriety in charging the cultivation of these farms to the annuities of the Indians than there would be in charging the purchase of flour and beef for their subsistence to their annuities. The annuities of these Indians are too small for any other purpose than for supplying them with the "annuity goods" for which they have a right to expect every year, and so long as it is found necessary to employ them in opening farms and making improvements on reservations, special appropriations will be necessary for the purpose. The improvements made upon the Grand Ronde Reservation since Mr. Raymond has been in charge far exceed in expense the funds furnished him to disburse, and there is consequently a large amount of indebtedness existing for labor performed and materials furnished the government upon that reservation.
    Mr. Raymond's accounts will doubtless show a large amount of money due him as having disbursed more than he has received, but a large proportion of this overdisbursement results from a course of action which has been pursued by Mr. Raymond, of the propriety of which I am in doubt; that is, in obtaining vouchers of individuals who have performed service or furnished materials in good faith by giving in payment therefor his due bill as sub-Indian agent. I desire that this office receive immediate instructions from you as to the course to be pursued. Whether I am authorized to pay the funds over to Mr. Raymond which his accounts may show to be due him, when I know that several thousand dollars of his due bills are outstanding and that a corresponding amount of the vouchers furnished in his accounts were paid in that way--the holders of these due bills are every day presenting them at this office, expecting payment, but I should not feel warranted in paying them in that shape, had I the funds, nor do I feel willing to pay over funds to Mr. Raymond for the purpose now that he is relieved from the charge of the Grand Ronde Reservation. I enclose the form of due bill given by Mr. Raymond in these instances. Immediate instruction upon this subject is earnestly desired.
    Mr. Raymond has been ordered to the Dalles to relieve agent R. R. Thompson.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 301-305.



Washington D.C.
    March 10th 1857
Sir,
    The importance of having action by the President & Senate upon a portion of the treaties negotiated by me with the Indian tribes in the Territory of Oregon has induced me to call your attention to the subject before the adjournment of that body.
    The maintenance of peaceable relations between several of those tribes and our citizens depends very much upon the ratification of those treaties. I refer particularly to the coast treaty with the Tillamooks, Lower Umpquas, Yaquinas, Coos Bay, Coquilles, Tututnis, Joshutes & Chetcos and which confederates all the coast tribes from the Columbia River to the northern boundary of California, and also provides for their location upon the Coast Reservation, nearly all of whom in accordance therewith are now residing upon that tract and its extension. This tract has been declared a reservation by the President, but the treaty by which these tribes are confederated has not been ratified.
    All the confederated bands of the Willamette Valley treated with on the 10th January 1854 (which has been ratified) are also located upon this reservation and its extension, as also the Umpquas and Calapooias of Umpqua Valley--the Cow Creeks--the Rogue Rivers and the Shasta Scotons and Grave Creek tribes.
    The treaties with these tribes provide for the designation of tracts or parcels of land to the heads of families under certain restrictions, but the treaty with the tribes from whom this Territory was purchased and the other coast tribes located thereon not having been ratified by the Senate, or perhaps no action upon it, precludes the possibility of carrying out that provision of the treaty--besides if these tracts were assigned to individuals as contemplated by the treaties with them they would commence cultivating and be able to subsist themselves instead of being supported by the government. The failure to comply with this provision of the treaties has been a serious cause of complaint among these tribes.
    The treaty with the Molallas, who were confederated with the Umpquas and emigrated with them to this Coast Reservation and settled in the Grand Ronde, or Coast Extension, equally demands action, and for the same reasons. There are now upon this reservation over three thousand five hundred Indians.
    The treaty with the Wascopams & Deschutes bands of Walla Wallas is also one that demands immediate action. It provides for a reservation and secures to the heads of families tracts of land &c. They are exceedingly impatient on account of the delay in securing them a home, for as with the other tribes referred to their lands are taken possession of by the whites and themselves huddled together without means to provide for their own wants, disarmed and restrained from their accustomed freedom in the chase and relying almost solely upon the government for subsistence--besides it is wholly impossible under the condition of things now existing in that country to carry out the intercourse laws of Congress, but if placed upon reservations which have been approved by the President and Senate, and separated from the white settlements, where the intercourse laws can be enforced, we may hope for peace and a reformation in the condition of these people.
    If these three treaties could be acted upon and ratified, although no appropriations could now be made to carry them into effect, yet the funds which have been appropriated by the late Congress could be expended with a reference to their permanent settlement and tend much to quiet the apprehension of these unfortunate people. Everything now is in uncertainty; no fixed plans can be adopted by the agents of the government looking to permanency. The great delays in carrying out the provisions of the treaties which have been ratified, but which look to the ultimate concentration of the various scattering bands upon the fewest number of reservations practicable, causes doubts in their minds as to the intentions of the government.
    It is useless to disguise the fact that if there be an entire failure to have action upon these treaties there is eminent [sic] danger of a repetition of the scenes enacted during the last eighteen months, and should a war break out again it will not be confirmed to a few tribes, but will in all probability embrace all the tribes with whom we have heretofore been at peace, and the result could not but be disastrous to the settlements on that entire coast. By judicious and proper care it may be avoided.
    Portions of the tribes with whom we have been at war, those from Southern Oregon, would be unwilling again to join issue with us, but others, Northern Oregon & Washington, continue to boast of their ability to exterminate the white man, and it is evident they have not been chastised so as to impress them with our power or ensure their respect for our laws or the rights of our people.
    It may be improper at this date to trespass upon your time, but being acquainted with the condition of affairs in that country, and the great desire I have to see amicable relations existing between our citizens and the natives of that section, and feeling so well satisfied that so much depends upon the action of the Senate before its adjournment, has induced me to venture this communication, and I hope you will give it that consideration the subject merits.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. G. W. Manypenny
    Comr. Ind. Affs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1209-1212.



Yaquina Station
    March 13th 1857
Dr. Sir
    I met the "chiefs" of all the coast tribes in council this morning, when they expressed their determination to go back to Rogue River. They will start in a few days, and as I have no force to prevent them I have to quietly submit and await your orders for future operations. There is no uncertainty about their leaving the reservation. They will most positively and unconditionally leave in a few days. I sent an express to Capt. Augur four days since asking aid, but have not heard from him as yet. Let me hear from you at the earliest possible moment. I used every argument in my power to dissuade them from their determination to leave but they finally refused to hear my interpreter or to allow him to say anything about remaining. The schooner has not been seen yet and our condition is truly distressing. Hunger and starvation is the cry on every side.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
Capt. A. F. Hedges
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        O.T.
P.S. Since writing the above Lt. Sheridan has arrived with a party of 25 men.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 78.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City March 14th 1857
Dear sir
    The Commissioner, under date of 20th January, transmit the enclosed blank affidavit. He says that in your bond as Indian agent you did not comply with his instructions of 25th August, which were that the oath of office should be taken before a judge of the district court or a justice of the peace. In case it is taken before a justice of the peace, his official character must be certified to by the proper court, or office, attested by the seal. He says, "These instructions are based upon laws and regulations that cannot be pretermitted by this office. I also enclose to you receipts for money which you will please sign and return by Mr. Brown as follows:
" For pay of Indian agent $   375.00    
"   "      "     "  interpreter 125.00
"   "   general incidental expenses   2000.00
" In all $2500.00 "
    You will draw upon this office for the balance due from this amount after deducting the drafts already drawn in favor of Jennings & Co., N. H. Lane and J. S. McIteeny, they having been presented here. I suppose you desire them paid first.
    The news from Washington is quite favorable to a liberal appropriation of funds for our benefit.
    You will see in the Herald sent you that the appropriation bill requires but the concurrence of the House of Representatives.
    The Calumet leaves Portland today with the first load for you under your contract with Ainsworth & Co.
    I desire to locate the Shasta Scoton and Grave Creek Indians (now on Grand Ronde) in the Siletz Valley as soon as it can be done to advantage. They being under treaty stipulations with the United States it will be necessary that their farms &c. shall be conducted and funds disbursed, separate and distinct from those for the other Indians upon the reservation.
    The treaty with the coast tribes has not been confirmed, but if Congress appropriates sufficient funds we will comply as nearly with the provisions of that treaty as may be found expedient.
Very respectfully
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Coast Reservation
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 317-318.



Grand Ronde March 15th 1857
A. F. Hedges
    Supt. of Ind. Affairs, O.T.
        Sir,
            In compliance with your request I embrace this moment to give you a brief report of the state of the Willamette School. We have just closed our second quarter under promising auspices.
    The school, at first quite small, not exceeding ten or twelve students, has increased to sixty. Of this number about one half are regular attendants; the others are very inconstant.
    The improvement of the school has exceeded my expectations. Many of the students, who at the commencement of the session were entirely ignorant of our language and in a state of filth and nudity, have undergone a great transformation. They now understand the most that I say to them and are beginning to speak intelligibly. The most of them know their letters and can spell words of one syllable. A small number can spell words of two syllables and are beginning to read. They learn the letters, figures and writing quite as readily as white children.
    It is not to be expected that they will improve as fast in reading until they become more familiar with our language, inasmuch as the letters convey to them imperfectly the sounds of the words, and words without meaning are void of interest. They have fine powers of imitation and delight to sing and write. I have found no difficulty in improving their personal appearance by the application of water, soap and cloth. Doubtless you are convinced, from the returns of the agency, that I have made a free use of the latter article. I have made and issued over two hundred garments; this, in addition to the labors of my school, has kept me most securely from falling into one of the worst of vices, idleness.
    From all I have seen since my labors here, I am convinced that the Indian children are not deficient in moral and intellectual powers, and that under propitious circumstances they would make ladies and gentlemen.
    I need not tell you that we have been embarrassed for want of a suitable room and books.
    A commodious house is being erected and would have been completed ere this had it been possible to procure materials for building. Measures are also taken to supply the school with books.
    I have thus briefly attempted to make you acquainted with the condition of our school and hope you will not deem it presumptuous in me to offer some suggestions relative to the best manner of conducting the educational interests of this reservation.
    I have no hesitancy in saying that before our schools can be of real, lasting, practical utility to the tribes, they must be established on a different basis.
    Much may be done under our present mode of instruction, but yet it is far from being efficient. In order to improve the Indian race, it is indispensable that we implant good habits in the hearts of the rising generation, and how can we hope to do this while they are daily contracting the pernicious habits of their ancestors, under the influence of which they are wasting away like the snows of April; unless we can properly educate the Indian children, I can see no ground for hope of ameliorating the condition of the tribes.
    Under the term "educate" I include such training as will render their faculties prompt and active, as will teach them to be cleanly, industrious and to supply their wants by honest labor--as will impart to them a just sense of the nature of crime, as will inspire their minds with the sublime morality of the Bible and the tender charities of the Christian religion. You are ready to inquire "Is it possible to impart to them such an education as you urge?" I answer by referring you to the history of the tribes located in the Indian Territory bordering upon the Atlantic States. They were once as warlike and deeply immersed in barbarism as these tribes; now they are a civilized, Christianized, happy people. Shall we despair with such living examples of the influences of civil and religious efforts before our eyes? Let us rather by our labors and instructions and example essay to dispel the cloud that hangs like a black eternity over this forlorn, broken people.
    A happier day may yet dawn on these long-benighted tribes. Already methinks I see gleams of twilight which portend the rising sun.
    I have said that our present school system is not efficient because we cannot bring salutary influences to bear in the formation of habits. It is not possible to keep the children cleanly as long as they return home to sleep in their filthy beds. Nor can we expect them to become industrious as long as they are permitted to spend all their time in idleness.
    As little can they be expected to perform duties of which they know nothing. To supply this desideratum I think we should establish a boarding school, in which the students should devote a portion of time to study, another to labor and the remainder to recreation. The boys should be required to cultivate a field and garden. The girls should be instructed in sewing, washing, housekeeping and cooking. Especially should they be instructed in the latter art. I am informed by the physician that their ignorance of this art is one of the chief reasons for their sickness and mortality. The provisions for the children should be issued to the boarding house. This would be an incentive to the parents to keep the children at school.
    I am aware we shall be told that schools conducted on a plan similar to what is here recommended have failed on this coast, but inasmuch as schools thus organized have proved effective among the eastern tribes, I am induced to ascribe their failure in Oregon to the manner in which they were conducted rather than to a defect in the system. But as I have already extended my remarks greatly beyond what I contemplated when I took my seat I close with the pleasing assurance that your wish to promote the welfare of the Indians will lead you to use the best means to secure that end.
Yours most respectfully
    Mary C. Hull
        Teacher of Willamette School
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 317-322.



Grand Ronde Agency O.T.
    March 16th 1857
A. F. Hedges
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Sir, when I wrote to you by Mr. Malory things wore a very different aspect to what they do at present. There are quite a stir among the Indians at present. I think it is entirely among themselves, but it seems that the employees are afraid to remain at the hospital any longer. I received a note from Dr. Henry stating that the cook & steward had both left and it was impossible for him to keep it open any longer and recommended the closing of the hospital for the present. Now I will give you a statement of the difficulty as near as I can now existing among the Indians. It seems that on last Saturday two Shasta squaws, the wives of two Applegate men, run off and went to the fort. These men went in search of their wives and found them at the officers' quarters and upon inquiry found that they had slept there that night, and after starting home with the women they shot them, killing one of them and wounding the other, and it seems that the brothers of the two women want to kill the Applegate Indians. It consequently creates quite a stir among the Indians and that to frighten the whites so they are all or very nearly all left the reservation.
    So far as I am concerned I don't apprehend any danger, although there may be.
    I will also send you a letter I received from the local agent at the coast, Mr. Abbott. You will also doubtless hear from Dr. Henry, as he is the bearer of this letter. After receiving the information you use your own judgment in the case. As for myself, I will remain here as though nothing had happened.
Yours respectfully
    L. Jackson
        Agent's Clerk
A. F. Hedges
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 75.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City March 17th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 10th January referring to estimated expense of the service of the Indian Department in this Superintendency for the year ending June 31st 1858. I am gratified to find that my estimate of 22nd November has received attention and hope that this office may be enabled to do good service with the funds appropriated.
    Upon the Grand Ronde Reservation the agent, John F. Miller, is using every exertion to enable the Indians to raise their own food for the next fiscal year; the winter has, however, been most unpropitious, the worst we have had for fifteen years. Upon the Coast, owing to bad weather, the wreck of the schooner Calumet, and the want of funds, nothing of importance has yet been done in the farming line, as we have scarcely been able to keep those Indians from dying from starvation and exposure. Agent Metcalfe is now actively engaged in putting in spring crops and erecting the necessary buildings in the Siletz Valley. The schooner Calumet was almost miraculously saved from total destruction in the storm of which mention was made in my letter of 19th December and has been repaired and again left Portland on the 14th inst. loaded with flour, wheat, potatoes &c. for Agent Metcalfe, purchased upon the credit of the government.
    A strong effort will be made to render these reservations self-supporting after harvest, say from 1st August next, but in order to effect this a heavy outlay is necessary in opening and fencing farms, putting in crops &c., and as I have repeatedly stated, the Indians must be fed by the government until after harvest, or they must be permitted to leave the reservations and go where they please, which latter cause I shall not adopt until I receive direct instructions from your office to do so. It will be necessary to furnish the Indians located upon the reservations with beef during the next winter to some extent, but it is hoped that the quantity may be very materially reduced below the consumption of the past winter by affording them every facility, by furnishing fishing apparatus to enable them to supply themselves with salmon during the fall season, at which time the streams of the Coast Reservation are said to abound with that fish.
    The Indians upon the Coast and Grand Ronde Indian reservations are very desirous that their lands may be surveyed and their individual locations assigned them as stipulated in the majority of the treaties made with them so that each may have his home and labor for the benefit of his own family. It is intended that the Grand Ronde Reservation shall be so surveyed and assigned during the coming summer if the step meets with the approval of your office, as it is thought such arrangement will better satisfy the Indians and be more to their advantage than the course hitherto pursued of cultivating large farms for the joint benefit of all the Indians upon the reservation.
    In the event that the treaty of 11th August 1855 with the coast tribes is ratified or if my receiving definite instructions from your office upon the course to be pursued with those Indians, I desire they shall also be located upon individual tracts and encouraged to labor and improve farms for individual support and benefit. The Wasco and Deschutes tribes, east of the Cascade Mountains, treated with 25th June 1855, are also very anxious to go upon the reservation provided by that treaty, but until that treaty is ratified I do not feel authorized to commence operations for improvements there of a permanent nature unless instructions are received from your office. I have, however, directed Sub-Agent Raymond to furnished seeds to such Indians as desire to make gardens upon that reservation and give them every encouragement in their efforts to support themselves by agricultural labor.
    I shall be very much pleased to hear of the ratification of the treaties mentioned. The number of Indians engaged in the late war, belonging to the coast tribes or to the Wascos and Deschutes, comparatively, was very small, and the advantage resulting to the government by the confirmation of these treaties and the consequent establishment of good faith with those Indians would be very great and would expedite the humane efforts of the heads of the Indian Department to ameliorate and improve the condition of the Indians.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Comr. Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 309-313.



Washington City D.C.
    March 17th 1857.
Sir
    Herewith will be found additional and corrected vouchers and explanations in support of the suspended items in my accounts for the 4th qr. 1853, 1-2-3 & 4th qrs. 1854 and the 1-2-3 & 4th qrs. 1855.
    It must be apparent to the accounting officers in your Department that with the transient population in the Pacific Supts. with whom we are often compelled to do business, it is very difficult and sometimes impossible at this late period to obtain the evidence required, and that the prices paid in the eastern Superintendencies forms no correct criterion for those on the Pacific. Besides it must not be forgotten that the peculiar condition of things in that country has rendered a greater amount of labor necessary and involved classes of expenditures while those in the older established Superintendencies. And whilst very many items may appear to them unnecessary and others extravagantly high rates, I feel satisfied that a full knowledge of the circumstances under which they were made would remove all doubts upon that subject.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Joel Palmer
                Late Supt. Ind. [Affs.]
                    for Oregon T.
Hon.
    Geo. W. Manypenny
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs.
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1213-1215.



    The Indians on the Grand Ronde Reservation, it is said, are leaving in small numbers, and returning south to their old hunting grounds. They say that they will leave in the spring. If they should attempt it there is no force to oppose them successfully.--Times.
"Arrival of the Mail from Oregon," Olympia Pioneer and Democrat, Olympia, Washington, March 20, 1857, page 6



Siletz Agency
    March 21st 1857
Dr. Sir
    Yours of 14th March has just been received. I am pleased to hear there is a prospect of our being able to carry out our plans. I will go to the Grand Ronde for those Indians as soon as the weather clears up, and I earnestly hope the schooner will be in soon enough for me to put in a spring crop.
    The Indians met in council at the Yaquina and informed me that they were going back to Rogue River and requested that I would write to all of the "Boston tyees" and let them know that such was their intention so they might not think they (the Ind.) were stealing off. I have a detachment of 25 soldiers at the Yaquina which make that place safe until the schooner arrives, and then I will order out another company of soldiers and bring them all onto the Siletz and assign them their permanent homes. You may feel easy in regard to the peace in my agency. I am determined nothing shall go wrong as long as I remain here.
In haste
    Very respectfully
        Yr. obt. servt.
            R. B. Metcalfe
                Ind. Agent
To
    Capt. A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 76.



ADDITIONAL FROM OREGON.
    The Oregon Argus says Dr. Henry reports the Indians dying off rapidly at the Reservation, and at this rate there will be no warriors left at the end of four years. The Rogue River tribe threaten to return to Rogue River in the spring. They say they did not lose half so many during the war as by sickness at the Reservation. The bread and beef diet does not seem to agree with them so well as the snails and salmon. The commissioners on the war claims have agreed to pay two dollars a day for the services of a man and the same for a horse.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, March 18, 1857, page 1



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Oregon City March 23rd 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith a communication from Miss Mary C. Hull [above, dated March 15], school teacher for the Willamette tribes of Indians located upon the Grand Ronde Reservation, detailing the success which had attended her labors and suggesting a change in the mode of conducting the school. I agree with Miss Hull in the opinion that the most effectual method to civilize and improve the condition of our Indians is to mold the character and habits of the children, and to do this we must have them as much as possible under our own control, which can be effected more completely by a boarding and manual labor school, I think, than by any other means.
    I shall therefore take steps to establish such a school upon the Grand Ronde Reservation, hoping that it may meet with your approval.
    The object in locating Indians upon reservations being to civilize them, the most effectual means to attain that end should certainly be adopted.
    The treaty with the Molallas or Molel tribe of Indians, signed on the 21st December 1855, provides in the 4th article for just such a school as we need, and I shall be very much pleased if that treaty is ratified. It contains many other important provisions also, of which our Indians need the benefit. The tribe treated with are located upon the Grand Ronde Reservation, and, presuming upon the ratification of the treaty, late Supt. Palmer contracted for the erection of a sawmill upon that reservation, as provided for in the 2nd article, the cost of which, seven thousand dollars, must be deducted from other funds in case that treaty is not ratified.
    It was indispensably necessary that the sawmill be erected, even as a matter of pecuniary policy, as it would otherwise be impossible to procure lumber except during the summer season, and then only at an enormous expense.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        A. F. Hedges
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 324.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 314-316.



Fighting and Treating.
    Two modes of conducting our intercourse with the aborigines of this country have been practiced ever since its occupation by our people. The one has been to fight and subdue; the other to negotiate and seek the maintenance of friendly relations with them. The former has been the most common and popular mode; the latter generally the most economical and effectual. The fighting, however, has heretofore been done by the troops of the general government, or by volunteers subject to its directions. But, of late, on the Pacific coast, a different practice has prevailed. Parties, whenever occasion demanded, having armed and gone forth to fight the savages, looking to the state or Territorial authorities for their pay, leaving these in turn to seek indemnity for the debt thus incurred from the general government. The validity of these war debts having very properly been recognized by the latter, and their payment provided for, has, no doubt, tended to encourage certain classes of whites to create new causes of strife with the Indians, or at least to repel their aggressions in a way that would enable them to establish new claims upon the public authorities for their services. Thus, we have had an Indian war in progress on our northern borders, with some intermission for two or three years. And we speak from personal observation, in saying there were numerous parties from that quarter, at the Capital, ready to besiege the members even before the opening of the legislative session, with a view to securing favorable action upon their claims for services rendered, or supplies furnished, during the Klamath and Modoc war.
    They soon found, however, our treasury was bankrupt, and that nothing could be done, and probably most of them soon returned home, satisfied with the hopelessness of their claims. Since that period, we find, upon consulting the Yreka Union, that the whites in that section of country have bethought themselves of treating with these same savages that they have been fighting so long. And, we rejoice to say, their negotiations are likely to be attended with beneficial results to both parties. It would appear the red men are, by no means, reluctant to come to terms, when a desire for friendly relations is manifested on the part of their foes. This wish having been communicated to the Klamath tribe, about the first of the month, Lalakes, their chief, accompanied by several of his warriors, came into Yreka on the 11th ult., and having camped outside the town, the following day a treaty was entered into with them, stipulating for perpetual peace, and by the terms of which the Indians agree to return all property stolen from the whites by their tribe, and furthermore to use all their efforts to prevent any further outrages or depredations being committed on our people, either by their own or the adjacent tribes. The whites, on their part, agree to allow the Indians to come to Yreka for the purposes of trade, and to prevent any outrages being committed upon them, or punish the parties guilty of any such attempts.
    If either party have cause for complaint, their grievances are to be heard and redressed by the other without disturbing the friendly relations that exist between them. This treaty, if observed, will be of great advantage to the inhabitants of Siskiyou and Klamath counties, and of Southern Oregon, inasmuch as they have suffered severely during the late troubles with their savage neighbors; not that the Indian has always been most to blame in causing these difficulties. Sometimes he has been the aggressor; in fact, almost always to a certain extent, for these, like three-fourths of all our Indian wars, have been initiated in this wise. During the severe weather of winter, the snows covering the mountains and the ice closing up the streams, the Indian becomes pinched for food. Necessity knowing no law, he seeks to supply his wants by depredating upon the horses and cattle of his white neighbor; or maybe he attacks some packer on the mountain trails, or some frontier trader, and, having vanquished or slain the proprietor, appropriates his goods. This arouses the resentment of the white race, and bands of men, hastily arming, proceed to punish the aggressors. Not as they would punish white men--by seeking out the guilty--but by an indiscriminate attack upon entire tribes, and generally upon the first one they fall in with. Thus whole communities are sometimes cut off for the offenses of a few, and even entire tribes exterminated, none of whose members had been engaged in committing the crimes complained of. This undue severity and indiscriminate mode of attack very naturally begets on the part of the Indian a feeling of fierce and implacable hostility. In this manner is begun, and in this manner is carried on, many of our most protracted and destructive Indian wars.
    This mode of adjusting such difficulties as may arise between the two races is to be superseded, according to the provisions of the treaty, by the more just and rational one of causing their grievances to be mutually made known, in order that the guilty individuals may be punished, while the innocent are protected from slaughter, and thus justice be done without breach of friendship between the parties.
    This mode of regulating intercourse and securing justice will no doubt tend to greater security to life and property, and also to diminish the war spirit amongst our own braves.
    The Klamaths, says the Union, are a strong and brave tribe, capable, in case of war, of greatly annoying and harassing the whites on the frontier. Their position and influence with other and hostile tribes also is such that they may do much to prevent outbreaks and aggressions among them. Lalakes stated in the counsel with our citizens that the head chief of the Modocs had recently been at his camp and said that he did not want to fight the whites anymore, and that he was willing to treat, but was afraid to come here for that purpose. He was told to tell the Modoc chief that he need not fear to come, as he would be protected; he replied at once, when Capt. Ben. Wright was fighting the Modocs, he had sent word to the chiefs to come to his camp for a friendly talk, and when they came and were in his power, he ordered his men to commence shooting and killing them, and that they were afraid to trust themselves in the power of the whites again.
    We shall henceforth look for less trouble with the Indians in that quarter, and consequently for smaller demands against the state for military services and supplies.
    The general government should at once take measures for the relief of those tribes, as they are now in a measure dependent upon the whites. Lalakes says the winter has been very severe, and he has lost many horses on account of deep snow in the valleys. His people all look tired, half starved, and are scant of clothing, the war last summer having broke into their arrangements of laying in winter supplies.
Alta California, San Francisco, March 23, 1857, page 1
 




Umpqua Sub-Ind. Agency
    Umpqua City O.T. March 24 '57
Sir
    Information received at this office from officers both civil & military on the Coast Reservation north confirm the reports that extensive preparations are now being made by the Indians to leave for their former homes early in the spring, that their success or failure will depend on the military force here (Fort Umpqua). That more troops are requisite is evident. With a force of 150 or 200 men it would be almost impossible for them to leave via the Umpqua, yet the commander at this point informs me that "not more than 45 men are here now" & desertion would prompt him to defend the garrison with his entire force.
    Two companies are now at or near San Francisco designed for Oregon in the spring. An earnest appeal for troops by you it is thought would have the effect to obtain one if not both companies for this post. In the alacrity of the Department in forwarding troops to Umpqua will (I opine) depend the peace & security of the white settlements on this coast south & the quiet of the Indians on the reserve north.
    I most respectfully make the representations to you hoping that they may meet your approbation & a request for more troops at this point may be forwarded by the next mail.
    Indians within this district are quiet & apparently satisfied.
    The alarming necessity of an increased military force here will I hope prove a sufficient excuse for this hasty comment within.
I remain
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
Capt. A. F. Hedges
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Oregon City O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 88.



Port Orford April 3rd / 57
Capt. Hedges
    Sir
        I arrived here on the 3rd inst. safe and sound. I have ascertained that there is about thirty bucks and about the same number of squaws and children at Chetco River and 6 bucks and 5 squaws at Pistol River. The farmers in Chetco Valley want the Indians taken away from there if they can be. The Pistol River Indians are in the mountains and would be very hard to get at until summer fairly sets in; the others could be got without any trouble. The above statement I have just received from Mr. Robert N. Forsyth, who has just returned from Crescent City via the coast.
Hoping that you still remain in the same good heath as usual
    I remain your
        Most obt. servt.
            Oliver Cantrell
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 96.



Grand Ronde
    April 4th 1857
Dear Sir
    Yours of March 20 was duly received. I have obtained a few garden seeds, not near enough I should have of any kind. The Department owes for keeping the oxen and Indians' horses the past winter, at several different individuals', with over 300 bushels of oats & some potatoes. Near $1000.00 dollars and we still need from 300 to 400 bushels oats more, also from 2 to 3 bushels potatoes, but I have no money to pay for any of these things. The people are becoming impatient about their pay. I am obliged to have all of our seed oats & potatoes. It is very hard on the oxen; they are very poor and weak. The reason they are so, we have no grain to feed to them. There needs to be 5 or 6 hundred acres of new ground broke up this spring in order to be able to put in wheat enough to bread the Indians a year from the next fall coming. The oxen we now have on the reservation will not be able to do any breaking of new ground. This spring we shall have to hire teams or buy some. It is my opinion that it would be cheaper to buy than to hire. For this reason the Department have not got oxen enough to supply the Indians when their land may be set off to them. The first cost of oxen would not amount to more than to break the ground. I solicit advice.
Yours truly
    Amasa Howe
        Supt. of Farming
Capt.
    A. F. Hedges
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Office Oregon City
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 92.



Janesville, Wisconsin
    April 7th 1857
Sir,
    I saw this morning, and with pleasure, the publication here of a telegraphic dispatch announcing your appointment as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Allow me to congratulate you upon its mention; though it may be the extremely arduous duties of the office render it doubtful whether it should really be a subject of congratulation on the part of your friends or otherwise. It is certain your office is no sinecure.
    Expecting to be absent from home during a portion of this spring and summer, I would call your attention to my unadjusted claim for services as agent in Southern Oregon. Its nature is fully known to you, and the proofs establishing it are on file, and I am anxious to have the matter acted upon as early as the business of your bureau will permit. It has already been a long time since the services were rendered and the expenditures made which constitute my claim, and I feel that I should not be delayed in receiving the amount longer than is necessary for the matter to be reached and acted upon.
    I would express the hope that you will give the matter attention at your earliest convenience.
Respectfully
    Yours &c.
        S. H. Culver
Hon. Chas. E. Mix
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 158-160.



    ROGUE RIVER INDIANS.--The Rogue River Indians, who have been removed to the Alsea reserve, sixty miles north of the Umpqua River, are said to be very much dissatisfied with their position, and are making preparations to return to their old quarters. They number about 1,100, and have plenty of revolvers and other firearms among them. The troops at Fort Umpqua, numbering about 75 soldiers, are said to be determined to intercept the Indians, and force them to go back to the Reserve or fight.
Mountain Democrat, Placerville, California, April 11, 1857, page 2



Siletz Indian Agency O.T.
    April 14th 1857
Dear Sir
    I have to request that you will furnish me with a portion of your command for the purpose of disarming certain Indians, who have refused to give up their guns upon my request. This measure is rendered absolutely necessary, as the employees of the Department refuse to remain upon the reservation whilst the Indians have the means within their possession of taking their lives. Four left yesterday upon that account. I hear that a portion of your command will leave the reservation in the morning. The prospect of resistance is exactly in proportion to the number of armed men that the Indians see. With all of our detachment present I anticipate that no difficulty would occur in disarming them. The safety of the lives of those upon the reservation, as well as the prosecution of the public works under my charge, depends upon your prompt cooperation.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
Lieut. Sheridan
    Comd. Detach. 4th U.S. Inf.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, Document B of No. 200.  A copy of this letter was also included as the third enclosure to No. 197.




Siletz, April 14 1857
Sir
    I regret that I have not the authority to furnish you with the detachment of troops which you request for the purpose of disarming the Indians. The Indians have but few guns, and I am satisfied have come here from the Yaquina Bay with the best intentions of not only remaining peaceable but of regarding this as their future home.
    It will be necessary for you to make your requisition with the commanding officer of this point of the reservation, Captain C. C. Augur, 4th Infantry.
    I will leave 25 men for the protection of your employees, which I consider abundant.
Very respectfully, sir
    Your obedient servant
        (signed) P. H. Sheridan
            2nd Lt. 4th Infantry
                Comdg. detacht. U.S. troops
R. B. Metcalfe, Esq.
    Indian Agent
        Siletz Agency O.T.
A true copy.
    C. C. Augur
        (signed) Capt. 4th Infantry
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, enclosure to No. 197.  The original can be found on Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, Document B of No. 200.



Yaquina Bay O.T.
    April 13 1857
Sir
    Your letter of instruction dated March 22nd was received on the 25th and on the 28th I was [illegible] after the arrival of the schooner with [illegible] returned [illegible] did not desire it [illegible] to remove the Indians south [illegible] as they could subsist themselves [illegible] scattered.
    On the evening of the [illegible] of April, the schooner came in and on the 10th I called a council of the chiefs, the agent having informed me that he was ready to receive them, [illegible] them with having [illegible] with a combination to leave the reservation and told them the consequences of such a [illegible] and that they would have to regard the Siletz as their future home, and that they must not only abandon all intentions of leaving but would have to stop talking about it. They replied that they could not deny that they had intended to leave the reservation but that they would now give it up and would go wherever directed and would go to the Siletz with the intention of making it their future home and were willing to live there in peace forever. They said that when they delivered up their guns at Port Orford it was with the promise that they would be brought up to the reservation [half a page illegible]
    During the time that I have been here I have endeavored to ascertain the reason of their discontent and attribute it to two causes.
    1st. The determined hostility of the agents placed over these Indians, which [illegible] a feeling of unsafety amongst them. In addition the agent, Mr. Metcalfe, has surrounded himself with employees who were engaged in hostilities with them in the lower country and who do not hesitate to express the most improper and hostile language towards them.
    2nd. The suffering from want of food during the last winter.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        (signed) P. H. Sheridan
            2nd Lt. 4th Inf.
                Comdg. detachment
Capt. C. C. Augur
    4th Infantry
        Comdg. Fort Hoskins
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, second enclosure to No. 197.



Siletz Agency
    April [illegible] 1857
Sir
    I called upon Lieut. Sheridan yesterday for a [illegible] I considered it unsafe to have [illegible] at my request and he refused to render me aid, [illegible] that he had no authority to [illegible] I suppose reasoning in the same way if an Indian were to shoot one of my employees he would have to [illegible] before he could [illegible] therefore when the necessity of having a military force there if they could not be used to enforce obedience to the requisitions of the Indian Department must look to some other source for [illegible] to the Department [illegible] and called a council of the Indians [illegible] the remainder will be given up today except a few desperadoes who steadily refuse to give them up, and whom I would arrest if [illegible] force of arms were sufficient to guard them after the arrest.
    [illegible] the employees have expressed a [illegible] to leave the reservation if the Indians are [illegible] to hold in their possession the [illegible] their lives at any moment they choose to do so [illegible] without a [illegible] exertion on your part I will be compelled to abandon the [illegible] leave the reservation.
    Please let [illegible]
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        (signed) R. B. Metcalfe
            Indian Agent
Captain C. C. Augur
    4th Inf. Army
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, fifth enclosure to No. 197.   Transcribed from very faint microfilm.



Fort Hoskins O.T.
    April 15, 1857
Sir
    Your letter of the 15th instant has been received, and during the absence of Captain C. C. Augur 4th Infantry, who is at present at Vancouver, I have the honor to reply to it. I regret exceedingly that you should be disposed to regard any refusal to grant you a detachment of men to disarm the Indians in the light you do. I was entrusted with the removal of the Indians of which you have now such fear from the Yaquina Bay to your Agency, and can myself as well as your agent, Dr. Abbott and Lieut. Wheeler, who was with me, bear testimony to the good feeling exhibited by them at the council and the alacrity with which they moved from that place as soon as directed. When in council with them at Yaquina Bay, I tacitly gave them to understand that I would not at the present time require of them to deliver up the few arms which I knew them to have, and this in the presence of your agent Mr. Abbott, who made no objection and who had your authority for their removal. I therefore think it very unfortunate that you should have been so hasty in demanding their arms on the arrival of the advance at your Agency before you knew what had occurred at the Yaquina Bay, but to remedy this misfortune, I immediately on my arrival at your place called on you and informed you of what had occurred, and earnestly requested that you would not proceed further at the present time, and that in a few days the company of the 9th Infantry, now en route to this place, would be here and that you could consult with the commanding officer of that company who is to be the future commanding officer of this post on the subject, and that I would leave 25 men at your Agency to give protection to your employees and which I considered sufficient.
    Notwithstanding all this you made a requisition on me for a detachment. I had no authority to give it to you but left you a force sufficient to give confidence to your employees when no danger was to be apprehended about [illegible] that it was unnecessary to leave any men at your Agency. Not fully [illegible] your object after your note of yesterday I thought it best to leave them, You then consequently informed me that it was your intention not to issue any more rations to the Indians until they had given up their arms and that the consequences would be that hunger would compel them to take things by force and that you would pitch into them & kill as many as you could, that you had three or four men who would stand by you until all were killed. I earnestly beg that you will not pursue such a course which will end in a war of extermination in order to obtain those three or four guns, which you say will not be given up, as but a few days will intervene until I am confident steps will be taken by the future commanding officer of this post to obtain them legitimately.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        (signed) P. H. Sheridan
            2nd Lieut. 4th Inf.
                Comdg.
Correct copy
    (signed) C. C. Augur
        Capt. 4th Infantry
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, sixth enclosure to No. 197.




Siletz Agency
    April 15, 1857
Sir:
    I had the honor to report to you on the 12th instant the successful removal of the Coast Indians to the Agency in the Siletz Valley. I arrived at the same place with my detachment on the morning of the 14th and learned with regret the unpolitic and excitable conduct of Mr. Metcalfe, the agent. I heard that immediately on the arrival of the advance of the Indians he had demanded their guns, and when the Indians refused or hesitated to give them up had used the most violent language towards them. I at once called upon him and informed him of what had taken place at the council at the Yaquina and pointed out to him the imprudence of exciting them at the present time, that I was under orders to repair at once to Fort Hoskins and that in a few days a company of the 9th Infantry would be here, and that he would consult with the officer of that company, who in future would be the commanding officer of this point, and that in the meantime I would leave at his Agency 25 men to give confidence to his employees, who were unnecessarily alarmed. Notwithstanding this, he still persisted in getting their arms and made a requisition on me for a party to disarm them, a copy of which I enclose, also my reply referring him to you as the proper person to apply to. After receiving my note, he armed four or five of his employees, called a council of the chiefs, spoke to them in an inflammatory and hostile manner and finally told them that he would go and bring my command up, this after my official refusal to give him assistance for that purpose. This latter threat induced the Indians to give up nearly all their guns.
    This morning I again called on him, when he informed me that it was his intention not to issue any more rations to the Indians until they had given up their guns and that the consequences would be that hunger would compel them to take things by force and then he would pitch into them and kill as many as he could, that he, at least, had three or four men who would stand by him until they were all killed.
    The conduct of Mr. Metcalfe is very much to be regretted. It has to a great extent destroyed the good feelings with which the Indians had moved to the Siletz, where from the representations of Special Agent Abbott, who was at the council at Yaquina Bay, they expected to be well received.
    This conduct of Mr. Metcalfe gives still greater credit to the opinion expressed in my report of the 13th instant, that the principal cause of dissatisfaction among the Indians was the want of confidence in the agents and many of their employees.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        (signed) P. H. Sheridan
            2nd Lt. 4th Inf.
                Comdg. detacht. at Siletz
Captain C. C. Augur
    4th Inf. Comdg.
        Fort Hoskins
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, seventh enclosure to No. 197.



Washington April 18th 1857.
Sir:
    I beg leave to present for your consideration some items of account connected with my service as late Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, which remain unadjusted. I submit now but two, having to wait for necessary evidence from Oregon, which I have not heretofore succeeded in obtaining, in reference to several others, which I will take the liberty of laying before you at some other time.
    1st. My salary as Superintendent from April 20th to May 3rd 1853 inclusive--14 days.
    My successor was qualified and took possession of the office on the 4th day of May, up to which time I remained in charge thereof, and of the books, papers and public property. I received compensation only to the 20th of April, and therefore, according to all usage and justice, and entitled to my pay for the intervening period. No one having been paid for this time there can, of course, be no difficulty in regard to this item.
    2nd. Mileage or traveling expenses returning from Oregon in 1853 after being superseded.
    In December 1852 I sent on my resignation, to take effect the following 30th June. No action was had thereon, and before the time named for it to take effect I was superseded with the rest of the government officers in the Territory.
    I was not a resident of Oregon and only went there in consequence of my appointment. During the term of my service, it was the settled custom to allow mileage, or traveling expenses, to officers going to or returning from such distant posts. It was not considered just to subject them to so heavy a tax out of their own limited compensation. If a precedent were needed, I could refer to the case of Beverly S. Allen of Kentucky, commissioner to negotiate treaties with the Indians in Oregon. His services having been terminated by a law which required all such negotiations to be performed by the officers of the Indian Department, the duties which had been confided to him and two other commissioners, appointed with him, were imposed upon me. He returned home and was allowed his traveling expenses. There were doubtless other similar cases, but I have not considered it necessary to search for them, such being the settled custom at the time as stated. Under these circumstances, I presumed there can be no reasonable objection whatever interposed to the allowance of this item.
Hoping for an early and favorable consideration
    I have the honor to be
        With much respect
            Your mo. obt. servt.
                Anson Dart
                    Late Superintendent &c.
Hon. J. Denver
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 191-194.



Umpqua Sub-Agency, O.T.
    April 18th 1857.
Sir
    I have the honor to report that the Indians at this encampment have enjoyed better health during the last quarter than the quarter previous. The improvement is evidently attributable to the weather being more favorable to their outdoor pursuits and their being well supplied with game and fresh fish.
    Were it not for the presence of scrofula in its various forms, this encampment would have little cause of disease. The cause of scrofula is doubtless attributable to hereditary contamination from their forefathers. This disease can only be removed by a generous supply of wholesome and well-cooked food. The potato, which is raised at this place with little labor, is especially adapted to the system depraved by scrofula, and its liberal use would soon effect an improvement in the health of these people.
    The diseases of the last quarter were mostly of an inflammatory character, embracing dysentery, bronchitis, pleurisy and ophthalmia. There were two deaths, one a child from dropsy, the other a man from old age.
I have the honor
    Very respectfully
        To be your obt. servt.
            Edw. P. Vollum
                M.D.
A. F. Hedges
    Superintendent of
        Indian Affairs
            Oregon Ter.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 546-548.




Fort Hoskins, O.T.
    April 20th 1857
Major,
    I have the honor to enclose herewith for the consideration of the colonel commanding the department a series of reports and letters on Indian affairs at this point of the reservation.
    I have only to add that the services of Lieut. Sheridan in the pacification and removal of the Indians, and his intelligence and knowledge of the state of affairs there, entitle his reports and opinions to implicit confidence.
    Mr. Metcalfe's complaint of the apprehension of his employees should attach to himself, and arise from his having located his agency so far away from the military post. When about locating it, I suggested that he should do so in the same prairie with the post, as there would be undoubtedly times when its protection would be required by the agents and their employees. I am informed by a credible person that one reason assigned the Superintendent for locating where he did was to get away from the post, and now he requests a force to be kept there to allay the apprehensions of his employees.
    There is no reason connected with the good of the service, in my opinion, why the agency should be at its present location, and certainly no good reason why government should be put to the trouble and expense of keeping up a separate post there to gratify Mr. Metcalfe's fancy for retaining his agency there.
    Captain Dent, 9th Infantry, arrived here with his company on the 18th to relieve me. So soon as he shall have relieved that portion of my company at the blockhouse and agency, my company will be in readiness to proceed to Vancouver en route for the Dalles.
Very respectfully major
    Your obt. servt.
        C. C. Augur
            Capt. 4th Infantry
                Commanding
Major W. W. Mackall
    Asst. Adjt. Genl.
        Benicia Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, eighth enclosure to No. 197.



Lafayette Oregon Territory April 21st 1857
Hon. James B. Henry
    Dear Sir
        The enclosed extract from a letter received from my highly esteemed friend the Rev. Edward R. Geary contains so much that is peculiarly applicable to the condition of our Indian affairs here in Oregon that I am anxious to have the attention of the President called to it.
    Mr. Geary is a Presbyterian clergyman, as remarkable for his piety as for his devoted patriotism. He was recommended, without any agency on his part, by our legislature for the office of Superintendent in place of Genl. Palmer, but his appointment was defeated by a combination of selfish and infidel influences, such as now control the Indian Department of the Territory.
    He is a native of Pennsylvania (a brother of Gov. Geary of Kansas) and a great admirer of Mr. Buchanan personally and politically, but would not now relinquish his ministerial labors for any office in the gift of the President.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        A. G. Henry
   
    "With you, I regard our Indians, degraded as they are by the most groveling vices of civilization superadded to those of the savage, as not incapable for being elevated to relish and enjoy the blessings of intelligence and religion. Directed by judicious and true men, the provisions made by our government are adequate, with the Divine blessing, to the accomplishment of this philanthropic and noble object. But benevolent intentions and liberal appropriations avail little unless followed by energetic, beneficent and just administration. Nor will these avail while counteracted by the degrading influence of unrestricted and licentious intercourse between the soldiery and the savages. I wish to be clearly understood as having no prejudice against our standing army or its officers. The institution cannot well be dispensed with, and as a class its officers, in moral tone and intelligence, are unsurpassed by those of any standing army that has ever existed. Armies, however, are not schools of morals, and I do most sincerely regard it as due to our national honor and essential to the success of the avowed policy toward the waning Indian tribes, collected on our reservations, that garrisons should be so located and such discipline enforced both in them and on the reservations as to cut off all intercourse between soldiers and Indians. If this cannot be effected, a government of angels would be utterly unavailing to the social and moral improvement of our Indians, and the reproach of a failure to accomplish anything for their good must rest upon our national character. The change I regard as necessary [and] should be based on specific law and not merely on a post regulation.
    "But the influences counteractive of good lie not solely in the direction just referred to. Wolves will make good shepherds sooner than wise, humane and elevating measures will be conducted to successful issues by selfish, mercenary and corrupt men. Our government I regard as sincerely desiring to benefit the aboriginal race. It should therefore realize that the end is only attainable by separating them from the contamination of libertines and filling the post of every agent and employee with persons of ability, conscientiousness and humanity. But can such a choice of officials and aides ever be effected under party regimen? I am free to say I think not. While the god-like work of civilizing and elevating the degraded and downtrodden is committed to men commended by no adaptation to the enterprise, but merely that the emoluments of the respective positions may reward some partisan zeal or service, what can be expected but the exhibition of a hypocritical farce, resulting in melancholy failures?
    "It is not compatible with the genius of our government to commit such enterprises to the denominational control of any ecclesiastical body. But the genuine spirit of Christian philanthropy, as it beamed in the heart of an Elliott or Brainerd, a Howard and a Miss Dix, must in order to [achieve] success be the soul of all such undertakings. Heartless atheism is as inadequate to their accomplishment as a dead body to perform the functions of a living one. How can that man exert a good and not an evil influence whose heart is wrapped in the sevenfold coverings of selfishness & whose lips emit the language of ribaldry and profanity as naturally and almost as constantly as a putrid carcass its offensive effluvia! Hell never laughed at anything more wickedly ridiculous than the placing of such a creature in such a position.
    "Yet just such men obtain prominence in the drill of parties--their claims must be satisfied, and when preferred to a position, their chief end is, in the phrasing of the saloons, 'to make a good thing of it.' In what I have written my remarks are not intended to be personal as regards anyone.
    "I know of but one way to bring about the efficient administration of our Indian affairs, making all things tend to their proper and legitimate ends. The President-elect is I believe a man of pure and benevolent spirit. Let then the men of like character in this Territory occupying positions and with reputations that will commend them to his confidence unite their efforts to bring the subject clearly before him and recommend efficient, good and true men of this Democratic Party in the Territory for the several governmental positions in 'Indian affairs' here, and let the same men support and encourage these officers in selecting competent and trustworthy men as employees and in promptly, but upon proper evidence, dismissing everyone recreant to his trust. This may lead to successful issues & I believe nothing less will. Yet I must say I have no expectation that this will be done or attempted. Our Indians are doomed, but not because destitute of a capacity for civilization and religious development--they have the corrupt nature and also all the improvability of man--neither more nor less. But because on the side of civilization the influences efficient of good are feeble and counteracted by those that are potent to debase and destroy.
[omission]
    ". . . forward and manly course of action. This is my support, and it is a pillar of brass. If I have erred it has been in being too remiss in my own vindication, and by a careless indifference to the assaults of vindictiveness. I know but little of what my enemies and their toadies may have said or done to oppose my good name, or exclude me from positions to which I was recommended, but which I never sought. I feel like a mariner looking forth, from his castle near the shore, on the billows that lately threatened to engulf him, fully resolved never again to commit himself to their treacherous bosom. I cannot conceive that my recession from the political arena will be anyone's loss, and I have already found it in a high and holy sense my gains! I have more true enjoyment in renewing my acquaintance with classic authors and preparing myself for the duties of my profession in a single day than a previous year afforded me. I have no desire for and will accept of no political favors.
    "I thank you for the interest you expressed in my behalf [illegible] brother. You have well said, 'It can do no harm.'"
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 341-346.



Portland Oregon
    April 22, 1857.
Hon. Jacob Thompson
    Secy. of the Interior
        Sir
            I have just arrived, have met Genl. Nesmith, lately appointed Superintendent [of] Indian Affrs. for Oregon & Washington Territories. He will accept and will forward his bonds by the next steamer. In your instructions you have directed the offices of Superintendent at Oregon City; now you must permit me to say that the office ought to be located at Salem, the present seat of govt. It is much more convenient to the Indians with greater facilities for dispatching business and for communicating with agts. and sub-agts., and in all respects a better location. You will therefore I trust allow him to establish his office at Salem.
    Allow me also to beg you to see that no appointments are made for Oregon or changes made till I can write you. I shall be in Washington in Nov. next.
Your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 363-365.



Oregon Territory
    Portland 23rd April 1857.
Sir:
    Your communication of the 18th ult. has been received.
    I have complied with the request therein contained, and now enclose the official bond and oath of James W. Nesmith, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territories of Washington and Oregon, having given to him "a certificate that his bond has been executed, and his oath taken according to instructions."
    The Superintendent has assumed the responsibility of removing the office from Oregon City to Salem, the seat of government of this Territory. I think that circumstances made this change necessary, and believe that the public service will be benefited thereby.
Very respy.
    Your obt. servt.
        Geo. L. Curry
            Governor of Oregon
To Geo. W. Manypenny
    Commissioner &c. &c.
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1194-1196.



Washington City Apl. 25th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to enclose herewith an abstract of expenses incurred by me in traveling from Dayton, Oregon Territory to Washington City on account of business connected with the Indian Department.
    In support and explanation of those expenditures I have to remark that I deemed my presence here demanded for the reason that a large amount of drafts drawn by me under instructions from the office [of the] Commissioner [of] Indian Affairs, on the Interior Department, for funds to defray the expenses of the Indian Service in that Territory were protested, and the parties to whom those drafts had been disposed of were claiming from me damages, percents and costs of protests: In some instances peremptory demands were made for refunding the amounts thus obtained with damages of ten percent [and] interest at from 3 to 5 percent per month, the usual rates in that country. In one instance I redeemed the draft, but my pecuniary condition did not enable me to refund to all the parties amounts realized on those drafts. In some instances those demands were made upon the ground that I had drawn for an amount exceeding the limits given by my instructions; this in substance was contained in a letter from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in reply to one of the parties to whom drafts had been consigned, when in fact no limits had been set for any amount necessary to carry out the policy adopted in the management of those Indians.
    The great length of time required to correspond with the Department from that coast, and the urgent necessity for a speedy adjustment of difficulties upon which these protests were based, I regarded as imperatively demanding immediate action. The drafts were drawn strictly in accordance with instructions, and the intimation in the letter of the Commissioner referred to, that they could not be paid until I came on and settled my accounts unless the vouchers had been forwarded &c., determined me to visit in person the office at Washington City.
    Besides these reasons, there were a large amount of unsettled accounts, explanations upon which were likely to be required in order to a just and proper settlement, which if left to correspondence by mail would cause great delay. The amount of vouchers brought by me for the fractional part of 3rd quarter 1856 exceeded ninety-two thousand dollars, in addition to which were the unexamined vouchers for the 1st & 2nd quarters of 1856. The extraordinary condition of affairs in that Territory during the period for which these vouchers were taken rendered necessary explanations which could better be given at Washington than by correspondence. The very large amount of disbursements rendered necessary in the last few quarters in that Superintendency, and the varied character of those disbursements, would necessarily require more detailed explanations than in the settlement of accounts under the ordinary rules governing discharge agents. When it is recollected too that the accounts for that Superintendency had been running for nearly 4 years without closing or finally adjusting any of the accounts, and that it has been usual for Supts. upon that coast to visit your office in person to settle their accounts, the expense of which has been paid by the government, it appears to me but just that my expenses should be allowed. The fact of my having been removed from office does not appear to me a sufficient reason for departing from the rule, particularly when that removal was not based upon any neglect of duty, and in this case when it was done without just cause, allowing no time to perfect accounts which owing to a state of war had greatly accumulated in the office, it is but just that the government should assume the payment of all necessary expenses incurred in closing up the business.
    These items of expenditures were not carried into my former abstract for reason that some of the accounting officers suggested they might be disallowed and thus embarrass the settlement of other accounts. I therefore submit the matter to your decision, claiming that these expenditures were necessarily incurred by the acts of the officers in the Indian Department and not resulting from any dereliction of duty on my part.
    Third parties were being injured by having drafts protested, the funds for which had been obtained and disbursed in the public service strictly in accordance with instructions from the Department--besides it was subjecting the officer who drew the drafts to expense and censure and also subjecting officers on that coast to additional difficulties in their future operations.
    It will be seen that I have claimed in this bill only for actual traveling expenses, and board & lodging whilst here and added thereto the amount deemed necessary to defray my expenses in returning.
    The first eleven items were caused by having started to Portland designing to take steamer at that point, but as the steamship did not arrive at the usual time I proceeded to Astoria, where I found she had returned from that point on account of ice in the Columbia River.
    I have omitted to obtain vouchers in all cases, for instance, [for] my passage from San Francisco to New York there is no voucher. The price established for that trip [on the] 5th [of] February was $250 for first cabin & $160 for second cabin. By the interposition of a friend they gave me passage in first cabin at the rate of second, and that amount only is charged.
    In addition to the amounts charged in this abstract I claim that it is but just that a reasonable allowance should be made for my services, for in addition to the time spent in the journey I have been almost constantly, except about one month, since the 16th August last engaged in the service, in the settlement of accounts, in arranging the papers, obtaining receipts, affidavits and certificates, and in visiting and counciling with the Indians, to do which required traveling over the country and incurring expenditures resulting from the nature of the service previously performed, for the existence of a war had forced a large amount of business upon the office beyond a possibility of closing before Mr. Hedges took charge of the Superintendency, and the character of these accounts were many of them such that no other person could properly adjust them. Mr. Hedges claimed that all business requiring only the payment and procurement of themselves must be closed by me and not subject him to the task of doing that of which he had no knowledge. These services then it may be said were gratuitously performed; [it] was notwithstanding important and beneficial to the government, and in support of this position an abundance of evidence can be secured from parties perfectly familiar with those duties, besides which I have paid for clerical services $250, for which no charge has been brought forward.
    The amount of extra services not enclosed in previous accounts, and [for] clerk hired as above I propose submitting in a supplemental abstract with other vouchers yet to be taken for amounts paid whilst acting as Supt., a portion of which have once been obtained in duplicate, but were mislaid or lent, and the parties could not be found up to the time I left the Territory to sign other vouchers.
    With these remarks I submit the account and the points raised for your decision.
I am sir
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
To the Honl.
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1216-1221.



Dayton O.T.
    27 Apl. 1857
To the Hon. the Commissioner Ind. Affairs
    Washington City D.C.
        Sir
            The last mail brought me a letter from Genl. Joel Palmer, late Supt. Indian Affairs of this Territory, dated 18th March last. In this letter the Genl. stated that the account I presented for payment to the Ind. Department at Washington would not pass for want of certificate of service by the authorized agent or the acting Superintendent. The account arose for services performed by myself in closing the papers of my local agency on the Coast Reservation last year, being a balance of $150, say one hundred and fifty dollars. I made application to Superintendent Hedges for the amount, which he did not see proper to pay. I thereupon sent to your office, knowing that Genl. Palmer would be there & from whom I recd. my appointment of local agt. on the coast & could give the needful explanations. Previous to sending my a/c I forwarded the account of James P. Day & others engaged to conduct some Indians from South Umpqua to the Grand Ronde Ind. Reservation, for which service Superintendent Hedges refused to pay (as explained in my letter accompanying the account). Of this account & its disposition Genl. Palmer does not speak. Will you do me the kindness to inform me what action you will take upon this & my demand against the Ind. Department at your earliest convenient moment.
    Should Genl. Palmer be in Washington upon the arrival of this I hope you will call upon him for sustaining information of what I have said.
    An experience of 24 years among the Inds. of this Territory assures me that they are not the ruthless & barbarous people represented by many newspaper reporters from this country. For a natural folk, I say that they do now & have ever manifested towards the whites the most abiding confidence & friendship, and that the origin of all our forays with them has arisen from the improper conduct of our people, whose ungenial spirit I see (regrettingly) bent upon their destruction and annihilation. And most painful too, to find that some of the agents are of that class.
I am dr. sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. svt.
            C. M. Walker
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1390-1393.



Notice to Contractors.
    The undersigned will receive sealed proposals at the post office in Salem, O.T., until 4 o'clock p.m. of the 11th of May next, for furnishing beef and flour for the Grand Ronde Coast Indian Agency for six months. There will be required about fifteen tons of flour and [illegible--probably "12500 pounds"] of beef per month, more or less. Said flour must be a good common article (but superfine will not be required) and must be in sacks containing from 50 to 100 pounds. The beef must be weighed in quarters, and all the offal except the hides to be thrown in. The quantity of both flour and beef will be regulated, as well as the place of delivery, by the agent in charge.
    The right will be reserved to the undersigned of rejecting all exorbitant bids. Payment will be made so soon as the necessary funds are received from the Treasury Department.
    Bonds will be required from contractors for either the flour or the beef contract, with three or more approved securities, in the sum of ten thousand dollars. Each bidder will be required to accompany his bid with a written undertaking, by three or more responsible persons, that he or they will give the bonds required.
JOHN F. MILLER, Indian Agent
Salem, O.T., April 28, 1857.
   

Notice to Contractors.
    The undersigned will receive sealed proposals at the post office in Corvallis until 4 o'clock p.m. of the 20th of May next for furnishing beef and flour for the Siletz Agency, Coast Reservation, for six months.
    There will be required about 30 tons of flour per month more or less. Said flour must be a good common article (but superfine will not be required), and must be in sacks containing from 50 to 100 pounds. There will be required 25000 pounds of beef, more or less, per month. The beef to be weighed in quarters, and all the offal except the hides to be thrown in. The quantities of both flour and beef will be regulated, as well as the place of delivery, by the agent in charge. The right will be reserved to the undersigned of rejecting all exorbitant bids. Payment will be made so soon as the necessary funds are received from the Treasury Department. I will here state for the information of those interested that I have had the entrance of the Yaquina surveyed and that it is entirely practicable to enter there with vessels, there being from fifteen to eighteen feet of water on the bar at the lowest stage of the tides. I would therefore particularly invite the attention of ship owners to this notice, as transportation by land will be attended with too much expense.
    Bonds will be required from contractors for either the flour or beef contract, with three or more approved securities, in the sum of ten thousand dollars. Each bidder will be required to accompany his bid with a written undertaking, by three or more responsible persons, that he or they will give the bonds required.
JOHN F. MILLER, Indian Agent
Salem, O.T., April 28, 1857.
Unidentified newspapers clippings, NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frame 533.



    Considerable anxiety is felt at the mouth of the Umpqua about the Indians upon the Coast Reserve. They are quite discontented, and threaten to return to their homes on the Klamath and Rogue River. Capt. Steuart [sic] is prepared, as far as possible, to intercept their southward march and prevent their crossing the river, but it is feared the small force of sixty men under his command will not be sufficient. The Indians number at least 500 warriors, and, according to the best accounts, one-third of them are well armed. They comprise the fiercest of the southern band. It has cost two bloody and expensive wars to get them under. It would be a dreadful calamity to Southern Oregon should they get back. The mountains along the coast are filled with detached parties of prospectors and miners, following out the gold discoveries of the Six and Coquille rivers, who will be completely at the mercy of these revengeful Indians should they return, and that they will return, or at least make the attempt, is the settled opinion of those who are at present here.
"From Oregon," Sacramento Daily Union, April 30, 1857, page 3




    OREGON.--Apprehensions of another Indian outbreak.--The news from Oregon indicate that the Indians are again becoming restless, and threaten hostilities.
    Considerable anxiety is felt at the mouth of the Umpqua about the Indians upon the Coast Reserve. They are quite discontented, and threaten to return to their homes on the Klamath and Rogue River. Capt. Stewart is prepared, as far as possible, to intercept their southward march and prevent their crossing the river, but it is feared the small force of sixty men under his command will not be sufficient. The Indians number at least 500 warriors, and according to the best accounts one-third of them are well armed. They comprise the fiercest of the southern band. It has cost two bloody and expensive wars to get them under. It would be a dreadful calamity to Southern Oregon should they get back. The mountains along the coast are filled with detached parties of prospectors and miners, following out the gold discoveries of the Six and Coquille rivers, completely at the mercy of these revengeful devils, should they return, and that they will return, or at lease make the attempt, is the settled opinion of those who are at present here.
Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, Wheeling, [West] Virginia, June 1, 1857, page 2



James Nesmith
James Nesmith
   
Oregon City May 4th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 18th March informing me of the appointment of J. W. Nesmith as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territories of Oregon and Washington, which letter was received on the 22nd April, and, governed by the instructions therein contained, I turned over the property of the Indian Department in my possession to Mr. Nesmith on the 1st inst., closing my term of service on the 30th April. Abstracts "A" and "B," showing all the disbursements made by me, commencing January 1st and ending April 30th, are transmitted herewith and also my account current for the same period, which papers inform you of the disbursement of all public funds which have been placed in my hands.
    Vouchers No. 35, 65 and 67 of Abstract "A" will be forwarded by mail of 25th ult. My final property accounts will be made up and forwarded by the same mail if possible. Hoping that the accounts forwarded herewith will be satisfactory,
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servt.
            A. F. Hedges
                Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon.
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 338-340.




Office Superintendent of Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon Territory May 5th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of March 18, informing me of my appointment and enclosing commission and form of bond. I filled the bond in accordance with instructions and filed it with Governor Curry to be forwarded and suppose it will be transmitted to you on the next steamer, leaving here about the 10th instant.
    I waited upon A. F. Hedges, Esq., at Oregon City, and on the first day of May inst. he turned over to me the office, books and papers belonging to this Superintendency, together with a small amount of public property, a statement of which will be furnished at the close of the current quarter. The present emergencies of the public service causes me to regret exceedingly that Mr. Hedges was unable to turn over to me any funds; consequently I am left without a single dollar to discharge even the current expenses of the office, to say nothing of the large and daily increasing debt of the Indian Service within this Superintendency. I have assumed the responsibility of removing the Superintendent's office from Oregon City to this place (Salem.) This change I conceived to be necessary for the interests of the government, as well as for the greater convenience of the Superintendent. My present location places me within convenient distances and easy access to the great Coast and Grand Ronde reservations, which are the most important points at which Indians are assembled within the two territories. Another inducement for the removal was the extreme difficulty in finding any accommodations for employees and others having business with the office. There being no public house or hotel at Oregon City, Salem is the seat of government for Oregon Territory and easy of access from all points. I trust that my act, in this particular, may meet with your approval. Since assuming the duties of the office, I have by careful examinations endeavored to inform myself of the existing policy and instructions from your office to the Superintendent in Oregon and have to state that it is out of my power to give you anything like an approximate estimate "of funds required to meet present liabilities," as there is no data on file in this office which will furnish the desired information. I am informed, however, by Mr. Hedges that the whole amount of the appropriations for the current year will be required to pay outstanding liabilities and defray the expense of maintaining peace up to the 30th of June, 1857. While I regret that it is out of my power to give you the positive information demanded by your instructions, in relation to existing liabilities, as well as an exact estimate of funds required for the same up to the 30th June next, I desire to say that I have taken the only steps in my power to accomplish that object and have written to the different agents in the Oregon Superintendency, requiring them to furnish those estimates for the respective agencies under their charge. Owing to the remoteness of some of those agencies, and the great amount of business which the present policy has thrown upon the hands of the agents, it will necessarily be some time before those estimates can be submitted. I cannot, however, in the meantime be too urgent in my request to be furnished with an immediate supply of funds and would respectfully request that the entire unexpended remainder of the appropriation for the year ending June 30, 1857, be placed at my control. You will now readily understand this necessity, when I inform you that the great amount of existing liabilities of the service has reduced its credit to a very low state, besides money is worth two per ct. per month, and those who furnish supplies on credit, charge a price sufficient to reimburse them for all those contingencies; a credit system on the part of the government is anywhere bad in its effects, and this coast is the last place that should be selected to adopt it, as every article purchased under it costs from twenty-five to fifty percent higher than the same purchases could be made for cash down. In this connection, I would also suggest that if the former policy is to be pursued, of remitting drafts to the Superintendent, that they be sent in those of small denominations, say from three to five thousand dollars each, as it is sometimes difficult to cash larger amounts; drafts on New York would be preferable to those on San Francisco, as the most of the remittances of business men are to the former place, it is often impossible to negotiate drafts on the latter. The Indians with whom we have treaty stipulations ratified are clamorous in their demands for their annuities, and I would request that the means be furnished to meet them. There was forwarded to your office by my predecessor, on the 22 Jany. last, a schedule of Indian goods necessary for this Superintendency. If they have not already been shipped, I would recommend that it be promptly done, as every article is at this moment needed; besides, they can be sent much cheaper from the Atlantic States than they can be purchased here. I would also request that I be furnished, for the use of the different agents and sub-agents, a number of printed copies of the different treaties with tribes in this Superintendency, also a few copies of laws and regulations for the same purpose, and for the use of this office, one copy of the U.S. Statutes at Large.
    Under the operation of the act of March 3rd 1857, uniting the Superintendency of Oregon and Washington Territories, the business of this office is largely increased, in view of which I propose to make some change in the policy pursued by my predecessors in relation to the disbursement of public funds; my own impression of the duties of the different agents is to exercise the general control of their agencies and disburse the funds necessary to carry on the business within their district, subject, however, to the general supervision of the Superintendent. With this view of my duties, when funds are received by me I shall place them in the hands of those agents to defray their current expenses and pay off the liabilities of their respective offices. They are upon the spot where the liabilities were incurred and ought to know the necessities as they arise; they are under bonds, and as I conceive are the proper disbursing officers of their respective districts. I shall advance them the funds and hold them accountable for their proper disbursement. I am sustained, as I conceive, in this position by the instructions contained in a letter from the Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs to Superintendent Palmer, bearing date April 21st 1856. If this, my view of the question, does not meet with the approbation of the Department, I think that I may be promptly advised thereof. I have communicated to Governor Stevens the fact of my appointment and requested him to fix upon some time & place where and when he would turn over the office property &c., belonging to the Washington Superintendency, but the difficulty in communicating with the Puget Sound district (where Governor Stevens resides) renders it impossible to determine when I shall receive a reply, and judging from the present amount of pressing business in this office, I apprehend that it will be some time in June before I shall be able to relieve him. It is proper that I should call your attention to some of the difficulties and disadvantages that will be presented in the union of this and Washington Territory in the same Superintendency. The range of mountains which intervene between the Columbia River and the Puget Sound country, where there are large bodies of Indians, is of such a character that it is for six months in the year impossible to hold any communication, owing to the great depth of snow that usually falls upon those mountains; this circumstance will render it impossible for the Superintendent to visit that region, except at long intervals. The great number of Indians in the two Territories, the immense region over which they are scattered, the absence of rapid facilities for traveling, as well as the uncertain disposition of the Indians themselves, will render the labor of this Superintendency onerous in the extreme; yet I hope during the present summer to be able to visit the different tribes west of the Cascade Mountains in both Territories, when I shall be able in my annual report to place all the necessary information before the Department in a reliable form.
    Premising that the Department is in possession of all the facts in relation to the numbers, condition and wants of the Indians at Puget Sound in Washington Territory, and in view of the necessity which doubtless exists and will continue to exist, to give them a partial subsistence in order to maintain peace and knowing the difficulty of communicating with that district of country for at least one-half the year, together with the risk and difficulty in transmitting funds there from this office, I would suggest that if practicable it be so arranged that funds be transmitted from the Department to that point. I understand that Mr. Garfield of Olympia has lately been appointed a depository of public moneys for that district. If I could be authorized to draw directly on him in favor of the agents for say two-thirds of the appropriation for Washington Territory, it would not only be a great saving to the government, but would obviate the great risks and delay incident to any attempt to send funds from this Territory. The remaining third of the appropriation for Washington Territory would be required in the district bordering the north side of the Columbia River, which is of easy access from here at all times. It affords me pleasure to be able to report that at present peace prevails within our Territory, all the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains being collected upon the different reservations and in part subsisted by the government, with a small military force at the different reservations sufficient to enforce obedience to the agents and keep the whites from intrusion, I see nothing at present likely to interrupt this very desirable condition of things, which I think will exist so long as the government will continue its humane policy in the partial supply of their wants. My experience, derived from fourteen years' residence in this Territory, convinces me that a continuation of the present policy of keeping the Indians collected on reservations and partially subsisting them until such time as they can be induced and become able to procure their own subsistence by agriculture, is the only way that peace can be maintained with them. Notwithstanding all that has been said in Congress about there being plenty of land in Oregon upon which the Indians can support themselves by the chase, I know of no such spot, and except the reservations there is none west of the Cascade Mountains not already preoccupied by the whites; to send them east of the Cascade Mountains would be dooming them to extermination at the hands of the Indians who own and occupy that region. Agent Miller reports a vast amount of sickness prevailing upon the Grand Ronde Reservation under his immediate charge, and that about five hundred of the Indians located there have died within this last year. This mortality is thought to result from a combination of causes, prominent among which is the change of climate which the Rogue River and other southern Indians have experienced in removing from their southern & sheltered locations. The great change of diet to which they have been subjected has doubtless had a deleterious effect upon their health. Those causes, together with the wide spread of venereal diseases which have spread rapidly among them for the last eight years, is rapidly decimating their numbers. I shall shortly direct the Rogue Rivers to be removed about forty miles further south to the Siletz River, on the Coast Reservation, which point [it] has always been intended they should occupy, is more healthy and better adapted to them every way, they having been merely placed upon the Grand Ronde for convenience in subsisting them last winter. Many of the Rogue River and other southern Indians upon the reservations still persist upon returning to their own country in the southern portion of Oregon, but I think they will gradually abandon the idea, as they see improvements progressing for their benefit. On the near locations any effort on their part to return cannot be regarded with indifference; in fact, the quiet of the whites, as well as the existence of the Indians, will induce me to use every effort to oppose any movement of the kind. Their former haunts are now entirely occupied by white settlers and persons engaged in gold digging, and all highly exasperated by the barbarous cruelties and murders inflicted upon them and their friends by these Indians during the late Indian war. Any effort on the part of the Indians to re-occupy their own country would be the signal for a bloody, relentless and exterminating war of doubtful termination. I shall therefore consider it my duty to strictly pursue the policy already inaugurated and in which much money has already been expended in retaining them upon their present localities. I believe that with the fostering care of the government and humane treatment, they can in a few years be enabled to support themselves by agricultural pursuits. Doubtless the effort will cost government a considerable outlay, as well as some years of patient perseverance, as it is pretty well conceded that it requires time to transform a savage to a state of civilization. The events of the last two years has proven to our people that the prowess of their arms was not to be despised in war, and I am glad to perceive that they have exhibited in some instances a corresponding capacity for the pursuits of peace. It is, in short, the only alternative that presents itself to the government in relation to these Indians, is "feed them or fight them." They will not starve while their white neighbors have plenty. Feeding is decidedly cheaper than fighting them, without taking into account the immense sacrifice of human life. I cannot close without again urging upon your consideration the necessity for an immediate supply of funds and also that annuities be forwarded as soon as possible. I have at present employed Mr. W. H. Barnhart as secretary, at a salary of eighteen hundred dollars per year; and James Brown as express messenger, at three dollars and fifty cents per day, exclusive of Sundays. The necessity of a regular and reliable means of communication, in the absence of mail facilities, makes an express messenger indispensable. I trust that these appointments will meet with your approval. There is already a vast amount of business to transact in this office, and it will be greatly increased when I relieve the Superintendent of Washington Territory. I have, therefore, to request instructions as to the number of clerks that I will be allowed. It is impossible for one clerk to do the business, and any attempt at economy of that kind will only be a source of embarrassment, vexation and delay. Until I am otherwise instructed, I shall exercise my best discretion on the subject and obtain such clerk service as will be absolutely necessary and indispensable. The Coast and Grand Ronde reservations have heretofore been furnished with beef and flour by private contract. Believing that these articles might be obtained at lower rates, I have directed agents Miller & Metcalfe to invite sealed proposals for that purpose. Enclosed you will see their advertisements, taken from the columns of the Oregon Statesman.
    By next steamer I hope to be able to send you the new contracts & bonds. You will perceive that payments are to be made "so soon as the necessary funds are received from the Treasury Department." I shall decline making any other terms, as I know that my predecessor was embarrassed by persons throwing up their contracts at the end of the month, when he failed to pay as stipulated in the contracts. You will, perhaps, conclude that I have continued this communication to great length; but I assure you that I could not in justice to the subject have said less, and I sincerely believe that the good of the service, as well as the peace and well-being of our citizens, will commend it to your deliberate consideration.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James W. Nesmith
            Superintendent of Indian Affairs
To the Hon.
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 337-342.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 519-531.




Treasury Department
    May 5th 1857
Sir:
    I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd inst., and in reply to inform you that in compliance with your request J. Ross Browne Esq., the special agent of the Department at San Francisco, has by letter dated the 4th inst. been authorized, upon the terms contained in the Department's letter to him dated the 4th of November 1856, to perform the duties in the Territories of Oregon and Washington which you state he has been requested to undertake with the approbation of the Secretary of the Interior.
    A copy of the Department's letter to Mr. Browne is herewith enclosed.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        P. Clayton
            Acting Secretary of the Treasury
J. W. Denver. Esq.
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington City
   

Treasury Department
    May 4th 1857
Sir;
    The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, under date of the 2nd inst., informs the Department that with the approbation of the Secretary of the Interior he desires to have your services in the examination of certain interests or business of his Department in the Territories of Washington & Oregon, and I have to request [that] upon receiving instructions from him to that effect you will proceed to those Territories accordingly, and give your attention to the matters in view in the manner he may direct. Your compensation and expenses, as allowed you by this Department, will be assumed and paid by the Secretary of the Interior from the time you leave San Francisco under his orders until you return, and whilst omitting these charges in your accounts against this Department for such period, you will state in the account the reason of this omission.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        P. Clayton
            Secretary of the Treasury
J. Ross Browne Esq.
    Special Agent
        San Francisco
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1295-1297.



Col. Nesmith
    Dr. Sir
        My brother left for Salem yesterday, and C. Hand is out visiting. So I will make a statement about the flour. We have some wheat, probably 3000 bushels, and potatoes I think without end. So you and Brother can make an estimate of what we will want. I think we ought to have some spring wheat, peas & good oats for seed. Flax, if it will grow here, would be a fine thing for the Indians; many of them make nets from bark they get from weeds. I have just been over to the bay and put the diggers to work at the fish dam. I believe we will catch salmon by the houseful. I will send an Indian to Salem for the twine. Tell Brother to be sure and get enough twine.
Very respectfully
    J. C. Metcalfe
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 146.  The letter and transmittal are undated.



Janesville Wisconsin
    May 6th 1857
Sir,
    Yours of April 30th 1857 is this day received. Also the copy of account therein enclosed, with remarks by your office to the 2nd Auditor, to whom you sent it for action at that office.
    By the enclosed "Voucher No. 2 Abstract 1 First Quarter 1855" you will observe that I have appended an affidavit embracing the averments as suggested in your communication.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        S. H. Culver
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 161-162.



    We, Cyrus Smith and William Casper of the County of Polk and Territory of Oregon, in consideration of the subjoined covenants, promises and agreements of John F. Miller, United States Indian agent for the Territory of Oregon, do hereby for ourselves, our heirs and legal representatives covenant and agree to and with the said Indian agent in the penal sum of ten thousand dollars to deliver to said agent or his successors in office at the slaughterhouse near the agency at Grand Ronde Reservation, thirty thousand pounds of good fresh beef per month for the term of six months, to be delivered in quantity, and all the offal thrown in, except the hides, free of charge, said beef to be delivered in such quantities as the agent in charge shall from time to time direct, at the price of seven dollars per hundred pounds. It is understood that it shall be optional with the said agent to increase or diminish the quantity of beef to be delivered under this agreement one third in each and every month by giving ten days previous notice to the contractors. The first issue of beef under this contract to be delivered on the 18th of the present month.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this thirteenth day of May A.D. 1857.
Cyrus Smith
Wm. Casper
   
    We, Jeremiah Lamson, D. C. Rowell and Thomas R. Blair of the County of Polk and Territory of Oregon, do hereby bind ourselves, our heirs and legal representatives as sureties for the said Cyrus Smith and William Casper for the full and faithful performance by them of all and each of the foregoing covenants, promises and agreements.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this thirteenth day of May A.D. 1857.
J. Lamson
D. C. Rowell
Thomas R. Blair
Signed in
    presence of
        Amasa Howe
        Robert Hull
       

    I, John F. Miller, U.S. Indian agent in and for the Territory of Oregon, the above-named Cyrus Smith and William Casper complying with the foregoing covenants, promises and agreements on their part, I as such Indian agent do hereby covenant, promise and agree to and with the said Cyrus Smith and William Casper to pay them at the rate of seven dollars per hundred pounds for the beef mentioned in the above contract, the payment to be made when the necessary funds for said purpose shall be received by me from the Treasury Department.
    In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this thirteenth day of May A.D. 1857.
John F. Miller
    Indian agent
Polk County Oregon Territory May 13th 1857
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 657-661.



Indian Troubles in the North.
    From the following extracts it will be seen that the Indian troubles in Northern California, and the territories of Oregon and Washington, are not at an end.
    The Siskiyou Chronicle, speaking of the depredations in Shasta Valley, says:
    "Several persons in Shasta Valley have had horses stolen from them by white or Indian thieves, or both, and carried off into the lake country east of this place. A party of citizens followed the tracks of the stolen horses, we understand, some seventy-five or one hundred miles from this place, into the Indian country, but were unable to recover the stolen property. Their number was not strong enough to continue the pursuit. This is the beginning for this season; what the end will be, unless a fort is speedily established in the lake country, time will show."
    The last arrival from the northern coast brings the following intelligence relating to the movements of the Rogue River and Klamath tribes:
    "Considerable anxiety is felt at the mouth of the Umpqua about the Indians upon the Coast Reserve. They are quite discontented, and threaten to return to their homes upon the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Capt. Stuart is prepared, as far as possible, to intercept their southward march, and prevent their crossing the river; but it is feared that the force of sixty men under his command will not be sufficient. The Indians number at least five hundred warriors; and, according to the best accounts, one-third of them are well armed. They comprise the fiercest of the southern band."
Marysville Daily Herald, Marysville, California, May 14, 1857, page 2



Washington City May 16th 1857.
Sir
    I have the honor to submit herewith five sub-vouchers for expenditures in the opening and construction of [a] wagon road from King's Valley to Siletz Valley, the latter being designated for an Indian settlement on the Coast Reservation. With these sub-vouchers is also submitted an original voucher designed to cover these five sub-vouchers numbering 1-2-3-4 & 9 and five additional sub-vouchers numbering 5-6-7-8 & 10 which later were paid me by Supt. Hedges and a voucher signed covering the amount of $499 50/100. My object in submitting these sub-vouchers is that they may be placed to my credit in the settlement of my accounts. And in explanation of these sub-vouchers I have to say that whilst acting as Supt. Ind. Affairs I had selected a location for an Indian settlement in the Siletz Valley, Coast Reservation, but at the time Mr. Hedges assumed the duties of Supt. nothing had been done beyond an examination of the tract and route through the mountains over which a road had to be opened to reach it. Mr. Hedges visited in person that valley and decided upon putting in a wheat crop and making other improvements for Indian use; he therefore entered into a written contract with myself and Ephraim Palmer to plow up and put in three hundred acres of wheat, make rails and fence the same, build a dwelling house and blacksmith shop &c. But before the work could be commenced a road had to be constructed some twenty-five miles through the mountains. Mr. Hedges advanced me five hundred dollars to be expended in the opening [of] this road. It may be proper to state that we had submitted a proposition to Mr. Hedges to open a pack trail from King's Valley to the contemplated Indian settlement for five hundred dollars, or construct a wagon road for fifteen hundred dollars. The proposition, however, was declined, but the limited amount of funds on hand induced him to favor opening a pack trail. In the meantime the Military Department had commenced the construction of a blockhouse in the Siletz Valley and were engaged in opening and constructing a wagon road to that point, and before any movements were made by the Indian Department the road was partially opened. The approach of the rainy season and the impracticability of transporting supplies, tools, materials, farming implements or seed after the commencement of the rainy season induced us to unite with the military in opening the wagon road, and in its construction the amount of $1059 75/100 was expended before we were able to reach the point with wagons. The rainy season commenced before the road was completed; we however packed on horses a few tools and supplies to commence work under the contract. In the meantime Mr. Hedges informed us that he would be unable for want of funds to pay for the work as per contract, and upon presenting the accounts for constructing the road he allowed amounts of sub-vouchers 5-6-7-8 & 10 $499.50 so as to cover the amount which he had previously advanced me, minus fifty cents which I returned him, leaving these five vouchers unpaid. Mr. Hedges having been relieved from duty as Superintendent and being anxious to close my business with the Department, I have to request that these sub-vouchers be allowed me and placed on file with my accounts.
    The duplicates of these five sub-vouchers were left in the Supt's. office at Oregon City, but no action was had on them, and to await the movements of the newly appointed Supt. who is necessarily unacquainted with the transaction and who would doubtless await specific instructions from your office before acting [which] would subject me to great delay and doubtless much unnecessary trouble.
    All of which is respectfully submitted.
I am sir very respect.
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
Honl.
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1224-1227.



Headquarters Dept. of the Pacific
    San Francisco May 18th 1857
Sir:
    I enclose herewith documents numbered from 1 to 6 inclusive. It is important to the public interest as also I presume it is the policy of the government to pursue a conciliatory and firm course of conduct towards the Indians. To such end the several Indian agents should act in unison with the military commanders.
    An attention to a reasonable extent to the claims of the Indian and to his wants in reference to locality & to his means of subsistence seems to be a duty in the exercise of a paternal supervision by the government over him.
    I approve of the conduct of Capt. Augur and Lieut. Sheridan as set forth by them, and with reference to their reports I hope it may be deemed proper to bring the matter to the attention of the Department of the Interior for such orders to the Superintendents and agents as may be deemed suitable.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        N. S. Clarke
            Col. 6th Infantry
                Bvt. Brig. Genl. Commanding
To Lieut. Col. L. Thomas
    Asst. Adjt. Genl.
        Hd. Qrs. Army New York
Endorsement
The General-in-Chief in commending these communications to the attention of the War Department desires to express his concurrence in the views of General Clarke and in the latter's approbation of the conduct of Capt. Augur and Lieutenant Sheridan--and he especially approves of the calm temper and views of Lieutenant Sheridan.
By order:
    Geo. W. Lay
        Actg. Asst. Adjt. General
            Headquarters of the Army
                New York, June 13, 1857.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, ninth enclosure to No. 197.



Washington City May 19, 1857.
Sir,
    Previous to my departure from Oregon in January last I visited the Indian encampment at the Grand Ronde Reservation, and whilst there had an interview with a large portion of the Indian chiefs located upon the Coast Reservation, among whom were many who were engaged in the recent and previous wars against the white inhabitants of the Territory, and who are still unsettled, causing greater uneasiness and doubt as to their future conduct. A portion of those Indians entertain mistaken ideas of the means of our government to prosecute a war, and believe themselves abundantly able to wipe out, as they express it, the white population. They regard the statements of our people relative to numbers and means of prosecuting a war as designed to intimidate them, and as they have often been successful in their forays against our troops, and very often go unpunished for crimes committed against our citizens, they regard us as second to themselves in the first place, and for the latter claim it as a weakness, fear or inability to chastise them. The efforts of agents and others to persuade them into pacific measures are often construed as evidence of fear and weakness, and these remarks are applicable to nearly all the tribes in Oregon and Washington Territories. The general doubt among the Indians on the Pacific coast as to the real intentions of the government towards them, and the little confidence they place in the statements of our people and those of the tribes who have occasionally visited the States with traders and trappers, with the influences at work among the tribes, places it out of the power of Indian agents to impress them favorably towards our laws and customs. I have been acquainted with a number of individual members of different tribes, of what they call the common class, who have visited some parts of the States, and who told truthfully the condition of things they saw on their journeys, but they were not credited by the tribes and were charged with being bought up by the whites. The incredulity of these Indians has undoubtedly had much to do in fostering a spirit of war and aggression, and disinclining them to yield to the overtures of the government and inducing a continuance of petty thieving, annoying to the settlers, and which has often provoked retaliation, terminating in bloody controversies between the races. One very effectual means of disabusing the minds of those tribes and convincing them of the folly of attempting to redress their own wrongs would be to select a few of the leading prominent chiefs of each tribe and making a tour to and through the Atlantic States, visiting the numerous cities and most densely settled portions of the country. The military stations, arsenals, armories, vessels of war, public schools, churches &c. &c., traveling upon railroads and steamboats, communicating by telegraph their messages, in a word, convince them of our prosperity and power.
    The treatment they would receive too would favorably contrast with that shown many of their people by the whites in their own country, and convince them that our people are not what they charge them with tyrants, to ride over and oppress them, and drive them from their homes without any adequate consideration. These chiefs would see with their own eyes, instead of getting it by representation and interpretation, and would arm them with weapons to effectually put down any spirit of resistance among these people, as well as to resist the efforts of restless lawless whites and renegade Indians and half-civilized half-breeds, who are constantly prowling about their villages to prey upon the credulity of the ignorant and superstitious natives.
    There can be no doubt in the minds of those acquainted with the condition of things on that coast, but that with an outlay of funds to carry out such a movement more would be done to suppress Indian hostilities and maintain the peaceable disposition of the Indian tribes on the Pacific than could be effected with ten times that amount expended in powder and ball to prosecute a war against them. As an illustration of the beneficial results of such a movement, I will cite one case in point. Some twelve or fourteen years since, a lad about 17 or 18 years of age whose name was Mr. Chinak [Billy Chinook], belonging to the Wascopam tribe of Indians, who resides at and about the Dalles of the Columbia River, came to the States as a servant with someone whose name is not now recollected, and finally found his way to Philadelphia; the party having him in charge turned him over to Mr. Ivins of that city, who was teacher in a Friends or Quaker school. Here the boy resided some six or eight months, making considerable proficiency in reading and writing. He finally returned with Col. Fremont, I believe in 1844. He subsequently became, and is now, the head chief of the tribe, and among all the Indian wars which have unhappily disturbed the portion of country, he has succeeded in restraining his people from uniting in a war against us. They were surrounded with powerful tribes, possessed of wealth and means of prosecuting a war, and notwithstanding rich bounties were offered for their aid, and when that failed to effect the object threats of extermination were made against him and his tribe. They resisted all overtures and even joined with the whites in the war against other tribes. For, said he, "The Indians cannot conquer the whites; for every white man that is killed ten will come. I have seen the land of the white man and know their strength. It is useless to go to war against them. They too make guns and powder as well as King George's people the English--let us be the friends of the whites, for they are many." Such I feel satisfied would be the action of all the chiefs who might come on this friendly visit. These chiefs, delegated by their people to come here and see for themselves, would carry back a truthful history of the condition of our country, and their statements would be credited by their respective tribes. The Indians in those two territories have but vague ideas of our forms of government, and yet many of them wish to pattern after us, and if they could but see the workings of the system, they would the more willingly follow in the sure road to peace and amitude, for many of the chiefs, though illiterate and superstitious, have high notions of self-respect and a great desire to promote the peace and happiness of their people. Another strong reason favoring this project is that during the absence of the chiefs we might have some guarantee of peace in that country, for they would act as hostages for the good conduct of their people during their absence. Their chiefs might come prepared to enter into some arrangement for the mutual benefit of all the tribes, and by conferring with each other, and with the head of the Indian Department here, and see the President, some general policy might be matured securing the future peace of the tribes on that coast. They have been told much about our great chiefs and the mode of enacting laws, but so conflicting are the notions entertained by them that it is all a mystery and likely to be discredited by them unless convinced by actual observation. The expenditure of twenty-five or thirty thousand dollars in gathering up and bringing here those chiefs and showing them our country and the advantages of civilization and returning them safely to their people will do more to further the humane policy of the government than four times that amount in feeding, clothing and training them in the ordinary way. Great good may be accomplished by visiting our schools and seminaries of learning, as it will give them an idea of the process of training up our young and incline them to contribute largely to the support of schools for the education of their children. Quite a number have expressed a desire to have their children brought to the States and educated, and I am fully convinced that the most effectual means of civilizing and enlightening those Indians would be to establish manual labor schools this side of the mountains, where the children could be taken at from 4 to 10 years of age, fed, clothed and educated in all the branches that constitute a civilized and enlightened community, separating them entirely from the contaminating influences sure to surround them if allowed to remain among their people. Let them be kept away until habits are formed or until their numbers and experience would be able to exert a controlling influence over the tribes. Schools established in that country would be surrounded by influences sure to counteract all efforts at a wholesome moral education, for the majority of the adults in many of the tribes are so contaminated as to be past moral reformation. Vice, immorality and loathsome disease are sure to follow the train of their children unless separated from their parents. The tribes will be willing to contribute from their annuities a considerable sum in support of such a school. Philanthropists would aid in its accomplishment, and Congress, having the especial guardianship of those unfortunate aborigines, would make liberal appropriations to consummate so noble a work, and the good likely to follow from the favorable result of the chiefs' mission as indicated in furthering this school would alone, in my opinion, justify the outlay in bringing them here, for whilst we may not effectually civilize the present adults (though with judicious and kind treatment we may better their condition materially) we might hope to effect a permanent good to the rising generation. It is in my opinion the only hope for those Pacific tribes, and without the adoption of some similar system they are doomed to pass soon out of existence.
    In accordance with your request I herewith submit an estimate of the probable cost of collecting, clothing and transporting here and back to their country this delegation of Indians with agents and interpreters &c. &c. This estimate, of course, can only be regarded as approximating to accuracy, for it would be difficult to determine now the exact number of Indians to be transported.
    Great care should be taken to have leading prominent men, such as would correctly represent the will and sentiments of the tribes, and who would exert a proper influence among them after returning. Councils would necessarily have to be held in different parts of that Superintendency, for it cannot be expected that such a delegation could be collected without a full and fair consultation among the different tribes, for the benefits to be derived will depend very much upon the spirit and manner of making the selection of delegates, and the degree of confidence and importance attached to the mission by the various tribes. The probability is that nearly the entire summer season would be consumed in the preliminaries, but immediate action should be had so as to attract the attention of the tribes, for by having something of this kind in anticipation they might be diverted from the war path, and this season is an important one in the history of our Indian relations on that coast. In those councils measures might be adopted reconciling to a great degree the differences now existing between the whites and Indians, which would tend to promote peace and save us from the horrors of another Indian war.
    The application of a part of the appropriation for restoring and maintaining the peaceable disposition of the Indian tribes on the Pacific or that of preventing outbreaks could undoubtedly be more advantageously expended in bringing this delegation to the States than in any other way. Without the adoption of this plan, or some similar one very large, an increasing amount must be expended annually in maintaining military posts and suppressing Indian hostilities induced very much by a mistaken conception of their power to rid themselves of the presence of whites. It is not expected, however, that this would supersede the necessity of maintaining military posts, but it would doubtless be equivalent to one-half the number and effectually put a stop to this constant warfare, requiring the expenditure of large sums of money in preparing equipments for field operations in the interior of the country, and save the lives of our citizens.
    The estimate submitted contemplates collecting and transporting the Indians by steamer by way of the Isthmus of Panama and return the same way, but in the event they could be supplied with transportation from the military stations in that country to take the overland route the expense would be materially lessened. Very many of the chiefs would furnish their own horses, but the pack animals, saddles, subsistence &c. would have to be furnished by the government. After making the trip across the plains the animals could be retained until spring for the homeward trip. In the event of being compelled to purchase the animals, equipments &c., they could be sold after returning and the amount received credited to the government. Many of the chiefs would doubtless prefer coming by land, and in the event of so doing the interior tribes might be visited and induced to send delegations that would not, if required to make the trip by water. I may add that quite a number of the chiefs greatly desired to accompany me on my present visit to the States. It would doubtless be better for a portion of them to come by water and a portion by land--which by uniting again here would give them more general understanding of our country than they could have if all came [by] the same route. If this mode of travel should be adopted, it will be necessary to appoint two special agents, one in charge of either party until a junction could be formed east of the mountains, and the overland party might require a small escort between some of the military stations. Should they start in season to accompany the 4th Infantry, or any foot troop, it might have a beneficial effect on following immediately after would be secured from attacks of other tribes east of the mountains.
    It is believed that the sum of $12,000 would equip and bring to the Atlantic States a delegation sufficiently large to fairly represent the Indians of these two Territories. The payment of agents, subsistence and traveling expenses of the delegation while here, and the expense of returning, might be provided for in future.
    With these remarks I submit the matter to your consideration, fully convinced that the future peace of our country on that coast, the economy of the government, the welfare of the Indian tribes, as well as our citizens, would be greatly promoted by carrying into effect the suggestions herein contained.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Joel Palmer
            Late Supt. Ind. Affrs.
                in Oregon Territory
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington D.C.
   

Estimate of expenses in collecting, equipping, subsisting and transporting
a delegation of Indians from the tribes in Washington and Oregon Territories
to the Atlantic States, pay of agents, interpreters &c. &c.
Steerage passage on ocean steamers from Portland, Oregon Territory to
New York of 53 Indians and 2 interpreters @ $125.00 each
         $6,875.00
Passage of one special agent in first cabin 275.00
Pay of one interpreter and assistant conductor 1,000.00
Pay of one interpreter 500.00
Presents and clothing for Indians 1,000.00
Incidental expenses in collecting and counciling with Indians and subsistence before starting on the journey 2,000.00
Pay of one special agt. & conductor for one year 3,000.00
Subsistence for 55 persons for a period of six months whilst in the States at $1.25 per day 12,512.50
Other traveling expenses, fare on railroads, passages on steamboats &c. &c. 3,000.00
Passage of delegation, interpreters & agents home     7,150.00
$37,312.50
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1230-1246.



Umpqua Sub-Ind. Agency
    Umpqua City O.T. May 20 / 57
Sir
    A dispatch received at this office yesterday "by siwash express" from R. B. Metcalfe, Indian agent at the Siletz agency, dated on the 15th ult., informs me that much dissatisfaction among the Indians under his charge at present exists.
    He says, "I look for at least one half of the Indians here to leave within the next ten (10) days. They all intend leaving within two (2) months. Their success or failure in reaching their former homes will depend on the movements of the military force at Umpqua &c. &c."
    Regarding the military force at this point I have to say--
    There is about forty (40) effective men now at this post. All that can be done with such a meager force will be done. We cannot look for a volunteer force to be raised on the coast; they are not here. Except a few families residing a long distance from each other, the entire coast south of this office is deserted. The mines on Sixes River & on Rogue River contain all the inhabitants.
    The necessity of a strong military command at this place is therefore quite apparent, and in the event the Indians above should attempt to abandon the reserve & flee to their former homes, at this point they must be detained if at all.
    I opine that a communication to the Department from your office setting forth the position of affairs would have the desired effect & bring to our aid two full companies. With three companies at this point it would be almost impossible for the Indians to escape.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
Gen. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 127.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem O.T. May 21st 1857
Sir,
    Since the removal of the larger portion of the Rogue River Indians to the Siletz, I thought that it might be expedient to dispense with one of the schools at the Grand Ronde and transfer it to the Siletz. I desire to have your views on the subject, and that you will consult with Mr. Ostrander in order to ascertain whether he would be willing to go to the Siletz. I have consulted Mr. Metcalfe on the subject; he informs me that he will have a school house ready by the 20th of June. If Mr. Ostrander desires to go to the Siletz he can report to Mr. Metcalfe by that time or defer it until I return from Olympia, which will probably be about the 25th of June.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James W. Nesmith
            Superintendent Indian Affairs
To
    John F. Miller Esq.
        Grand Ronde Reservation
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 351.



Deer Creek May 21st / 57
Dear Sir
    I hope you will pardon me for troubling you in a matter in which I am in no wise interested except as a well-wisher to the party in interest.
    During the administration of one of your "illustrious predecessors," Gen. P., James P. Day was appointed to some post out here like an agency. Like most other men, no doubt he was quite willing to accept any official position which would pay although not quite entitled to it by fair party usage. But he did in good faith I doubt not discharge to the best of his ability the duties of his post. In doing so he must have spent much time and some money. Aside from every other consideration, perhaps, even-handed justice would entitle him to some compensation. In that ground alone I should not have troubled myself, but the man is unfortunate, and all that I have to say is on the ground of humanity, presuming that there is justice in the claim. His physician and friends inform me that without some remedy soon he cannot survive the summer. As a last remedy he is anxious to go further south, but is without the means, nor has he friends sufficiently able to help him. Can you not by adjusting his claim upon your Department help him? I suppose of course that you have all the necessary documents and vouchers.
    Thus much I have said at the urgent solicitation of Mr. Day's friends. You will hear from others upon this subject and perhaps more in detail.
Very respty. your friend
    & obt. servt.
        R. E. Stratton
Hon.
    J. W. Nesmith
        Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 126.



Fort Vancouver W.T.
    May 22nd 1857
Dear Sir
    I regret to learn that it is your intention to move Old Sam & his people over to the Siletz, and most respectfully and urgently request that you will permit him and his people to remain where they now are if consistent with your duty. I hope I have been misinformed in regard to your intentions & would like to see & talk with you on the subject before you give the order to move. I will come up to Salem if I can ascertain the truth of the reports.
Yours respectfully
    A. J. Smith
        Capt. 1st Drags.
____ Nesmith
    Supt. of Indian Affairs
        Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 123.



INFORMATION WANTED--Of MRS. ANN IRVIN, who left the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation, O.T., for San Francisco, June, 1857. Should this meet her eye, or anyone that would be so kind as to inform her that she will hear of something to her advantage by applying to HERMON WHITE, Monmouth, Polk County.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 1, 1858, page 1




Corvallis O.T. 1st June 1857
Sir,
    We, Nat H. Lane and Relf Bledsoe, citizens of Benton County, Oregon Territory, trading under the name and firm of Lane & Bledsoe, herewith make application for license to trade with the confederated tribes of Indians located in the Siletz Indian Agency, district [of] Coast Indian Reservation, O.T., at the agency on Siletz River, and some point on the Yaquina Bay--the amount of capital to be employed at the agency ten thousand dollars, at the bay five thousand dollars--the person to be employed in our service is Alexander J. McEwan as clerk, with whom you are personally acquainted.
Very respectfully
    Your most obt. servts.
        Nat. H. Lane
        Relf Bledsoe
To
    R. B. Metcalfe Esq.
        Indian Agent
            Siletz Agency O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Executive Office--Ter. Wash.
    Olympia June 2nd 1857.
Hon. [James] W. Denver
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
Sir,
    The law of Congress joining the Territories of Oregon & Washington in one Superintendency has gone into effect this day, by my turning in the office and records in to Col. J. W. Nesmith, the joint Superintendent, as directed in the instructions of the Department.
    In thus terminating my official duties as Superintendent of Indian Affairs of this Territory, I desire to place on the records of the Department my judgment that the new Superintendency is too large for one officer and that at the earliest practicable period the two Territories should be divided into separate superintendencies. Indeed, I am of opinion that the public service would be promoted by dividing the present joint Superintendency into three separate superintendencies. The whole country east of the Cascades and thence to the Rocky Mts. forming one Superintendency--Oregon west of the Cascades another and Washington west of the Cascades the third. Each of these districts would in my judgment furnish ample employment for a Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your most obdt.
        Isaac I. Stevens
            Gov. Ter. Wash.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1394-1396.



Washington 5th June, 1857.
The Hon.
    The Acting Commissioner of Indian Affrs.
Sir
    I wish to take an appeal from the decision of the late Commissioner Col. Manypenny in relation to pay for my traveling expenses in returning from Oregon in 1853, and also for fourteen days salary.
    You will remember that in June 1850 I was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon and commissioned for four years, and that in March 1853 I was removed from office on the coming in of President Pierce, notwithstanding I had some months previous offered to resign my office to take effect on the first of July following. This you will see was entirely disregarded in my removal.
    It was with the promise and full understanding when I accepted this office that my traveling expenses should be paid by the govt. I think it was then the custom of the Indian office to pay such expenses. Beverly S. Allen of Tenn., an Indian treaty commissioner, was sent to Oregon about the same time I was; his traveling expenses were paid both ways.
    The small claim for fourteen days salary is suspended I understand for the reason that I was not in the office in Oregon myself during these fourteen days. I was in possession of the office and the public property and responsible to the govt. for it until my successor was qualified and took possession. My clerk was there in charge of the books & papers, and I employed a very responsible man (Capt. Whitcomb) to take care of the property and turn it over to my successor as soon as he was sworn into office.
    I did not leave the country until my successor was in office and I had a receipt for all of the govt. property that I had been responsible for.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your bot. servt.
        Anson Dart
            Late Supt. &c.
The Hon.
    Chas. E. Mix
        Acting Commissioner
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 195-197.


FROM THE NORTHERN COAST.
    We have received received private information from Port Orford, to the effect that some ten or fifteen Indian squaws and their children had suddenly appeared in that town, having come all the way from the Umpqua Reservation, without being seen by any white man. They were on their way to the Rogue River, from which place they were removed last season.
    It was also reported there that the Indians had broken off from the Reservation, and had an engagement with the soldiers stationed at the mouth of the Umpqua, with what result is unknown. They say they are determined to fight their way back to their old homes on the Rogue River at all hazards. The inhabitants of Port Orford have "footed up" again, and were making preparations to give the Indians a warm reception should they make their appearance there, when our informant left.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, June 6, 1857, page 1


Port Orford O.T.
    June 6 1857
J. W. Nesmith Esq.
    Superintendent of Ind. Affairs.
        Salem O.T.
            Sir
                By [illegible] Columbia [illegible] Indians [illegible] to Vancouver to be forwarded to the reservation or called for by the Indian Department today are of the "Charles Singleton" band of the "Pistol Rivers." They were taken near this place 27th May on their way to their old homes, having escaped from the reservation. Not wishing them to go further, Peter Ruffner and myself took charge of them; have kept them under guard, and provided for their wants.
    We hope that our transactions in this matter will meet your approbation. We forward herewith accounts of expenses, which you can examine and if correct forward amt. to us as per vouchers.
Your obdt. servts.
    R. W. Dunbar
    Peter Ruffner
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 135.



Jacksonville June 8th 1857
Col. J. W. Nesmith, Superintendent &c.
    Dear Sir
        Enclosed you will find a spoliation claim against the Rogue River Indians in favor of Granville Naylor. The act requires that sufficient proof shall be made to the Superintendent, agent &c., and I am not aware whether it is required by the Department that the clerk of the district court should testify that the justice before whom the depositions were taken is an active justice of the peace &c. If it is necessary from any law on the subject or by the practice of the Indian Department, I will have such certificate appended upon your returning the enclosed depositions.
Very truly yours
    J. H. Reed
Col. Nesmith
    Salem
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 137.



    RUMORED INDIAN OUTBREAK.--One of the officers of the steamer Sea Bird, which arrived here yesterday, informs us that it was reported at Port Orford, just before the boat left, that no less than eight hundred Cayuse and Rogue River Indians had decamped from the Reservation, some seventy miles from that place, and were on their way down towards Port Orford, having heard of the removal of the troops from that section of the country.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, June 10, 1857, page 2



LETTER FROM PORT ORFORD.
INDIAN DEPREDATIONS--EXPOSED CONDITION OF THE WHITE SETTLERS.

Port Orford, June 10th, 1857.
    I take the liberty to ask you to publish in the Alta the following fair statement of the exposed and unprotected condition of the people of this place. The settlers and miners in the vicinity of Port Orford are subject to incursions and depredations from the merciless and bloodthirsty Indians, numbering about two thousand, who claim the right to leave the reservation, where they were (I cannot say compelled to go) persuaded or coaxed by Col. Buchanan, the commander-in-chief of the U.S. troops stationed in Southern Oregon to fight Indians shortly after the Indian massacre at the mouth of Rogue River on the 22nd of February 1856. From that time, up to the time of getting the Indians onto the reservation at the mouth of the Umpqua River, I forbore any comments, fearing that my personalities [sic] might preclude the publication of this communication, in which I desire to show to our government the necessity of sending troops to this point, that the Indians may be kept from coming back, by whole tribes, onto their old homesteads, killing off what whites there are here, taking all the stock in the country, and finally getting a foothold that will require a strong force to dislodge them, at an expense to Uncle Sam (including spoliation bills) that will amount to twice as much as the whole territory is worth.
    The Indians were told, if they would go onto the reserve, that they would all be fed and otherwise provided for by the great Boston tyee. In this, they say, they have been deceived, that their people are sick and dissatisfied, and they want to come back to their own country; this, of course, is denied them, and now they say they will come in spite of the soldiers, who number about thirty-five men stationed at the mouth of the Umpqua River, the southern boundary of the Indian reservation, and kill all the whites and get all their stock and guns. This threat they are about to carry out unless we get assistance, as they have already broken and left the reservation in large bodies, and are now skulking about through the thinly settled neighborhoods, stealing cattle and driving families from their homes, and all they want now is to get guns, which they can and no doubt will, from small prospecting parties, who are scattered all through the mountains, then lie in wait and capture the first pack train that shows itself. This will provide them with guns and provisions enough to take this or any point they may see fit to attack, as the number already reported to have left for this place, a part of which have been seen near here, is seven times that of the whites. We have no forts, no communication with the officer in command at the mouth of the Umpqua, no place of retreat, nor any chance to get women and children away, except by the steamer Columbia, which ought to stop here once every two weeks, but this we cannot depend on, so you can easily see from our weakness in numbers and exposed situation how easy it would be for three or four hundred Indians to massacre the last one of us, as they did the miners and settlers at the mouth of Rogue River, twenty-eight miles below here, on the 22nd of February 1856.
    My object in writing this communication is to get our situation fairly set forth through the public prints, so that those in authority may not have it to say that we never asked [for] assistance, and that our situation was never understood by them. It has been charged upon the whites as having been the aggressors, and the cause of the present war (though General Wool said in his dispatches there is no war) in Oregon, that the war was got up for private speculation. This, I assure you, is untrue, and has gone far to prejudice the rights of the people of Oregon Territory. Very respectfully, D. S. LOUNT.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, June 13, 1857, page 1



Department of the Interior,
    Washington, June 15th 1857.
Sir:
    I return herewith the papers which accompanied your report of the 9th instant on the claims of Anson Dart for his traveling expenses incurred in returning from Oregon in 1853 and for salary for fourteen days in addition to the time for which he charged in his accounts.
    The claim for traveling expenses was before the Department on appeal from your office in June 1855 and was decided on its merits against Mr. Dart on the 13th of that month. This must be regarded as conclusive.
    Mr. Dart's salary for the fourteen additional days might be allowed if he was in the regular discharge of the duties of his office and at his proper post till the 4th day of May 1853, or if he left his Superintendency on the 20th April, with the previous consent of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
    If, however, as I infer from the papers in this case, the fact be otherwise, it does not seem to be in accordance with the policy of the Department to allow this claim of Mr. Dart.
    The 10th section of the act of 30th June 1834 forbade the allowance of salary to agents & sub-agents whilst absent from their posts without leave, and that enactment seems to have been the basis for general regulations respecting absences of Indian agents & sub-agents, adopted June 1st 1837.
    (Paragraphs 7 & 15) which regulations have the force of law not being inconsistent with subsequent enactments of Congress.
    If Superintendents are not named in the act, or the regulations referred to, it is understood that the general practice has been to regard them as within the spirit thereof, and I regard this practice as proper and well founded.
    It is clear that the duties required by law & regulation to be performed by Superintendents make it necessary for them to remain at their post, to be ready to discharge those duties as occasion may demand.
I am very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. Thompson
            Secretary
Charles E. Mix Esqr.
    Acting Commissioner
        of Indian Affairs
   

Department of the Interior.
    Office Indian Affairs.
        June 11, 1855 [sic].
Sir:
    In reply to the reference on the 2nd instant, of a letter of Anson Dart Esq., late Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, asking that he be allowed his traveling expenses in returning from his late Superintendency, I have the honor to state that it has not been customary since I have had charge of this office to allow the expenses of officers of the Department who see fit to return to their former homes in the States after the determination of official appointments, the duties of which required, as in this case, that the officer whilst acting should reside in the remote Territories.
    Without therefore enumerating the reasons which have led to the adoption of this course, I decline to recommend that anything be allowed to Mr. Dart on that account, and return his letter herewith.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obdt. servt.
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Geo. C. Whiting, Esqr.
    Acting Secretary of the Interior
   

Department of the Interior
    Washington June 13th 1855 [sic]
Sir:
    You report of the 11th inst. on the application of Anson Dart, late Supt. of Indian Affairs, for the payment of his traveling expenses in returning from his late Superintendency, has been received.
    I do not think Mr. Dart's return expenses can be properly paid by the government, and I return his letter, with the request that he be informed of the decision of the Department.
I am sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            Geo. C. Whiting
                Acting Secy.
To the
    Commissioner of
        Indian Affairs
   

Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        June 13, 1855 [sic]
Sir:
    I have been requested by the Acting Secretary of the Interior to inform you, in reply to your application of the 30th ultimo to the Department, for the allowance of your expenses on your return from Oregon, where you were Superintendent of Indian Affairs, that he does not think your return expenses can properly be paid by the government.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obdt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Anson Dart, Esq.
    Late Supt. Ind. Affairs in Oregon
        Present
   

Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        June 14, 1855 [sic]
Sir:
    I have received and considered your note of yesterday, submitting the question whether you should not be paid for fourteen additional days services as Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Oregon, over and above the time for which you charged in rendering your accounts, and in reply have to state that I do not feel disposed, from the facts stated by you, in conversation, to allow any claim for salary beyond the time you charged for in the rendition of your accounts.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obdt. servant
        Geo. W. Manypenny
            Commissioner
Anson Dart, Esqr.
    Washington
        D.C.
   

Oregon Indian Superintendency
    December 14th 1852 [sic]
To
    Hon. Luke Lea,
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Sir:

                In view of the increased and increasing high cost of living in Oregon, together with the inadequate salary to meet these expenses, I am induced, very respectfully, to tender herewith my resignation, to take effect at the end of the fiscal year, 30th June 1853 (unless sooner displaced).
    It may not be improper then to suggest here that I be recalled to settle my accounts previous to that time, as I could not, I suppose, be allowed traveling expenses to the seat of government after my official term had expired (either by removal or resignation). In the event of being called to Washington settle my accounts, my secretary would remain in charge of the books & papers of the office, and the public property, to turn the same over to my successor--being prepared myself to pay over any balance of public money in my hands, here or in Washington.
    The tardy movement of the mails to this distant coast has induced me to write thus early on the subject, as no more time will intervene than is necessary to obtain a reply.
    The result of the presidential election is not yet known to me; it would not, however, change my intentions as above.
I have the honor to be
    Your obt. servant

        Anson Dart
            Superintendent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 366-374.




Rogue River June 16th 1857
Supt. of Ind. Affairs O.T.
    Sir, Sometime in March '54 I had an ox shot and wounded very badly by one of the Rogue River Indians. I applied to Mr. Culver, then agent for said Indians, who upon examining the ox said that as the wounds were so bad that it was impossible for him to get well, and as he was in want of some beef for the use of said Indians, he would take him and account for him as such.
    I wrote to Mr. Hedges about the matter last spring. He answered me that he found the a/c rendered in the quarterly returns of the summer of '54 as beef but could not settle the same for the want of funds. You will confer a favor by attending to the matter for me, as the a/c is just and should be settled. The amount is $125.00.
Respct. yours
    David N. Birdseye
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 170.



Umpqua Sub-Ind. Agency
    Umpqua City, O.T. June 16 1857
Sir
    Herewith I transmit to your office an application of W. H. Packwood for damages sustained by him in the late Indian war with testimony regarding the same.
    The papers have been delayed at this office some weeks in order to make the inquiries requisite to base an opinion upon.
    All the information obtained from the white settlers and Indians on the Coquille River confirm the testimony contained in the enclosed papers. The evidence is entirely of a circumstantial nature and evidently must ever be.
    That the house was fired by the Indians I have no doubt, and I am of the opinion that the claim is a just one in every particular.
While I remain
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agent
Hon. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 139.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon, June 17 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the following named bonds for the delivery of flour and beef for the subsistence of the Indians, viz., bond of Henry Fuller for the delivery of thirty thousand pounds of good beef per month for the term of three months @ 7¢/lb.; bond of Johnson Mulkey and Heyman Lewis for the delivery of thirty thousand pounds of good beef per month for the term of three months @ 7
¢ per pound; bond of John H. Lewis for the delivery of seven tons of good merchantable flour per month for six months at 6⅓ cents per pound, and bond of Henry Fuller for the delivery of thirty tons of good flour per month for the term of six months at 8⅞ cents per pound, all of which are submitted for your approval.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 553-554.




Jacksonville June 20, 1857
Col. Nesmith
    Dear Sir
        "Once more unto the breach dear friends." I send another spoliation claim, hoping that it may be in proper form and sufficiently authenticated to meet with your approbation.
Very truly yours
    J. H. Reed
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 153.



Astoria O.T. June 22, 1857.
Sir
    Your communication of the 14 ult. was received by the last mail. With reference to the amounts suspended or disallowed, except the two items for office rent, I will only say that though I believe the whole amount of the accounts are justly due to me, yet the amounts are so small in the aggregate that it is scarcely worthwhile for me to put myself for the Department to any more trouble about them. And in relation to the two items for office rent I am not aware that I can now do anything calculated to induce the Department to change the decision already made, except to forward the enclosed affidavits of Messrs. Colver, Dean & Thompson, which were accidentally omitted when I presented my explanations & evidence to Superintendent Palmer in June last.
    The account of N. C. Dean for $77.50 and of John E. Ross for $35 I will attend to as soon as I can communicate with them. They both reside in Rogue River Valley.
Respectfully
    A. A. Skinner
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Comr. &c.
   

Jackson County Oregon Territory April 12 1856 [sic]
Hon. Joel Palmer
    Sir, having examined the correspondence of Anson Dart, Com. of Indian Affairs, with the Hon. Luke Lea dated Nov. 1852--also the letter of George W. Manypenny to Joel Palmer of Oct. 29th 1855 and Joel Palmer's letter to A. A. Skinner dated Feb. 18th 1856 relative to the reasonableness of the accounts of A. A. Skinner as charged by him against government for incidental expenses while acting as Indian agent in Southern Oregon during the years fifty-one, two and three, together with the accounts of A. A. Skinner during the above-mentioned years, and after duly considering the same and referring to my business transactions during the same years in this county (which was packing, trading in provisions and groceries and farming in company with T. Thompson) I feel satisfied that the charges in the accounts of A. A. Skinner as above referred to are not only reasonable but in many items below the current prices of those years.
    I find the following to be the price current for '52--flour from 15 to 25 cts. per lb. Beef from 20 to 25 cents per lb.
(sugar 35 to 50, coffee 50 to 60 cts) from fifty-one to fifty-three price variable, from the above quotations still higher. Flour sold in January & February at Jacksonville for from 75 cts. to $1.25 per lb. At the same time salt was from one to four dollars per lb. Meals have always been one dollar at public houses except when higher as in fifty 2 & 3 when they were one dollar without bread and dollar and fifty cents with it. The above is the price current for Jackson County in those years; no doubt but they appear high to persons living at the head of steam navigation on the great rivers in the States, but to those who live in the mines of Southern Oregon at the head of mule navigation they appear reasonable enough.
    And as to gov. policy of conciliating Indians, in our first intercourse with them, in the absence of a military force sufficient for defense sensible men can entertain but one opinion, and even the expensive policy of feeding compares quite favorably with the fighting policy as now adopted, as will be seen by reference to the expenditures of the present war.
I remain yours
    Samuel Colver
Hon. Joel Palmer
    N.B. One item mentioned in A. A. Skinner's accounts was office rent from $50 to one hundred dollars per month [which] was the rates of good houses rents.
   

    Personally appeared before me Samuel Colver and made solemn oath that the foregoing statement contained in a communication to Joel Palmer Indian agent are true to his knowledge.
Samuel Colver
Subscribed and sworn to
before me this the 19th of April 1856
A. P. Stearns
    Probate Judge
        Jackson County O.T.
   
    Nathaniel Dean and Thomas Thompson being duly sworn say that the statements made by Hiram [sic] Colver to the Indian agent Joel Palmer are true to their knowledge.
Nathaniel C. Dean
Thomas Thompson
Subscribed and sworn to before
me this the 19th of April 1856
A. P. Stearns
    Probate Judge
        Jackson County O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1262-1265.  Note that the statement above is from Samuel Colver, not from Indian agent Samuel H. Culver.



The Northern Indian Difficulties--What Is to Be Done with Them?
    The reports from the Umpqua Reservation are confirmatory of the news which we published some days since, to the effect that the Rogue River Indians had broken away from the reservation, and were on their way back to their old homes. But a few weeks will probably elapse ere we shall be again called upon to chronicle a series of massacres that they will have committed upon the white settlers, residing in or near their line of travel back to the Rogue River; and then will be enacted, over again, the horrors of Indian warfare with the handful of troops that are stationed in that section.
    The first point that will be exposed to their bloodthirsty fury is the settlement near the mouth of the Umpqua; the next is that at Coos Bay, which point, though destined to become of great importance upon this coast, will be sadly retarded in its progress, and its inhabitants, it is to be feared, will be massacred--families destroyed, and the place be reduced to its original desolate solitude. Passing on, downward, toward Port Orford, are many scattered white settlers, who, if they have not already sought safety in the blockhouse at Port Orford, it is probable will fall victims to these ruthless barbarians.
    The newly discovered mining locality on the Sixes River is also near their line of march, and it is to be feared that it will be broken up by them, and the miners driven into the wilds of the mountains, to exist as best they may until they can reach some point of safety. Port Orford is in a helpless condition against this large body of Indians, the government troops having been nearly all withdrawn from that point, since the removal of the Indians to the reservation. Between this point and Rogue River are many settlers, and miners engaged in beach and river mining, all of whom will be exposed to their ravages.
    Here, then, we hare a line of coast, of some two hundred miles, to be laid waste by these wild tribes, and its settlements, already well begun, retarded for years by this misfortune.
    Were everyone well acquainted with the locality, there would be no need for us to attempt to portray the great importance of immediate government aid to suppress this outbreak, and if actually necessary, to exterminate these savages to enable the country to be permanently settled. So far as the rivers have been prospected, it has been conclusively shown that, throughout that entire belt of country, there is a field for placer mining, nearly if not fully equal to that which existed in our own state eight years ago. The beach, too, from Rogue River to the Umpqua is glittering with sands, golden, in truth, that only call for the exercise of Yankee inventive powers, to bring forth some kind of machinery, to enable them to be worked successfully.
    We speak of this section of the country from a personal knowledge of its resources, having traveled over a greater portion of it, upon more than one occasion, and observed it carefully. Its agricultural resources are unsurpassed, and its magnificent forests have long ago been fully described in the public prints. Yet, for years, this section of our Pacific possessions has been overrun by these wild tribes, and government has doled out her aid with a stingy hand, to keep them in subjection About one year ago, the Rogue River tribe was removed to the Umpqua Reservation, and, relying upon their good faith, our government vainly believed that they would reside there peaceably, without compulsion being used to keep them within their prescribed limits. True to the character which they have always borne, however, of being a treacherous and unreliable tribe, they have seized the first opportunity to violate their pledges, and are probably now engaged in their work of destruction.
    There is a sentiment which might interpose between the advocacy of their actual extermination, viz: that of the commonest humanity, which acknowledges to exist in them the original ownership and right to the soil, and the cruel injustice of taking them from it. The past history of our country, from the rocky shores of Maine to our own Pacific Coast, practically repudiates this theory and metes out a stern dispensation for these sons of the forest. Oil and water are not more antagonistic to each other than are the Indian and white man, when the march of Christian civilization attempts the work of social affiliation. The only system that human ingenuity can devise for the humane treatment of these wild men of the woods is that which has been adopted by our government of setting apart localities for them; but it is the weak manner in which the system has been carried out here, which is the cause of all these bloody massacres and Indian difficulties of every kind. The vanguard of civilization is usually made up of honest and industrious frontiersmcn, who, with their wives and little ones, tramp down the wilderness and drive its wild denizens from the face of the land, to make room for the refinements and luxuries of society which are to come after them. Theirs is a life of continual hardship, danger and toil. They live not for themselves, but for the welfare of future generations. Why, then, are these noble pioneers so sadly neglected by those whose duty it is to care for and protect them? The cry of "humanity to the Indian" is echoed back by the dying shrieks of the tomahawked mother and her helpless little ones, and however much the hard lot of the Indian may be bewailed, who will say that the supplications of our own fellow countrymen do not far outweigh this false sentiment?
    If there is one duty which our Senators and Representatives owe to the people of this coast, it is to claim the immediate action of the government in putting a final end to these Indian depredations. One or the other must succumb; the country must be opened up to civilization, or left entirely to the occupation of thew restless savages--a wilderness rich in all that can pertain to man's comfort and happiness, overrun by hordes of unrelenting barbarians.
    Prompt and decided action is demanded to drive them back to the reservation which has been set apart for them, at the point of the bayonet, if necessary. The whistle of the rifle bullet is the only mandate that they will obey, and they should be taught this time to keep within their prescribed limits, or pay the forfeit by their final extermination.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, June 24, 1857, page 2



    INDIAN MATTERS AT UMPQUA.--By a late arrival from Umpqua, O.T., it appears that apprehensions were entertained there of an Indian outbreak. The Rogue River Indians, headed by their chief "John," had left their new reservation and were returning to their old hunting grounds. The garrison at Umpqua, numbering only twenty-five soldiers, was too weak to hinder the Indian march, or perhaps to preserve itself.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, June 24, 1857, page 2



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem O.T. June 24 1857
Sir
    Your letter of the 11th inst. "enclosing a spoliation claim against the Rogue River Indians" reached me this morning.
    In your communication you do not indicate what you desire me to do with the papers, but I presume that you wished them forwarded to the Department at Washington.
    By reference to the 17th section of the act of June 30th 1834 you will observe that spoliation claims must first be submitted to the tribes for satisfaction. No such claims have ever been submitted to the Rogue River Indians for the reason that their annuities would not pay ten cents on the dollar of such claims. There are already claims presented on this office for vast amounts of property destroyed by those Indians, and I know of no remedy for the claimants except an act of Congress for their relief, as it would certainly be sought in vain at the Indian Department. Several claims having been forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs by my predecessor, late Commissioner Manypenny wrote a letter in reply of which the enclosed is an extract.
    I am of opinion that the application of Mr. Conley is too indefinite, as it mostly states that his property was taken by the "Rogue River Indians" without specifying the band or tribe to which they belong. I will retain the papers here subject to your order and make such disposition of them as you may hereafter desire.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    J. H. Reed Esq.
        Jacksonville
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 363.



    INDIANS HOSTILE.--The late news from Umpqua, Oregon Territory, is that there is danger of an Indian outbreak. The Rogue River Indians had been led off by their chief John, from the reservation, and were going back to their old hunting grounds. The garrison at Umpqua, consisting of only twenty-five men, was too weak to prevent it.
Oroville Daily Butte Record,
Oroville, California, June 26, 1857, page 2



    A small party of Indian women passed down the coast a few days since, creating no little excitement in the minds of the few whites now residing along that vicinity. Advices have been received from the Indian Reserve, stating that nearly all the Indians from Southern Oregon had left their station on the reserve, and that settlers occupying the former locality of these Indians must be on their guard. These are the same Indians that Col. Buchanan so thoroughly conquered (?) last year without a single engagement on his part, and with one exception some little skirmishes by small detachments of U.S. troops, under the command of other officers of subordinate rank, while the Col. claimed all the honor that by rights belonged to the Oregon mounted volunteers and a few of the regulars--especially those under command of Capt. Smith, who came near sacrificing his own life, with that of his whole command, at the Big Bend on Rogue River, during the late war. But by the assistance of another company of U.S. troops, the ropes which the Indians had suspended on the trees in the vicinity of the engagement were finally used as halters for horses instead of Capt. Smith and his command. What the result will be of the Indians returning to their former homes is hard to predict, but judging from the popular feelings of the citizens, we cannot guarantee to that unfortunate race a permanent safety. Still, should the Indians return peaceable and avoid all acts of a belligerent character, and no ways at all molest the whites in their various avocations, they may be permitted to drag out a miserable existence, until government makes provisions for them.
"Frank," "The Port Orford Mines," San Francisco Bulletin, June 27, 1857, page 2



Umpqua Sub-Indian Agency
    June 30th 1857.
Sir:
    I respectfully report that the Indians at this encampment have been more free from diseases during the last three months than for any period since I have been in attendance on them. The marked improvement is evidently owing to the season of the year, which favors their living almost entirely in the open air and [which] at the same time enables them to procure an abundance of berries, fresh fish and some vegetables. In fact, a favorable change is noticeable whenever the weather permits them to leave for a short time their damp and badly ventilated lodges.
    Their diseases mostly belong to the class resulting from bad diet and impure air, and their improvement since the dry weather has set in clearly suggests some of the causes of sickness and points out what is needed to ensure them more uniform good health, viz., a vegetable admixture in their diet and dry and ventilated houses. Their present lodges are cellars, roofed over. They [are] damp and favor an accumulation of filth sufficient to engender disease in the most salubrious locality. From time to time they [are] destroyed or removed, as they become uninhabitable from collections of pestilential filth. Frequently several of the inmates die in succession in the same lodge within a short period after it has been located awhile. The mortality is attributed to a superstitious cause, and the lodge is removed again to collect noxious matters and produce disease. During the rainy season these underground lodges are more unhealthy than tents would be for the reason that water seeps into them, producing dampness and moldiness, which are not removed by evaporation as they occasionally would be in tents. Moreover, the structure of these lodges is such that ventilation is impossible. The fires are built four or five feet below ground on the floor, and the smoke is conveyed off by a narrow aperture in the roof, but there being no draft, sufficient remains to render them unhealthy on this account alone. As a sanitary measure I earnestly recommend that even though the present kind of lodges be used in future, that chimneys be built to them. This would ensure ventilation and freedom from smoke at least. But to afford these people a full chance of recovering from their present unhealthy condition they should have lodges above ground and if added to this measure they be supplied with potatoes as part of their diet the happiest results would no doubt be realized. Otherwise their mode of living in this locality is healthy and congenial to them.
    The diseases treated since last quarter were chiefly the milder forms of scrofulous complaints, rheumatism, dysentery, bronchitis and ophthalmia.
    There were two deaths, one of a man from consumption of the lungs, the other a child from consumption of the bowels.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Edw. P. Vollum
            M.D.
E. P. Drew
    Sub-Indian Agent
        Umpqua Agency
            Oregon Ter.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 638-641.




Office Umpqua Sub-Ind. Agency
    Umpqua City, O.T. July 1st 1857
Sir
    In compliance with "general order" issued from your office May 19, 1857, I have the honor to report that in November A. D. 1854 I was assigned to duty in this (Umpqua) district, bounded as follows (viz): The coast from the mouth of the Coquille River northward so far as to include the Siuslaw band of Indians, thence eastward to the summit of the Coast Range of mountains, thence southward so as to include all the bands of Indians below Umpqua Valley proper, thence to the headwaters of the Coquille River, thence to the coast (the place of beginning) so as to include all the bands of Indians residing along the waters of the Coquille. In the month of September following I was officially informed that "Hereafter the Coquille Indians would be attached to the Port Orford District and placed under the charge of Spec. Agt. Wright, that this (Umpqua) district would be extended northward"--how far I have not yet been informed.
    The Indians immediately under my charge at present are all of the a tribe, divided into several bands (viz): the Siuslaw and Alsea bands located on the Siuslaw River, numbering about two hundred and forty (240), the Scottsburg, Lower Umpqua and Coos Bay bands, located on the Umpqua River near this agency, numbering about four hundred and fifty, making an aggregate of six hundred and ninety (690).
    They are at present and have been, so far as my knowledge extends, friendly towards the whites. Many of them manifest a disposition and desire to cultivate the soil. Those located on the Siuslaw River have several acres of potatoes and some other vegetables now under cultivation. With slight encouragement from the general government I opine that they would all apply themselves quite readily to agricultural pursuits, yet they would rely for subsistence to a great extent upon fish, an abundant supply of which is easily obtained from the waters of Siuslaw, Umpqua and Smith rivers.
    No buildings have yet been erected for them. They now reside in low cabins which they have constructed of lumber furnished them in part by the Department. It will be absolutely necessary to erect a few houses for them before the rainy season, and a small supply of clothing and blankets would be very desirable.
    For a few months a school was in operation, but from the uncertainty of receiving funds applicable to that purpose (it having been established without special order), it was deemed expedient to suspend the same for the present. During the few months it was operating there was a constant average attendance of from forty-five to fifty scholars. They all seemed anxious to improve and did so, much more rapidly than could have been anticipated under the circumstances. Should the school again be established, much good would result from it.
    No treaty having yet been ratified with this tribe (to my knowledge), I would most respectfully suggest that immediate steps be taken (if possible) to locate them permanently, and I know of no country so well adapted to their wants and desires as the country south of Cape Perpetua, extending southward so far as to include the extensive fisheries on the Siuslaw, Umpqua and Smith rivers. The country between Umpqua and Siuslaw is generally level and slightly timbered and would offer sufficient agricultural lands, while the lakes, of which there are several, abound in fish and wildfowl in the fall and winter months, and the surrounding mountains furnish an abundance of elk, deer, bear and other small game.
    Should the southern boundary of the reserve, as originally designed, be brought south some eight (8) miles, making Umpqua and Smith rivers the southern boundary, the object desired is obtained and sufficient country is embraced for those Indians who have ever been friendly towards the whites (south of Cape Perpetua), separated by said cape from those Indians who have from time to time become hostile.
    After they shall have been thus located, and the general government have rendered them proper assistance towards engaging in agricultural pursuits &c. &c., they will be enabled to a great extent to provide for themselves. Until this shall be accomplished they must have aid from the general government, or be permitted to return to their former homes and pursue their original mode of life--hunting the forest for game and following the rivers to their source in the summer months for fish and returning to the coast again during the winter.
    Appended to this you will please find an estimate of funds necessary for the next fiscal year, as required by your order.
I am, sir,
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
                Sub. Ind. Agt.
To
    Gen. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem
                O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 790-793.




July the 2nd 1857
Mr. Nesmith Sir this Indian Tots left a lot of ictas ["things"] at his old home when he moved to the reservation, so he tells and wanted me to write to you and have you see to it, also a lot of rails that he wants pay for that have been used by Mr. Marquam, [and] one cart of 5 elk skins that Mr. Palmer promised to see to. He wishes you to write to Mr. Marquam concerning this matter and have it settled.
Yours &c.
    W. D. Woodcock
Also--John Albright took one mare and colt of theirs and [the] mare died in his charge last winter and they want pay for her. He refuses to pay them. He gave them the colt.
W.D.W.
July 16th Mr. Marquam called at this office and says that the rails that "Totie" claims were made on his claim by the Indians and under an arrangement made by Mr. Geary about three years ago, and that he, Marquam, was to have all the improvements when the Indians left to go to the reservation. The colt he says belongs to "Bob Mantner" and still stands on the place. He further says that he has never taken any of the Indians' property.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 155.



Jacksonville July 3rd 57
J. W. Nesmith Supt. of Ind. Affairs
Sir    In Oct. 1855 I had made out a spoliation claim by I. N. Smith, notary public, against the Rogue River Indians for $3678.75 and took to Superintendent Hedges & he told me he would send it to Washington for further instructions.
    Since then I have not heard from it, until in May last my brother in the States went to Washington to attend to it for me. I first got a letter saying there is no claim there on file of mine, but thinks it has been returned to you for approval. Do me the favor of giving me the information if any you have. Also there is a spoliation claim in Y. A. Smith's hands in favor of George E. Cole, which is in the same situation made out by Grover of Salem and sent [by?] my brother for collection in duplicate as the original was sent to Superintendent of Washington Territory. Please inform me about this also. Further, please inform me as I have the duplicates if any action can be had if the originals cannot be found. Write me at your earliest convenience and oblige yours.
With due respect
    Hiram Smith
        Alias Red Shirt
J. W. Nesmith
    Dalles
N.B. Kindly remember me to Mrs. Nes, as I have not forgotten her kind hospitality.
Answer Jacksonville, Oregon.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 187.



Umpqua Sub-Ind. Agency
    Umpqua City O.T. July 7th 57
Sir
    By last mail I received your favor of the 16th ult.
    I was somewhat surprised to learn that Agent Metcalfe had not communicated with your office regarding the anticipated "stampede" of the Indians under his charge.
    My brother (J. W. Drew) will hand you this, also a few of the letters received from Metcalfe & Abbott regarding the Indians under their charge. I do this from the fact that my official communication of May last was based upon & inflated with extracts from the accompanying letters.
    I wish the letters to be returned to this office & have directed my brother so to do.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P.  Drew
To
    Gen. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem
                O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 160.



Roseburg July 8 / 1857
Mr. J. W. Nesmith
    Dr Sir
        I have spent about one month's time and some money in looking for a few of the Umpqua Indians yet out.
    John F. Miller spoke to me in Roseburg and wished me to go with an Indian that was sent from the reserve to protect him and try to get those that were out, but we did not succeed in finding them. My object in writing you is that me being only verbally authorized by Miller to have you attend to having me paid for the trouble I have been at, and in case that you hereafter require anyone to attend to any business out this way that you may know where I am and who I am.
Your old friend of '43
    S. C. Smith
P.S. There are a small band of Indians, say forty, on the headwaters of the North Umpqua calling themselves Molallas that have not been treated with yet. Today ten of the Umpquas still out.
S.C.S.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 161.



Department of the Interior
    Washington July 8th 1857.
Sir,
    I beg to call your attention to a letter addressed to this Deptmt. by the Secretary of War, enclosing the report of Genl. Clarke and certain correspondence relating to the agency at Siletz, all of which are herewith transmitted. You will please investigate the matter and report as early as practicable your views in relation to it. It will be observed that the papers enclosed are original documents, the return of which is requested by the War Department.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. Thompson
            Secretary
Jas. W. Denver Esq.
    Commr. Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 383-384.



Department of the Interior
    Office Indian Affairs
        July 15 1857
Sir
    I herewith transmit copies of certain letters for General Clarke, Captain Augur and Lieutenant Sheridan of the Army, with an endorsement made thereupon by the Commander in Chief, relative to alleged impropriety of conduct on the part of Agent Metcalfe in regard to his treatment of the Indians at Siletz, in March last. You will inquire into the matter and report to this office as early as practicable the result of the examination, together with anything that may have occurred deemed by you pertinent to the subject.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Denver
            Commissioner
James W. Nesmith Esq.
    Superintendent
        Salem
            Oregon T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 197.   See enclosures to this letter, above. (Search "197.")



Grand Ronde Agency
    Oregon Territory
        July 20th 1857
Sir
    I
n obedience to the requirements of the Indian Department, I submit the following as my first annual report of the condition of the Indians at this agency.
    I took charge of this agency on the 25th of November 1856 and found the number of Indians on the reservation to be 1895, according to the last census taken by my predecessor, a copy of which I forward with this report (marked "A").
    On reference to this census list it will be seen that they are divided into a great many tribes and bands, differing widely from each other in their habits, manners and customs.
    The confederated tribes of the Rogue River and Shasta Indians, temporarily located on this reservation, were at that time by far the most numerous, numbering in all 909 persons. They are a warlike race, proud and haughty, but treacherous and very degraded in their moral nature, and the diseases which they have contracted from the whites, with whom they have had more or less intercourse for some years past, have contaminated the greater portion of them, and even the children are many of them suffering from the vices of their parents.
    The large number of sick, from this and other causes, formed one of the greatest difficulties I have had to encounter. Nearly every case of sickness among them being attributed to some ill-disposed person who sought their death and who, they believe, has ample power to destroy their victim, either instantly or by a lingering disease; indeed, so thoroughly are they imbued with this belief that, upon the death of any of their number, the relatives of the deceased will immediately wreak vengeance upon some "doctor," either of their own or another tribe, against whom they have an ill will, which has been the cause of frequent serious quarrels and has nearly resulted on several occasions in open warfare between them and other tribes on the reservation, particularly with the Umpquas, and all my endeavors to put a stop to this horrible and superstitious practice has been in vain.
    Early in the month of May the greater portion of the Rogue River and all of the Shasta Indians were removed, with their own consent, to the Siletz Coast Reservation, under the immediate charge of Agent Robert B. Metcalfe, leaving only 267 of the above-stated tribes at this agency, as will be seen by the census list of June last, a copy of which I forward with this report (marked B). Of those remaining only 58 are men, and these are by far the most peaceably disposed of the whole tribe.
    The principal chief is Ko-ko-hah-wah, Wealthy (or Sam), an Indian whose principal object is personal aggrandizement.
    In the spring of 1856 all of these Indians surrendered themselves to the officers of the United States and were brought to this reservation, with the exception of about 75 who refused to come in. About the middle of January last these Indians were discovered by the settlers in Rogue River Valley in a most miserable condition; on their first discovery, a party of the settlers, believing the Indians still hostile, went out and killed all the men, about ten in number.
    There being no United States officer in that portion of the country, some of the citizens took charge of the women and children, about sixty in number and communicated the facts to the late Supt. of Indian Affairs, who in his letter dated Feby. 16th 1857 directed me to proceed to Jacksonville as soon as the business of this agency would permit my absence and make such arrangements for their removal as I deemed necessary.
    Accordingly, on the 8th of March last I started to Jacksonville and found most of the Indians in charge of Mr. Horace L. Ish of that place and another party in charge of Mr. Hyde at the mouth of Applegate Creek.
    After getting the two parties together, I made arrangements with Mr. Robert E. Miller of Jacksonville to furnish teams and bring them in; they arrived here on the 21st of May, but arrangements having been made in the meantime for the removal of the greater portion of the tribe from this reservation to the Siletz, they were taken to that reservation.
    From the fact that these Indians were not permanently located on this reservation, but little progress has been made by them in agriculture, and but very few of them could be induced to work. The chiefs of the tribe take but little interest in the matter, do not work themselves, and believing as they do that manual labor is degrading to the men and that the squaws ought to do all the work, they cannot be induced to use their influence with their people in furtherance of this object. But now that the larger and more hostile portion of the tribe are removed to the Siletz Reservation, and those remaining here being now permanently located, I am in hopes that many of them, particularly the boys now growing up, may be taught some of the benefits of civilization and the necessity of their turning their attention to the cultivation of the soil as a means of subsistence, but as regards the adult portion of the tribe, I believe but little good can be effected, and the aid of the government will be indispensable for some time to come.
    On the removal of the Indians to the Siletz, prior to leaving they burned and destroyed nearly all the temporary houses, some 70 or 80 in number, which had been erected for them. These houses have cost on an average about $60.00 each; they were principally built of logs and covered with wide boards and were tolerably comfortable buildings.
    On being remonstrated with for this willful destruction of property, they one and all declared that it was necessary to do so, or they would have no good luck where they were going, and that it had always been their custom, which I have no doubt is the case, as they destroyed all their houses before removing from Rogue River. I think, however, there are still nearly houses enough left to answer during the coming winter.
    In consequence of the removal of the majority of these tribes to the Siletz Reservation, the school provided for in the treaty was dispensed with at this agency on the 16th of June, as suggested by you in your letter of May 21st 1857.
    For the condition of the school at that time I would respectfully refer you to the report of Mr. John Ostrander, the teacher in charge [below].
    The confederated hands of the Umpquas and the Calapooias of Umpqua Valley, located on this reservation, numbering in the last census 262, are by far the most intelligent and industrious, taken as a race, of any tribe on the reservation.
    When first removed here, these Indians suffered a great deal from sickness, and a number of them died; they are now however enjoying good health, being comparatively free from those vices which have so debased the character and destroyed the health of the Rogue River and Shasta tribes.
    These Indians deserve much at the hands of the United States government, for during the whole of the wars which raged so long in our southern country the Umpquas, whose country joined that of the hostile tribes and who were continually urged to join them in their depredations on the property and lives of our citizens, in but very few instances were guilty of any acts of outrage. On the breaking out of the Rogue River war in 1855, it became necessary to remove them from the proximity in which they then were to the hostile tribes; they were consequently hurried away without giving them time either to remove or sell their effects, many of them having acquired considerable property by trading and working for the whites. This has caused me a great deal of trouble, as there is no official information on file in this office showing what arrangements were entered into or what promises were made to them.
    On the return from Washington of General Joel Palmer, late Supt. of Indian Affairs, I wrote to him for information concerning the matter and particularly as to the promises made to Louis Napesa, their head chief. In reply the General writes me as follows, under date of the 13th of July:
    "In reply to your wish that you might be advised as to what arrangements or promises were made to Louis Napesa in regard to his land in the Umpqua, I have to say that in order to obtain his cooperation and aid in inducing his people (the Umpqua Indians, as he has been elected their head chief by the nation in council) I promised him that the value of his improvements then made on his farm in Umpqua County should be paid him and that in return for his claim a tract of equal value should be assigned him at the Grand Ronde or elsewhere at the point where they might be located, and that improvements of equal extent should be made thereon by the government. The amount of business on hand, and my removal from office soon after, prevented me from taking steps to ascertain the value of improvements upon his land claim. It is unnecessary here to give the reasons for thus promising Louis beyond any other of his tribe, but they were such as in my opinion justified even a much larger reward.
    "At the time of collecting the Umpqua Indians and placing them upon the reservation, quite a number of them had property in different parts of Umpqua Valley so situated as to be wholly impracticable taking it with them, and they were promised that the property should either be obtained and delivered to them on the reservation, or be paid an equivalent.
    "I appointed Mr. Magruder a special agent to collect such as could be removed and to sell such articles as would not justify removal. Mr. Magruder made a report of his action, which is on file in the Supt.'s office. Mr. C. M. Walker has a list of property left by the Indians. These people are justly entitled to a consideration for their property, as they were forced to abandon it from causes wholly beyond their control. My impressions now are that the value of property abandoned by them, as shown by the list furnished [by] Mr. Magruder, approximated to three thousand dollars. Mr. Walker, being the local agent in preparing these people for removal to the Grand Ronde, is more familiar with this matter than any other person, and I refer you to him for information."
    This is a matter which I respectfully request may receive early attention at the hands of the Department, as the Indians are exceedingly anxious to have it settled.
    On the breaking out of the Rogue River war in 1855, a small party of the Umpquas were attacked by a body of our citizens who supposed they belonged to the hostile tribes. Several of them were shot; the rest took to the mountains, and although I have sent both Indians and white men in search of them several times, I have not yet been successful in finding them. I am extremely anxious to get them into the reservation, as they frequently descend from the mountains and annoy the citizens by their thefts.
    The Willamette Valley tribes of Indians, including the Calapooias, number 666 and are divided into many small bands.
    The Calapooias have always been represented as a poor, cowardly and thievish race, so much so that their very name has become a byword and term of reproach with the braver and more warlike Indians of the country. This is true of them as a body (yet there are a great many good Indians among them) and will apply also in a great degree to all the bands of the Willamette Indians.
    These bands are the remnants of what were once powerful tribes, who in time past almost filled the whole country; they have now dwindled down to mere bands almost without a name. This may be attributed to many causes--sickness, particularly the smallpox and measles; on being attacked by these fearful scourges, they would first go into a sweat house and while in a state of profuse perspiration plunge into the cold streams, which carried them off by hundreds. This is frequently alluded to by them and attributed to the whites coming among them, instead of to their mode of treatment.
    From their long residence in the settlements these Indians have learned to labor, many of them being good hands to work, but they have also acquired all the vices of the whites.
    They will get drunk every opportunity, and even now that they are on the reservation it is impossible to keep liquor entirely beyond their reach.
    Within the bounds of the Indian country the laws have placed sufficient power in my hands to control this traffic, but beyond these bounds I can do nothing, and unprincipled scoundrels, knowing the difficulty of actual and positive proof, will bring liquor and sell it to the Indians almost up to the very limits of the reservation itself.
    At the time I entered upon my duties at this agency, I found the hospital in operation under the charge of the resident physician, who had received his appointment from the late Superintendent of Indian Affairs. The expenses of this Dept. were enormous, the Indians being most of them sick, and the hospital was crowded.
    Of the actual number of sick either in the hospital or in camp at that time, I have no official information, as the physician was directed to make his monthly and quarterly reports to the office of the Superintendent. I believe, however, a great deal of deception was practiced upon the hospital by the Indians coming there and reporting their friends sick in camp and asking for medicine as an excuse and then begging for rice, sugar, dried fruit &c. Not having received any specific instructions in reference to this matter, I continued the practice of my predecessor, which was to issue such supplies as were called for by the physician on his certifying to me that they were actually necessary for the use of the sick.
    Shortly after But on the receipt of his report the Superintendent informed me, under date of Feby. 18th, that he had directed the physician to make his reports in future to me, in order that I might be enabled to judge of the necessity of such large issues as had been called for by him. Shortly after this the then physician left the service. On the appointment of his successor the expenses were greatly curtailed, and the Indians are now enjoying comparatively good health, as will be seen by his reports.
    The two schools established on this reservation under the treaties with the several Indian tribes have now been in operation for nearly a year, and the reports of the teachers are forwarded with this [see reports of Mary and John Ostrander, below].
    The plan of educating Indian children, by teaching them to read and write and to instill into their minds a knowledge of religion with a view of civilizing them and weaning them from their savage mode of life, is one that has been tried in this country for nearly twenty years, and what has been the result? The Methodist and Catholic missions both made great efforts for a number of years but have all abandoned their schools, and it is notorious that those upon whom the experiment was tried are now as bad, if not worse, than any Indians in the country.
    The expense of carrying on the schools at this agency has been large, and every encouragement in my power has been given them, but I cannot see what corresponding good has been effected. By these remarks I do not wish to reflect upon the teachers, but upon the whole system. There are now three boys who have been working in the shops for some time, there are two in the blacksmith shop and one in the tin shop; these boys have made considerable progress and in time, with proper encouragement, can be made fair mechanics. There are many other boys on the reservation who could be taught to work with good success.
    Although we have dispensed with the Rogue River school, we are still entitled, under the existing treaties, to two schools on this reservation: one for the Willamette Valley tribes and one for the Umpquas, and if we could be allowed to devote a portion of the school funds for the encouragement of those who are willing to work, either in the mechanical arts or in practical farming, more progress would be made in the work of civilization in one year than in ten under the old system. And while on the subject of civilization, I might name that all of these Indians have adopted the dress of the whites. This is a great advantage and especially for those who are willing to work. Entering upon my duties at this agency during the rainy season, which mainly constitutes our winters, everything had a gloomy appearance, the rains falling incessantly, rendering the roads almost impassable. I found on my arrival that a good deal of work has I been commenced in the way of improvement. There was a large number of hands employed in various capacities, both on the farms and buildings, but the state of the weather rendered it impossible for work to be carried on to any advantage.
    In addition to this, there was not one single dollar of funds, and the Department was largely in debt. I therefore discharged all the hands not actually provided for in treaty stipulations as soon as possible, retaining only such as were absolutely necessary to furnish temporary houses for the Indians and to take care of the government property, particularly the stock, the greater portion of which I was compelled to drive off the reservation and pasture them in the valley at great expense. The whole of the surrounding country being fenced up, pasturage could be obtained for them only by paying enormous rates, and even that was very poor, so much so that we lost several of our animals during the winter, and the Indians also lost a large number of their horses. The last year's crop was almost, if not entirely, used up by my predecessor. I was consequently compelled to purchase feed and haul it from the valley at great expense for those teams that were necessarily retained at the reservation.
    The dwelling houses named in the report of the superintendent of farming consisted principally of old, dilapidated log houses, which had belonged to the former owners of the land. There were several other buildings put up, but not one of them was completed. The agency house was commenced on a large scale but was not nearly finished; the rooms were not ceiled, the floors not laid. The hospital was in a building scarcely fit for a barn.
    Since then we have put up and completed several new buildings, a good store room for flour &c, a school house, slaughterhouse, and we have also converted an old building into a good and comfortable hospital. The dwellings of the farmers and mechanics have been completed and the shops partially repaired, a good barn, which was commenced last winter, is now nearly completed. The sawmill erected at this agency under contract made with the Supt. of Ind. Affairs was completed about the beginning of January, but almost immediately after the mill had been received the mill dam gave way in consequence of the sudden rise in the river on which it is built, and it has cost a large amount to keep it in repair.
    The frame of a grist mill, erected before I came here, is still standing in good repair and, I believe, could be completed and put in good working order for about five thousand dollars.
    There are 190 houses on the reservation built for Indians. These are all temporary buildings hurriedly erected last winter, without any floors, and will all require more work to make them comfortable dwellings.
    The number of acres under fence is 2320, according to the report of the supt. of farming, 1000 acres of which has been enclosed this spring. These are all good fences, 8 and 9 rails high, staked and ridered; of this number there are 316 acres in wheat, 380 acres in oats, 125 acres in potatoes, 91 acres in peas, 11 acres in turnips and 740 acres in pasture. The crop, from present appearances, will be very short, in fact, not anything like half a crop. The past season was perhaps one of the most unfavorable ever known in Oregon; the rains set in early and continued without cessation till April.
    Our feed having given out early and the necessity we were under of sending away our stock, we could do scarcely anything during the winter in preparing for a spring crop; everything was consequently put in very late. I think, however, we shall raise sufficient grain for feed, both for the government animals and for the Indians' horses, and we might possibly have nearly enough wheat for seed were it not for the large amount of smut. The amount of grain required for feed will be very large, as there is no grass either on the reservation or in the valley; even now there is scarcely grass enough to keep our stock in anything like good working order.
    I am informed however that there is considerable grass on the tide lands on the coast near the mouth of Salmon River, about 20 miles west of this place, but whether this is within the limits of that portion of the reservation under my jurisdiction I have no accurate knowledge; if I find that it is, I intend after harvest to send a party over to make all the hay that can be secured for winter use.
    As far as I have official knowledge of the boundaries of this reservation, the whole of the arable land is now fenced in; we shall however need a great many more rails to subdivide the fields; the balance of the land is mountainous and covered with dense and almost impenetrable forests, destitute of grass and game; indeed, there is no game of any kind in this section of country, and although I hope that we shall be able in another year to raise sufficient breadstuffs and vegetables to do the Indians, yet they will be still dependent on the aid of the government for beef for some time to come.
    In accordance with your instructions I have caused the arable portions of the reservation to be surveyed and set apart to the several tribes. This at some future time will greatly facilitate the subdivision of the land among the different families under the treaty and will also have a beneficial effect among the Indians generally and encourage them to stay upon and cultivate their own land.
    The whole of the Indians on this reservation are and have been entirely subsisted by the government ever since they came here, rations of beef and flour being issued to them regularly by the commissaries appointed for that purpose. They have no other resource whatever. Should the government withdraw its aid, they would either die of starvation or leave the reservation and prey upon the settlers of the Territory, which would soon result in open warfare between them and the citizens, and on the part of the latter it would be a war of extermination.
Respectfully your
    Obt. servant
        John F. Miller
            Indian Agent
                for Willamette Tribes
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 762-770.




Grand Ronde Reservation
    July 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit a brief report of my operations as superintendent of farming, showing the amount of land under cultivation at the time I commenced and the improvements we have made up to the present time.
    There were 600 acres of land under fence previous to the purchase, 300 acres of which were in cultivation; we had 74 acres in wheat and 32 acres in oats. We also raised, off the same, 232 bushels of potatoes, 200 bushels of peas and about 20 tons hay and cheat. There were also standing 12 dwelling houses, one log barn and one school house; these buildings were very old and but of little service to us. All these improvements were made when the former owners resided upon it, with the exception of a portion of the crop, which was put in by the direction of the agent.
    The oats and hay were all fed out to our oxen and the Indians' horses by the order of the agent then in charge before the 1st of November 1856, and we were then compelled to commence feeding our wheat. The potatoes and peas were all issued to the Indians.
    From the fact of its being necessary to feed all the wheat to the stock belonging to the Department and to Indians' horses, we were compelled to buy wheat for seed to the amount of four hundred bushels--and there was still another bill of expense; as our pasture failed, and all other kinds of feed were gone, we were under the necessity of driving our oxen and also a portion of the Indians' horses to be pastured and fed, and the expense was much larger from our having to buy all our feed, such as hay, straw & oats, on a credit; for this reason they charged more.
    I will now give you as nearly as possible the present condition of the farm.
    The whole amount of land under fence and in cultivation is 2320 acres. We have 316 acres in wheat, 380 acres in oats, 91 acres in peas, 125 acres in potatoes, 11 acres in turnips, and 740 acres in pasture; of this land we have broken 600 of sod ground and made the rails and fenced in 1720 acres. We have also cleared 15 acres of timbered land and put it into a crop this spring.
    There has been a good deal of improvement made upon the Indians as regards labor; they work much better than I could expect from an uncivilized people. I have been compelled to employ a few white men for the purpose of performing many duties of which the Indians were incapable, as well as for assisting me in teaching them and in taking care of the farming implements, teams &c.
    The Umpquas & Calapooias understand common labor the best of any of the Indians, yet I must give the Umpquas a decided preference over all the others; further, they are more moral (if these Indians have any morality).
    To be brief and close my report, I would state that the continual rains which fell during the winter, and continued till nearly May, caused everything to be very backward and prevented us from breaking as much ground as we would otherwise have done, and our crops will be very light, but I hope with proper management that I shall be able this fall to put in enough wheat to supply the Indians another year.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        Amasa Howe
            Supt. of Farming
To
    John F. Miller Esqr.
        Indian Agent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 771-774.




Grand Ronde, July 1857.
J. F. Miller, Ind. Agent
    Sir
       
I will endeavor to make you a brief report of the state of the Willamette School. It is not as flourishing as it was last spring. Many of my best students have moved to other parts of the reservation; some are gathering berries, and others are too lazy to come to school. At the beginning of the session the school numbered 50 students; at present it does not exceed thirty, and by far the larger portion of these are fluctuating. In a few days the school loses the charm of novelty, after which it requires a great deal of effort to induce them to come. I have made and issued a great many garments, which have greatly improved the appearance of the children.
    While they are in school, their progress is as good as could be expected. But as long as they are free to attend school or remain at home I have no hope of their being constant. The Umpqua and Willamette children are mild and easily governed. Parents and children are anxious to adopt the customs of the whites. A great obstacle to the success of my school is the prejudice of the Indians. It seems that most of the children of the mission school died, and those that lived became most consummate villains. Hence many whites and Indians are of the opinion that education renders an Indian mischievous. It may be observed that a good education implies moral as well as intellectual culture and any person of any clime or hue that receives such will be better. I shall not inquire at this time whether the Indian is susceptible of receiving a good education.
    But I say without hesitancy that circumstances are not favorable for me to impart such. In my first report I spoke of the inefficiency of our schools and urged the necessity of establishing them on a different basis before they could be of any lasting utility. My experience since has increased my convictions of the necessity of such a measure. Believing that you will adopt the best means to improve the condition of the school, I will add nothing more.
Mary C. Ostrander
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 775-777.



Siletz Indian Agency
    July 15th 1857
Sir
    In compliance with instructions received from your office of May 19th 1857, I herewith transmit the following report relative to Indian affairs in this agency: I was instructed by the late Supt. Hedges to take charge of this district, which I did on the 20th day of August 1856, the boundary and extent of which is as follows: commencing at the mouth of the Siletz River, running south along the coast about fifty miles to the mouth of the Alsea River, thence east about twenty miles to the western line of the eighth range of townships in the public survey, thence north to the intersection of a line running east from the mouth of the Siletz River, thus embracing about one thousand square miles in my district, eight hundred of which are so mountainous and destitute of vegetation on which animals can subsist that mountain goats would perish with hunger; the remaining two hundred square miles embrace much valuable land and timber. In the northern portion of the district the mountains are covered with green fir timber and abound with elk and deer, whilst the middle and southern portions present a most gloomy aspect.
    It is the most rugged country I have ever seen, presenting one continued range of high, sharp mountains and deep cañons, covered with immense forests of dead timber, a portion of which has fallen in all directions and grown over with vines and underbrush, so that it is impossible for either man or beast to travel over them.
    The Siletz River rises in the northeast corner of the district, runs south twenty miles, thence west six miles, thence northwest to the ocean. The first prairie or arable land lies on the river about fifteen miles from its source, thence along down the river for fifteen miles there is alternately prairie and timber. The prairies, which embrace about five thousand acres, is about all the arable land in my district and is the portion on which the Indians are located. The prairie on which the agency buildings are being erected is central and only about six miles from an arm of the Yaquina Bay, which is navigable for small vessels. There can be a wagon road made from the agency to the bay with but little expense, the divide between the bay and Siletz River being very low, and prairie nearly all the way. The tribes of Indians which have been located in this district are as follows: the Shastas, or Upper Rogue River Indians, which include John's band, numbering 172; George's, 222; Jos. Lane's, 160; and the coast tribes, Joshua's, 179; Chetco, 215; Tututni, 202; Mikonotunne, 129; Shasta Costa, 110; Port Orford, 242; Coquille, 313; Euchre, 84, and Siletz, 21, making 2049 Indians in my district. They are all wretchedly poor and destitute of all the necessaries and comforts of life except what is supplied them by the government. An Indian who owns a horse is thought to be rich. They are generally industrious and manifest a disposition to imitate the whites; they adapt themselves to our customs and learn the use of tools more readily than any people I have ever seen. I have them employed in all the different branches of labor which is being done at this agency, such as whipsawing, chopping, plowing, driving teams, riving and shaving shingles and making rails, in which many of them are doing better service than one-half of the white men I have had employed. In a short time we will be able to do all the labor with Indians, except a few white men to instruct them.
    The children which have had an opportunity of going to school learn very readily, many of them having learned to spell, and some of them to read, in the few months they attended school at the Grand Ronde Agency. The zeal which their parents manifest in the education, and the aptness of the children to learn, induces me to believe something can be done with these people if properly managed, and in a few years civilization, law and order will take the place of savage brutality and a disregard for the lives and property of their fellow man.
    At present they regard the white man as their natural enemy and recognize no other principle of government than that of force, the weaker yielding to the stronger in all instances, and as they regard the whites as superior in numbers and in the use of firearms, they have determined to submit to such regulations as we may think best for their future government and advancement in civilization.
    They all express a strong desire to return to their native country and appear to have a superstitious awe of having their bodies buried in a foreign land. Many of the more sensitive have died from a depression of spirits, having failed in the last desperate struggle to regain their country, where they once roamed free as air, unmolested by the white man, and knew no bounds to their liberties and savage ambition.
    I was instructed by the late Supt. Hedges to commence operations on the Siletz River in November, at which time it commenced raining, and rained until the last day of March with only eighteen days' intermission, which made it impossible for pack animals to travel, and as no person was willing to risk their vessels at sea the Indians were compelled to pack their supplies on foot, for one month, a distance of thirty-five miles.
    The farming operations will not be extensive this year, as it was impossible to get seed in the right season for planting. I have about four hundred acres enclosed, three hundred of which have been broken, and about two hundred and eighty acres in cultivation as follows: 150 of wheat, 30 oats, 40 peas, 60 potatoes, and 8 in turnips. The wheat will not yield anything, owing to the ground having been badly broken and sown too late in the season. The oats, peas, potatoes and turnips will turn off a large crop for the season in which they were planted.
    Many of the Indians expressed a desire to engage in agriculture, and with the necessary aid from the government and a prompt discharge of the duties of her agents it is confidently believed that they will be able to subsist themselves in that pursuit. I have had erected at this point one office and storehouse with bedrooms attached, one large warehouse with drug shop and bedrooms attached, one issue house, one cook & mess house for employees, one blacksmith shop, one school house, one slaughterhouse, and timber hewn and hauled for one large hospital and two dwellings, all of which will be permanent buildings and is an item of expense that will not occur again in thirty years. I will have log cabins erected for the Indians, as the winters are too severe for them to live in tents. This labor will be done by Indians with a few white men to instruct them. I would also recommend the erection of a saw & flouring mill, which will be sufficient for all the Indians in my district. As the treaties of purchase with the coast tribes of Indians have not been ratified, and consequently no annuities due them, I would earnestly recommend the purchase of winter clothing for these people and the erection of school houses &c., which can apply on their annuity account should the treaties be ratified, otherwise to be given as presents for maintaining peace. I would suggest for the consideration of the Department the propriety of confederating the Cow Creeks, with whom a treaty was made on the 19th day of September 1853, with those of the Rogue River Indians, treated with on the 10th Sept. 1853, as they are all united and speak the same tongue. About two-thirds of each are located in my district and the remainder at the Grand Ronde Agency. Also, the confederating of all the coast tribes now living in my district, as enumerated in the foregoing, thus we will be able to give general satisfaction to the Indians, and prevent a complication of accounts. I herewith transmit an estimate for funds for maintaining peace and carrying out treaty stipulations for the year ending 30th June 1858; you will observe that the largest portion of this estimate is for permanent improvements which will not occur again, and it is only in the commencement that the government will be required to advance such heavy sums. These people have been almost entirely subsisted by the government for the last year with the exception of the Siletz Indians, who have only been subsisted a portion of the time. Should the government deem it wise to advance the amount of this estimated, I can raise a surplus of subsistence for the Indians, except a small amount of beef, which can be purchased out of their annuity funds. Should the government withhold its aid, the condition of these people would be truly distressing; hunger would drive them to desperation, and war would be the inevitable result.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Indian Agent
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 781-789.




Grand Ronde July 21st 1857
J. F. Miller, Indian Agent
    Sir
        A
s the Department makes it my duty, I avail myself of this opportunity to report the state of the Rogue River and Umpqua School, of which I took charge August 1856. The tribes were then located together, within a few hundred yards of the school house. Over 80 students came to school. Soon an animosity of feeling sprang up, and a part of the tribes moved a mile distant. This reduced the school to 50 students. These were destitute of clothing and ignorant of our language. The agent made arrangements to provide them with clothing. It was no small affair to keep them clad; frequently the larger boys lost their clothes in gaming and were almost destitute the rest of the winter. They seemed to think it our sole business to minister to their wants and that they were doing us a favor by attending school. They often inquired what we would give them to come to school. They hate confinement and scorn discipline. In disposition the Rogue River Indians are brave, haughty, indolent and superstitious. The inconstancy of the students is a great embarrassment. One day the school may number 40, the next 10.
    In the spring the tribes I taught were moved to the Siletz Reservation. At the time the School was doing well. Many were reading in words of one syllable, writing &c., and had acquired some knowledge of our tongue. Before leaving they not only burned their own buildings, but dashed every glass out of the school house and destroyed the furniture. After their removal I was directed to open a school among the remaining tribes of Rogue River Indians. I soon had a school similar to the former, though not so numerous. By the first of June they commenced reading. At that time I received intimations that my school would be closed, as the Department was not able to defray the expenses of two schools on this reservation.
    About this time there was some sickness among the tribes which the doctoress was not able to cure. She must therefore assign good reasons for her failure or forfeit her life. The Indians believe that life and death are at the volition of the doctoress.
    On my way to school one morning I met a chief, who told me he did not wish school any longer. The doctoress said she distinctly saw the sickness that afflicted the tribes issue from the trumpet which I sounded to announce the hour of school and settle like a mist upon the camp. And should I continue to sound it, in a few days all the Indians would be in their graves--the camp desolate! I was not such a monster as to sound it again, so the Indians "still live."
Jno. Ostrander
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 778-780.



Winchester July the 25th 1857
Col. Nesmith
    Sir
        There is a few Indians in this part of the Umpqua that could not be got to go on the reserve at the time of the Indian disturbances.
    They are what we call Klamaths. At and through [the] war they kept themselves in the mountains and harmed no one, but for the last three months they have made their occasional visits into the settlements adjacent [to] the mountains, sometimes trading skins & at other times borrowing flour & blankets without permission; thus far there has been no difficulty between the whites & them. There is a half breed Indian that usually stops above the upper settlements and the Calapooia that is suspected of trading them
ammunition. There is about twenty-five of these vagabonds in all (say, eight bucks). These Indians has been hunting last week two or three miles above my ranch. The greatest harm they are doing is keeping the women of the neighborhood uneasy. I think if ammunition was kept out of their hands there would be no uneasiness from that quarter.
I remain your friend and servant
    Daniell Stewart
J. W. Nesmith
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 189.



Petition
To Col. Nesmith Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon Territory
    Your petitioners would respectfully represent that there is a body of hostile Indians still running at large in Douglas County supposed to be a portion of the Umpqua tribe and numbering four Indians who have for two years last past committing such a series of depredations upon the property and persons of our settlers as to induce us to call your attention in the most earnest manner to our sufferings. Although the number of Indians is small yet our whole frontier settlements are held in continual dread; already the amount of property destroyed by them has far exceeded what it would have originally cost to have had them secured.
    In order that your excellency may fully appreciate the amount of property destroyed by them, we would state that in the fall of '56 they robbed the dwelling of Mr. Clink on Myrtle Creek and fired on his person. A short time afterwards they robbed and burned the dwelling house of James Bean, also living in Myrtle Creek precinct, and at the same time attacked two men traveling along the public highway and wounded one William Russell, residing in Canyonville precinct. There were four bullet holes in his arm and breast. Previously to this they robbed and burned the dwelling house of Mr. More in Myrtle Creek precinct, and in December last they attacked a man while at work on Olalla Creek by the name of Day and wounded him in the shoulder with a bullet. In the same month they robbed the dwelling of Mr. VanDine living on the South Umpqua, and in the harvest preceding set fire to and burned the wheat of Michael Hanley in the same neighborhood, and on or about the 20th of this month killed several cattle belonging to Thomas Cowen on Cow Creek and within the past two weeks have attacked and fired on Mr. Moffett, who saved his life by running.
    Other depredations have been committed, but we deem these sufficient to awaken your attention to the pressing importance of having them secured, and we do not believe that the government of the United States or yourself for the sake of a few dollars would willingly see the property and lives of the citizens destroyed without making a strenuous effort to prevent it.
    We the undersigned would respectfully suggest that Jas. M. Cranmore of Canyonville, Douglas Co., be appointed to find and bring those Indians to the reserve. Mr. Cranmore has had a large experience in Indian hunting and is eminently qualified for the task. It was Cranmore who found that portion of the same tribe who after lurking in the mountains (under the lead of Jim Kiwater, who is still at large as the chief of this band) and brought them in when all other efforts at finding their whereabouts had failed.
    As in duty bound we will ever pray &c.
July 27th 1857
            Names         Names
John C. Danford J. P. Wilson                                  
Matthias Williams C. W. Beckwith
Geo. W. Riddle Thos. R. Evans
B. M. Kent Henry Yokum
James G. Clark Jas. F. Sheffield
James Yocum John Pinkerton
Charles G. Jones Elijah Perry
John Weaver Charles Kimmel
Wm. D. S. Russell John T. Royal
Joseph Russells Wm. J. Briggs
Joseph N. Russell H. M. Bland
Riley M. Russell Jesse Clayton
S. D. E. Russell M. Packard
E. Little Wm. L. Colvig
A. J. Doty H. E. Casey
John Jackson I. B. Nichols
Thos. M. Riffle John Milliken
Francis Riffle Joseph Cornelison
Francis M. Pervaly
James F. Gazley
Samuel Gazley
Sam P. Strang
Wm. H. Riddle
John Catching
Wm. L. Wilson
John W. Burch
Isaac A. Flint
James Catching
I. B. Nichols
E. N. Bowman
Jesse Roberts
Isaac Boyle
R. E. Simmons
Wm. C. Wagner
Eli Morgan
Thomas Smith
Daniel Clink
J. M. Jackson
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 194.



Office Supt. Ind. Affs.
    Salem, Oregon, July 29th 1857.
Sir:
    At the request of late Indian Agent J. L. Parrish, I herewith enclose his accounts for the second quarter of 1854 [sic].
    These accounts, as you will observe by the accompanying letter of late Supt. Palmer, have been overlooked and retained in this office long beyond the time when they should have been forwarded.
    I have no personal knowledge of the matters to which they relate.
    The accounts of distribution are witnessed by creditable persons.
    I fully concur in the statement made by Mr. Parrish in relation to the impossibility of obtaining the signatures of the chiefs, as most of them were killed in the late war.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1053-1054.  Parrish's 1854 accounts and Palmer's letter were not filmed with this letter.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 1st 1857.
Sir,
    I have deemed it proper to invite proposals for the delivery of one hundred tons of flour at the Siletz Agency, Coast Reservation. Enclosed you will find a copy of the advertisement taken from the columns of the Oregon Statesman newspaper.
    This reservation can only be supplied by sea; vessels entering the Yaquina Bay can proceed only to within seven miles of the agency.
    During the adverse winds which prevail during the winter months it is dangerous and almost impracticable for vessels to enter.
    During the last winter the contractors supplying this reservation had their vessel wrecked, and much suffering & starvation ensued among the Indians located there by reason of the difficulty in procuring supplies. To avoid a recurrence of similar difficulties, I have invited proposals for the delivery of a winter's supply of flour before the rainy season commences, and by so doing I think [it] will save about twenty-five percent in its cost.
    The existing contract for supplying this reservation with flour was let to Henry Fuller on the 22nd day of May last, and a copy of the contract forwarded to you on the 17th of June; it does not expire until the 22nd day of November. In the meantime I desire to have the winter's supply delivered under the contemplated contract.
    We have ample store room for its protection, and it will be [in] every way preferable to have it delivered at an early day.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W.  Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
Indian Department Notice.
    Sealed proposals for furnishing one hundred tons of good merchantable flour in sacks, containing 50 or 100 pounds each, will be received at this office, until 10 o'clock a.m. of the 17th day of August next. The flour to be delivered at the agency on the Siletz River, on or before the first day of November next.
    The contractor will be required to give bonds in the sum of ten thousand dollars for the faithful performance of the contract.
    It is desired that all proposals be full and precise, and that each be accompanied with the WRITTEN CONSENT of two responsible persons to become security for the faithful execution of any contract based on said proposals. All proposals must be addressed to the undersigned and marked on the outside "proposals for furnishing flour."
    Payment will be made as soon as funds applicable to that purpose are received from the Treasury Department.
    For the information of bidders, I would say that the money out of which it is expected to pay for the flour was appropriated by the last Congress, and while I am unable to fix upon any exact time when it will be remitted, I confidently believe that it will be received here on or before the expiration of the time fixed for the delivery of the flour.
    The proposals will be opened publicly, and all interested are invited to be present.
J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affs. O. and W.T.
Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, O.T., July 25, 1857.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1050-1052.  Another copy is on NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 251-253.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 1st 1857
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 19th of June, and sincerely regret that the rules of the Department are such as to prohibit my being supplied with funds to pay current expenses and outstanding claims against this office, some of which have been due for more than one year. The troubles, embarrassments and difficulties of conducting the business of this office without funds, and to which I have adverted in my communications of the last three months, have arrived at a point truly intolerable. I should much prefer retiring from the office to give place to some person who has the ability to conduct its complicated affairs without funds than to remain in it under the present pay-nothing policy, in the vain endeavor of conducting it upon promises. Nearly all the agents in north territories are from one to four quarters behind with their accounts and say that they cannot render them until they are supplied with funds to take up outstanding vouchers. The creditors of the government are aware that Congress has appropriated ample funds for their relief, and cannot be made to understand why they are not paid. I have advanced all my own available private funds and used my individual credit to sustain the credit of the government and can now do no more than allow things to take their own course.
    The estimates to which you refer were forwarded from this office on the 20th of June last and as soon as they could be prepared after my return from Washington Territory.
    The draft for $17,580.00 on New York accompanying your letter has been received, as it was all designed for treaty purposes. I immediately turned it over to the proper agents to be accounted for under the different heads of appropriation. I would take the liberty to suggest that when funds are remitted for the payment of annuities if an entire installment could be remitted at once it would be preferable to sending it at different times, and in detached portions, as the trouble and expense of purchasing the goods, collecting the Indians and making the distributions is as great in paying a portion of the annuities as it would be for the whole. By reference to the 3rd article of the treaty with the Rogue River Indians of Sept. 10th 1853 you will observe that the United States stipulates to pay "five thousand dollars to be expended in the purchase of agricultural implements, blankets, clothing and such other goods as may be deemed by the Superintendent or agent most conducive to the comfort and necessities of said tribe on or before the 1st day of September 1854, and for the payment of such permanent improvements as may have been made by land claimants on the aforesaid reserve, the value of which to be ascertained by those persons appointed by the said Superintendent."
    In the statement of funds remitted, I find, that for the Rogue River Indians "for the purchase of agricultural implements, clothing and such other articles as may be deemed conducive to the comfort and necessities of the said Indians, and for the expense of such permanent improvements as may have been made by claimants to land on the reserve named in the 2nd article of the treaty 10th September 1853, $2000.00." From the wording of the statement of funds, I apprehend that the $2000.00 referred to is a portion of the five thousand dollars in the articles of the treaty quoted above and which should have been paid "on or before the 1st day of September 1854." If I am right in this conjecture (and there is nothing on file in this office showing to the contrary) there is still due the Rogue River Indians their annual installment for the year 1856 of "two thousand five hundred dollars each commencing on or about the 1st day of September 1854, in blankets, clothing, farming utensils &c. &c."
    I was somewhat at a loss to determine how to dispose of the two thousand dollars, as the statement of funds seemed to contemplate that it should be used for the joint purpose therein expressed. Upon examination I find that the claims for permanent improvements, as allowed by the Commissioner appointed to adjust them in 1855, amount $2832 25/100, and as there was not a sufficient sum remitted to pay them, and as the Indians were very destitute, I concluded to turn over the $1000.00 to the agents of those Indians to be disbursed for their benefit in the purchase of "blankets, clothing and such other goods as may be deemed most conducive to their comfort &c." I deemed this course absolutely necessary as the Indians were entirely destitute of clothing, and the whole sum of $2000.00 would do but little towards relieving the pressing wants of nine hundred and nine Indians, it being a little over two dollars to the person!
    As I suppose there is $3000.00 still in the treasury for the payment of the claimants for permanent improvements on the reservation, I would suggest that it is now four years since the improvements of those persons were taken for the benefit of the Indians, the claimants have secured nothing, and it is a matter of justice that they should be paid. I would therefore request that the funds for that purpose be forwarded as soon as practicable. This 3rd article of the treaty of the 11th September 1853 also provides that fifteen thousand dollars shall be retained by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to pay for "the property of the whites destroyed during the late war. The amount of property so destroyed to be estimated by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs."
    The board of commissioners referred to in the foregoing were appointed by late Supt. Palmer on the 8th of December 1854 and consisted of L. F. Grover, A. C. Gibbs and George Ambrose, under the instructions of Supt. Palmer. The commissioners proceeded to the Rogue River country and made the necessary investigations. They reported a schedule of claims for property destroyed belonging to the whites, and for which they (the commissioners) issued certificates to the claimants, seventy-three in number, and amounting in the aggregate $43,040.75. Those seventy-three claimants entitled to indemnification under the treaty remain unpaid, and I desire to know if the $15,000 provided for in the treaty has been drawn from the treasury, and in the event that it has not, I have to request that it be remitted, as the claims adjudicated by the provisions of the treaty amount to $43,040.75. I have to request that I be specially instructed as to the disbursement of the $15,000 provided for, and desire to know whether it would be my duty to pay the full amount of the claims presented as far as the sum of $15,000 will go, or whether that amount is to be distributed pro rata among the claimants.
    The copies of laws, regulations and statutes at large, which you advise having forwarded to this office, have not yet been received.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 377-379.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1057-1064.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 3rd 1857
Sir
    By the enclosed letter from Genl. Lane, you learn the condition of things in the Umpqua Valley resulting from the hostility of the few Indians there belonging to the tribes under your charge. I had to direct that you proceed as soon as possible to the Umpqua Valley, and that you will use every exertion in your power to bring those Indians to the reservation.
    I would suggest the propriety of your taking with you a number of friendly Indians, who may be able to induce the hostiles to come in. In the event of your not being successful in bringing those Indians in within a reasonable time, you had better appoint some reliable person resident in the Umpqua Valley as special agent for that purpose. The whole matter is submitted to your discretion, trusting that you may succeed in arresting and bringing in those troublesome Indians.
    Let me hear from you immediately, and inform me of the time when you start from the agency.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    John F. Miller Esq.
        Ind. Agent
            Grand Ronde Agency O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10.



Port Orford, Aug. 3, 1857.
Col. Nesmith,
    Sir,
        In compliance with your request I went to Chetco and found things in a bad situation, from the fact that the Smith's River Indians had refused to go to the Klamath Reservation and had broken to the bush, declaring they would rather die than go, and were using their influence to induce the Chetcos to assist them. I should have returned immediately, but from the persuasion of the people in the vicinity of Winchuck and Chetco, I concluded to remain and prevent an outbreak.
    I collected some sixty on an island in the river and would not permit them to go on the south side of the river. The most of them are willing to go to the reserve, but some say they will not go. They have plenty to eat. There are four men and some twenty women and children on Pistol River who have declared they would not go to the reserve, and two men with twelve women & children at Whaleshead that are hostile and render it dangerous for people to pass. There are also seven men and some forty women and children on the north part of Chetco who have been hostile always and who will unite with their own living on Lower Chetco, and who make regular incursions in the Illinois Valley, and who lately plundered a China village on Canyon Creek. I believe I can get most of them together and prevent further mischief, if it is your wish.
    Major Heintzelman, agent for the Klamath Indians, stated that I was to act in concert with him, but I told him I had no orders to that effect and should do nothing in an official way, but simply as a citizen acting by the request of other citizens until I could learn your wishes. If you order their removal it should be done next month, as it will consume a good deal of time, as a number are old, and they cannot travel more than five miles a day.
    If you wish them to remain until spring they should know it, and that would enable them to build shelter to winter in; they are now living in willow booths, simply shaded from the sun.
    Probably it would be better to have them remain until spring, as by that all could be collected at one place and the public relieved from all fear. I will start in the morning for Chetco and will remain there until I can hear from you and would request to have any communications for me sent to Crescent City, as I can get them more easily from that place than here. Please write; anything you may order I will do my best to carry out to the letter.
I remain yours truly
    Wm. Tichenor
Col. Nesmith, Sup.
    Ind. Aff. O.&W.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 756-758.



Morrisania N.Y. Aug. 4th 1857.
Sir,
    I am quite anxious to get your decision upon the claims which I lately presented to the Indian Bureau for monies paid by me in Oregon for the use of the government.
I have the honor to be
    Very respectfully your obt. servt.
        Anson Dart
            Late Supt. &c.
The Hon.
    J. W. Denver
        Commissioner of
            Indian Affairs
                Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 198-199.



August the 7th '57
Mr. Palmer Dear Sir
    I recd. your note concerning the Molallas and getting them guns and ammunition all right to hunt with. They appear well pleased to get back to their old range again.
    The bearer of this note--his name is John, a Klamath Indian and honest so far as I know--he has found one of his horses in the possession of J. E. Faylon in Clackamas Co. near where I live. He will not give him up until the Indian pays him $26.00, which is nearly the worth of the horse. He says he has posted the horse and pastured him to that amt. I think he has used the horse some. You can give some idea about that. I think John ought to have his horse.
    As I have had the charge of their horses, they look to me for them. I will do all I can to get them.
Yours
    W. D. Woodcock
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 11th 1857
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 28th ultimo, enclosing a copy of special order No. 95 in relation to the reinforcement of Fort Umpqua, also, a copy of your letter of instructions to Maj. Garrett U.S.A. of July 28th. The Indians are all quiet at present, with the exception of a few renegades in the Umpqua Valley who refused to go to the reservation.
    They are committing some depredations in that region, in the way of killing stock & robbing houses.
    I have dispatched an agent to the Umpqua for the purpose of endeavoring to bring them to the reservation.
    I learn also a few Indians in the southwestern portion of this territory, belonging to the Chetcos and other remnants of tribes on the coast near the California line, who are in connection with the California Indians, causing some trouble. I shall take immediate steps to procure their removal to the Siletz Reservation.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To:
    Genl. Clarke U.S.A.
        Comdg. Dept. Pacific
            San Francisco Cal.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 383.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Augst. 11, 1857.
Sir,
    Your com. of the 3rd instant reached this office last evening. In order to save additional expense to the government, I have desired that the few Indians to which you refer would remain at their present location, where they might procure their own subsistence. If their present residence in the neighborhood is giving trouble to the whites, and likely to result in hostilities, I have to request that you will assume their charge and have them taken to the Siletz Reservation.
    In the event of your attempting to remove them, I desire that all should be brought away, so as to prevent future difficulties in that locality.
    You will use your discretion as to bringing them by land or water and adopt the mode of conveyance least expensive to the government. Before undertaking this service, it is but proper that I should notify you that I have not a single dollar of public funds in my hands applicable to any purpose, and that you and others who render service or furnish supplies in the removal of those Indians must take your chances and the risk of ever being remunerated.
    I would say, however, that if funds are placed in my hands applicable to such purposes, I will reimburse you for the necessary expenses incurred and pay you a fair compensation for your time necessarily employed.
Respectfully
    Your obdt. servt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
                O.&W. Territories
To
    Capt. Wm. Tichenor
        Crescent City
            Cal.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 759-761.



Memorial of the Oregon Conference to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    We members of the Oregon Annual Conference of the Methodist E. Church embracing the Territories of Oregon and Washington in conference assembled would hereby respectfully express our unqualified approbation of the humane policy pursued by the government of the U.S. in providing in the various treaties made with the Indian tribes of the Coast for the settlement of this unfortunate race upon reservations of land, and the introduction among them of the blessings of civilization and Christianity. It is a debt which in justice and humanity our nation, now the most prosperous on Earth, owes this unhappy people and should make constant efforts to liquidate by providing for the political, social and moral elevation of the few scattered remnants of this once mighty people.
    Permit us however to express our solemn conviction that Christianity, in faith and practice, must be at the foundation of all schemes at all successful in this just and philanthropic cause.
    We would therefore respectfully suggest that too careful regard cannot be had to the moral and religious characters of the persons selected to carry out the noble purposes of the general government in regard to the Indians. Otherwise if they are permitted to see infidelity, profanity, prostitution, intemperance, Sabbath breaking, fraud & abuse, without check or disapproval, they are only brought at great expense into a position in which they can readily learn and embrace the vices of civilization without any of its attendant blessings. And the result in a few years [will] be an acceleration of the final extinction of the race, or a turning away in complete disgust from the proffered benefits of civilization and Christianity. We deem it not inappropriate in conclusion to express on our part as citizens or as ministers of the gospel a willingness and readiness to cooperate by our precepts and example in this humane enterprise of elevating the condition of this degraded race whenever the circumstances of the Indians do not preclude the possibility of success.
By order of the Conference
    William Roberts
        Secy.
Corvallis Oregon Territory Aug. 17th 1857
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 567-568.



Siletz Agency Aug. 20th 1857
Dr. Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of the laws & regulations of the Indian Bureau, also [a] copy of the treaties made with the several Indian tribes. Enclosed please find the correspondence which took place between Sheridan and myself relative to disarming the Indians, and to show you how far he was right about the Indians regarding this as their future home. I have to say that it has been with the utmost difficulty that I have been able to keep them here this long. All of the Upper Coquille Indians have left the reservation, and unless there are steps taken at once to bring them back there will not be a Coast Indian left on the reserve in one month. I will advise with Capt. Augur in relation to them; in the meantime please let me hear from you.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe Ind Agent
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 206.


    THE WHEAT CROP IN ROGUE RIVER VALLEY.--In the above valley, in Oregon Territory, it is said that the wheat crop will not amount to over seventy-five thousand bushels. The crop was mostly volunteer, and this yield is considered small.
Sacramento Daily Union, August 15, 1857, page 2



Waukell Klamath Reserve
    August 20 1857
Sir
    Enclosed please find steamer Columbia account for "transportation of Indians from Crescent City to Port Orford." This service was rendered in the spring of last year at a time when I was gathering in the Indians near the Oregon line, and these 10 [70?] were found to belong among the Oregon Indians. I wrote to the Indian agent at Port Orford, the nearest point, as to what disposition should be made of them. He returned a verbal answer to "send them by steamer and he would pay the expense. The local agent at Port Orford at that time was Mr. Olney. I accordingly sent them the first opportunity, but it seems he had been relieved from that locality previous to their arrival, and consequently the amount has never been paid. I have no doubt that the Supt. of Ind. Affairs for Oregon will order the bill paid when acquainted with the circumstances. I would remark that this was the cheapest method of getting the Indians where they belonged, as the whole country at that time from Crescent City to Port Orford was in a state of warfare, and small parties of either whites or Indians could not travel by land without danger of being cut off.
Very respectfully
    S. G. Whipple
        Spec. Ind. Agt.
To
    Hon. T. J. Henley
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            San Francisco
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 984-987.  Cover letter not transcribed.




    TROUBLE WITH THE INDIANS IN OREGON.--We find the following in the Jacksonville Sentinel, of August 15th:
    "We learn that a portion of Old John's band and the Shastas have left the Yamhill Reserve. It is said that they stole all the Klickitats' horses, and left for parts unknown. It is thought, however, that they have come south, as they have been heard to declare that they would yet have revenge on the whites in Rogue River Valley. A house was robbed in Umpqua Valley recently. The proprietor of the house was absent, and arrived home in the night, before they had completed their work. They had carried almost everything outside, when they were surprised by his return. They made off with a gun or two and a lot of ammunition.
    "We would not willingly raise a false alarm, but we have our information from a source which seems reliable. The report is in a measure confirmed by the few Indians seen and the signs of much larger parties on Galice Creek and lower Rogue River. It will be well for persons in exposed localities to be on their guard. It is said that these Indians have procured considerable quantities of ammunition from the regulars on the Reserve, and they no doubt have plenty of arms cached in their old range, for it is well known that they did not deliver up all their arms when they surrendered. It is to be hoped that we will not again be troubled with the presence of our old red foes, but they may yet make us much difficulty."
Sacramento Daily Union, August 21, 1857, page 3



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Augt. 22nd 1857
Sir,
    Acknowledging the receipt of your letter of July 15th enclosing copies of certain letters of Genl. Clarke, Capt. Augur and Lt. Sheridan of the army relative to the conduct of Indian Agent R. B. Metcalfe, I have to say that the pressing business of this office precludes the possibility of my giving the matter my immediate attention. I would say, however, that in the course of a few days I shall be able to investigate the subject and make a report.
    In the meantime I have to request that any decision of the Department in relation to the conduct of Mr. Metcalfe may be suspended. This is particularly desirable as he is one of the most efficient agents in the Territory, and a man whose services are indispensable in the management of the Indians for whom he is now agent.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 387.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 692-693.



Siletz Reserve
    August 24 1857
Dr Sir
    The Coquille Indians, who ran off some time since, have returned, having met with opposition by the agent and military at the Umpqua, though some ten or fifteen succeeded in getting through and are now on the Coquille. I sent an Indian express for them, which will be gone about two weeks. I send you a sample of the flour being furnished by the schooner.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        W. &. O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 227.



Fort Umpqua, O.T.
    August 25, 1857.
Sir,
    I deem it my duty to report my inability to do anything [illegible] helping Indians in the reservation [illegible] regarding of the sub-agent at this point. Last Thursday week it was reported to me that a party of sixty or seventy Indians from the vicinity of Port Orford formerly were coming down the beach to pay a visit to the Umpqua Indians. Knowing that they did not belong to the district pertaining to this sub-agency I immediately called on Dr. Drew, the sub-agent, and proposed that they should be sent back immediately. He however thought that they should be allowed to remain that night to visit, saying that he would start them back early the next morning.
    One of the chiefs had come in in advance to notify Dr. Drew that they were coming, informing him also that they had no pass from their agent, Mr. Metcalfe, asserting that they had a pass from Mr. Metcalfe but that it had been destroyed by a white man on the reservation, who told them that it only authorized them to go to the Siuslaw. I was informed from another quarter, however, that the Indians had destroyed the pass themselves. At all events they came here, some five miles below the lower line of the reservation without a pass and remained, as I supposed they would, for several days, not leaving here until the following Sunday and telling one Indian here that they were coming down again the next moon.
    Yesterday Dr. Drew received a letter from Mr. Metcalfe stating that some Indians had left and gone to the Coquille River and that they were expressing their determination to leave. He particularly requested Dr. Drew to arrest and send back Washington and Jackson, two chiefs who had told him boldly that they did not intend to remain on the reservation. These two chiefs were of the party above referred to. In a conversation with Doct. Drew yesterday he informed me that whilst that party was down here he learned that they had come down with the intention of crossing and going below if they got a fair chance. Yet this information was withheld from me during the whole of their stay and for more than [a] week after their departure.
    Dr. Drew himself admits that a small party crossed about last Tuesday night and he admits that it is quite likely that they were put over by some of the Umpqua Indians. I think it very probable that they were a portion of the same party that left the Sunday before to go up the coast.
    It is very evident that this policy will afford the Indians every facility for getting away in small parties or for making arrangements to get away in a body. A proper degree of firmness would I think keep the Indians quiet, and were I not embarrassed by the presence of the sub-agency at this point I would apprehend no danger whatever of the Indians going below. Dr. Drew contends that there is no reservation--that certain treaties with the Indians not having been ratified by the state, they have a perfect right to go anywhere in the Territory.
    The Indians under his own immediate charge are to be found down the coast below this and up the river many miles above Scottsburg. One of the chiefs belonging to this encampment has not long since [been] offering ten dollars a canister gunpowder in Scottsburg.
    Under these circumstances I respectfully request instructions as to what course I should pursue.
I have the honor to be, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servt.
            (signed) T. Stewart
                Capt. 3rd Arty.
                    Comdt. post
Major W. W. Mackall
    Asst. Adjt. Gen.
        Hd. Qrs. Dept. Pacific
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 218.



Headquarters Fort Hoskins O.T.
    August 27th 1857
Sir
    Your letter bearing date August 27th was received this morning. I received from Agent Metcalfe about nine o'clock p.m. on the 21st last a letter containing the information you speak of regarding the Coquille Indians leaving the reservation. Feeling all the importance of effectually stopping the first attempt of the Indians to leave, I proceeded to the Agency next morning with twenty-five men mounted, which with the thirty I keep permanently there would have enabled me to organize a mounted party of sufficient force to bring the Indians back without any trouble.
    On my arrival at the Agency, however, I found that the principal chiefs of the Coquille, Washington and Jackson, had already returned and that their people were also returning. They had been stopped, it seems, at the Umpqua.
    Mr. Metcalfe sent over Washington and cautioned him that any future attempts to leave would involve punishment to the chiefs.
    Under the circumstances the agent had not deemed it necessary to make any use of the force I put at his disposal to bring these people back--satisfied that they would return themselves.
    It is my duty and it will be a pleasure to me at all times to cooperate with your department in preserving quiet and contentment amongst these people, and particularly in preventing their leaving the reservation.
Very respectfully, sir
    Your obt. servt.
        C. C. Augur
            Capt. 4th Infy.
                Commdg.
J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        O. & W.T. Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 209.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, August 27th 1857
Captain
    By a letter received this morning from Agent Metcalfe, I am informed that the Upper Coquille Indians are leaving the reservation, and the agent expresses great fear that all the coast Indians will follow them. I am satisfied if their exodus is not prevented, that we shall again have open hostilities along the coast and in the southern portion of the Territory. You are aware that the Indian Department is powerless so far as preventing any physical barrier to the return of these people is concerned. I have therefore to request that you will render to Mr. Metcalfe such assistance as is in your power to prevent those people from leaving the reservation.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Capt. C. C. Augur
        4th Infty. U.S.A.
            Comdg. Fort Hoskins O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, page 389.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Augt. 28th 1857.
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge your letter of July 17th enclosing tabular statement of funds which the Secretary of the Interior was requested to have remitted to this office.
    The funds alluded to have not yet arrived. I shall confidently expect them, however, by the next mail.
    I observe by the tenor of your letter in speaking of the time when my salary would commence that you have been mistaken. You say that I assumed the duties of the office on the 22nd of April, whereas that was the date of the execution of my bond.
    I relieved Mr. Hedges and entered upon the duties of the office on the 1st day of May.
    Your injunction relative to the economical disbursement of the public funds will be strictly adhered to.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 655-656.



Siletz Agency
    Aug. 28th 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of August 27th enclosing certain correspondence between Capt. C. C. Augur, Lt. Sheridan and myself and beg to say that they have done me great injustice in their reports, and it is with extreme diffidence that I undertake to reply to these gentlemen as their acts and representations are approved and endorsed by some of the first men in the nation, by the side of whom I feel like the tender growth on the boughs of the stately oak which has stood the chilling blasts of an hundred winters and feel that I may be nipped from my position quite as easily, but the faith I have in the justice and integrity of my government induces me to believe that I may yet stand. I will endeavor to set forth the facts in the case so the Department may clearly understand the course I took in the affair and my reasons for doing so and earnestly hope the Department will give credit to my report, as I will only state such facts as I can substantiate by the oaths of four or five as respectable citizens as there are in the United States. I will answer such portions of their letters as relate to my conduct as they come; first in Capt. Augur's letter to Major Mackall he says, "Mr. Metcalfe's complaints of the apprehensions of his employees should attach to himself and arise from his having located his agency so far away from the military post; when about locating it I suggested &c."
    In reply to that position of his letter I have to say that in locating my agency it was done without reference to the military post, that this point was selected from the fact that it is in the center of the farming portion of the district and is the most tangible point to the depot from which we are to receive all of our supplies. The distance from the depot to the mil. post is more than double the distance to this agency, and the road four times as bad. This is one strong reason why the agency should be here and not at one extremity of the reservation, and another reason it has saved four or five thousand dollars transportation this spring and summer, and will continue to be a like saving to the government. And further I have to say that this point was selected and the agency building and mess house for employees and other improvements amounting to several thousand dollars was done before I heard one word from Capt. Augur either directly or indirectly
regarding the location of the agency. He says, "I am credibly informed that one reason assigned the Superintendent for locating where he did was to get away from the post." This may be so, but not for the reason that he would have the Department understand, and in fact intimated in one of his letters to me, namely, a hostile feeling I had for the military.
    Far be it from me to entertain such a mean principle, and I hope to sink when I become so base as to sacrifice the public interest to gratify a personal feeling, and the supposition is erroneous that I do or ever did entertain an unfriendly feeling towards the military, having once belonged to the army myself and a score of friends and relatives now in the army. I have been taught to regard the officers as high-toned gentlemen. My reason for wanting to be a short distance from the post was in consequence of the bad influence a large body of men exert over the uncultivated minds of the Indians. The scenes enacted at the Grand Ronde Agency is enough to discourage any person in the belief that these people ever can be civilized with a large number of drunken soldiers quartered in their midst dealing out liquor to the men and debauching the women. I only asked for a detachment to be located here temporarily until the Indians became more quiet, at which time I think it the best policy to have them stationed a short distance from the Indians, say five or six miles, because a soldier will obtain liquor by some means, and he will give it to the Indians. Now I would dislike to impugn Capt. Augur's motives in locating his post in King's Valley, but it is currently believed that it was done with an eye to his personal comfort and convenience, and I must say that it was done with a total disregard to the opinions and wishes of the officers of the Indian Department; one reason assigned me for locating his post in King's Valley was that it afforded protection to the citizens there, that the citizens told me that they would all sign a petition for their removal, that they had been the means of bringing grog shops there and thus destroying the peace of their once-quiet homes; another reason why it should not be there is it forms a link of communication with the grog shops of the valley where those soldiers obtain liquor and turn it over to the soldiers quartered here. In regard to Lt. Sheridan's communications I beg leave to say that they contain many exaggerations and misrepresentations which I propose to prove by the depositions of respectable persons if the gov. desires me to carry the investigation to that extent. Now the difficulty between Lt. Sheridan and myself has grown out of a want of knowledge of the relation existing between an Indian agent and an army officer, and I have been unable to find anything in the regulations of the Indian Department showing which is to have the authority in the agency. Lt. Sheridan came here and exercised the duties both of agent and commanding officer, and consequently I was to have nothing to say in the adjustment and regulation of affairs in my agency, which will be shown by the following: He called a council of the Indians at Yaquina Bay without consulting with me or any person instructed to act for me, and told the Indians that they could retain all of their arms, and that they must be good now and not talk anymore about going away, and promised them many things that I could not promise. After this he wanted to turn the Indians over to me without my saying one word to them and leave the country.
    In his letter of the 13th April he says, "I then told them that I would give them two days to move off to the Siletz and on the evening of the 12th not an Indian was left." In reply to this I must say that there were about one hundred Indians who did not leave there, and he knows it. They were not only there then, but are there now, and have been ever since he left. Again he says, "During the time that I have been here I have endeavored to ascertain the reason of their discontent, and attribute it to two causes, &c." To the first cause I denounce as being utterly false without the semblance of truth in connection with it, and I can prove it to the satisfaction of the Department. I do not now nor never did entertain a hostile feeling towards the Indians as my treatment to them will show, and the numerous difficulties I have gotten into by taking the part of the Indians both before and since I have been connected with the Indian Department, he says I have surrounded myself with employees who were engaged in hostilities with them in the lower country, to which I must reply at that time I only had two men in the service who were engaged in hostilities with the Indians south, and only one of them at this agency. Capt. Relf Bledsoe and Lt. Geo. H. Abbott are the two employees who are known to be kind, generous and noble in all of their bearings and men who have never had a difficulty with the Indians except where their country has called for their services.
    In reply to Lt. Sheridan's report of the 15th April I must say that he has labored to create a false impression. He says, "I arrived at the Siletz Agency on the 4th and learned with regret the impolitic and excitable conduct of Mr. Metcalfe. I heard that immediately on the arrival of the advance of the Indians he had demanded their guns and when they refused or hesitated to give them up had used the most violent language towards them." All of this is a false representation made by a few Indians who were stung to the quick in consequence of having to come here and were ready to say or do anything. Now if Lt. Sheridan is allowed to take the bare assertions of an Indian (for his information could not have been from any other source) in relation to the state of affairs in my agency and write them to Capt. Augur as facts and he (Capt. Augur) endorse them, I must say that he can prove anything.
    In reply to my excitable conduct, I must say that if my acts indicated it they were false to my feelings, for I seldom get excited on any occasion, neither did I demand their arms upon the arrival of the advance of the Indians, but told them after they were nearly or quite all here that I would require them to give up their arms, upon which six or eight positively refused and said they would not give up their arms. I then informed them without the least excitement on my part that I would take them, to which the Indians replied you will see who has their way about it. I then replied that we would see, and got up and walked away without saying another word, and this is what he calls impolitic and excitable conduct. All of this was prior to my having seen Lt. Sheridan or knowing about his having held a council at the Yaquina Bay. Now you will see that matters had worked to this point that the Indians were to have their way and control the agency or I was to have my way for their government. I told the Indians that all I required was that they should deposit their guns with me, that I would take care of them and let them have a gun whenever they wanted them for hunting purposes and would furnish them with ammunition, but when I saw Lt. Sheridan I told him that I desired to call a council of the Indians to talk with them about their future government and the propriety of giving up their arms and requested him to attend the council, which he refused to do, but said that he had held a council with them and told them all that was necessary to say to them, and when I learned that what I had told the Indians and what he had told them was directly opposite, I felt hurt, but believing that I was the proper person to decide how they should be managed, and knowing that they could be disarmed without any difficulty, I called upon him for a portion of his command for that purpose, which he refused to grant. Again he says, "After receiving my note he armed four or five of his employees [and] called a council of the chiefs [and] spoke to them in an inflammatory and hostile manner and finally told them that he would go and bring my command up." Now I do most solemnly declare and have plenty of proof to sustain me that there was not one word spoken to the Indians about the soldiers that day, neither was there a threat made to punish them, nor was there an Indian on the premises who knew that I had called upon Sheridan for assistance. I requested Mr. Henry to take the note down quietly to the Lt. without saying a word either to the whites or Indians, which he did. Now he says after his official refusal that I threatened the Indians with the troops, and that this latter threat induced the Indians to give up nearly all of their guns, thus making himself  the great bugaboo which the Indians so much dreaded. The fact here is I paid some of the principal men to give up their arms, and the rest with a few exceptions gave theirs up without opposition. Again he said, "This morning I again called on him when he informed me that it was his intention not to issue any more rations to the Indians until they had given up their guns, and that the consequence &c." Here he has again labored to make a false impression; he would have the Department believe that I said I would not issue rations to any of the Indians, which is not so. Here is what I said, that those whom I knew to have arms in their possession and refused to give them up, that I would not issue rations to them, who only numbered about six or eight out of the Indians at this agency. I said to him that there might probably some difficulty grow out of my refusal to issue to these six or eight persons and if so that I should defend myself and property. He alleges that which is false when he says that I said I would "pitch into them and kill as many as I could." I challenge the world to show a single instance in which I have threatened to harm any person or thing unless in defense of myself or property. Again notice the spleen in the last of his letter of the 15th April, which I have shown to be a false representation to gratify a personal dislike for me. He says, "My conduct to a great extent has destroyed the good feeling with which the Indians came to the Siletz Agency." This is not so; the Indians stated on their arrival here that as the soldiers had gone to the Yaquina that they would come here, and when the soldiers came here that they would go back to the Yaquina, thus you see that they told me one story and Sheridan another. They have always told me that they were unwilling to make this their homes and desired to return to their native country; all of which I most respectfully submit.
Yours respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        for W.&O.T.
            Salem O.T.
P.S. Please notify me if it will be necessary for the depositions of my witnesses to accompany my report .
Respectfully
    R.B.R.
        I.A.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1179-1192.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Sept. 1st 1857
Sir,
    By last night's mail I received a copy of your spoliation claim against Rogue River Indians, amounting to $3478.75, together with sundry slips of paper written upon in relation to various subjects. I also received a copy of Geo. E. Cole's claim for spoliation together with the letters of Geo. H. Jones. As there appears to be no particular instructions as to what you desire done with these papers, I will retain them on file in this office until further instructions are received from you.
    In relation to your request that I should prevent Mr. Jones from acting under the authority of a certain power of attorney which you gave him, I must decline any interference in the matter, as anything that I might say would have no influence in preventing Mr. Jones from acting while he is invested with your legal authority by power of attorney, which I have no power to revoke. Mr. Jones is now absent, having left for the States some time since. I would suggest that you need entertain no fears in relation to Mr. Jones drawing any funds from the Treasury on your claims at present, as there are no appropriations made for such objects.
Very respectfully
    J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Hiram Smith Esq.
    Jacksonville O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 6; Letter Books E:10, pages 391-392.




Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, September 1st 1857.
Sir,
    Enclosed I have the honor to submit my annual estimates for the fiscal year commencing on the 1st of July 1858.
    As you will observe, these estimates are of two classes, one for fulfilling treaty stipulations, amounting to forty-seven thousand, nine hundred and fifty dollars, and the other for objects not provided for by treaty stipulations, amounting to four hundred and eighty-four thousand, seven hundred dollars, making the aggregate amount estimated for for the year five hundred and thirty-two thousand six hundred and fifty dollars.
    By reference to former appropriations for treaty purposes, you will observe that I have included larger amounts for compensation of smiths, teachers, physicians, farmers and other employees provided for by treaty stipulations than have been heretofore made. I find this necessary as competent persons cannot, and have not, been found who would render the services for the amounts appropriate, rendering it necessary to make up the deficiency in their compensation out of some other fund. In relation to the amount estimated for for purposes not provided for by treaty stipulations, I have only to say that it is much lower than the different agents have required by their respective estimates. The amount estimated for will be absolutely necessary for the relief of the most urgent wants of the Indians within this Superintendency, and is based upon the supposition that hostilities will not be again resumed. In the event that the Indians do again become hostile (of which there are many indications), a much larger amount will be required.
    I desire to call your attention particularly to the items for erection and completion of mills at the Siletz and Grand Ronde reservations. If my requisitions are answered, large crops will be put in at those points--the wheat raised will be useless without mills with which to manufacture it into flour.
    With reference to the treaties which have been made with the different tribes in the two Territories which remain unratified, I desire to say that if those treaties are ratified, additional appropriations will be required for their execution, and [I] would respectfully refer you to the estimate made for that purpose by late Superintendents Stevens and Hedges and submitted to Congress in the supplemental estimates of the Indian Service by Hon. R. McClelland on the 16th of Jany. last.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        [J. W. Nesmith]
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 675-678.  Estimates of funds not transcribed.



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Sept. 1st 1857.
Sir,
    Enclosed I have the honor to submit my requisitions for treaty funds due the Indians within this Superintendency, amounting in the aggregate to forty-three thousand and seventy dollars.
    I make my requisition early, as it is absolutely necessary that those Indians should be supplied with their annuity goods before the winter sets in.
    I trust that the whole amount now due these tribes will be remitted at once, as that course will save them from great suffering during the winter, and do much towards strengthening their disposition to remain on friendly terms with the whites.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 694-702.  Requisition figures not transcribed.




Office Superintendent Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, September 1st 1857.
Sir,
     In obedience to the regulations of the Indian Department, I submit my first annual report.
    The accompanying reports of agents will exhibit detailed statements of the condition of Indian affairs within their respective agencies.
    Under the provisions of the act of Congress of March 3rd 1857, uniting Washington and Oregon Territories in a single Superintendency, I assumed the duties of the office in Oregon Territory on the 1st day of May last, and in accordance with instructions from late Commissioner Manypenny, bearing date March 18th.
    After reporting upon the condition of Indian affairs in this Territory, I proceeded to Olympia and on the 2nd of June relieved Governor Stevens and assumed the duties of the office in Washington Territory.
    The union of the two Territories has thrown an amount of business upon this office sufficient to occupy my entire attention and utterly precludes the practicability of my giving any time to the personal supervision of the duties of agents by visiting them or the tribes under their charge. The recent and general state of hostilities existing in both Territories, and the necessary means adopted by my predecessors in each Territory for the restoration of peace, has necessarily and directly tended to complicate our relations with the Indians and renders the duties of the Superintendent more arduous and difficult than they had been at any time previous to the general outbreak.
    Previous to the hostilities of 1855, the few collisions with the Indians had been with detached and isolated tribes or bands, without any attempt on their part to confederate their forces for the purpose of common hostilities. While some of those collisions have doubtless grown out of, and have to some extent been induced by, the vicious and reckless conduct of a few unscrupulous white men, for whose conduct the mass of the community can in no way be held responsible, the facts and history of what has been characterized as "forays" will, in nearly every instance, clearly demonstrate that the Indians have been the aggressors and that the whites have acted on the defensive. This is particularly true of the hostilities of 1855, which in its details gives abundant evidence of a well-matured and preconcerted plan of action by the formation of an alliance of all the principal tribes inhabiting the country from California to the British possessions.
    This outbreak was long predicted, and the whites in different sections of the country were frequently admonished of their danger by friendly Indians.
    The first acts of hostility, in the murder of Bolon, Mattice and others in the Yakima country, was the signal for a general rising, in which the Indians, confident in their strength of numbers and advantages in an intimate knowledge of the country, expected to vanquish and exterminate what they regarded as their natural enemies.
    Of the history of the ensuing war and its various incidents you have been fully advised by the military, the Superintendents of Indian Affairs and the governors of the two Territories.
    While it is not my design to rewrite the history of the war, I desire to say that those who are so deluded as to entertain or give expression to the opinion that the war of 1855 was undertaken for the purpose of robbing or despoiling the Indians are greatly mistaken in their deductions from facts which warrant no such conclusions. Errors may and doubtless have been committed by both civil and military officers in their connection with the war, the palliation of which is no part of my duty. But he who deliberately asserts that the people of the two Territories abandoned their homes, neglected their private affairs and engaged in a contest with an overwhelming number of Indians, generally destitute of personal property, for the sake of plunder, betrays a credulity to be pitied.
    The result of the war evidently disappointed the sanguine expectations of both the whites and the Indians, as about an equal number of each fell in the various conflicts.
    The Indians, by superior numbers and the advantages of their peculiar mode of warfare, remained unconquered, and the result of the war tended to convince them that it could not be easily done; a sort of armistice was declared, and the Indians contiguous to the settlements, especially those belonging to the southern portion of Oregon, agreed to remove to the reservations, with the understanding that they should be subsisted by the government, whose agents negotiated the peace, and they are ready to take up arms and resume hostilities: whenever the government cease to comply with its part of the contract, practically offering the government the alternative of "feeding or fighting them." They have never been chastised for the outrages committed on our people, and with the exception of the loss and destruction of some of their personal property they have suffered but little by the war, while its results have emboldened them and tended to produce the impression in their minds that they have the ability to contend successfully against the entire white race.
    The effect of the late war has been to render the management of the Indians much more difficult than at any previous time.
    Their great numbers, intimate knowledge of the country, together with the scattered and defenseless state of the settlements, contributed to their success in their marauding and plundering expeditions; the provisions and cattle captured from the whites afforded them ample subsistence, both in quality and quantity, far superior to anything that they had at any previous time enjoyed, and as they have never been subdued it is but natural that they should be willing to resume hostilities when they have so much to gain and so little to lose.
    In fact, the southern Indians located on the Siletz are constantly telling the agent that they lost more by sickness last winter than they did in all of the preceding ten months' war and frequently say "it is your peace that is killing us."
    The policy of exercising a vigilant system of surveillance over the different and remotely situated bands and tribes of Indians was adopted by my predecessor, particularly in Washington Territory, and requires a large number of local and special agents for that purpose. The present appearance of things would not indicate that the services of these temporary agents could safely be dispensed with, and I would therefore desire to urge upon your attention the necessity of some legal provision for their permanent appointment.
    There should be at least six additional full agents and five sub-agents for the two Territories.
    The great number of Indians inhabiting the extensive country west of the Cascade Mountains and bordering upon Puget Sound, requires the constant and vigilant attention of at least three full agents and three sub-agents where there is now but a single agent regularly appointed by the government. When it is taken into consideration that the Sound of itself embraces over sixteen hundred miles of shoreline, occupied by ten thousand Indians whose management is rendered a hundredfold more difficult by reason of a sparse, widely scattered and defenseless white population living in their midst, I think that the necessity of an increase of agents will be apparent.
    I regard our relations with the Indians within this Superintendency, and especially in the neighborhood of Puget Sound, as resting upon a very precarious basis and the Indians liable at any moment and for the most trivial cause, to assume an attitude of open hostility.
    I cannot better illustrate their condition than by the following extracts from my report of the 16th of June last:
    Great evils are constantly resulting from the extensive sale of ardent spirits to the Indians.
    The different agents do all in their power to abolish this nefarious traffic, carried on by unprincipled white men, but I can see no way to accomplish its discontinuance so long as the whites and Indians occupy the entire country in common. Even the small reservations established by law, and where the intercourse laws ought to be enforced, are nearly destitute of military protection and the agents in charge left to their own resources in the management of their complicated and responsible duties.
    The land laws which permit the occupation and settlement of both Washington and Oregon Territories, regardless of the rights of the Indians, render the intercourse laws, practically, a nullity. Any man who has the least idea of Indian character in their barbarous and uncivilized state will not be long in arriving at a conclusion as to what would be the result of their living with and occupying the country in common with the whites.
    This anomalous condition of things embarrassed the officers of the Department here at every step and renders an increase of agents absolutely necessary to guard and protect the rights of the Indians and prevent constant collisions between them and their white neighbors.
    It is useless to talk about pacifying the Indians and cultivating friendly relations with them on any permanent basis so long as they are recognized by the government as having rights to the soil; while those rights remain unextinguished, they regard the government as ignoring them and look upon every white settler as an emissary sent here to rob and despoil them of what they claim as their inheritance.
    Even the treaties which have been made remain, with but few exceptions, unratified, and of the few that have been ratified, but few have been fulfilled.
    Those delays and disappointments, together with the unfulfilled promises which have been made to them, has had the effect to destroy their confidence in the veracity of the government agents, and now, when new promises are made to them for the purpose of conciliating their friendship, they only regard them as an extension of a very long catalogue of falsehood already existing.
    The extension and increase of white settlements is daily rendering our relations with them more difficult and would seem to indicate the necessity of some means for the separation of the two races.
    The present condition of things cannot last long, and some permanent policy must be speedily adopted by the government for the protection of the whites and subsistence of the Indians.
    As the lands of the latter are entirely occupied by the whites, their means of obtaining a living are greatly curtailed.
    The wants of those "untutored wards of the government" should be supplied and their rights protected, unless the government has determined that they should be doomed to extermination at the hands of the whites.
    I am aware of the difficulties which it would be necessary to overcome in order to separate the two races. The rapid encroachment of the white settlements on both sides of the Rocky Mountains leaves no country to which the Indians can be assigned without incurring the hostility of the present owners and occupants, and I see no way to ameliorate their condition and prolong their existence, except to collect them on reservations and give them a subsistence until such time as they can be induced to obtain it for themselves by agriculture.
    Whatever policy may finally be adopted in relation to these unfortunate people, I can assure you that none can be worse, or productive of more evil to both them and the whites, than the present joint and promiscuous occupation of the country, and so long as it is continued you may expect periodical reports of "Indian difficulties."
    The government having ratified the treaties with the Indians of the Willamette, the Umpqua and Rogue River valleys, those Indians have been collected and subsisted by the government at the Grand Ronde and Siletz (Coast Reservation).
    According to the census, there are two thousand and forty-nine at the Siletz, twelve hundred at the Grand Ronde and six hundred and ninety at the mouth of the Umpqua, making a total of three thousand nine hundred and thirty-nine, who are dependent on the government for their support.
    In addition to those, there are four remnants of tribes scattered along the coast south from the Columbia River to the neighborhood of Tillamook, who are under the charge of sub-Agent Raymond; they number two hundred and fifty-one souls and have received some little support from the government.
    In addition to the foregoing enumeration, I estimate that there are scattered along the coast in Oregon about two hundred and fifty Indians who have never been collected and taken to the reservations. Those are mostly lawless, wandering vagabonds, who live in the mountains engaged in plundering remote settlements as opportunities occur.
    You will observe by the foregoing that the number of Indians in Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains amount in the aggregate to four thousand three hundred and forty, and I think that the enumeration can be relied on as very nearly accurate.
    According to the most recent and reliable estimates, the total number of Indians in Oregon is eleven thousand eight hundred and in Washington Territory twenty-one thousand seven hundred and twelve, making the total of Indians within this Superintendency thirty-three thousand five hundred and twelve.
    At the Grand Ronde and Siletz, as you will observe by the reports of agents Miller and Metcalfe [reports of July 15 and 20, above], extensive improvements have been made in the way of fencing, breaking land and putting up buildings for the use and comfort of the tribes located at these points.
    The expenses of those improvements have been necessarily large, resulting in part from the high price of labor on this coast and in part from the system that has been pursued by the Department of withholding funds and compelling the agents to make their purchases on credit at prices much higher than they could be made for cash.
    But little will be realized this year from the crops put in upon the reservations, as the ground is new and the season, owing to the drought, remarkably unfavorable.
    The Indians will therefore require the continued assistance of the government until they are in a condition to raise something for themselves. By receiving the necessary encouragement and assistance from the government, those people may, in the course of a few years, be enabled to raise sufficient to supply their wants, but so far as their ultimate civilization or Christianization is concerned, I am convinced that all such ideas are Utopian and impracticable.
    The sources from which they are expected to receive those blessings contain the elements of their destruction, and it is a melancholy fact that the Indians within this Superintendency who have been brought in the most direct contact with the whites, and who have had the best opportunities of observing the benefits of civilization, have profited the least by such advantages. They have acquired all the vices of the white man without any of his virtues, and while the last fifteen years has witnessed the most frightful diminution in their numbers, their deterioration, morally, physically and intellectually, has been equally rapid. Starvation, disease and bad whiskey combined is rapidly decimating their numbers and will soon relieve the government of their charge.
    The region of country east of the Cascade Mountains is daily becoming of more importance to the whites, by reason of the discovery of gold in its northern limits and its being traversed by the great thoroughfares leading to the States. Our people are being continually brought in contact with its Indian occupants, which compose several numerous and warlike tribes. In order to maintain friendly relations with them, and prevent constant difficulties, requires the presence of several reliable agents.
    The treaties negotiated with those interior tribes never having been ratified, they are averse to the occupation of their country by white settlers, and every endeavor has been made to prevent intrusion upon their lands until such time as the government shall decide upon the disposition to be made of the treaties.
    In order to relieve and quiet their apprehensions in relation to the occupation of their country by our people, I directed Agent Lansdale, on his trip to the Flathead country, to explain to them the failure of the government to comply with its promises by reason of the non-ratification of the treaties and to assure them that their lands should not be taken from them without receiving a fair compensation. They were also informed that until those treaties were ratified they could expect nothing from the government in the shape of annuities or subsistence.
    I would recommend that steps be taken to throw open the Walla Walla Valley to settlement. It is an advanced point in the interior, which if occupied would protect and increase the facilities for an overland communication with the States. The Walla Walla is a rich valley, unsurpassed in its qualities as a grazing country, and a desirable locality for a white settlement. It has already been purchased by the treaties made by Governor Stevens and late Superintendent Palmer with the Cayuses and Nez Perces.
    As the treaties have never been ratified, the country is not considered open to settlement. I understand that the Indians express some dissatisfaction at those treaties, which may render their modification necessary.
    The only portion of the country east of the Cascade Mountains now occupied by our citizens is that in the immediate vicinity of the Dalles, on the south side of the Columbia River.
    This country belongs to the Indians who were parties to the treaty of the 25th of June 1855; they have been great sufferers by reason of the occupation of their country by the whites and have never received any compensation. I would therefore earnestly recommend that the treaty entered into between those people and late Superintendent Palmer on the 25th of June 1855 be immediately ratified and funds appropriated for its execution.
    The treaty referred to is liberal in its provisions; the Indians who are parties to it have exhibited good faith towards our government. They have been deprived of their lands, and the United States having received all the benefits of the treaty, I think that justice, as well as good policy, should induce the government to comply with their part of the contract.
    I would also earnestly recommend that the treaties negotiated by Governor Stevens with the Indians in Washington Territory west of the Cascade Mountains be ratified as speedily as possible, as it will be difficult to restrain the Indians who are parties to those treaties much longer by mere promises.
    A treaty was negotiated by late Superintendent Palmer on the 11th of August 1855 with the various tribes inhabiting the coast from the mouth of the Columbia River southward to the California line. Those tribes were confederated by the treaty referred to and consist of the Tillamooks, Coos Bay, Coquille, Tututnis, Chetco, Siuslaws, Clatsops and Lower Umpqua Indians. A portion of those people have already been moved to the reservation, while others remain upon their original lands. Much of their lands have been taken and occupied by the whites, and I would recommend that the treaty made with them by late Superintendent Palmer be ratified.
    The Chehalis and Cowlitz Indians claim a large and valuable district of country in the heart of the settled portion of Washington Territory, between the Columbia River and Puget Sound. They have never been treated with, but are anxious to sell their country. I would recommend that a treaty be concluded with them for the extinguishment of their rights to the soil.
    My own observation in relation to the treaties which have been made in Oregon leads me to the conclusion that in most instances the Indians have not received a fair compensation for the rights which they have relinquished to the government. It is too often the case in such negotiations that the agents of the government are overanxious to drive a close bargain, and when an aggregate amount is mentioned it appears large, without taking into consideration that the Indians in the sale and surrender of their country are surrendering all their means of obtaining a living, and when the small annuities come to be divided throughout the tribe, it exhibits but a pitiful and meager sum for the supply of their individual wants. The Indians receive so little for the great surrender which they have made [and] begin to conclude that they have been defrauded; they become dissatisfied and finally resort to arms in the vain hope of regaining their lost rights, and the government spends millions in the prosecution of a war which might have been entirely avoided by a little more liberality in their dealings with a people who have no very correct notions of the value of money or property. A notable instance of this kind is exhibited in the treaty of September 10th 1853 with the Rogue River Indians. That tribe has diminished more than one-half in number since the execution of the treaty referred to. They, however, number at present nine hundred and nine souls. The country which they ceded embraces nearly the whole of the valuable portion of the Rogue River Valley, embracing a country unsurpassed in the fertility of its soil and value of its gold mines, and the compensation which those nine hundred and nine people now living receive for this valuable cession is "forty thousand dollars, in sixteen equal annual installments of two thousand five hundred dollars each," a fraction over two dollars and fifty cents per annum to the person, which is the entire means provided for their clothing and sustenance.
    When those Indians look back to the valuable country which they have sold, abounding, as it does, with fish and game and rich gold fields, it is but natural that they should conclude that the $2.50 per annum was a poor compensation for the rights they relinquished. It is true that the government can congratulate itself upon the excellence of its bargains, while the millions of dollars subsequently spent in subduing those people has failed to convince them that they have been fairly dealt with.
    I desire to call your attention to the fact that a large and constantly increasing number of claims for indemnification for spoliations committed by the different tribes in Oregon and Washington Territories during the existence of the difficulties within the last two years have accumulated in this office. Those claims have been submitted by our citizens with the general understanding that the general government would indemnify them for losses sustained by reason of its failure to reciprocate their allegiance by that protection which they, as American citizens, claim that they have a right to demand at the hands of their government.
    The persons who have been sufferers by the hostilities of the Indians in the two Territories have been legally in the country, having been invited by the government to settle the country; the protection of the government is impliedly promised.
    Many of those persons who now present claims for indemnification had, by long years of toil and patient endurance of all the hardships and deprivations incident to frontier life, accumulated a competence for their declining years, imagining themselves secure in their possessions under the protection of their government, but the hostilities of 1855 swept them of their hard earnings and has left them to languish in the most abject want and penury. Many of them are aged, while others are widows and orphans, deprived of their natural protectors at the same time and by the same hand that robbed and despoiled them of their property.
    If there ever was a meritorious class of claimants for indemnification it is those persons, and I desire to urge that some means be adopted to compensate them for their losses.
    The 17th section of the act of Congress of June 30th 1834 is wholly inapplicable to this class of claims. That act provides that claims for Indian spoliations shall, under the direction of the President, be first submitted to the nation or tribe who committed the depredations for satisfaction, and if such nation or tribe shall neglect or refuse to make satisfaction in a reasonable time, not exceeding twelve months, it shall be the duty of the Superintendent, agent, or sub-agent to make returns of his doings to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, that such further steps may be taken as shall be proper, in the opinion of the President, to obtain satisfaction for the injury.
    The act also guarantees to the party injured an eventual indemnification by the United States.
    No claim for property stolen or destroyed ever, to my knowledge, been presented to any of the tribes within this Superintendency for their action.
    Any such presentation to the tribes would be a piece of useless folly, for the reason that in most instances it is not known, in the general state of war which existed, what identical tribe or band committed the outrages complained of; in many instances the perpetrators are dead or still hostile, and those who survive, and have been reduced to submission, are not disposed to acknowledge any of their crimes and in every instance would deny their participation and refuse to assent to indemnification.
    Even if they should make the admission of their crimes and declare their willingness to make reparation, it is totally beyond their ability to perform. Those Indians with whom we have treaties are themselves in a state of starvation and destitution, and their annuities would not pay one cent on the dollar for the property they have destroyed.
    I would therefore recommend that means be adopted for the relief of those sufferers and claimants upon the justice and magnanimity of Congress.
    There should be an appropriation made to pay the claims as they are presented, and if any doubt exists as to their justice, a commission might be appointed to investigate them.
    The greatest embarrassment has been experienced within this Superintendency for the last year for the want of funds; the outstanding and unpaid claims against the Department, amounting to over four hundred thousand dollars, has totally destroyed its credit, and persons who have rendered service and furnished supplies begin to conclude that they never will be paid.
    The natural result of this delay in remitting funds has tended to embarrass the officers here and made it necessary to pay more for supplies, in depreciated government promises, than the same purchases could be made for in cash. It is hoped that these embarrassments may be speedily relieved.
    The treaty negotiated in 1855 with the Flathead Indians should be confirmed; their country is the thoroughfare of good routes from the northwestern states to the Columbia Valley. They were parties to the Blackfeet council and the treaty which provides compensation only for the Blackfeet, leaving the Flatheads to be compensated by their own special treaty.
    The Flatheads have constantly observed the provisions of the Blackfeet treaty and from time immemorial have been firm in their friendship for our people.
    During the recent Indian difficulties they evinced every disposition to comply with the wishes of the government and often declared to the agent that they would not harbor the hostiles in their country. It is their boast that they have never shed the blood of the white man.
    Good faith towards them requires the prompt confirmation of the treaty, which is also called for as an efficient and indispensable means to maintain their peaceable disposition.
    I am of the opinion that, with the confirmation of the treaty and the presence of a reliable agent, those Indians can be easily managed. The experiment, fairly tried, of teaching them the usages of civilized life, and with the necessary safeguards thrown around them against the mischievous influences always attending the advance of our settlements into an Indian country when measures have not been taken to separate the two races, I think will result in their permanent benefit.
    The treaties negotiated in 1855 with the Nez Perces, Walla Wallas, Cayuses, Umatillas and Yakimas I regard as of great importance with reference to the policy to be adopted by the government in relation to these great interior tribes.
    No treaties have yet been ratified with the Spokanes and other tribes bordering on our northern boundary east of the Cascade Mountains. The discovery of gold mines in that region will bring our people in direct contact with those Indians, and I think that the Superintendent should be authorized to negotiate treaties with them.
    It is said that a large colony of Mormons from Salt Lake have established themselves on Salmon River, within this Superintendency, that they are supplying the Indians with arms and ammunition and inciting them to hostilities. I have no positive information on the subject as yet, but have taken steps to ascertain the facts relative thereto, and when I am advised will report accordingly.
    It is but proper that I should state that the Indians who committed the first act of hostilities in the cold-blooded and inhuman murder of sub-Agent Bolon are still running at large.
    In an interview which I had with Brig. Genl. Clarke, commanding this Department, at the Dalles on the 30 of June, I urged upon him the necessity of an immediate demand upon the Yakima tribe for the surrender of those murderers. From the tenor of the General’s remarks at the time, I was led to conclude that the demand would be promptly made; subsequently, under date of July 2nd, I received a letter from the Genl., asking me to submit my views on the subject in writing.
    I herewith transmit copies of the correspondence. I have to regret the view the General has taken of the matter, especially as a temporizing policy is poorly calculated to inspire respect in the minds of the Indians; knowing that there was a large military force in the interior, I had hoped that a different policy would be adopted.
    There are still a few vagabond and outlaw Indians lurking about in the mountains contiguous to the Umpqua and Rogue River valleys; they were desperadoes who originally refused to surrender and remove to the reservations, and the character of the country which they inhabit renders them more difficult to find than ever the Indians of Florida were. They are constantly pouncing upon the exposed settlements, killing stock, robbing and burning houses and murdering the occupants. The location and marauding character of those Indians render them capable of inflicting great injury upon the whites, and it is feared that they will form a nucleus around which the late hostile Indians upon the Siletz will rally, if they put in execution their oft-repeated threats of leaving the reservation.
    Every effort has been made by this office to induce those hostiles to come to terms of submission. A special agent has been dispatched and is now in their country for the purpose of securing and removing them to the reservation. I have little hopes of his success and see no way that the settlers in those infested neighborhoods can rid themselves of the nuisance, unless they can hit upon some mode for their extermination, a result which would occasion no regrets at this office.
    A remnant of the Chetco and Pistol River Indians, who refused to emigrate to the reservations with the bodies of their tribes, are creating some difficulty in the southwestern portion of the Territory. I enclose herewith copies of the correspondence with Capt. Tichenor relative thereto. [See letters of August 3 and 11, above.]
    The Indians within this Superintendency have no correct knowledge of the power and extent of the United States and regard each of the immigrating parties of whites they see occasionally passing through their country as a distinct and entire tribe. Some of them entertain the notion that the entire white tribe has immigrated to this coast and that if they could succeed in exterminating or driving them out of their country that they never would be subjected to a similar annoyance from the same source. In view of this mistaken notion entertained by them, I would suggest the propriety of provision being made for a few of the chiefs of the principal tribes to visit the States for the purpose of witnessing the extent and power of the American people.
    I am satisfied that a few thousand dollars expended in this way would have a salutary influence in their future management and be productive of much more benefit to them and our government than twice the amount spent for powder and ball.
    Many of them express an anxiety to make the trip, and I would earnestly recommend that means be taken to gratify their desires.
    It affords me pleasure to be able to report that the different agents and employees within this Superintendency appear to be animated with a proper zeal for the public service and do all in their power to comply with the requirements of the government.
    In conclusion, I beg to call your attention to the necessity which exists for dividing this Superintendency into three Superintendencies. While the two Territories formed each a superintendent district, there was ample business for two Superintendents.
    Thirty thousand Indians, in the condition of the Indians of this Superintendency, are more than a single Superintendent can properly manage. I would therefore recommend that the district be divided into three separate Superintendencies, as follows: one Superintendent for Oregon, west of the Cascade Mountains, and one for Washington Territory, west of the Cascade Mountains; the country east of those mountains in both Territories should be erected into a separate Superintendency.
    The Indians in the latter district are very different in their character and habits from those west of the mountains and require the constant and vigilant attention of a Superintendent.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant,
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs, O.&.W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Indian Affairs
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 704-741.



LETTER FROM LOWER OREGON.
AN OREGON TRIAL--THE DEAD TIMBER--SURPRISED BY INDIANS IN THE FOREST--INDIAN AFFAIRS IN SOUTHERN OREGON--THE POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT--MINING ON THE SEA BEACH, ETC.
Port Orford, Sept. 3, 1857.
    Winding through the forests, over hills and mountains, along the shore of the "sounding sea," and across patches of open country, grandiloquently styled prairies by the people of the territories, for the distance of two hundred miles out and back, I find myself at length in this seaport town awaiting the arrival of the down steamer.
    My last was dated at Coos Bay, which point formed the terminus of my upward journey. Leaving the place we plunge again into a little strip of forest, of thirty miles in extent, uninhabited except by the birds and animals, fashioned by nature to make it their home. For fourteen miles, the forest is dead; that is to say, some cause, natural or otherwise, has killed the trees to a vast extent in this portion of Oregon, and you ride for miles and miles in many directions with nothing on either hand but ghostly pines, rearing their white bare trunks and leafless branches into the air, and mourning a dreary requiem in the passing breeze, for their departed glory. Wind and fire often sweep through these desolate isles, and here and there they come crashing down, forced at length to yield, and bow their heads that for ages have buffeted the fury of the storm, and mocked at its wrath as it swept over their lofty crests.
    The trail through this dead timber becomes a lonely one, and great is the relief when you enter the dark green arches of the living forest, even though the sunlight only gleam here and there through chinks and crannies in the thick and umbrageous foliage that is so compactly piled above you. It does not give rise to so agreeable a sensation, however, to come across a gang of Indians in these sequestered solitudes, especially when you know that their presence there forebodes wars and rumors of wars that are to come out of the future. Riding along through the winding trail, we suddenly came upon a band of Indians numbering some thirty in all, who had escaped from the Umpqua Reservation, and were on their way back to their old grounds on the Coquille or Rogue rivers. The squaws were heavily packed with all the paraphernalia of Indian life, some of them bearing loads that would have brought groans from a patient mule. The men, or "bucks," as they are commonly styled here, were armed with guns, with the exception of one or two ancient gentlemen, who could only carry their own corporeal infirmities, without being overburdened with arms. Had we come suddenly upon a brood of grouse, I doubt if they would have exhibited greater powers of locomotion than did the " bucks" of this band. They disappeared in the thick underbrush that lined the trail, as suddenly as a young partridge will find a place to secrete his little form, and when we came up to the spot where we saw them a few seconds before, there was nothing left but the squaws with their heavy loads, with which they were unable to seek hiding places, and two or three decrepit old fellows, who, to all external appearances, were antediluvian in their origin. It gives rise to some peculiar fancies to ride through a forest trail, knowing that the muzzles of a dozen or two rifles are looking out on you through the leaves, and under the capricious control of a set of barbarous Indians at that, whose hand is raised against every man with a skin white enough to entitle him to the rank of a "Boston" in their vocabulary; and affords ample opportunity to think upon the uncertainty of human affairs, especially in an Indian country. There is no opportunity for a heroic demonstration, and valor is of but little worth in such a case. A judicious application of the spur to the ribs of the animal you bestride, and as much coolness and nonchalance as you are capable of expressing upon your countenance, I consider to be about as wise a panacea for the safe extrication from a similar dilemma, as any that can be adopted. Such was our course, and we passed by unmolested.
    Seriously speaking, these Indians are coming off the Reservation in large squads, in the face and eyes of the penalty they were told would be enforced upon them, when first put there, if they dared again come back--namely, that of death. They are wending their way back, then, in the face of this death penalty, knowing that it must be war to the knife, and they or the "Bostons" must one or the other "go under" in the contest. Indian massacres and outrages will again be chronicled, and the parsimonious policy of our government will, by its puny efforts, virtually sanction the proceeding. Instead of entering into vigorous measures to suppress now and for all time to come these Indian depredations, the same old policy will probably be pursued of sending a few regular troops into the forests to make a show of fighting, in the expectation of frightening these Indians into submission. A more ridiculous idea was never entertained by sensible men. The Indians of this region are not only brave and warlike, but they possess all the treachery, cunning and trickery that has always characterized the North American aborigines. The men of the frontier, whose days have mainly been spent in pushing on in the van of civilization, are the only people who can cope with them in combat--who can meet cunning with cunning, and stratagem with stratagem. Let Uncle Sam call into his service, here upon the soil, these men, furnish them with their outfit, and pay them for their services, and six months will not have passed away ere Indian wars will have been effectually done with in this section. And on the score of economy, the column of disbursements from our plethoric treasury will foot up much smaller than in the more expensive and absurd mode of employing regular troops in this species of warfare. For I know--and so must every sane man admit it--that the frontier man, with his deadly rifle, and other weapons, and his hard-earned experience, is worth twenty regulars, brave enough though they may be to march square up to the cannon's mouth in the battle fields of wars with Christian nations.
    At present, the people here are setting about providing for their own defense, as best they may, though they are by no means able to carry on defensive operations in such a manner as to hope for success unaided by government. And I look upon it as the first duty of the press, the people, and the representatives in Congress, of this whole Pacific Coast, to make this their most pressing demand upon the administration and before Congress, upon the score of humanity, as well as for what is due to us upon this side of the continent.
    Much has been written upon this subject, since the Indian wars in Oregon first commenced, and the opinions of military men, I am well aware, have been pretty generally made known to be in favor of employing regular troops in fighting these Indians. But in most of these instances, these opinions (expressed by Gen. Wool and others) have been given before having any active experience in their style of warfare. To anyone's mind it presents a plain question of common sense, rather than a problem to be demonstrated by military disquisition, and I look upon it as little less than criminal for military etiquette and nice quibbles to be pushed into the debate, when the lives of American people, men, women and children are the simple facts at issue in all the controversy, and while the wrangling is going on, they are the helpless victims of Indian barbarities. So far as the question of first aggression on the part of the Indians or white men is concerned, I shall not argue it here. It is enough for me to reassert the well-known axiom, that the two races cannot exist in harmony together, and in an age of the progress of civilization, it is simply ridiculous to hesitate for a moment as to which ought to be made to give way. From my soul I pity the hard lot of the son of the forest, but I cannot stay the march of civilization in its westward course, and the supplications of the brave-hearted women and children, who follow the strong men that form its vanguard, when the brand and tomahawk of these wild beings are doing their hellish work, is a stronger appeal to my sensibilities, than all the sickly sentimentality that is lavished upon the poor Indian. But I must get "out of the woods," and go on to tell you of the country here about.
    After leaving the forest, we take to the sea beach, and travel for miles along the shore, with the roaring surf breaking at our horses' feet and almost deafening us with its incessant noise. Crossing the Coquille, New River, Sixes, and the Elk rivers, we journey on, to the southward. The miners upon the sea beach, at the present time, are not numerous, but I am inclined to think they are doing very well, in most localities. The day does not seem to have arrived, however, for successful beach mining, or rather, for the practicing of some method for saving the fine particles of gold with which the sands of the sea shore here unquestionably abound. When the inventive genius of our country shall have developed some mode of doing this, we shall then see what a literal golden strand is ours, and what untold wealth is scattered over it.
    I have spun out this letter to a much greater length than I at first intended, and therefore I will wind up here, though there is much I would like to say further concerning matters and things in this region.
W.B.F.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 20, 1857, page 1



Indian Depredations in Southern Oregon.
    A correspondent of the Oregonian, writing from Salem, under date of August 25th, gives further particulars of the Indian disturbances in Southern Oregon:
    "We have just returned from a ten days' march, in pursuit of the Indians who attacked and robbed Walker & Co.'s cabin on the 23rd ult., but have been unsuccessful in ferreting out the aggressors. We saw an abundance of fresh Indian signs, such as trails, deserted camps, etc., but were unable to get sight of the objects of our search. It is evident that there can be but little safety for either life or property in this region, so long as these Indians are allowed to roam at large, and the sooner they are captured and taken out of the country, the better will it be for all concerned, and the prospects of another general outbreak somewhat lessened.
    "The citizens of Galice held a meeting a few days since, and petitioned the Governor to adopt some means by which the impending danger may be avoided, and this section of Oregon, for once, relieved of a pest which has so long infested it. With a little exertion on the part of our government officials, these Indians can no doubt be captured. Allow them to run at large, committing depredations upon citizens and serving as scouts and spies for their respective tribes on the reservations, and the chances, which are already numerous, for the resumption of Indian hostilities will be greatly enhanced. We are waiting anxiously to hear from the Governor, and to learn the fate of our petition.
    "As our Indian affairs are again assuming a hostile aspect, it may be well for you to pursue the same course, respecting such matters, that you did in '55, so that the Oregonian may continue to be the medium through which the public may become advised of impending danger, and of the intervention of official dignitaries to avert it. It would not be in accordance with 'party usages' for the Governor to answer the prayer of the petition above referred to, nor is it at all likely that in this instance any deviation from the policy pursued in the management of the late war will be made. Another occasion is now offered for the re-promulgation of Gov. Curry's celebrated 'General Order No. 10.'"
    A correspondent of the Statesman, writing from Deer Creek, Douglas County, says:
    "This part of the Territory of Oregon has been and is infested by a lawless band of Indians ever since the last war, who go skulking through the mountains and cañons that lie adjacent to the settlements, frequently shooting cattle and horses, and robbing houses whenever a fair opportunity offers. About six weeks ago, Mr. Franklin Wright's house was robbed of a No. 1 rifle, one pound of powder, some percussion caps, two cwt. flour, two or three pairs of blanket &c., and on the 24th of July, Mr. Jas. Gilmore, a neighbor of Mr. Wright's living on the south fork of Deer Creek, about nine miles above Roseburg, unfortunately had one large American mare and two two-year-olds and one yearling colt shot. The shooting was done with arrows, as each of the colts were found having one sticking in them. The mare was found dead, the arrow having passed clear through the body. The colts were driven home, and the spikes of bone (which had been sharpened to a point) drawn from two of them, and it is supposed those two will recover."
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 10, 1857, page 1




Headqrs. Dept. of the Pacific
    San Francisco, Cal. Sept. 11, 1857.
Sir
    Brigadier General Clarke, commanding, directs me to enclose you a copy of a letter from Captain Stewart, comdg. on the Umpqua, and a copy of the instructions issued thereon to the Captain.
    Good results can only be obtained in the management of the Indians by officers and agents acting with the same view of their duties and the same interpretation of laws governing the reservations.
    It is useless to keep troops on the borders of reservations to prevent the Indians from leaving, if the Indian agents, who from their opportunities get the earliest and most reliable information of movements actual or intended, do not promptly communicate with the military officer, and the interference of the military is mischievous if the agent permit the Indians to remove or teach them to believe that they are not bound by law or agreement to remain.
    The General wishes you to inquire into this case, and do what seems necessary to enable him to carry out the views of the Department.
    Please inform Captain Stewart of your action.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        W. W. Mackall
            A. A. Genl.
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Indian Affairs
        Oregon & Washington, Salem, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 231.



Headqrs. Dept. of the Pacific
    San Francisco, Cal. Sept. 11, 1857.
Sir
    Brigadier General Clarke has received your letter of Aug. 5th, and is fully aware of the impossibility of your efforts being fully successful in keeping the Indians on the reserve so long as the agent then takes such views of his duties or keeps you in ignorance of the movements of the Indians.
    He has sent your letter to the Superintendent as the best means of explaining the subject fully to him, and has asked the interposition of his authority to correct the mischief.
    In the meantime, he desires you to prevent the passage of all Indians from the reserve and to send back any body of northern Indians who may come down without authority from the agents above.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        W. W. Mackall
            A. A. Genl.
Capt. J. Stewart
    3rd Art. comdg.
        Fort Umpqua
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, enclosure to No. 231.



Census List of Indian within the Siletz Agency
District Coast Indian Reservation O.T.
Bands Men Women Boys Girls Total
Shasta, or Upper Rogue River
    Old John's 36 58 34 44 172
    George's 52 85 42 43 222
    Joe Lane's 30 59 33 38 160
Treaties ratified 118   202   109   125   554
Coast Indians
    Joshutes 45 37 39 38 179
    Chec-coo 61 86 40 49 236
    Tututni 49 86 34 33 202
    Mikonotunne 35 48 20 26 129
    Coquille 82 106   59 68 313
    Port Orford 39 47 16 18 120
    Sixes 27 33 14 11   85
    Floras Creek 14 12   3   8   37
    Shasta Costa 32 43 19 16 110
    Euchres 19 33 15 17   84
Treaties not ratified 401   551   259   284   1495  
Total No. with agency 519   753   368   409   2049  
R. B. Metcalfe
    Ind. Agent
        Siletz. Ind. Agency O.T.
            22 September 1857
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon Sept. 24th 1857.
Sir:
      Enclosed I forward a claim of C. S. Drew amounting to two hundred and eighty-six dollars and seventy-five cents for supplies furnished for the Rogue River Indians in September 1853.
      Agent R. B. Metcalfe appends his certificate as having witnessed the distribution of the goods. Mr. Metcalfe was not at that time an Indian agent. The distribution was made by Agent S. H. Culver. I have no personal knowledge of the justness of the claim further than the fact that I was at the Rogue River Treaty of 10th of September 1853, and know that a large amount of goods were distributed to the Indians, and understand from Agent Culver and Supt. Palmer that they were purchased on credit from merchants at Jacksonville where Mr. Drew at that time resided.
Very Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 924-926.



Coquille River Sept.
    the 27th 1857
Col. Nesmith
    Superintendent of Indian
        Affairs of Oregon Territory
Sir,
    I wish to say a few words to you in regard of the returning of the Coquille Indians, of which you may be ignorant of. A part of the Coquille Indians returned to this river some few weeks ago, and the settlers have been waiting patiently for the removal of them. If they are not removed by government soon, in all probability the citizens will take it in hand themselves and if such should be the case I am inclined to think that the Indians will fare rather bad. The Indians as yet have not done any damage, but we know not at what time they may commence their depredations. We are not only living in dread of our property but our lives are also in danger. The whites are few at this time, and if they should commence their hostilities we would be as things are in rather a critical situation. It has been the opinion of some that the Indians has had encouragement to come or otherwise they would not. As for myself I am not able to say that they have been, but I know one thing: they are here, and they have and is creating considerable of excitement.
    It is a general wish of the citizens of this river that the Department look to these Indians as speedy as possible.
Yours in haste
    H. G. Saunders
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 244.



Fort Vancouver, W. Ter.
    September 30th 1857
Dear Colonel
    I have received your official letter of the 23rd inst. and take the liberty of returning a hasty reply. I thank you for the great desire you manifest to have the Rankin & Rudolph beef account paid and I now see from the extract you furnished that you feel restrained from paying or causing it to be paid until after it shall have been reported to the Commissioner.
    I am perfectly willing to take this course, though it may prove as protracted as a suit in Chancery! You know the boys at Washington are not of the "Young America" nor of the rapid order. They belong to the "tight barnacle family" and are all in the "circumlocution office"! They are principally engaged in a desperate effort of "how not to do it"! However, in this instance Townsend has taken up the beef. Cain has receipted for it. Townsend has legal affidavits of witnesses to the actual issue; Capt. Cain will duly report it to you, and I feel quite sure you will pass it along to the Commissioner in such a shape as will ensure its prompt payment.
    Am I asking too much when I ask you to recommend its speedy payment?
    You have doubtless received a letter on this subject from Gov. Stevens.
    Our commission expects to terminate its duties as such so that our report may go out on the incoming mail steamer. Capt. Smith will go to Washington.
    We, Col. Morris, Macfeely &c. would be happy to see you here.
    Col. Steptoe, commander of Walla Walla, is with me and would go up to see you if time permitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Rufus Ingalls
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem
            O.Ter.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 242.



Headquarters Fort Hoskins O.T.
    October 7th 1857.
Sir:
    I have the honor to receive this evening your letter of today, in reference to the murder by one of "John's" boys of a Siletz Indian, and requesting a sufficient force to enable you to arrest the murderer and to disarm John's band.
    Under the circumstances stated by you I cannot resist the conviction that your policy of disarming these refractory Indians is the correct one, and accordingly send Lieut. Genthy with a detachment of twenty-three men--all I have the means of mounting--and have thought that promptness would be perhaps as efficient as numbers. However, should you deem a larger force necessary--there will be fifty men there--Lieut. Garber has orders to send in the animals and I can send fifteen additional men.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        C. C. Augur
            Capt. 4th Infty.
                Commdg.
To R. B. Metcalfe Esqr.
    Indian Agency
        Siletz Agency
            O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1177-1178.



Siletz Agency
    Oct. 13th 1857
Dear Sir
    Enclosed please find a bill of clothing required at this agency for Indians the treaties with whom have not been ratified. Winter is now just approaching, and a great portion of these people are truly in a destitute condition and will suffer greatly if they are not clothed. I therefore earnestly hope you will send me the entire bill by the return of the Mathavassa
, or if she does not return send them by some conveyance that I may get them before the cold weather sets in.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 277.



Siletz Agency
    Oct. 13th 1857
Dear Sir
    About ten days since Old John and two of his boys started out with the declaration that their hearts were sick and that they were not going to stay here and die with sickness, that they had rather die by
bullets and were evidently going down below where I had two or three men sowing wheat, to murder them, when they met two Siletz Indians, drew their revolvers and fired upon them, killing one of them on the ground, and when I called upon Old John to know why he did so he said that it was none of my business; that they would kill who they pleased, and when I asked Cultus Jim (Old John's son) for his revolver John sprang to his feet perfectly wild with rage, drew his revolver half out and told Jim to keep his revolver and fight with it. I then saw that he was determined on another outbreak, and that nothing would prevent it, but rigid and prompt measures on my part. I therefore sent an express to Capt. Augur for a force sufficient to disarm all the Indians on the reservation. When the troops arrived I called upon John for his arms, but he refused to give them up. I then requested Lt. Garber to accompany me with his detachment of twenty-five men with the view of arresting John and Cultus Jim and taking their arms from them, but when we arrived in sight of John's house he and his boys ran to the brush, and we were only able to get two small revolvers, which were given up by those who remained at the house. We then returned to our quarters disgusted with our success. The following day Cultus Jim came down to a camp near the agency, when Lt. Garber and myself went down to arrest him. He refused to be arrested and after making a desperate resistance drew a concealed revolver, ran on the opposite side of his horse from me and fired at me the ball passed near my head at which moment Sgt. Clark arrived, and he, Lt. Garber and myself fired upon him almost at the same instant, all three of the balls taking effect, killing him on the spot. Since that time the excitement has died away and the Indians have given up nearly all of their arms, say twenty guns, eight revolvers and seven other pistols. The Indians have promised to give up all of their arms which I think will be done in a few days.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 261.  Metcalfe retold the story two weeks later in a letter to Joseph Lane.




Siletz Agency
    Oct. 15th 1857
Dear Sir,
    In my settlement with Orvil for flour I agreed to take that inferior flour at a reduced price, but I fear I have done wrong in taking it at any price. The most of it is tolerably fair, but about ten tons of it I propose to feed to stock this winter as it is unfit for Indians to eat. Now I most earnestly hope that is the last dealings we will have with them. They have caused me more anxiety than all of my other business since I have been connected with the Department. I will be in Salem on the 20th. I learn you have recd. funds and I am anxious to get enough to balance my account current. Please save ten or twelve thousand dollars for me. If you can, please pay Maj. Bruce; he is poor and has worked hard. The Indians are bringing in their arms every day. They brought in three rifles and two pistols yesterday and promised to bring two rifles and one dragoon revolver today. Everything is quiet now, and I think we may safely say that we have prevented an outbreak by taking this matter in hand before they were ready. The Indian that was killed is the man who struck the first blow on Evans Creek two years ago by murdering a man who was engaged putting up houses for them on the reservation and is the man who struck the first blow by killing Ben Wright at the coast.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 258.



    Proceeding from Washington Territory, through Oregon, the party, after a journey of several days, reached the Grand Ronde Reservation, situated 30 miles from Salem, and about 25 from the coast. Here they called a council of the principal chiefs, and held a long talk over the affairs of the various tribes. Here are collected about one thousand Indians, comprising a small part of the Rogue Rivers, the confederated tribes of Umpquas and Calapooias, the Molallas, Willamettes etc. Only about forty out of the whole number are engaged at any kind of work. Notwithstanding all the difficulties encountered, however, the agent has built nearly one hundred houses, and laid under cultivation some 2320 acres of land, which would have aided materially in supporting them this winter, but for the drought and partial failure of the crops. No difficulty, however, is apprehended, as there is an ample supply of provisions on hand for their support.
    At the council, or wawa, the chief complained of bad faith on the part of government, in not paying them their annuities, also of the bad climate of the Grand Ronde, where they say they are all dying. This is true to some extent, owing to change of climate and the prevailing influenza, which has assumed a very malignant form at this place.
    Proceeding thence sixty miles, by the way of Fort Hoskins, the Siletz Reservation was next visited. This is quite a new place, and contains the largest body of Indians brought together in either Territory, consisting of the Rogue Rivers, Shastas and Coast Indians, as far south as Rogue River, under treaties, besides various other tribes with whom treaties have been made, but never ratified. Unlike the soil of the Grand Ronde, which is of a cold and poor quality, the Siletz embraces some of the best land in Oregon Territory, and is but six miles from the head of the navigable waters of the Yaquina Bay.
    Here another council was held, and the chiefs told their wrongs and grievances, all of which the special agent promised them he would faithfully report to their Great Father at Washington. They are desirous of going back to their native valleys on the Rogue River, and are generally dissatisfied with their present location. The whole system seems to be a cruel and monstrous evil, but civilization must take the precedence, and there is no remedy for it but to treat these poor beings with kindness and humanity when they behave themselves, and with the utmost severity and rigor upon the first symptom of an outbreak.
*    *    *
    The same may be said of the murderers of Wright, who are now going at large on the Siletz Reservation, fed and clothed at government expense. It was but recently that they held feasts and dances over the scalp, and but for the heroism and daring of the agent in taking the scalp from them, they would have continued their orgies to the present time.
    The chief causes of the war, which formed the principal subject for Mr. B.'s investigaitons, may be summed up in a few words: Previous to June, 1856, no steps had been taken to extinguish the Indian title to the Territory of Oregon. Congress then authorized the appointment of a commission to treat with the tribest west of the Cascades. The Donation Act of Sep. 27, 1850 followed this, and took effect long before a single treaty had been made. The commission made certain treaties at Champoeg, but gave the Indians some of the best lands in the Willamette Valley. The settlers protested, and the treaties were never ratified. At this time, the Klickitats had conquered all the inferior tribes of the Willamette Valley, and held a sort of possessory right as far south as the Calapooya Mountains. They were driven north of the Columbia, and no recompense was made them for the deprivation of the rights which they had acquired by conquest. They united with the Yakimas, who were equally disaffected, and finally spread the war feeling among the Sound Indians, the Cayuses, and Walla Wallas--all of whom were more or less apprehensive of being overcome by the whites.
    Leschi, the famous Nisqually chief, made speeches throughout the country, among the various tribes, and went as far south as Rogue River, to gain adherents. He it was who invented the terrible story of Polakly Illahee, or the Land of Darkness--a fearful place where he said the white men were going to send all the Indians; where the sun never shone, and where the mosquitoes were so big that a single bite would kill the strongest man.
    The Klickitats crossed the Cascades and concerted with the Rogue Rivers, Shastas and other powerful tribes, a general plan of warfare. Upon this point Mr. Browne has obtained the indubitable testimony of the tribes referred to, in the presence of numerous witnesses. The great Chief John not only acknowledged the combination, but stated that when he made peace he sent emissaries throughout the other tribes, telling them to stop fighting, as he had determined himself to fight no longer.
    The treaty of the 10th of September was the first ever m
ade in the Territory which was ratified. Up to the date of the late war, no steps taken had ever been approved in the attempts to extinguish the Indian title. Under the Donation Act, which reserved no rights in the Indians as in the preemption act of '54, which followed it, the lands of the Indians were occupied and taken away from them without recompense. It was an unusual and impolitic system on the part of Congress, and to this may be attributed all the difficulties which have since arisen, and which have resulted in an enormous debt.
    Great injustice has been done the people of Oregon and Washington in the reports of the military made through the War Department. Whatever misconduct there may have been in individual cases, the great mass of the people were driven to war for their self-protection, and it is greatly to be regretted that they were not sustained by the chief of the military forces.
    The war debt is a just debt, if ever there was one; the commissioners have faithfully performed their duty; and it is to be hoped that the next Congress by its prompt action will rectify the errors of public policy which have resulted so disastrously, and make such liberal appropriations as may be necessary to liquidate a just debt, and prevent a recurrence of the great evils which have prostrated these remote Territories.

J. Ross Browne, "Indian Affairs in Oregon and Washington Territories," Pioneer and Democrat, Olympia, Washington Territory, November 6, 1857, page 1



    KLAMATH LAKE.--The company of prospectors attracted to Klamath Lake by the report of gold discoveries in that vicinity have returned to Jacksonville for reinforcements, and are making arrangements for another expedition. The Herald of Oct. 10th says:
    "They report very favorable appearances for gold, and also large tracts of arable and pasture lands. The Indians are quite numerous, numbering in Lalake's tribe some seven hundred warriors, and possess some fine herds of cattle and horses. They appeared somewhat dissatisfied with the intrusion of the whites. The company will rendezvous at Cottonwood today, for a return with about twenty additional recruits, among whom are Judge Snelling, of Yreka, Chief Lalakes, and several gentlemen from this place."
Sacramento Daily Union, October 19, 1857, page 2



Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon October 19, 1857
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by the last mail of acting Commissioner Charles E. Mix's communication of September 1st.
    The Treasury warrants for $105,683.67/100 were received and the whole amount will in the course of a few days be disbursed on account of liabilities already incurred for the last quarter. I am unable to comprehend why it is that I am particularly instructed to apply these funds for general purposes exclusively to the expenses of the 3rd & 4th quarters of 1857, while in Oregon Territory at least three-fourths of the indebtedness of the 2nd quarter remains unpaid, owing to the inadequacy of the former remittance for that purpose. Whatever excuse there may be for a refusal to remit funds to pay liabilities contracted by my predecessors, I have not been informed why the necessary funds for current expenses have been withheld from myself.
    The late remittances applicable to general purposes in Washington Territory will, I think, if peace should continue, be nearly sufficient for the purposes for which they are applicable, in the 3rd and 4th quarters of the present year but still leaving unpaid the large amounts of outstanding liabilities in the Territory, previously reported to you and contracted by the late Gov. and Superintendent Stevens.
    In Oregon Territory, however, things are different; large bodies of Indians are collected and guarded upon the reservations, and as I have frequently informed you they must be subsisted and in order to do so will require large additional remittances and at least equal to the estimates which I have furnished you. By reference to those estimates for the service in Oregon you will observe, to say nothing of the debts contracted by my predecessors, that there is a very great discrepancy between the sums estimated for and the sums remitted.
    The Department is very largely in debt in this Territory on account of the 2nd and 3rd quarters, and not a dollar of the present remittance will be left from the 3rd quarter applicable to the 4th.
    You must be aware that when payment is made for any particular service or article, that vouchers should include the entire amount of the specified service or purchase and that it is extremely difficult for agents to render their accounts at the termination of a quarter when the funds placed in their hands are only sufficient to pay a fraction of the expenses incurred.
    In thus remitting dribbling sums, applicable only to particular quarters and none other, you have inadvertently hit upon the most direct and certain method of embarrassing the different agents in their accounts and raising just complaints on the part of claimants because they are not paid according to priority.
    I have again to urge that funds be forwarded to pay off these liabilities. I can see no use in my wasting time to prepare estimates if they are to be disregarded in making remittances. I had supposed that they were intended for some practicable purpose and consequently spent some time in preparing them, which it seems might have been employed for some more useful purpose.
    I fully appreciate all that Mr. Mix says in his communication with reference to "economy"; at the same time I am unable to see the necessity of this constant reiteration of "rigid economy," while the Department is steadily pursuing the most direct means to defeat any effort of the kind by withholding funds and compelling the officers of the Department here to conduct the business on ruined, depreciated, and what the community have begun to regard as worthless, promises.
    There is no use in disguising the fact, the officers here are at the mercy of the community who supply what is bought, and no man furnishes supplies without taking the risk of being kept out of his pay for a year or two. To suppose that the laws which govern trade will make exceptions in favor of what is here a proverbial non-paying Indian Department is anticipating something not very likely to occur.
    When good and valid demands against the Department for supplies furnished and labor performed from one to two years ago are freely offered at from twenty to thirty percent discount, it can hardly be expected that purchases on credit can now be made as low as for cash. Besides, after this non-paying policy has forced and does daily force us to purchase on credit, and the supplies have been consumed by the Indians, it strikes me as a little too late to talk about ''rigid economy." Such economy is and always will be a burlesque on the term.
    While I have made every effort to retrench the expenses of the service, I am fully satisfied that to even talk of economy under the present credit system is a farce.
    The Indians, as I have before and so often stated, must be fed, and it cannot be half done. If their wants are not supplied so as to keep them alive they will help themselves, and then we will have war, open, bloody and relentless war, based upon "economy."
    The only means by which economy can be practiced here is first to inspire confidence in the Department by paying off the outstanding indebtedness contracted by my predecessors and since the expiration of their terms.
    If you have not confidence in the officers here and can trust nothing to either their honesty or discretion, remove them and appoint others in whom you can repose confidence, and furnish the necessary funds upon their estimates in advance of each quarter, which will enable them to pay for their supplies as they purchase them, you will then have a vigilant and efficient system at less than the present expenses.
    The greatest misapprehensions have existed at Washington in relation to Indian affairs within this Superintendency. Those efforts at "rigid economy" by the refusal of funds necessary to conduct the business have paralyzed everything connected with the Department here and have been the great moving cause of all our Indian troubles and expensive wars.
    Within the last two years the people of Oregon and Washington Territories, according to a report of the war commissioners authorized by the last Congress, have expended six millions of dollars in defending themselves and prosecuting wars against the Indians.
    It is estimated that during the same time the general government must have, in every way, expended four millions of dollars here in military operations, thus making an aggregate of about ten millions of actual expenditures here in the prosecution of Indian wars in two years, to say nothing of the destruction of life and property suffered by our people.
    There is no intelligent man acquainted with the facts but what believes that the greater portion, if not nearly all, of this expense might have been avoided by the judicious expenditure of a few thousand dollars in money (not promises) for the employment of competent agents, and to comply with the promises made from year to year by what the Indians finally and very naturally, came to regard as a faithless government.
    The expenses which have grown out of what I conceive to be the bad policy of the government in attempting this sort of economy is not its worst feature. The Indians have been rendered unmanageable and desperate; they have learned the art of war and are now conscious of their ability to pursue it and stand ready to enforce their demands by force of arms. The practical result of the whole thing has been to expend ten millions of dollars (and circumstances rendered the expenditure unavoidable for our protection) to teach the Indians what were their rights and how to enforce them.
    It is true there are and have been other heavy expenses besides, and in addition to the actual finding of the Indians my predecessors in this Territory had inaugurated a policy of making farms and putting up houses for the permanent homes of the Indians and with a view of making the reservations, as your predecessor had directed, "self-sustaining."
    When I came into office this policy had been inaugurated and was in operation but not completed, as it could not very well be for some time to come. To have abandoned the system then would have involved the loss of all that had been previously commenced at such a heavy expense. My judgment approved of the plan, always looking to the end of ameliorating the condition of the Indians &c., finally inducing them to raise their own subsistence. I, therefore, continued what had been commenced and made my estimates regularly for the necessary funds, cherishing what appears to be the vain hope that funds would be furnished at least to meet the current liabilities.
    My own official acts have been based upon a continuation of the system adopted by my predecessors and approved by the Department at Washington. Something has been left to my discretion, and I have exercised it according to my best judgment and in the manner I thought best calculated to promote the welfare of the Indians, as well as the peace and quiet of the country.
    Inasmuch as the expenses of the system is now a subject of complaint, and Mr. Mix sees proper to charge that, "in consideration of the large amount of those liabilities, it is apprehended that a proper regard has not heretofore obtained for that careful economy so often urged upon my predecessors in the disbursements for the Indian service in Oregon and Washington Territories," I do not know how soon I may be considered by the Department as liable to the same imputation.
    I therefore would respectfully ask the Department for positive directions and instructions as to the plan it desires me to pursue.
    I would particularly ask if it desires me to pursue the system of "economy" to the extent of discharging the employees, stopping the improvements and to discontinue the feeding of the Indians. In my various reports I have tried to show the necessity of carrying out my own views; if my official superiors entertain other and different views, they have but to indicate what they are, and I shall attempt their execution, with a full consciousness that my present difficulties and embarrassments cannot well be increased.
    Acting Commissioner Mix doubtless finds it an easy task sitting in the office at Washington to write about the want of economy on the part of my predecessors in the disbursements of the public funds (he should have said the want of them). Perhaps if Mr. Mix had occupied the place of one of those predecessors, he might have found more difficulty in the discharge of the arduous duties then than he now does in questioning their honesty of purpose.
    In his communication of the 1st of September Mr. Mix remarks that "it is perceived, from the enclosures in your letter of the 10th of June, that you have taken bonds from local and special agents." If Mr. Mix had read my communication of the 10th of June he would have "perceived" that I had not taken bonds &c, as I distinctly stated that the bonds were as I found them in the office when Gov. Stevens turned it over to me. I have known that my communications to the Department had been treated with neglect, but this is the first evidence I have had of their not being read.
    In relation to the "outstanding accounts," contracted by my predecessors, I desire to inform you that it is utterly impossible for me to comply with Mr. Mix's requirements in relation to forwarding statements of their necessity &c.
    In my instructions from your predecessor, bearing date March 18th 1857, I am directed to forward "estimates" of those outstanding liabilities.
    The estimates were made out upon the reports of agents and forwarded on the 17th of June, together with all the information that I could procure in relation to them. Now, after a lapse of lour months, I am required to forward a statement of the circumstances under which they were contracted, together with evidence of their correctness &c. You are aware that this Superintendency extends from the northern line of California to the British possessions and from the Pacific Ocean to the summit of the Rocky Mountains.
    The claimants are scattered over this immense region. To travel about in quest of the evidence you require would take about two years, which time could not be well spared from the duties of the office; besides, it would involve the necessity of additional clerks, which have been denied me, to say nothing about notary publics &c., to authenticate the proofs. I have given notice, through the newspapers, to claimants to bring in their demands to the office and can only forward them, with such proof as the claimants may furnish. As an illustration of the losses sustained by individuals by reason of the nonpayment of those liabilities contracted by my predecessor, I desire to state the following notable instance, which is a fair type of the class: Two years ago a gentleman of this Territory, by the name of Pritchard, advanced to Superintendent Palmer about six thousand dollars in money--actual hard cash--to meet an emergency in the service when the country was involved in war. Supt. Palmer gave Mr. Pritchard drafts on the Department at Washington for the exact amount advanced. Pritchard transferred the draft, and it was presented at the Department only to be protested, to the disgrace of the government. The drafts were returned here, and Pritchard has paid about sixteen hundred dollars, "costs of protest and damages," and now, after losing the use of his money for two years, I inform him under Mr. Mix's instructions that he can only receive the original amount advanced to Supt. Palmer, by submitting to the Department his "statement," in which its character, the circumstances, necessity therefor, together with evidence of correctness &c. &c., are set forth. When I saw him last he was deliberating on the question of economy and has not fully determined whether to abandon the claim and lose the entire amount, or risk more in trying to get a part of it back!
    Mr. Pritchard's case is not a solitary instance; hundreds of others might be referred to where men have advanced to the Department and have been ruined by the non-payment of their claims.
    Whatever culpability may rest upon Mr. Hedges by reason of his not furnishing estimates for the second quarter of the current year, the Department cannot plead ignorance of his acts in creating this indebtedness, as acknowledgments of his communications on the subject are on file in this office; besides, Mr. Manypenny, on the 18th of March last, after informing me of the amount of the different appropriations, says: "Of this last appropriation it is understood that a considerable amount will be required to pay outstanding drafts and settle up the accounts of your predecessors and other officers of the service."
    In Mr. Manypenny's instructions of the 18th of March, I was only directed to furnish "a statement of those outstanding liabilities of the service," without reference to evidence of their necessity, correctness &c. &c, questions which I suppose had been determined by the recognized agents of the government who contracted them.
    In conclusion, I desire to inform you of the fact that the people here are not disposed to make further advances of supplies at the risk of never being paid. Under this state of affairs, I have to request that I be instructed in relation to what should be done. I might perhaps be able to retain the Indians upon the reservations for a short time by promising about double the market prices for supplies, but even this expedient must soon fail; if the neglect to pay is longer continued, the inevitable result must be the turning loose of the Indians who are now being subsisted upon the reservations.
    If this course is to be forced upon me by the withholding of the necessary funds to purchase their food with, it is but proper that the people should have some notice to prepare for defense before three or four thousand starving and exasperated savages are turned loose upon them for the purposes of plunder and rapine.
    It will be barely possible, with the supplies accumulated at the reservations, together with what can he purchased upon depreciated promises, to retain them upon the reservations until your decision upon the matter can be had. I shall look for it with the solicitude and suspense naturally involved in a question of life and death to not only the Indians, but also to many of the whites.
Very respectfully
    Your obdt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 962-977.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, October 20th 1857
Sir,
    Your letter of the 2nd instant reached this office last night. In reply I have to say that I very much regret that you should have incurred such heavy expenses, and particularly in putting up houses for those Indians. Sub-Agent E. P. Drew has directions to proceed at once to Chetco for the purpose of removing those Indians to the reservation. Without knowing enough of your operation to approve or disapprove of them, the sending of a U.S. agent became necessary under the instructions from the department, as I am strictly forbidden to place funds in the hands of special agents for disbursement. Mr. Drew is supplied with a small amount of funds, and has instructions to pay off such expenses as have been absolutely necessary.
    I desire that you render Mr. Drew such assistance as is in your power; you will be compensated therefor and upon his report. The Indians cannot be subsisted anywhere except at the reservation. I desire that they should all come up; those who remain will do so at their own peril and can receive nothing in the shape of subsistence from this office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Capt. Wm. Tichenor
    Spl. Agt. Port Orford
        O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 84-85.



Oregon City October 20th 1857
Sir
    Last February, I addressed the Department in relation to a claim I have for services as Physician to the Coast Station of the Indian reservation, which accrued under the Superintendence of Genl. Palmer and Mr. Hedges during the months of July and August 1856. The certificate of Genl. Palmer was enclosed with the letter and included the whole time of service, as my report (by request) was made to him, though fifteen days of that service was rendered under Supt. Hedges.
    I have received no reply to my letter to the Department, nor have I received any pay for the services rendered.
    I write now to renew the request then made, that the pay for two months' service at the rate of fifteen hundred dollars per annum be forwarded to me at this place, or that Superintendent Nesmith be instructed to pay the same.
Respectfully yours &c.
    Alden H. Steele M.D.
        of Oregon City O.T. &
            Late Physician to the Coast Station I.R.
To the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1276-1277.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, October 20th 1857
Sir,
    You will proceed as soon as practicable to Chetco, Port Orford and other points along the coast for the purpose of removing such Indians as may still be in that region to the Siletz Reservation. Capt. Tichenor has been for some time acting as special agent for those Indians, and it is thought has succeeded to some extent in collecting them up. You will confer with him to assist you in the removal of the Indians, if you desire his services. Some expense has already accrued in collecting those Indians by Capt. Tichenor. You are directed to pay off such demands contracted by him as in your judgment are just and reasonable. It is understood that Capt. Tichenor is to look to this office for his own compensation. You are herewith furnished with one thousand dollars, which you will use with the greatest economy for the liquidation of the expenses of the trip.
    If upon your return there should be any demands created by yourself or Mr. Tichenor unpaid, you will report them to this office. You will also from time to time keep this office advised of your proceedings.
    In the event that circumstances should render military aid or protection necessary you will call for such aid from the nearest U.S. military force. In the event that all the Indians cannot be brought to the reservation, I desire you to inform them that they will receive no assistance from the government unless they go to the reservation.
    The temporary agency in the Port Orford district will be broken up when you leave them, and the Indians who refuse to go to the reservation will remain at their own peril.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
E. P. Drew Esqr.
    U.S. Sub-Ind. Agt.
        Umpqua City
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 85-86.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, October 22nd 1857.
Sir,
    Enclosed I forward proposals, and contract based thereon and executed by James O'Neil on the 21st day of August last for the delivery at the Siletz Agency of one hundred tons of flour for the use of the Indians there located during the coming winter. I would respectfully refer you to my communication of August 1st in which I gave you the reasons at length for inviting the proposals upon which the contract is based. The flour referred to is being delivered, and the contract will be complied with in a few days on the part of the contractor, and I shall not have a single dollar applicable to the payment, I have therefore earnestly to request that I be supplied with funds for that purpose.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.

NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 952-954.  Proposals and contract not transcribed.



Office Supt. Ind. Affs.
    Salem, Oregon, Octr. 23rd 1857.
Sir:
    Referring to your letter of August 20th in reply to mine of May 21st, enclosing the claim of J. C. Champion, I have to inform you that I have communicated with late Supt. Palmer on the subject, and herewith enclose his reply together with a letter from Sub-Agent Raymond.. Those papers contain all the knowledge I have of Mr. Champion's claim.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.

   
Tillamook Astoria District
    April 30th 57
Sir
    As an explanation to the accompanying account I would say Mr. Champion was appointed by me under verbal instructions from Sup. Palmer upon his ordering me to the Grand Ronde Reservation.
    It was imperatively necessary to have an agent there for the purpose of maintaining peace among the Indians. Flying rumors abroad would induce many to visit this place to ascertain their feelings towards our citizens, and not being acquainted with them or their language they were liable to become involved in difficulties which would be otherwise prevented by the presence of an agt. The account is just, & I would recommend it being paid at an early day, as Mr. Champion wishes to leave the country.
Most respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        W. W. Raymond
            Sub-Ind. Agt.
Col. J. W. Nesmith
    Sup. Ind. Affairs
        Oregon & Washington
            Ter.
   

Salem O.T. Oct. 22nd 1857
Sir
    Your letter of [the] 17th inst., with its enclosures, transmitting papers in relation to a claim of J. C. Champion for services as local Indian agent in the Astoria district, has been received, and in reply [I] have to state that I have no recollection giving Sub-Agent Raymond instruction to employ Mr. Champion as local agent.
    Mr. Raymond was instructed to repair to the Grand Ronde to take charge of  business at that point, and owing to the excited state of public feeling it might have been necessary for Mr. Raymond to designate some person to act as local agent for the few Indians in that district, but what he did do or not I have no knowledge beyond that shown by the papers transmitted by you. Mr. Raymond was doubtless a better judge of what was necessary than any other person.
    The item of office rent however appears to me to be an unnecessary expenditure, for there had been no business transacted in that sub-agency requiring an office during that part of the period charged for whilst I was acting as Supt. Ind. Affairs.
    The letter of Commissioner and that of Mr. Raymond with the voucher referred to is herewith returned.
I am sir
    Respectfully yours
        Joel Palmer
            Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
J. W. Nesmith Esq.
    Supt. Ind. Affairs
        Salem

NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1026-1031.




Jacksonville, O.T. October 31, 1857
Supt. Ind. Affairs, Washington T.
    Sir--
        I write to you for the purpose [of] ascertaining some information in regard to the payment of the claim against your department of Boyd & Blakely of $66, I believe, for "the publication of the notice of the Yakima Treaty &c. in the Umpqua Gazette." On the 6th March last I signed and enclosed to Gov. Stevens, then Superintendent, a voucher for the amount and afterwards received a letter dated March 27th 1856 from the Superintendent stating that our "account had been received and the account approved." And he says, "I have no funds on hand at the present time applicable to the payment of this account, but expect a remittance shortly. As soon as the necessary funds are placed at my disposal you will be apprised of the fact and the account settled."
    You will please inform me how soon the claim can probably be paid. Mr. Boyd has gone to the States, and I am authorized to collect all claims of Boyd & Blakely.
    I also wish to make the same inquiries in relation to the claim of T'Vault & Blakely for publishing some treaties in the Table Rock Sentinel, amounting to $150.62. The account was approved by Supt. Stevens, and vouchers were enclosed to us by him in a letter dated March 27, 1857. We signed the vouchers, and returned them to him. Please inform us when we may expect the claim paid.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Alex Blakely
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 276.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon, November 3rd 1857
Sir:
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of September 19th 1857 enclosing invoices of dry goods & hardware shipped per Wells Fargo & Co. for the Indian service in Oregon & Washington Territories. The goods have not yet arrived. I am informed, however, by the agent of W.F.&Co. that they will arrive on the next steamer.
    Those goods will be extremely acceptable, and will go far to relieve the most abject wants and distribution to which the Indians
here are reduced.
    They have long looked for their arrival, and frequently reminded me that their "Great Father" had forgotten that winter was approaching.
    On arrival no time will be lost in making a distribution of them among the different Ind. tribes. The forwarding of substantial
aid of this character has a good effect in convincing the Indians that the government exercises a fostering care for their wants, and that their "Great Father" has not (as they have often been told) concluded to "steal their country from them and leave them to perish from cold and hunger."
    Doubtless the files of your office go to show that the Indians have heretofore been recipients of
large favors of a similar character; I desire to disabuse your mind of such an erroneous impression. While I believe that late Supts. Palmer, Stevens & Hedges acted honestly, and gave the Indians what was justly their due so far as government had supplied the means, I am sorry that I cannot say as much of Mr. Anson Dart, who was Superintendent for the two Territories in the years 1851, '52 & '53, during which term a large shipment of Indian goods was made from the States, and of which I Indians had never any tangible evidence in the way of possessions.
    Indian goods such as blankets, clothing, hardware &c. at the time alluded to was, in consequence of the discovery of the gold mines, in great demand on this coast, and it is a well-known fact, susceptible of direct and positive proof, that the said Dart sold in this Territory a very large invoice of such goods at from one to two hundred percent profit on New York prices. It is said that on the settlement of his accounts, a large balance was due to the government, which he paid over in cash, which he might well afford to do after realizing from one to two hundred percent profit on what should have been distributed to "Lo, the poor Indian"! and his family. How far the statement relative to his being in arrears, or having paid over the balance due the government, may be correct I have no means of knowing, as he has effectually covered up his tracks by taking all his accounts from the files of the office. In relation to the fact of his selling the Indian goods, I hold myself in readiness to submit the proof. I submit this statement for the purpose of illustrating the fact that the Indians have not received all that the government intended they should.
    In this connection it would perhaps be proper to inform you that Supt. Dart built on the Willamette River, opposite the village of Milwaukie, an office at an expense of about seven or eight thousand dollars. This office, which is an excellent one, has never been turned over to me, and I learn that the person upon whose "claim" it was erected now asserts his title to it.
    Inasmuch as the house was built at government expense, it might be proper to institute steps to ascertain who is the legitimate owner of the property.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Hon. Charles E. Mix
    Acting Comr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 102-103.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1114-1119.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, November 4th 1857.
Sir:
    Herewith I have the honor to enclose to you copies of bills of goods purchased by Agent R. B. Metcalfe from Messrs. Sellers & Friendly and A. D. Shelby, amounting in the aggregate to ($10.715.24) ten thousand seven hundred and fifteen dollars and twenty-four cents, together with Agent Metcalfe's letter of October 30th in relation to said purchase. I fully concur in all that he says relative to the necessity for those supplies for the Indians assembled at the Coast or Siletz reservations, and with whom we have no treaty stipulations ratified.
    These people are confined to the reservations, and never having received any compensation for their country, from which they have been removed, are totally destitute of clothing and the means of obtaining it. The government would scarcely expect its agents to stand by and see them perish for want of a scanty supply of clothing. These goods were purchased before I had received your letter of the 9th Sept. advising me of the shipment from New York; however, no loss will be sustained by reason of the purchase, as all will be required for the present winter.
    The funds which I have recd. from you and turned over to Agent Metcalfe applicable according to your instructions "to the 3rd & 4th quarter of 1857" had all been disbursed by him on account of expenses incurred during the 3rd quarter, which, as I stated in my letter of October 19th, left none of that remittance applicable to the 4th quarter. The consequence has been that the enclosed bills were purchased on credit, upon the strongest assurance that the parties should be paid therefor so soon as money for that purpose could be received from the Department, and I trust that the amount of these bills will be forwarded for that purpose, and in addition to the amount estimated for by me for the present quarter.
    By reference to these bills you will perceive that the goods have not cost more, as a general thing, than the goods recently sent from New York, including the transportation.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington D.C.
   

Salem O.T.
    Oct. 30th 1857
Dr. Sir
    Prior to receiving your notice that goods had been sent by express from the East I had purchased the enclosed bills of A. D. Shelby & Sellers & Friendly. The articles purchased were indispensably necessary for the Indians in my district with whom no treaties have been ratified; a large portion of these Indians are in a destitute condition, particularly the old women and children, many of whom are entirely naked and must suffer greatly. It has been my constant desire to curtail the expense of my district as much as possible, but humanity to say nothing of justice seems to demand that these poor wretches should be clothed at least during the inclemency of the winter season, and I am satisfied that all any person will require to concur with me is to witness the heart-rending scenes of misery and suffering that daily come under my observation. You will observe that there is but one blanket, one pr. pants, one hat and one pr. boots &c. for each of the grown men, and one blanket and one dress &c. for each of the grown women, and some flannels and linseys for the children.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1067-1072.  Invoices not transcribed.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, November 4th 1857
Sir:
    Herewith enclosed I forward the contract and bond of J. N. T. Miller for the delivery at the Grand Ronde Agency, in Oregon, thirty thousand pounds of beef per month for six months for the Indian Department.
    I also enclose the proposals of the different bidders for the contract.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Commissioner Ind. Affs.
            Washington
                D.C.
   

    I, J. N. T. Miller, of the County of Jackson and Territory of Oregon, in consideration of the subjoined covenants, promises and agreements of John F. Miller, United States Indian Agent for the Territory of Oregon, do hereby for myself, my heirs and legal representatives, covenant and agree to and with the said Indian agent in the penal sum of ten thousand dollars to deliver to said agent or his successor in office, at the slaughterhouse near the agency at Grand Ronde Reservation, thirty thousand pounds of good, fresh beef per month for the term of six months, to be delivered in quarters and all the offal thrown in except the hides free of charge. Said beef to be delivered in such quantities as the agent in charge shall from time to time direct at the price of nine dollars and five-eighths per hundred pounds. It is understood that it shall be optional with the said agent to increase or diminish the quantity of beef to be delivered under this agreement one third in each and every month by giving ten days previous notice to the contractor. The first issue of beef under this contract to be delivered on the 18th day of November 1857.
    In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 28th day of October A.D. 1857.
J. N. T. Miller
Signed in presence of
M. Davenport
Josiah Cooper
   

    We, B. Simpson of the County of Polk and A. D. Babcock, of the County of Polk and Territory of Oregon, do hereby bind ourselves, our heirs and legal representatives as sureties for the said J. N. T. Miller for the full and faithful performance by him of all and each of the foregoing covenants, promises and agreements.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this 28th day of October A.D. 1857.
B. Simpson
A. D. Babcock
Signed in presence of
M. Davenport
Josiah Cooper
   

    I, John F. Miller, U.S. Indian Agent in and for the Territory of Oregon, the above-named J. N. T. Miller complying with the foregoing covenants, promises and agreements on his part, I as such Indian agent do hereby covenant, promise and agree to and with the said J. N. T. Miller to pay him at the rate of nine dollars and five-eighths per hundred pounds for the beef mentioned in the above contract. The payment to be made when the necessary funds for said purpose shall be received by me from the Treasury Department.
    In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 28th day of October A.D. 1857.
John F. Miller
    Indian Agent
Signed in presence of
J. Rowland Sites
M. Davenport
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1120-1125.  Losing proposals of H. N. U. Holmes, William J. Beatty, Green B. Smith, W. G. Scroggins, William H. Musgrove, William Cosper, M. Weil, John L. Scoggin not transcribed.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Nov. 4th 1857.
Sir,
    Herewith I enclose an account of Alden H. Steele M.D. against the Indian Department in Oregon for two months services as physician at [the] Coast Reservation in the year 1856, also late Supts. Palmer & Hedges' certificates relative thereto.
    I also enclose the claim of Geo. Weber for services rendered [i.e., painting buildings] at the Grand Ronde Reservation in Oregon in 1856 for $452.00, the correctness of which is certified to by Sub-Agent W. W. Raymond, then in charge.
    As you will perceive from the date of these claims that they were contracted by my predecessor and are among the outstanding claims, I forward them for your instructions and entertain the opinion that they are just & should be paid. As I have promised to return the papers to the parties, I have to request that you will return them to this office, together with such instructions as you may deem proper.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. S. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Commissioner Ind. Aff.
            Washington
                D.C.
   

Dayton Sept. 29th 1857.
    I certify that Doct. Alden H. Steele was employed by me and served one and a half months as physician to the Coast Indians located at the mouth of Salmon or Neachesna River on the Coast Reservation, commencing July 1st and ending August 15th 1856 at the rate of fifteen hundred dollars per annum, and that he continued in that service under the jurisdiction of Supt. A. F. Hedges until the 30th of August, making two months in all, and that he has not been paid by me for any part of that service.
Joel Palmer
    Late Supt. Ind. Affrs.
        for Oregon Territory
   
Oregon City October 10th 1857
    I certify that Doc. Alden H. Steele served one-half month (from August 15th to Aug. 30th 1856 inclusive) during my Superintendency as physician to the Coast Station of the Indian reservation at the rate of fifteen hundred dollars per annum, and that he has not been paid by me for that service or for any previous service under Superintendent Palmer.
A. F. Hedges
    Late Supt. Ind. Affairs
        for Oregon Ter.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1131-1139.  Invoices not transcribed.



Corvallis O.T. Nov. 6th 1857
Mr. Elisha C. Bray
    Sir Enclosed you will please find copy of your spoliation claim which has been duly presented to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and forwarded to the proper department. I send you the original bill, which I copied in good shape just as it is without any change in prices.
    I do not know what disposition the Department at Washington will yet make of these claims. It is thought by some that it will require an additional act of Congress; at all events it will require a specific appropriation.
    I have made the same disposition of all the claims placed in my hands, to wit I have placed them before the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon and Washington territories with the understanding that he would forward them and also use his influence for the speedy liquidation of the same, which I doubt not he has done. Should any further action be taken I will inform you.
    My having been absent from home has prevented me from replying to your note sooner.
    I think these claims will ultimately be paid, but it may be some time yet. I have called the attention of our Delegate, Gen. Lane, to the subject. He has promised to do all in his power for the speedy settlement of them, and I presume he will.
    I send you this copy which you had as well keep; perhaps if additional proofs should be required it will serve you as a memorandum.
Very respectfully yours
    J. N. Smith
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem Oregon, Novr. 6th 1857.
Sir,
    Herewith enclosed I have the honor to submit my estimates for funds necessary and required for the Indian Service within this Superintendency for the first and second quarters of 1858. These estimates are intended for the expenses of the two quarters for which they are made, and not to apply to the large amount of outstanding indebtedness of the service contracted by my predecessors and myself.
    For the outstanding indebtedness referred to, and for the expenses of the present (4th quarter of 1857), my estimates have already been submitted but have not elicited the remittances called for. Doubtless my present estimates for the first half year will appear large. I, however, desire to impress you with the fact that they are as low as a continuance of the present system will admit of.
    It should also be borne in mind that much of the funds estimated for is intended to pay for permanent improvements, in the way of opening farms, erecting houses, mills &c. &c.--a species of expense not likely to occur again for many years, and I am satisfied that the expense of the half year estimated for will be double as large as it will be for any subsequent period of the same donation.
    The agents in charge of the Great Siletz and Grand Ronde reservations assure me that with the present crops, which are being put in and preparing to put in in the spring, will be nearly if not quite ample for the subsistence of the Indians after next harvest.
    In relation to the amount of these estimates, I can only say that the same is as low as the service can be managed under the present system, and it cannot even be conducted on the present estimates if the officers here are compelled to conduct the business on the system of credit. I therefore have to request that remittances be made in advance of the purchases and equal to the estimates; if this cannot be done the whole system had better be abolished at once and the Indians turned loose to obtain their living, as they will, by plunder and murder. Things under the present system will not admit of being half done; its utter abandonment would be preferable. I therefore have again to request that my estimates be responded to with the funds.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Charles E. Mix
        Acting Comr. Ind. Aff.
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1104-1107.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Nov. 9th 1857.
Sir:
    Herewith enclosed I transmit the claim of C. W. Walker for one hundred & fifty dollars for services as local Indian agent in 1856, I also enclose late Supt. Palmer's letter appointing Mr. Walker, and a letter from the latter in relation to his account.
    I believe that the account is just and would recommend its payment.
Respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.&W.T.
To
    Hon. Chas. E. Mix
   

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Dayton O.T. July 1st 1856.
Sir
    You have been appointed by the Supt. Ind. Affairs as conductor and local agent for the Indians now residing and to be located upon that portion of the Coast Reservation between the mouth of Salmon River and fifteen miles south of Siletz River, and extending east an average distance of twelve miles. The first object that will claim your attention will be the removal of the coast bands now encamped at Dayton to the mouth of Salmon River or in the vicinity or around Fresh Lake. And for this object you will take charge of the immigrating party and conduct them to that point. Sixteen ox teams, two yoke to each team, will be furnished at Dayton and if possible additional ones at the Grand Ronde. With this number it is believed you will be able to carry all the property belonging to the Indians, the old, infirm and helpless, and rations of flour for twelve days. Care should be used and allow the aged and infirm to occupy seats low in the wagon beds, and that they may not be crowded out by able and healthy persons and left to perish on the road.
    As soon as practicable you will correct the ration list and so arrange that each family will draw from the company the proportion of provisions to which they may be entitled instead of relying upon the chiefs to distribute it. The ration of flour may for the present be one lb. per day to each person, not including infants, and one lb. of fresh beef to each of the same class, together with a reasonable quantity of salt. The flour will be furnished you on the way and at Grand Ronde; from thence you will cause its transportation in the baggage wagons to your encampment on the coast. The beef cattle will be driven along by Mr. Fuller & Stewart and slaughtered from time to time as you may want.
    It is desirable to throw the subsistence of these Indians upon their own exertions & resources as far as possible and for this end you will seek to induce them as soon as they reach the reservation to contribute something by way of hunting, fishing, gathering berries, roots &c. The object is to locate those people at or near Siletz River, but for a first encampment and until the arrival of other bands they may be placed at any point deemed by you suited to their condition and the convenience of attention to ensure peace and good order.
    Lieut. Hazen with a detachment of twenty United States troops will accompany you to the coast, and you will cooperate with that officer in such arrangements relative to travel, encampments and the general government of the emigrating party as will best tend to promote peace, ensure good order and facilitate the removal of those Indians. Mr. Wm. Chance will accompany you and act as commissary and aid you in all proper duties. He will be regarded as assistant conductor and remain with you until further instructed. You will retain two yoke of cattle which with the wagon now at the mouth of Salmon River will enable you to transmit your supplies and do other hauling at that point. The balance of the teams you will cause to return immediately. Mr. Jeffries will be instructed to examine the country north of Salmon River. You will render him such assistance as to enable him to fulfill his mission.
    Should Capt. Rinearson arrive at or near your camp before my arrival you will inform him that it is my wish to have the Coquilles placed south of Siletz River--but for a temporary encampment it is not material as to the particular point. He will remain with them until my arrival or until further advised. The flour turned over to you has been purchased by direction from this office; you will therefore sign and forward me duplicate receipts and be particular in your distributions and secure accurate provision returns.
    You will call upon Sub-Agent Raymond for axes and other tools to use in perfecting the wagon road, receipting to him for the same. The beef delivered you by Mr. Fuller and Stewart as per contract will be certified to by you, showing the quantity slaughtered each day, and at the end of each month a certificate given by you of the aggregate amount used during the month. Monthly returns of provisions issued, properly certified to and witnessed, must be forwarded in duplicate to this office. You will keep me advised of matters at short intervals.
I am sir very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Joel Palmer
            Supt. Ind. Affs.
C. M. Walker Esq.
     Conductor & Local Agt.
         O.T.
   


Dayton O.T.
    12th Oct. 1857
J. W. Nesmith Esqr.
    Dr. Sir
        Accompanying this, I send you my voucher for one hundred and fifty dollars--certified to by Sub-Ind. Agent Raymond. This amt. is due me from the Indian Department. I last fall wrote the Commissioner at Washington on the subject; his reply was that had my account have been certified to by an agent he would have paid it, and now refers me to the Superintendent in Oregon. I hope if you have or are advised in this matter you will allow it to claim your earliest convenient attention. I have properly receipted the a/c, and if you see proper to retain the a/c, please give me some evidence of my claim in your reply--or if you see properly to discharge it by paying, do me the kindness to send by some safe conveyance.
    And if it will not too much trouble you, please pay Mr. Bush $10, say ten dollars--and also hand him the subscription price of his paper (Statesman) for one year.
    I was at Tillamook Agency last week; the Indians are in want of ammunition to kill fowl & deer. Mr. Raymond said he did not know whether to supply them or not, as he was instructed by you.
    I think it would be a kindness & mercy to the Indians that they be supplied with ammunition.
    With desire soon to hear from you,
I am dr. sir
    Yours very respectfully
        C. M. Walker
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1160-1168.  Invoice not transcribed.



INDIAN AFFAIRS IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON TERRITORIES.
    Our readers will be interested in a perusal of the following account of the present condition of the Indian tribes in Oregon and Washington territories. The information was communicated to the San Francisco Herald by J. Ross Browne, who has just returned from an expedition undertaken in August for the purpose of examining into and reporting upon the causes of the war and the condition of the Indian service on our Northern Pacific Coast--a duty for which he was detailed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. We select some of the more important portions of the narrative.
    Investigations were first commenced among the Indians around Puget Sound. Mr. Browne represents the Yakamas and Klickitats as the most formidable of the Cascade Range of Indians. They are now in a state of quasi-hostility; but there is no reason at present to apprehend an open outbreak. Of the condition of the country in that vicinity, he says:
    "On the road from Cowlitz leading to Olympia, the most depressing evidences are found at every step of the disastrous effects of war. Houses are abandoned and falling into ruin, the farms are lying waste, fences are breaking down, and those of the settlers who still remain have in most cases fortified themselves with pickets and blockhouses. This has taken place, too, in a part of the country somewhat remote from the actual scene of warfare."
    At the Puyallup Reservation, some 460 Indians are gathered. The visit to this place was made during the last days of August. The narrative remarks:
    "These Indians are a very poor and degraded-looking race, and are now suffering much from sickness. The same epidemic which has just passed through California has attacked all the Puget Sound Indians, and has caused many deaths. In some cases it assumes the form of an influenza, in others that of pneumonia and lung fever. It has been so fatal among the Indians on the Reservations that they attribute it to 'bad medicine' sent among them by the white men, and this gives rise to great difficulty on the part of the agents in controlling them. Some twelve or fifteen good houses have been built for the Indians on the Puyallup, but as yet they are reluctant to occupy them. Only a few acres of potatoes have been raised by Indian labor, and to induce them to work, even for themselves, the agent is compelled to hire them at the rate of $1 per day for each man. Unless partially fed this winter, they will either starve or quit the Reservation."
    Very little progress has been made in cultivating the soil at the Nisqually reservation. The Indians there are included under the treaty of Medicine Creek (the only treaty made by Governor Stevens which has yet been ratified); they consider that government is bound to take care of them, and will not work unless well paid for their labor. This system of paying the Indians for supporting themselves is very properly condemned, but it is believed that no remedy can be applied until all the treaties are ratified, and the tribes concentrated on one reservation, with a sufficient military force to control them.
    Among other places visited were the following:
    "At Port Townsend there were but one hundred Indians, of the Clallam tribe. There are one thousand one hundred in all at that point and Dungeness, when gathered in. The agent introduced the party to the Great Chief, the "Duke of York," who lives with his wives, "Queen Victoria" and "Jenny Lind," in a wigwam on the beach. The Duke was very drunk, and so were Jenny Lind and Queen Victoria--so much so, indeed, as to be incapable of holding a wa-wa. Another visit was made several days after, and the whole family were drunk.
    "The vices of intoxication are rapidly taking off the Sound Indians. In the cruise around the shores, whiskey boats could be seen at every point; but there seems to be no legal process by which the vendors can be punished unless caught in the act, and then no jury will convict the offenders. Repeated efforts have been.made to enforce the laws, but without effect.
    "Next visited Bellingham Bay. Col. Fitzhugh is Indian Agent at this point, and has control of the Lummas, Nootsacks, and Samish, numbering 1,252. They are peaceable and well-disposed, and gain a good living by fishing, hunting, and gathering berries. Colonel F. has been forced to retreat to a blockhouse for the preservation of himself and men from the Northern Indians. The hands work the coal mines during the day, but at night sleep in the blockhouse. A short time since, these Northerners came down in a large canoe and made a reconnaissance of the premises. Next day they sent word to Colonel Fitzhugh that they had carefully examined his defenses, and as he appeared to be a tyee, they intended to take the blockhouse and his head on the next visit.
    "The same Indians visited the picket fort, five miles from Bellingham Bay, and notified Col. Pickett, the officer in command, that they would soon take his head as a trophy, which they much desired. Col. P. found means to send them word that he would be happy to deliver to them any amount of grape and cannister, but that his headpiece was an indispensable appendage, with which it would be very inconvenient for him to part."
    Mr. Browne continues:
    "At the Squaxin reservation, on Klachemin Island, at the entrance of Budd's Inlet, several Indian houses have been erected, but no Indians are living in them at present. A small patch of ground has been cultivated, and a blacksmith shop and school established, under the treaty of Medicine Creek. No progress has been made in educating the children, it being impossible to enforce attendance; and apart from this, where presents have been made to induce the children to attend, they unlearn by night what they learn by day."
    One of the results of this tour among the Indians of Washington Territory was the discovery of indubitable evidence of the existence of a combination between the tribes east and west of the Cascades, as far as Southern Oregon, to kill the whites by one united effort, long prior to the Council at Walla Walla, and preceding the Rogue River war of 1853. In summing up all the testimony obtained by the expedition, the conclusion is irresistible that unless the pending treaties are ratified, and some speedy effort made to concentrate and conciliate the Indians, another war is liable at any time to break out.
    The expedition proceeded from Washington Territory, overland through Oregon, and in regard to the Indian population of the latter Territory, we have the following:
    "At the Grand Ronde Reservation, situated 30 miles from Salem, and about 25 from the coast, a council of the principal chiefs was called, and a long talk held over the affairs of the various tribes. Here are collected about 1,000 Indians, comprising a small part of the Rogue Rivers, the confederated tribes of Umpquas and Callapooias, the Molallas, Willamettes, etc. Only about forty out of the whole number are engaged at any kind of work. Notwithstanding all the difficulties encountered, however, the agent has built nearly one hundred houses, and laid under cultivation some 2,320 acres of land, which would have aided materially in supporting them this winter, but for the drought and partial failure of the crops. No difficulty, however, is apprehended, as there is an ample supply of provisions on hand for their support.
    "At the council, or wa-wa, the chief complained of bad faith on the part of the government, in not paying them their annuities; also of the bad climate of the Grand Ronde, where they say they are all dying. This is true to some extent, owing to change of climate and the prevailing influenza, which has assumed a very malignant form at this place.
    "Proceeding thence sixty miles, by the way of Fort Hoskins, the Siletz Reservation was next visited. This is quite a new place, and contains the largest body of Indians brought together in either Territory, consisting of the Rogue Rivers, Shastas, and Coast Indians, as far south as Rogue River, under treaties, besides various other tribes with whom treaties have been made, but never ratified. Unlike the soil of the Grand Ronde, which is of a cold and poor quality, the Siletz embraces some of the best land in Oregon Territory, and is but six miles from the head of the navigable waters of Yaquina Bay."
Sacramento Daily Union, October 16, 1857, page 3



    UTAH.--Late advices represent that a large Mormon force under Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball were to leave Salt Lake City, well supplied with provisions and ammunition, for a campaign eastward to cut off and destroy the United States troops in some of the narrow mountain passes, in some of which, it is said, ten men could cope successfully with one hundred and fifty soldiers. Many of the Indian tribes of Southern Oregon and Utah were secretly preparing to join the Mormon forces.
Raftsman's Journal, Clearfield, Pennsylvania, November 11, 1857, page 2



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Novr. 13th 1857
Sir
    Acknowledging the receipt of yours of Oct. 31st in reply I have to inform you that there is nothing on file in this office in relation to the claim of "Boyd & Blakely" against the late Washington Territory Superintendency.
    When late Gov. & Supt. Stevens turned over the office to me in Washington Territory, among other claims was one for $150.62 in favor of "T'Vault & Blakely for advertising." This claim, in accordance with instructions from the Commissioners of Indian Affrs., was forwarded to Washington City with all similar claims on file in this office on the 21st of October last; they will be investigated in the Commissioner's office and you will be notified of the result as soon as I receive the Commissioner's instructions on the subject.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
To
    Alexander Blakely Esqr.
        Jacksonville
            O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, page 112.



Jacksonville Nov. 13th / 57
To Genl. J. W. Nesmith
    Friend Nesmith
Since I came to this place I have had considerable information from men who have been out prospecting the mountains about Goose & Klamath lakes. All of them report a large quantity of Indians in that vicinity, one tribe known as Modocs and a tribe known as Lalakes. The latter consist of over seven hundred warriors, all of whom are in Oregon Territory as well as some of the former. All of them at present are friendly and are well disposed to the whites, but as yet no treaties have been made with them, and they are not willing for the whites to come amongst [them] and settle in their country.
    This country is very extensive and abounds in great quantities of fish & game of various kinds. Those Indians are living in two large valleys about one hundred miles & due east from Jacksonville. They have a fine country of good land equal if not superior to any in Oregon. There is also two large lakes, running north and south from seventy-five to one hundred [miles] long, and about twenty wide. The land bordering on these lakes is very fine and covered with the best kind of bunchgrass. It is also well watered with small streams emptying into those lakes from the adjacent mountains.
    La Lake
[also written Leylek or Lalek] is the chief of seven hundred warriors. He has lived at Oregon City and speaks the jargon well. Mr. Kershaw and Judge Snelling conversed with him and he informed them he would resist the attempt of the whites to settle on his lands until some kind of a bargain was made for his land by the Big Chief of whom he seems to have a tolerable fair idea of. Mr. Snelling thinks that a large emigration will most likely settle out at those lakes next summer, and is also of the opinion that gold will be found on the streams emptying into the lakes.
    I give you those items so that if it is in your power to prevent another Indian war next summer you can do so, for I am damned sure I am tired of them, for as sure as the whites begins to go in amongst those Indians there will be a big war.
    Your own good judgment will suggest what could be done to save a row next summer so I shall say nothing further on this subject.
    The election in this county went off quite quietly. This county will [give] a pro-slavery majority of about seventy and about thirty or less for the [state] constitution. The returns are not quite all in or I would send you them.
Yours &c.
    J. K. Lamerick
That letter to the Tribune has played hell here with the B. Republicans. They are all sore as hell about it.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 289.



Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, November 15th 1857
Sir
    Herewith enclosed I have the honor to transmit forty claims for spoliations committed by Indians in Oregon Territory, which amount in the aggregate to the sum of sixty-three thousand one hundred and sixteen 24/100 dollars as per schedule herewith enclosed. Many of these claims as you will observe are defective in form & not well substantiated as to proof, and, referring thereto, would suggest that a commission be appointed to audit those claims at as early a period as practicable. The justice of, and necessity for, such action must appear obvious, when it is considered that the longer they delay the more difficult will it be to adjust those claims, in consequence of deaths & removals of principals and witnesses. Many, very many, of these claimants have been utterly ruined by their losses thus sustained & not a few of them have in consequence become objects of charity. They were mostly persons living on the outskirts of the settlements, persons who are ever the first to take the lead in preparing the wilderness for the abode of civilization; poor men who vainly fancied themselves secure in their efforts to make a home for their little ones, and a shelter for themselves against the rude blasts of age & infirmity. The abject poverty & patient suffering of this truly meritorious class of claimants is continually being pressed on my notice by their almost daily visits to this office seeking information as to whether Congress is likely to do anything for their relief this winter or not. I have been only able to assure them that their claims would be forwarded to the Department in time for the action of Congress thereon, and have buoyed them up with the hope that an appropriation would be granted by a generous government for their relief.
    I would therefore earnestly recommend that a commission be appointed for the early adjustment of these claims, whether an appropriation for their payment is secured or not, which measure would be a saving of much trouble to the Department, as well as a source of satisfaction to the poor claimants to know that their claims were at least recognized by their government.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington D.C.
   

Schedule of spoliation claims against hostile Indians in Oregon Territory filed in the office of the Superintendent and forwarded to the Commissioner Ind. Affrs. November 15th 1857.
No. Name of Claimant Name of Tribe that Committed the Depredation     Amount
  1 Wm. Tichenor & S. Landry Rogue River Indians $8476.80
  2 John K. Jones decd.      "          "     & Cow Creek   Do. 3967.00
  3 A. Morrison Hostile bands of Indians 3492.50
  4 D. W. Stearns Cow Creek, Grave Creek & R.R. Indians 2354.00
  5 Alexander McNary Rogue River Indians 5196.50
  6 Wm. A. Lynch      "          "        Do. 3715.00
  7 J. S. Wells Cow Creek      Do. 1531.75
  8 James H. Beam Umpqua           Do. 1034.00
  9 Northcote Brothers       "       & Cow Creek Do. 4210.00
10 Hiram Smith                       "         "     Do. 2968.00
11 Martin Combs                       "         "     Do. 7466.00
12 John Yokum                       "         "     Do. 1720.00
13 E. Croxton                       "         "     Do. 1008.25
14 H. H. Conily Rogue River Indians 1000.00
15 Joseph Knott      "          "        Do. 2094.65
16 Oliver P. Robbins      "          "        &  Cow Creek   Do. 995.50
17 John P. Ladd      "          "        &     "          "       Do. 921.75
18 B. E. Simmons      "          "                "          "       Do. 900.00
19 Wm. Hutson Umpqua           -        -                 Do. 834.50
20 John V. Pinkerton Cow Creek & Grass Creek        Do. 738.00
21 W. H. Packwood Coquille Indians                           - 600.00
22 H. P. Barron Rogue River    Do. 590.00
23 M. & E. Walker      "          "        Do. 450.00
24 Allen Embrie Umpqua    -      Do. 567.75
25 John P. Walker Rogue River    Do. 500.00
26 Israel L. Clark Tillamook        Do. 475.05
27 Austin Rice Rogue River & Cow Creek    Do. 474.50
28 Granville Naylor      "          "            -         -        Do. 398.62
29 J. G. Malcolm Coquille               -         -        Do. 355.00
30 W. H. Packwood Rogue River                            Do. 200.00
31 B. F. McKern      "          "                                Do. 300.00
32 H. B. Oatman      "          "                                Do. 300.00
33 John P. Ladd      "          "                                Do. 300.00
34 Jos. Russel Cow Creek                               Do. 268.75
35 R. H. Beaman Rogue River                            Do. 120.50
36 Matthew Nolan Coquille                                   Do. 125.00
37 T. J. Sharp Chetco                                     Do. 156.00
38 Peter Dougherty Coquille                                   Do. 155.87
39 Wm. White       "                                          Do. 80.00
40 Wm. Bragg Cow Creek                              Do.     75.00
Total   $63,116.24
J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
        Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem Oregon Nov. 15th 1857
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 114-115.



Report
on the condition
of the
Indian Reservations
in the
Territories of
Oregon and Washington,
from
J. Ross Browne,
special agent &c.
   
San Francisco, Cal.
           Novr. 17, 1857.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            By letter of May 1st 1857, you were pleased to direct me, under authority of the Treasury Department, to examine into the condition of Indian affairs in the Territories of Oregon and Washington. On the 15th August ult. I proceeded to carry your instructions into effect, and I have now the honor to submit the result, together with the conclusions at which I have arrived in reference to the present policy of the government towards the Indians on this coast.
    Accompanied by Captain C. J. Sprague, late of the U.S. army in Mexico, whom I employed to assist me in the laborious and complicated details of the investigation, and from whose experience of frontier life I have heretofore derived great advantages in my explorations of California, I arrived at Rainier, on the Columbia River, on the 19th of August.
    News had just reached this point, through Governor Stevens, of the murder of Colonel Isaac N. Eley, late collector of customs in the district of Puget's Sound, by a band of northern Indians, at his residence on Whidbey's Island. Great alarm prevailed among the settlers on the Sound, and it was reported that several of the families had fled from the vicinity of Port Townsend and were on their way to Oregon. Vague rumors also reached us of anticipated hostilities on the part of the Sound Indians.
    In view of these facts, I deemed it expedient to proceed at once to Olympia, by way of the Cowlitz, so as to ascertain at headquarters the exact condition of affairs in that part of the Territory. At the Cowlitz Landing, thirty miles from the mouth of the river, the first symptoms of alarm were apparent. Several of the Indians from that vicinity had left to visit the tribes of the Upper Cowlitz, and it was supposed that this was done with a view of concerting some plan of operations against the whites with the Yakimas, who have been in a disaffected condition since the late war. I could not perceive that there was any substantial ground for alarm. These tribes frequently interchange visits, especially at this season of the year.
    It was painfully apparent, however, that the disastrous results of the late war had engendered a feeling of suspicion and insecurity greatly militating against any friendly relations between the settlers and the Indians throughout the Territory. Although there was really no connection between the murder of Colonel Eley and the condition of the tribes inhabiting the Territory, yet so great was the shock produced by this tragic event that the most trivial occurrences were at once magnified into premonitions of further bloodshed.
    On the road from the Cowlitz Landing to Olympia, a distance of fifty miles, the whole country bears distressing evidences of the disastrous effects of the late war. In 1854, when I first passed through this region, it abounded in fine farms, well cultivated and bearing luxuriant crops of grain. Immigration was rapidly filling up all the vacant lands, and large herds of stock were grazing upon the prairies. From the signs of prosperity then apparent, it was not unreasonable to predict that in the course of three years the products and population would be more than doubled. But notwithstanding this region was exempt from any actual collision with the Indians, the effects are nearly the same as in other parts of the Territory. All along the road houses are deserted and going to ruin; fences are cast down and in a state of decay' fields, once waving with luxuriant crops of wheat, are desolate, and but little, if any, stock is to be seen on the broad prairies that formerly bore such inspiring evidences of life. The few families that remained, either from necessity or inclination, were forced to erect rude blockhouses for their defense, into which they gathered by night during the hostilities, in constant apprehension of attack. These rude defenses still stand at intervals along the road. I mention these facts with a view of showing that, so far at least, the "war speculation" charged upon the settlers of Washington Territory presents an unprofitable appearance.
    Within two miles of Olympia we met several wagons on their way towards Oregon, carrying the families of Messrs. Pettigrew and Hastings out of the country, on the alleged ground of insecurity, arising from the recent hostilities of the northern Indians.
    On the 22nd of August, at noon, we arrived at Olympia, the capital of the Territory. Governor Stevens, from whom I hoped to obtain much valuable information, had not yet returned from Oregon, and acting Governor Mason, accompanied by the Indian agent for this district (Captain M. T. Simmons), had gone down in a canoe to Port Townsend and Bellingham Bay to inquire into the facts connected with the murder of Col. Eley and take such measures as might be in their power for the protection of the citizens against further encroachments.
    The canoes were all absent, and no means of conveyance by water could be had at Olympia. We were so fortunate, however, as to meet with Capt. Hyde, of the United States revenue cutter Jefferson. Davis, who had just come down to Steilacoom with a number of prisoners from Port Townsend. The cutter lay at anchor at the port of Steilacoom. On the morning of the 24th Sept, we started on horseback for that place, which we reached by noon. The distance by land from Olympia is 22 miles. Dense forests abound along the entire route, and except on the trail the country is nearly impassable from the thick undergrowth and fallen timber. Extensive fires have occurred this year on the shores of the Sound, so that the atmosphere is filled with smoke, and it is difficult to see more than a mile or two in any direction.
    Situated on the edge of a beautiful prairie, at the distance of a mile from the port of Steilacoom, is the military post of that name, which by invitation of the officers we made our headquarters during our stay. This port is the largest and most important on Puget's Sound, and during the late war the forces stationed there did good service against the Indians.
    Another post was established during the war at Muckleshoot, a point in the interior, about 25 miles from Steilacoom. At that station were collected some 300 of the most troublesome Indians, consisting of the Upper Puyallups, the Nooscoopes and Green River Indians. These tribes still reside in that vicinity, but it has been deemed unnecessary to continue the military force at the post, and by direction of Col. Casey, the commanding officer of the division, it has been abandoned. Lieut. McKibbin built some very comfortable quarters at Muckleshoot and made other valuable improvements. As Col. Casey has expressed his readiness to turn over these improvements to the Indian Department, I would suggest that application be made to him, through the War Department, to that effect.
    The valley of the Muckleshoot is admirably situated for a local agency. The Indians of this valley were amongst the number concerned in the Green and White River massacres at the beginning of the war, and unless some supervision is kept over them they may, from their proximity to the Yakimas and Klickitats, produce great trouble in future.
    Two claims had been taken at Muckleshoot when the post was established. The claimants were bought off. But when the post was abandoned they came back and took new claims, and now they hold that they have acquired a legal right to the land, of which they cannot be deprived. Of course this is a mere speculation, and the position assumed by the claimants is altogether untenable.
PUYALLUP RESERVATION.
    August 25th. After a ride of ten miles from Fort Steilacoom, reached a sawmill situated near the head of Commencement Bay. The trail is rough and passes through a dense growth of timber. In consequence of the tide being out, we were unable to cross in a canoe to the reservation, which is on the opposite side of the bay, a few miles below the sawmill. Tied our horses and took a foot trail, which led us a round of five miles.
    The Puyallup Reservation, established under the treaty of Medicine Creek, is situated on the Puyallup River, 1½ miles from Commencement Bay and 10 miles by water from Steilacoom. The land is low and marshy and comprises a few spots of open prairie valuable chiefly for grazing purposes.
    At the headquarters we found the local agent and blacksmith. .About 50 Indians, chiefly women and children, were on the reservation. The remainder, said to number 400, were represented to be out fishing and gathering berries, which is their habit at this season of the year. The improvements consist of the following frame buildings, erected by contract since January last:
    1 main house for employees, containing six rooms, painted outside, 1 story high, surrounded by a picket fence--cost $680.
    12 Indian houses, 18x30, built of rough boards containing 2 apartments each. Contract price $215 each, inclusive of lumber and shingles.
    As yet it has not been practicable to induce the Indians to live in these houses, with the exception of two or three families. Like all other tribes on this coast, they prefer temporary wigwams, which they can move about at pleasure. Their chief objection to houses is the vermin, which from their filthy habits soon become such a nuisance as to render the houses uninhabitable. It is hoped, however, that during the rainy season, when this nuisance becomes abated, they will avail themselves of the shelter afforded by good and substantial buildings.
    Taking into consideration the difficulty of procuring labor at these remote points, the high wages paid to mechanics, and the inconveniences of living generally, I do not consider the above contract prices unreasonable--especially as the contractors have not yet been paid, and as there seems to be but a remote chance of their getting their money for some years to come.
    About 2 miles above the quarters, a patch of ground, consisting of about 18 acres of good bottom land, has been fenced in, and a crop of vegetables raised upon it by Indian labor. Potatoes, peas, cabbage, turnips, beets and carrots succeed admirably in this soil. The probability is that next season, when it is expected a large quantity of ground will be put in cultivation, a sufficient supply of vegetables will be raised for the use of all the Indians on the reservation.
    It is not likely that any of them will suffer from the want of food. Fish are very abundant in the Puyallup River, and inexhaustible quantities of berries are found in the neighboring woods.
    Some of the Indians hire out to settlers at $1 per day. They can always obtain work at good wages. This season they cut, under the superintendence of the agent, about 70 tons of hay, which they have sold at a good price.
    Upon representations that private claimants owned the whole, or greater part of this reservation under the donation and preemption laws, I took occasion to inquire into the facts, and the conclusion at which I arrived was that most of the claimants had abandoned their claims and taken up others before the reservation was established there. Enclosed, marked A, is a copy of the report made on this subject by the commissioners appointed by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs to determine the extent and value of these claims.
    I dissent from their conclusions on the following grounds.
    1st. The Wrights had abandoned their claims and taken up others.
    2nd. The other donation claims are not defined as to their boundaries, and the provisions of the donation act, requiring actual residence and improvement, have not been complied with.
    3rd. Under the 10th section of the preemption act of Sept. 4th 1841, extended to Oregon July 17th 1854, the government reserves to itself the control of all public lands to which the Indian title has not been extinguished. Previous to the establishment of this reservation, the Indian title had never been extinguished to any part of the Territory of Washington, and no preemption rights can exist prior to such extinguishment. Hence all these 160-acre claims are null and void and the claimants, never having paid for them, are not entitled to compensation even upon principles of equity.
NISQUALLY RESERVATION .
    August 26th. Visited this reservation. Distance from Steilacoom 12 miles. Situated on the Nisqually River, six miles from its mouth & 12 miles from Olympia.
    Here we found the farmer and interpreter employed under the treaty of Medicine Creek.
    5 frame houses have been built by contract for the Indians, at $1100 for the whole. They are good board houses, rough but well built. The price is reasonable. Commenced Feb. 13th 1857.
    1 log house built by the employees, in which they reside.
    1 log hay barn.
    One field of 20 acres has been fenced in, and 9 acres of peas raised upon it this season. Owing to the poor quality of the land and the drought this summer, the crop was a failure. The remainder of the field has been plowed to plant with wheat this fall.
    In the river bottom bordering on the Nisqually about 10 acres of potatoes have been planted by the Indians. Except a few small patches on this bottom, cleared in times past by the Indians, the reservation lands are composed of open gravelly prairie, too poor even for grazing purposes. Nothing can ever be done to make this profitable as an Indian farm. We found no more than five or six families of Indians on this reservation. The main body of the Nisquallys were said to be out fishing and gathering berries. Those of the men who were not out were lying under the trees gambling. The agent appears to have no control over them whatever. He is compelled to pay them in clothing or other goods whenever they work, and they even refuse to go of messages on their own account unless paid for their services. They seemed to me to be a very lazy, worthless set, entirely insensible to kindness. The agent admits that he can do nothing with them. Any coercion on his part would be followed by immediate desertion. Once in the woods, it is impossible to capture them. In these respects, however, the Nisquallys resemble all the rest of the Sound Indians; they cannot be made to understand why government should take their country away from them and then compel them to work for a living. They say government deprived them of their natural heritage--now let it support them. If they work they must be paid for it.
    I do not anticipate any beneficial results either from this or the Puyallup Reservation.
FORT KITSAP AGENCY.
    August 29th. At intervals along the shores of the Sound are places of Indian resort where it has been deemed expedient to locate special or temporary agents, employed under the general provisions of the acts of Congress appropriating a fund for the restoration and maintenance of peace. These local agencies are called reservations, but are not so under any authority of Congress or the Department.
    The Kitsap Agency is situated at the head of Port Madison Bay, about sixty miles from Steilacoom. On our passage there in the U.S. rev. cutter, we were detained two days at the various intermediate points and islands in consequence of calms and head tides. But few Indians were to be seen at any of these places, the late depredations of the northern Indians having caused those of the Sound to seek the more secure retreats of the creeks and inlets.
    The cutter anchored six miles from the agency on account of the tides, and we had to make our way to the landing in a rowboat.
    Here we found the local agent, George A. Page, from whom we obtained the following information relative to the Indians under his charge.
    The tribes at this agency are the Suquamish and Duwamish, numbering 440. Not more than thirty were present.
    The Duwamish are stationed about 5 miles from the town of Seattle, near the mouth of the Duwamish River, and are under the charge of J. H. Goudy.
    H. O'Briant assists Mr. Page in controlling and managing the Indians of this agency.
    15 Indian houses have been erected on the beach--frame shanties, worth about $100 each.
    1 farm house has been built for the use of the agent, at a cost of about $200.
    No other improvements of any kind have been made. No land is under cultivation, and no work is done by the Indians.
    They procure their own subsistence by fishing and gathering berries. Except the sick and aged, who have received a few blankets and an occasional supply of coffee and flour, nothing has been done by government for any of these Indians.
    The employees live at public expense. They do no work of any kind.
    I can see no permanent good likely to result from the expenses incident to this system of partial supervision. All the Indians should be concentrated, as far as practicable, at some principal reservation, and compelled to work, and all white employees not actually engaged in active labor should be discontinued.
PORT TOWNSEND AGENCY.
    August 30th. Arrived here and had a conference with Thomas J. Hanna, local agent. This is a mere nominal agency, no relief of any kind having as yet been extended to the Indians embraced within the district. The tribes under charge of Mr. Hanna are the Dungenness and Clallams, numbering in all 1100. About 100 reside at Port Townsend. The remainder live around the shores of the bay and at Dungenness Point. At present most of them are up Hood's Canal engaged in catching and curing fish, clams &c. Until this year they raised good crops of potatoes on Whidbey's Island, six miles from the agency. During the present season they have been driven from their potato patches by the northern Indians, who make a practice of robbing and murdering the Sound Indians wherever they can catch them.
    The chief of the Clallams is the "Duke of York," once a powerful and intelligent chief, but of late very much debased by the use of intoxicating liquors. Accompanied by the agent we called to pay our respects to the Duke at his domicile on the beach. He lives in a large shanty, built of slabs and boards, within the limits of the town. On each side is a whiskey shop, from which he derives continual supplies. Within the past year he has scarcely ever been sober. We found him stretched on a rough bed, so drunk that he was incapable of noticing even the endearments of his wives, "Queen Victoria" and "Jenny Lind," who were sitting beside him, beating him as a demonstration of affection. A few days before, he had given Jenny a black eye and knocked a few teeth out of the Queen's mouth, and now that he was hors du combat, they were having a little satisfaction. Both ladies were exceedingly drunk. The Duke's brother was lying on the ground nearby, more drunk, if possible, than any of the party. We took our departure very much impressed with the scene. It was a sad commentary upon the morals of the white population of Port Townsend. From what I saw during my stay there, I formed the opinion that the Duke of York and his amiable family were not below the average of the white citizens residing at that benighted place. With very few exceptions, it would be difficult to find a worse class of population in any part of the world. No less than six murders have occurred there during the past year. It is notorious as a resort for "beachcombers" and outlaws of every description.
    Five miles from the town of Port Townsend is a military post, under command of Major Haller. He has had much trouble with the settlers at the town, who do all in their power to encourage desertion amongst the soldiers. So far as this post is designed for purposes of protection, it might as well be fifty miles from the town as five. It is of no use whatever and is merely an unnecessary expense to government. In a country so covered with woods and undergrowth that even the Indians are forced to travel by water, it is not likely that regular soldiers can be of much service on land. There is no fear of the Indians ever coming within reach of the fortifications. Their mode of fighting is more sensible and involves much less personal risk. When they contemplate an attack, they first reconnoiter the premises, and upon being satisfied of their ability to accomplish their object, make a descent at night and massacre their victims with impunity. Before the soldiers from the fort could reach Port Townsend, the town might be in ashes and every inhabitant murdered. One war canoe of sixty northern Indians could do it in half an hour.
    In expressing these views, I do not mean to reflect upon the judgment or energy of Major Haller. He is acting under orders and will no doubt do all in his power to render protection to the inhabitants whenever it becomes necessary. I fear, however, that his efforts will be unavailing in case of an attack.
TOM-WHIK-SON AGENCY.
    September 1st. Sailed from Port Townsend in the U.S. revenue cutter Jefferson Davis and arrived same day, after a fine run of six hours, at Bellingham Bay. The Tom-whik-son Agency is in charge of Colonel E. C. Fitzhugh, and is situated near the Bellingham Bay coal mines, distant forty-five miles from Port Townsend. On the route are numerous islands, thickly wooded, and affording excellent hunting and fishing grounds for the Indians. Of late the tribes of the Sound have suffered considerably from the depredations of the more powerful tribes from the north, and they have partially abandoned these islands for the more secure retreats afforded by the small rivers on the main.
    Under the charge of Col. Fitzhugh are the following tribes:
    Lummi, numbering 540, who live at the mouth of the river Lumma or Nooksack, seven miles from the town of Whatcom, at Bellingham Bay. Their chief subsistence is fish, shellfish, berries and herbs. They are well provided with canoes, which they manage with wonderful dexterity, and from the abundant products of the Sound and the adjacent forests procure, without difficulty, an ample supply of food throughout the year.
    Samish, numbering 300, live 12 miles below Lumma Point, and have excellent fishing grounds all about the islands and up the creeks. These two tribes are known as "Saltchucks," or saltwater Indians. In common with all the Sound tribes, who live mainly by fishing, they carry on a considerable trade with the interior Indians, whom they supply with marine products, in return for which they receive dried elk, deer and other game and nuts of various kinds.
    Nooksacks, 412, live at the foot of Mount Baker, distant from Bellingham Bay 96 miles. A few bands of the tribe are scattered along through the intermediate country, in which it is said there are some fine prairies. Three main bands are divided as follows:
    1. Those who live by the chase at the foot of the mountain.
    2. A band on Nooksack Prairie, 22 miles from Bellingham Bay, who raise potatoes and gather berries.
    3. An intermediate band, who come down to the shores of the Sound and trade with the "Saltchucks," and by whom the products of the fisheries are transported to the upper bands.
    During our visit to this agency we saw but few Indians--probably not more than a dozen altogether. As usual at this season they were all out hunting and fishing, or otherwise engaged in laying in their winter supplies.
    The agency was established in July 1856, by authority of the Superintendent. Col. Fitzhugh has resided at Bellingham Bay for the last eight years, and is thoroughly acquainted with all the Indians north of Port Townsend. He speaks their language perfectly and commands the respect and confidence of the various tribes in that part of the Sound.
    In the latter part of August 1856, a military post was established at Bellingham Bay, five miles from the town of Whatcom. The fortifications consist of a picket fort, with a blockhouse at each corner. In the enclosure are the quarters for the officers and men. Taking the cutter's gig, we paid a visit to this post and were much pleased with the neat and orderly appearance of the whole establishment. The officer in command, Col. Pickett, received us with great kindness and hospitality. He is determined to give the northern Indians some trouble in carrying into effect a threat recently made by them--that, having carefully examined his fort, they meant to take it and, at the same time, his head.
    These northern Indians have also sent notice to Col. Fitzhugh of their intention to take his blockhouse and his head. It would not be a very difficult task to carry the latter threat into execution. Col. Fitzhugh has only six or seven men (miners for the Bellingham Bay Coal Com.) under his command, and his blockhouse is only fortified by one howitzer and a few muskets. His chief source of protection is the fact that the Sound Indians under his charge are more afraid of the northern tribes than he is himself, and for their own safety they will always give him notice of the enemy's approach.
    No aid from government has yet been extended to the Indians under this agency, except a small quantity of flour to the sick and aged and a few blankets and cotton shirts to the chiefs. They usually work for what they require or barter fish and game for clothing and such other luxuries as they may fancy.
    As they are a peaceable race, well able to take care of themselves, I do not see that further expenditures are necessary for them at present. The agency, however, should be continued. There must be some head to control and protect them. As soon as the various tribes of the Sound can be concentrated on one or two main reservations, the necessity for an agency here will of course cease to exist.
NORTHERN INDIANS.
    All those tribes inhabiting the Pacific coast, north of the boundary line between the possessions of the United States and Great Britain, come under the above general denomination. There are various tribes of them, however, differing materially in their physical appearance and traits of character. Those of Nootka Sound and Prince Edward's Island are considered the most robust and warlike. They are all, so far as known, greatly superior in all respects to the Indians of Puget's Sound. Up to the time of the late war, they had been in the habit of visiting the Sound during the summer months and committing petty depredations upon the white settlers and the Sound Indians, in consequence of which a territorial law was passed prohibiting them from entering within the waters of the Sound. After this, whenever they were seen, they were ordered away, but unless there was some appearance of force to compel their departure they generally contented themselves by removing to some other point. In these excursions they come from five hundred to a thousand miles--sometimes hailing as far northward as the vicinity of Sitka. Their canoes are sufficiently capacious to contain from sixty to one hundred warriors, and are supposed to be the original models of our best style of clipper ships. In the middle is a large chest, in which they carry their muskets and ammunition. All their munitions of war are kept in the best condition. These war canoes, thus manned, are nearly a match for any equal number of whites that can be brought against them--so dexterous are these Indians in the use of their paddles and firearms. Their usual speed is not less than seven miles an hour and when pressed they can run from ten to twelve, continuing this high rate of speed for many hours in succession.
    About two years ago the U.S. steamer Massachusetts undertook to drive out of the Sound a party of these Indians, but they declined going, and made battle. It was deemed necessary to chastise them, and they were fired upon. Some five or six were killed. Since that period they have been heard to make threats of vengeance. The relatives of those who were killed were seen at Vancouver's Island for months after, holding lamentations and making war signs. They threatened to have the head of a white tyee for each of their number killed. From time to time after that they visited the neighborhood of Port Townsend in small numbers, bringing with them their squaws, and seeking work among the white settlers. This was regarded as a token of amity and lulled suspicion. Many of their squaws had been for years past living with white men in and around Port Townsend and other places.
    These disreputable whites gave employment and protection to the Indians who came among them, and in that way encouraged them to violate the laws of the Territory. Frequent petty difficulties arose between this class of outlaws, known as the "beachcombers," and the more respectable citizens who were hostile to the visits of the northern Indians. Nothing serious, however, occurred till the night of Aug. 12th last, when a party of them, who had been seen prowling around the shores of Whidbey's Island for some days previously, made a descent upon the premises of Col. Isaac N. Eley, and murdered that unfortunate gentleman in the most cruel manner. The crime was the more atrocious as he had never, in any manner, molested or offended them, but on the contrary, from a naturally kind disposition, had been in the habit of giving them food and clothing whenever they applied to him. The U.S. marshal of Washington Territory was one of the inmates of the house at the time of the tragical occurrence, and at my request has furnished the enclosed statement of the facts. (See letter marked B.)
    On the 3rd of September I crossed over to the island at Eley's Landing, and made a personal inspection of the premises. The house, a small log hut, partially boarded, was thoroughly ransacked. The furniture had all been taken away by the relatives of Col. Eley, and the place had the appearance of an utter wreck. A more desolate scene it would be difficult to imagine. On my return to San Francisco I addressed a letter to Capt. Farragut, U.S. navy, giving him a statement of the occurrence, with a copy of Mr. Corliss' letter, and urged him to send a war steamer at once into the waters of Puget's Sound. His reply is enclosed, marked [omission]. A copy of my letter to him will be found on file in the Navy Department.
    There can be no doubt that the immediate cause of this murder was the act of the steamer Massachusetts. That a vessel of the United States should kill a party of Indians, knowing that it is the custom of this race never to forget an injury, and immediately after take its departure and leave the settlers to bear the consequences, evinces either a want of regard for the common principles of humanity or unpardonable lack of judgment. For what purpose, it may be asked, are vessels of the United States stationed on the Pacific coast? Is it that they may lie rotting at Mare Island, where they are of no use, or that they may be used to protect the lives of the settlers on the remote shores of our frontier?
    But it will probably be urged provision has been made for a steamer on the Sound. The mail steamer Constitution is to be used to make battle against these warriors from the north. It has probably not been represented to the authorities in Washington by the mail contractors that the Constitution is an old hulk, fitted up for a special purpose, that she is unseaworthy and should have been condemned before she went to sea, that she was forced to turn back and refit again before she reached the Sound, that she makes but six miles an hour under a heavy press of steam, whereas a northern war canoe can easily make ten and thus run around her, that she has no guns, men or munitions of war, that she is, in short, no more use in the waters of Puget's Sound as a protection to the settlers than the loose lumber that lies around the sawmills.
    The U.S. revenue cutter Jefferson Davis can be made available at any time when the winds and tides are favorable. During the summer months, when these Indians commit their depredations, it takes the cutter about four days to reach Steilacoom from Port Townsend--a distance of ninety miles. She sometimes requires ten days to make the same distance. Under these circumstances, unless the war canoes come up under her guns, it is not probable she can do much execution among them.
    But another question arises in the consideration of this subject. Can our vessels of war go into the British and Russian territories from which these northern tribes hail and capture the murderers? The British Hudson's Bay Company have had no difficulty in maintaining their supremacy over these races, but they pursue a different course. Whenever one of their subjects is murdered they pursue the murderers, compel them to surrender and execute them on the spot. The Indians well understand that no matter where they may go they will be followed and captured and, so sure as they deserve it, will suffer death. Our government adopts a different policy. It sends up a war steamer to the Sound. This vessel drives out a few Indians, fires several rounds of ammunition into the trees back of Seattle, causes a general reverberation of large and small guns around the shores of the Sound, winds up by killing some four or five Indians, informs the settlers that there is no use in staying any longer, as the enemy have all left, gets up a head of steam and paddles back to Mare Island, where she rests from her labors for the space of one or two years.
    But then military posts are established. Pickets and blockhouses are erected. Officers' and soldiers' quarters are constructed. Daily parades take place. All this is done, without doubt. But the country is impassable. The woods and undergrowth form a barrier to land operations along the shores of the Sound more impregnable than the great Chinese Wall. I consider, therefore, that so far as any beneficial result is concerned, this expensive system of operations is worse than useless. One war steamer, of suitable size, and well armed and equipped, would do more good than the whole military force united, as it is now situated.
    I trust the attention of the War Department will be called to this subject.
PENN'S COVE AGENCY.
    September 3rd. Passing over from Eley's Landing on foot, we reached Coop's Landing, on the eastern side of the island, after a pleasant walk of two miles. There are several settlements on this part of Whidbey's Island, nearly all of which have been abandoned since the murder of Col. Eley. The land is exceedingly rich, and the face of the country beautifully diversified with woods and prairies. It is, beyond doubt, the finest agricultural country in Washington Territory. Notwithstanding its latitude, which corresponds with that of New England, the climate is remarkably mild in winter, snow seldom remaining more than a few hours on the ground. The great drawback is the rain, which lasts from four to six months, but during the intervals between the "rainy spells" the weather is delightfully mild and balmy. In summer nothing can exceed the salubrity of the atmosphere. Of course the climate varies throughout the Territory, according to the proximity of the ocean or the mountains, but in general these remarks will apply to the whole interior, or that part between the Coast Range and the Cascades.
    At Coop's a blockhouse has been erected, to which several families have retreated. Some ten or twelve soldiers, under charge of a sergeant, have been sent up from Steilacoom to protect them against further hostilities of the northern Indians. Great alarm prevails on the island, however, and unless further means are promptly taken to secure the lives and property of the settlers they will all be forced to abandon their homes.
    From Coop's Landing to the Penn Cove Agency is 6 miles by water. The Indians on the Cove had all gone out fishing, except three squaws, whom we found at the beach. Upon the assurance of Mr. Coop that they understood the management of a canoe as well as the men, we secured their services to paddle us over to the reservation, which they accomplished in the most expeditious manner, singing songs and enjoying various witticisms at our expense all the way over.
 At the Penn Cove Landing we found Mr. Robt. C. Fay, the local agent. This agency embraces the Skagit tribes, numbering about 1340. Formerly there were distinct tribes in this region known as the Kikiallus, Schew-daw-mish, Sko-naw-mish, and a portion of the Stilliquamish. Subsequently these became merged in the Kikiallus. The Skagits proper, being the more powerful race, subdued all these minor tribes, and at present they are mixed together and come under the general denomination of Skagits.
    At Skagits Head, 35 miles distant by canoe, under charge of R. S. Bailey, are the Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Suquamish, Stilliquamish proper, and a few minor tribes, scattered at large on the mainland. These number about 1600.
    No provisions have been issued to any of these Indians since the Superintendency was removed to Oregon. Previous to that period, a little flour was issued to the sick and destitute. Clothing and blankets were also issued by Supt. Stevens, but none since the appointment of his successor.
    These various tribes obtain an abundant supply of fish and berries. They also cultivate a considerable quantity of potatoes by their own unaided labor. This year they will raise about 1500 bushels.
    Much sickness prevails among them at present, chiefly consumption and venereal. The general epidemic which has scourged the whole Pacific Coast, influenza, has caused several deaths among them.
    The policy suggested by Governor Stevens in submitting the various treaties made with the Indians of the Sound was that there should eventually be one main reservation at Tulalip, an isolated point 10 miles northeast of Skagit's Head. No settlers can approach within a large scope of country, on account of the swamp lands and dense forests intervening. This range of country is watered by two fine streams, the Snohomish and Stilliquamish, which abound in salmon. At the point indicated are three claims. Instructions having been given to Agent Simmons to examine and estimate the value of these claims, he did so and reported that they were worth $8,000. On one of them is a good sawmill, to which a grist mill could easily be attached for the use of the Indians. I am of opinion the purchase could be made for four or five thousand dollars. The location is central and convenient of access by water. It is also sufficiently isolated to exclude the encroachments of white settlers. On the banks of the two streams above mentioned are some small prairies, suitable for cultivation.
    I fully concur with Gov. Stevens in the propriety of concentrating the Indians of the Sound at some suitable point at as early a period as practicable. They are now scattered from Olympia to Bellingham Bay, under a merely nominal control. No advance is being made by any of them towards civilization. An expensive system of local agencies is found necessary to supervise them and prevent difficulties between them and the settlers. At every place where they are in the habit of resorting are trading posts, established by a depraved class of white men who furnish them with whiskey. Boatloads of whiskey follow them wherever they go. The agents have really little or no control over them, and the result is they are descending from the level of Indians to that of the depraved whites with whom they associate.
    It can scarcely be expected that these numerous tribes shall continue to have the unrestricted range of Puget's Sound. Some provision must be made for them consistent with the progress of immigration and settlement. The best mode of decreasing the expenses of the Territory will be to encourage population and the formation of a State. But so long as large bands of Indians, in a condition worse than pure barbarism, are permitted to roam at large, committing petty depredations wherever they can, lounging idly about the farms, consuming the substance of the settlers, affording a profitable trade to the worst possible class of whites that can infest any country, there will be very little hope for the Territory of Washington.
    I submit these views with a sincere conviction that the large appropriations made for the relief of the Indians in that Territory are resulting in no practical good either to the Indians or to that class of settlers whose presence is desirable. Nor is the lust for office, which is engendered by the large number of employees in the district, more advantageous to the unhappy race whose welfare it is the object of the government to subserve than to the interests of the Territory.
SQUAXIN RESERVATION.
    September 5th. Returning to Port Townsend, we were so fortunate as to meet there the mail steamer Constitution, which had recently arrived from San Francisco, and commenced her weekly trips on the Sound. Took passage in this vessel to Olympia. On the way touched at Seattle and Duwamish Agency. At the latter point we found a few Indian huts and about thirty or forty Indians, under charge of J. H. Goudy. The remainder of the Duwamish tribe, said to number in all 378, were, as usual, out fishing and gathering berries for their winter's supply.
    Arrived at Olympia same evening at 8 p.m. Next day I succeeded in getting a canoe and started for the Squaxin Reservation, distant 10 miles from Olympia, on Klachemin Island, at the entrance of Budd's Inlet. W. B. Gosnell, special agent, and Quincy A. Brooks, schoolteacher, accompanied me. We reached the Squaxin Landing in about 3 hours.
    Here are gathered a few old women and children, and about a dozen men. The number of Squaxins is said to be 350 to 375, but they were mostly absent, laying in their supplies for winter.
    The improvements consist of the following--1 house for employees, frame, 20x40, 3 rooms. Built partially by regular employees and partially by the aid of hired mechanics. Cost, at a rough estimate, $700.
    7 good frame Indian houses, 16x23, 1 story, built by contract. Cost, $215 each. Price not unreasonable.
    1 blacksmith shop and agricultural room for tools &c., 16x60, built at various times by employees and hired aid. Supposed cost $500.
    Blacksmith (Trueman Hack) present. The shop is in good condition, and Mr. Hack appears to do all that is required of him.
    Quincy A. Brooks, instructor, has not regularly opened school yet, having found it impracticable to procure the attendance of the children. Heretofore he has acted as a clerk to the Superintendent, and at present attends to the accounts and correspondence of this agency.
    Lands under cultivation--1 field, 20 acres, with a small crop of peas and potatoes. Paid the Indians for their labor in clearing the ground and putting up fence, $800 in clothing and other supplies.
    1 field fenced, 10 acres. Nothing raised on it this summer.
    The land is barren and unfit for cultivation, and the expense of fencing and cultivation will never be returned by the result in crops.
    At the distance of a few miles from the agency on one of the opposite points is a whiskey shop, where an enterprising dealer in that article resides. Whenever he receives a fresh supply, he goes down on the beach in sight of the agency and blows his horn, at which signal the Indians paddle off in their canoes and enjoy a general debauch, which only ends when the whiskey gives out. In this way their blankets, clothes and earnings are sacrificed, and they return naked, sick and dispirited. No law can reach the wretched miscreants who are subsisting upon the degradation of these poor creatures. In any question between a white man and an Indian--such is the general ill feeling towards the whole race of Indians, since the war--no jury can be found to pronounce a verdict against the former. A few convictions have taken place, under peculiar circumstances, but no punishment has ever resulted.
    The agent states that it is utterly out of his power to arrest this evil. He has no control over the Indians, and whenever he attempts coercive measures they desert, and he has no means of pursuing or recapturing them.
    It must be admitted that these facts present rather a gloomy picture. Unless some change for the better takes place it is manifest the system might as well be abolished, and the various agencies discontinued.
    Mr. Gosnell appears to be a very intelligent and efficient officer and does all in his power to remedy these evils, but the result is anything but encouraging.
    The disbursements under the treaty of Medicine Creek are made by this agent who supervises the Puyallup and Nisqually reservations and has charge of the fulfillment of the stipulations under that treaty.
    For a very impartial and intelligent account of the origin and causes of the late Indian war, in the Territory of Washington, I respectfully refer you to the report of Mr. Gosnell of December 1st 1856 to the Superintendent. From long residence in the Territory and active participation in its affairs, as well as a thorough knowledge of Indian character, Mr. Gosnell is well qualified to give a correct version of the difficulties which have resulted so disastrously to the Territory. His views in reference to the policy adopted towards the Indians, and the expediency of carrying into effect the treaties made with them, are worthy of great consideration.
    In stating the actual condition of the agencies, it will be understood that the blame does not necessarily fall upon the agents. Great difficulties have been experienced here which are scarcely known in more settled countries, and the evils are frequently beyond the control of the officers in charge.
OFFICE OF THE INDIAN AGENT.
    September 6th. At Olympia is located the office of M. P. Simmons, principal agent for the district of Puget's Sound. Upon a thorough examination of the books and correspondence on file in his office I find the following results:
    Abstract of outstanding indebtedness, since 3rd quarter of 1856 for provisions, clothing, blankets &c., purchased for payment of the Indians hired to conduct the agent to and from the various agencies on the Sound &c., $1,512.17.
    This also includes the following items:
    Office rent at $15 per month.
    Clerk hire at $100 per month.
    Agent's salary at $375 per quarter.
    Interpreter at $125 per quarter.
    To be paid out of the following funds:
    For pay of agents.
    For pay of interpreter.
    For contingent fund.
    For restoring and maintaining peace.
    The rent appears very reasonable for the accommodations furnished. In reference to the employment of Mr. C. H. Armstrong as clerk, I have to say that his services are absolutely essential.
    Mr. Simmons is necessarily absent most of his time on official visits to the various points of the Sound. His long experience of Indian affairs and thorough acquaintance with the Indians render his services of inestimable value. He was one of the first settlers in the Territory of Washington and has been personally acquainted with all the Indian chiefs for the past fifteen years. Owing to his friendly relations with them, it would be difficult to find a more suitable person to conduct the affairs of the agency. But Mr. Simmons is wholly unacquainted with bookkeeping or the art of official correspondence, and besides finds ample employment in the investigation of Indian difficulties at all the agencies under his general supervision. Mr. Armstrong is a gentleman of great experience and intelligence. Without his aid, or that of some other equally competent person, I do not see how the affairs of the agency could be conducted.
    The disbursements for the Territory, under a recent order of the Department, are now made by Agent Simmons, who gives bonds in the sum of $10,000. His accounts are rendered to the Superintendent at Salem.
    On the 30th of July, 1857, he received from Supt. Nesmith $8,000, for which he is accountable under the following heads of appropriation:
    Nisqually, Puyallup and the other tribe of Indians embraced in the treaty of Medicine Creek, of Dec. 1854.
For 2nd of 20 installments for pay of instructor, smith, physician, carpenter and assistant if necessary, as per 10th art. of treaty $4,500
For 2nd of 20 installments in part payment for relinquishment of titles to lands to be applied to "beneficial objects" as per 4th art. 3,000
For expenses incumbent to a valuation of improvements      500
$8,000
    No improvements having been found under instructions of Supt. Nesmith of Aug. 21st 1857, this fund was retained for general and incidental purposes.
TREATIES MADE BY GOV. STEVENS.
    The following is an abstract of the estimates made by Gov. Stevens to carry into effect the treaties made by him with the Indians east of the Cascades, in the Territory of Washington, for the first year:
    Treaty of Medicine Creek $15,700
Treaty of Point Elliott 70,400
Treaty of Neah Bay 14,400
Treaty of Olympia 11,400
Treaty of Point No Point     27,200
$139,100
    Of these treaties, the only one ratified was that of Medicine Creek, made in December 1854.
    The breaking out of the war, subsequent to ratification of this treaty, has been alleged as the cause of the nonratification of the others. Political and sectional difficulties in Puget's Sound, growing out of the course pursued by Governor Stevens, both before and during the war, and a disposition on the part of his opponents to misrepresent his acts, have in my opinion contributed to produce much misunderstanding relative to Indian affairs in Washington.
    From the general testimony of disinterested parties throughout the Territory, I am disposed to believe that Gov. Stevens acted conscientiously and with a sincere regard for the public interests. The unanimous opinion of all intelligent persons on the Sound, not prejudiced by interest, is in favor of the ratification of these treaties. The assertion that the war difficulties resulted from the dissatisfaction of the Indians in consequence of the treaties made with them is wholly without foundation. Some few Indians, no doubt, were dissatisfied, but the majority were anxious that friendly relations should be established. The true causes of the war existed long prior to the arrival of Governor Stevens in the Territory, as I shall be enabled to show in a future report on that subject by testimony of the most conclusive character. That errors are committed in the administration of the affairs of the Territory is more than probable, but the condition of things there was anomalous. No parallel can be found in any Territory of the United States; no territorial government was ever conducted under circumstances so disadvantageous, or where difficulties so formidable existed. Tribes of Indians with whom no previous relations of friendship had been established had to be brought within the restrictions of laws of which they had never heard; a white population, composed of adventurers from all parts of the Union, had to be restrained from acts of retaliation where aggressions were committed upon them; the jealousies of political and military cliques had to be encountered at every step, and every species of annoyance, privation and suffering, endured under a relentless opposition, the bitterness of which can only be accounted for by the indomitable energy and manliness with which it was resisted.
    Since the close of the war there can no longer exist any good reason why treaties with these Indians should not be ratified, but if the provisions of those made by Gov. Stevens are deemed objectionable, it is within the power of the Executive to direct that new treaties shall be made.
TREATY OF MEDICINE CREEK.
    The provisions of this treaty have been but partially carried into effect. On the 3rd of March 1855, Congress appropriated $16,500 to meet its requirements; August 18th 1856, the second appropriation was made of $7,500; March 3rd 1857, the third appropriation of $7,500.
    Of the 1st appropriation, the amount transmitted to the Superintendent to be disbursed under the treaty was $16,000. As it was designed in part to be applied to beneficial objects, the Superintendent commenced opening farms and building houses, but the work was suspended in consequence of difficulties with the Indians. Of the amount transmitted, $9,874.54 was spent in carrying into effect the articles of the treaty, of which $3,662.04 was disbursed by Mr. Goslin, the special agent charged with the fulfillment of the treaty stipulations. This left a balance of $6,125.46 in the hands of the Superintendent, which he paid out under the general heads of contingencies and restoring and maintaining peace. The balance turned over by him to Supt. Nesmith was $228.16. It will thus be seen that there is still due the Indians, under the treaty, out of other funds, the sum of $6,125.46.
    Of the 2nd appropriation nothing has yet been disbursed, and the outstanding indebtedness to June 30th 1857 is $5,590.37.
    Of the 3rd appropriation for the year ending June 30th 1858, no remittance has been received up to this date (September 3rd 1857).
    I find here the same insurmountable difficulties in the examination of accounts which will hereafter be particularly referred to in the remarks upon the Oregon treaties. Owing to exigencies constantly arising, it becomes necessary to borrow from the different funds to meet such pressing demands as cannot be provided for in advance. The accounts become complicated, and it is utterly impracticable for any person with the partial data before him--presenting only one view of the question--to disentangle them.
    I freely confess my inability to understand the details of the expenditures made in Washington Territory, except upon the general principle that the Superintendent took the responsibility of applying the monies transmitted to him in such manner as he deemed most advantageous to the Indians, without regard to funds, forms or instructions. That he can explain the necessities which compelled him to adopt this course satisfactorily to the Department and to Congress, I have very little doubt. The main difficulties have arisen from the retention of the monies required to meet the necessary expenses of the service, and the conflict between the regulations and the anomalous condition of the Indians--treaties having been made with all of them, one ratified, and the remainder held in suspension; a war in progress part of the time, the peaceful tribes to be provided for and the hostile to be punished.
    The bitterest opponent of Governor Stevens has never charged him with the application of public monies to his own emolument, or to pecuniary speculation of any kind, and I trust the Department, in the adjustment of these accounts, will view the circumstances from which the suspicions have arisen.
CHEHALIS DISTRICT.
    September 7th. Arrived at the residence of Sydney S. Ford, a local agent, appointed to preserve friendly relations with the Chehalis, Cowlitz and other tribes between the Sound and the Cowlitz River. Mr. Ford is owner of a valuable tract of land, situated on the road from Olympia to the Cowlitz Landing, about twenty-seven miles distant from the former place. His house stands on the banks of the Chehalis River, a stream of considerable size and navigable for canoes from that point to its mouth at Gray's Harbor. From long residence in the Territory, and intimate knowledge of the habits and characteristics of the Indians under his charge, Mr. Ford is peculiarly fitted for the position of agent. He has partially supported a number of the Chehalis tribes at his own expense during the past eight years, and has aided them in building a village of huts near his house, where several hundred of them reside during the rainy season. Those who are able work upon his farm, but he pays them the current rate of wages for such labor and supports the aged and decrepit of their families.
    Under this local agency are the following tribes:
    Upper Cowlitz--whose country begins at the Cowlitz Landing and extends up the river of that name to its source in the Cascade Mountains. This tribe is intermarried with the Klickitats, and numbers about seventy-five. At a distance of twenty miles above the landing is a fine open prairie upon which they chiefly reside. They are nearly wild and have had but little intercourse with the whites. In the salmon season they procure abundance of fish, and with game killed in the chase and the usual supply of berries they manage to live tolerably well.
    Lower Cowlitz--numbering 250, extends from the Cowlitz farms to the mouth of the river. They live chiefly by fishing. Formerly they hunted to some extent, but since the war they have been deprived of their firearms. They are scattered along the banks of the river from the landing to Monticello, where they loiter about the farms, sometimes working, but generally idle. These are expert canoe men and can earn from one to two dollars per day on the river. But whiskey has nearly destroyed them. They are all diseased and cannot exist more than a few years longer.
    Chinooks--from the mouth of the Cowlitz opposite the town of Rainier, along the shores of the Columbia to its month, are a few scattering Chinooks--a feeble and degraded race, known as "fish eaters." A few families of them reside at Shoalwater Bay and Gray's Harbor. The exact number of the Chinooks has not been ascertained, but it cannot exceed two hundred.
    Upper Chehalis--numbering about 250, live on the upper waters of the Chehalis and its tributaries and are partially civilized. These are the Indians immediately under the supervision of Mr. Ford. They are active and intelligent and have been accustomed to work among the settlers for several years past. In the salmon season they fish, and occasionally they hunt. Since the war they have not been allowed guns or powder. They have plenty to eat, however, and do not seem to require much aid from government. No provisions were issued to them during the past year, except a little sugar and coffee to the old and infirm. On the Chehalis River, where these Indians reside, are found great quantities of berries, such as salal, raspberry, blackberry, heartleberry, Oregon grape &c., of which they lay in large supplies for winter use. A few patches of potatoes along the banks of the river contribute to their subsistence. Their range extends from Ford's, west about 20 miles, thence to Olympia, and from the Chehalis to the Cowlitz. Occasionally the small bands along the Chehalis have petty difficulties with each other, but they .are not a warlike race.
    Between Ford's and the coast, twenty miles below the agency, is a small river called the Satsop, upon which a band of fifty Chehalis Indians reside, known as the Satsops.
    Lower Chehalis--number uncertain, inhabit the country below the Satsop to Gray's Harbor, into which the Chehalis River empties. Some of them reside at Gray's Harbor and work for a few white settlers who have recently gone there to live. Shoalwater Bay is 15 miles south of Gray's Harbor. Along the shores a few scattering Indians of the Chehalis and Chinook tribes procure a subsistence by fishing. A tribe of about 20, called the Willapas, live at Shoalwater Bay.
    North of Gray's Harbor, on the coast, are the following fish-eating tribes:
    The Queets--20 miles north.
    The Quinnoyaths--30 miles north.
    The Quilloyaths--50 to 60 miles north.
    Beyond this, towards Cape Flattery, but little is known of the country or of the Indians inhabiting it. They are entirely wild and unacquainted with white men.
    Of these tribes, only the Quinnoyaths agreed to sign the treaty of Olympia. The reservation was to be on their own land, at the mouth of the Quinnoyath River--a part of the coast regarded as the best fishing ground in the Territory, both on account of the quantity and quality of the fish, and the great abundance of sea otter found there. The Quinnoyaths kill many of these otters and procure blankets and other supplies in exchange for their skins, which are worth from $40 to $80 each, according to the size and quality. A few blankets and shirts have been presented to them by the agent, as a token of amity, beyond which they have received nothing from the government.
    None of these tribes were engaged in the late war, except perhaps a few of the Upper Cowlitz, or Half Klickitats.
GRAND RONDE RESERVATION.
    September 16th. Reached the military post, under command of Capt. Russell, after a pleasant ride of 30 miles from Salem. This post was established on this reservation last year for the protection of the white employees and the preservation of peace among the Indians. It is situated on an eminence overlooking the various rancherias at a distance of about two miles from the headquarters of the agent. Neat and substantial quarters have been erected this summer for the officers and men. There are now three officers at this post and about twenty men.
    The Grand Ronde was established in the winter of '55-6. It was selected as a central and sufficiently isolated position, being accessible by good roads from Salem and Corvallis, abounding in open valleys, and within convenient distance of the sea, being but 20 miles from the Salmon River on the coast. The main valleys are watered by the south fork of the Yamhill River, a stream of sufficient size for all the purposes of the reservation.
    The present agent, J. F. Miller, took charge November 25th 1856. The number of Indians then estimated to be concentrated at this point was 1,925, comprising 909 of the confederated tribes of Rogue River and Shasta.
    Much sickness has prevailed among them--venereal and consumption. The agent, on this account, has experienced much difficulty in managing them. They are unable to account for it why they should die off more rapidly here than at their old homes, and whenever death occurs they attribute it to "bad medicine" or an evil influence put upon them by the government or its agents. Their own medicine men are called upon to counteract this bad influence, and if the patient dies it is considered that the operator is in league with other bad spirits, and they kill him. Sometimes they put to death the medicine men of other tribes. This gives rise to frequent and bloody quarrels, in which many are wounded or killed. It is almost impossible for the agent to preserve order among them. They tell him he has nothing to do with their customs and insist upon it that he shall take no part in their quarrels.
    In May of this year the greater part of the Rogue Rivers were removed to the Siletz, leaving only 58 men and their families of this tribe on the Grand Ronde, under the command of their old chief "Sam." It is the constant boast of this chief that he and his people never went to war with the whites, but throughout all the late difficulties remained neutral. He now asks that he shall be suitably rewarded by handsome presents. "Sam" is notoriously a wily and avaricious old man, who will not scruple to do anything for money. This band came to the reservation in May last. They are averse to labor and make no progress in learning the arts of civilization, with the exception of "Sam," who has secured himself a good log house and patch of ground, and sells apples and onions to his subjects at the rate of 25 cents for an apple and 12½ for an onion.
    Before the main body of the Rogue Rivers left the Grand Ronde they burnt down all the houses in which they resided, some seventy or eighty in all, built by the agent at an expense to government of $60 each. When taxed with this wanton destruction of property, they said it had always been their custom when leaving a place to burn the houses in which they lived, and as government forced them to live here against their will it must be content to abide by their customs. In justice to the agent, it must be observed that the first intimation he had of this outrage was the sight of all the houses in flames. Being light board shanties, it was impossible to save any of them. The fact, however, is well known, that these people never depart from an old habitation without burning it down. They do so with their own property, for "luck," as they call it, and it is unreasonable to expect that they will not do the same with property which cost them no labor to acquire.
    The confederated bands of the Umpquas and Calapooias, numbering 262, are the most intelligent and industrious of all the tribes on this (Grand Ronde) reservation. There has been much sickness amongst them, but their health is now improving. As a general thing they are not a warlike race, and during the late wars they abstained from any active participation in the hostilities against the whites. In consequence of the determination of the white settlers to get rid of the Indians in the Calapooia and Umpqua country, however, these bands were hastily removed to the reservation as the only means of preserving peace. They were not allowed sufficient time to gather up or dispose of their property, so that many of them who by their industry had acquired a good stock of provisions, clothing and farming implements were forced to leave it all behind them. It has been estimated that the property sacrificed by them in this way amounts to at least $3,000. As a matter of equity, government should make some provision to indemnify them for their losses. I would respectfully propose that suitable presents to that amount be made to them in satisfaction of their claims.
    The Willamette Valley Indians, including a few scattering bands of the Calapooias, with whom they are intermarried, number about 660. They are divided into numerous small bands, each under the control of a petty chief. The tribe is very poor, and has not either the power or the disposition to go to war. During the disturbances of 1855 they remained in the valley, seeking only to save their lives. They were once a powerful race, overrunning the whole Willamette Valley, which they inhabited in common with the Molallas, the Santiams and other branches and offshoots of the same original tribe. The encroachments of the Klickitats, a warlike and powerful tribe from the north of the Columbia River, gradually reduced them to a state of dependency, and since 1843, when emigrants began to fill up the valley, they have been dwindling away and are now a degenerate remnant, suffering from disease and addicted to all the evil habits of the whites. They have worked a good deal among the settlers, and when not in reach of whiskey are docile and expert at all kinds of farming operations.
    Upon an examination of the hospital, I found that but little had been done to relieve the prevailing sickness among the tribes on the reservation. This, however, is not the fault of the physician, but of the Indians themselves, who are irregular in their habits, self-willed and superstitious. Sometimes they feign sickness for the purpose of procuring food and clothing, after having gambled away their regular allowance. When they are really sick, it is not infrequently their custom to try their own medicine men in preference to the regular physician, and when death has been rendered certain by means of their barbarous ordeals, they make applications for medicines and proper medical treatment. The consequent failure of the remedies prescribed engenders distrust and dissatisfaction. In other cases, they take the medicines prescribed, but expose themselves immediately afterwards and fall victims to their indiscretion. They cannot be kept in the hospital more than two or three days when, becoming tired of the confinement, they go back to their wigwams and gamble away their clothes, and after one or two nights of exposure are pretty sure to die. The physician keeps an account of the cases under his supervision, but it is altogether unreliable as a criterion of the sickness on the reservation. During the month ending on the 31st of August, he reports the sick in camp 168, in the hospital 30. Now the sick in camp may number five times that many, and in the hospital I found but three patients. They are in and out, here and there, and no reliable estimate can be made in this way, because the physician only reports in cases where application has been made to him for relief.
    A school house has been built and a school started on this reservation. The result, I regret to say, has not been satisfactory. A very excellent teacher was employed, and every effort that humanity could suggest was made to procure the attendance of the children. For a little while, as long as the novelty of the thing lasted, a few of the children went, but it was found necessary to begin by clothing them. They were also fed, and presents were given to their parents to induce a general attendance of all the children of suitable age. The moment these supplies and presents were stopped, the children stopped coming. The parents said they must be paid the usual wages of $l per day, as they considered it the same as any other species of labor. It was useless to argue that it was for their own good; they could not view it in that light and must be paid. But apart from these obstacles it was found that what the children learned by day, in the way of the civilized arts, they were taught to unlearn by night. The bad example set them around the camp fires was much more easily acquired than what the school teacher endeavored to impress upon them. They are by no means deficient in quickness of apprehension, but it is apparent that nothing can be done for them in this way. To make the school system at all beneficial, they must be wholly separated from all Indian influences. At present they have ceased to attend. Some reflections on this subject will more appropriately appear in a general summing up of the result of my observations upon a personal inspection of all the reservations.
    On the afternoon of our arrival and the following day we made a general reconnaissance of all the improvements, including buildings, fences, crops &c. The superintendent of farming estimates the amount of land under cultivation at this time to be 2,320 acres, 1,000 acres of which were enclosed by a substantial fence this spring. Of this, 316 acres are sown in wheat, 380 acres in oats, 125 in potatoes, 91 in peas, 11 in turnips, and the remainder, 740 acres, is left for pasturing the stock.
    From my own observation, I should judge that it will be difficult to raise full crops on any of this land. It is for the most part barren, cold and clayey, hard and difficult to work. This year, notwithstanding the energetic efforts made to produce a large yield, the crops have nearly all failed. The wheat was cut, but was considered too poor to be threshed. It will not yield more than ten bushels to the acre. The oats will yield little or nothing. The potatoes are yet in the ground The yield is little more than the amount of seed planted. The turnips are still growing and will yield pretty well. Peas do well and are profitable. The extreme dryness of the season is the main reason of the failure of the crops. It is evident, however, that the planting was done too late. The agent says it was not possible to commence earlier, that in the fall and during the winter, the work cattle had to be sent down to the mouth of the Salmon River for pasturage, and they could not be brought back in the spring till the grass on the reservation was sufficiently advanced to furnish them with food.
    I am inclined to think the farmers who sold out their claims here found them unprofitable, and that the experience of government will be no more satisfactory.
    About forty of the Indians, chiefly Willamettes, Calapooias and Umpquas, have been engaged in working the farms. They are paid at the rate of $30 per month, in orders upon the store, where they receive goods, groceries &c. in payment for their labor. As many hands can be procured on these terms as are found necessary, but none of the Indians will work unless paid for their labor. They say, very justly, that whilst they are willing to work for themselves, they do not want to raise crops to feed the lazy Indians of other tribes, who would rather starve than work. In farming on so large a scale, it has been found impracticable to depend upon voluntary labor. The agent, however, thinks that in the course of time he can make subdivisions of the land and compel the chiefs of each tribe to make their own people work for themselves.
    The dwelling houses for the employees are mostly the log huts of the original settlers. A good two-story agency house, commenced by Supt. Palmer, has been completed, in which Agent Miller and his family reside. In addition to this is a school house, slaughter house, hospital, storehouse, boarding house for the working Indians, and several small dwellings for the blacksmith, carpenters and other mechanics.
    The tin shop, erected at some considerable expense, has proved a failure. Tinware can be bought and delivered at the reservation at less than it will cost to manufacture it. I have to recommend that it be discontinued.
    A substantial sawmill has been erected, and is now in operation. The grist mill, commenced under the former Superintendency, has not yet been completed. The framework and roof are built, and it seems a pity that so good a piece of work, upon which so much labor has been expended, should now go to ruin. It is estimated that it will cost $5,000 to complete it. I am clearly of opinion that it would be better economy to complete it than to suffer it to remain in its present condition.
    Considerable progress has been made in erecting houses for the Indians. 190 board shanties have already been built, some of which are inhabited by the families of the chiefs and headmen. The same aversion to living in regular houses that prevails elsewhere is found a serious source of difficulty here. When a member of any family dies, the house is abandoned and never again occupied. It is supposed to contain "bad medicine" or evil spirits, and no persuasion can induce the Indians to go back into it.
    The country surrounding the Grand Ronde is composed chiefly of "bald hills." It is altogether destitute of game. But few berries are found nearer than the coast. For this reason & the failure of the crops, it has been a direct and heavy expense upon government. Rations are issued to the Indians regularly. If the supplies were stopped for a single week they would all starve or abandon the reservation. Commissaries are appointed to weigh and measure the articles delivered. Flour is issued to each family once a week, beef every four days. By wastefulness they contrive to get rid of the abundant supplies furnished them in about half the allotted time, in consequence of which they suffer partial starvation during the intervening period. Neither advice nor the pangs of hunger can change these improvident habits. Repletion and starvation are prolific sources of disease among them.
    A clerk is employed by the agent to make up the accounts and keep the books of the agency. There seems to be no authority for such employment of clerical aid, nor is there any fund out of which the person employed can be paid, under the regulations of the Department.
    I have carefully examined the amount of work performed by him, however, and do not see how his services can be dispensed with. The agent having general supervision of the reservation cannot, without neglect of other important duties, keep the accounts of his office, attend to all the correspondence which devolves upon him, and make the necessary duplicate abstracts of disbursements to be audited by the Superintendent. If he is not allowed a clerk, he must detail some other employee under a different name. I am unable to see what advantage is gained to government by any deception of this kind. What one agent cannot do it will not be practicable for another to do, so that the removal of an agent for this cause will not obviate the difficulty. Where services are imposed by official regulations upon one person which can only be performed by two or more, they must either be neglected, or if performed, paid for; nor will any agent agree to pay for them out of his own salary, that being regarded as a remuneration for labor performed by himself.
WAWA, OR TALK, WITH THE CHIEFS AND HEADMEN.
    Having communicated to the Indians, through the agent, my desire to have a talk with them, they assembled at the agency on the following day. General Lane, Delegate to Congress, and General Nesmith, Superintendent, were amongst the white persons present.
    The object of my mission having been explained to them, they were directed to speak their minds freely, in order that the President might learn from their own mouths what their hearts were.
    Sam, the Rogue River chief, spoke as follows:
    Before we came to the reservation myself and my people were promised cattle, horses, clothing &c. We were to have coffee and white sugar. We were to have each a piece of land to cultivate. What we raised by our own labor was to be ours, to do as we pleased with. Now we have not had any of these things. The government ("Uncle Sam") has not complied with these promises. We have waited and waited, because the agents told us to be patient--that it would be all right by and by. We are tired of this. We believe "Uncle Sam" intends to cheat us. Sometimes we are told there is one Great Chief and sometimes another. One Superintendent tells us one thing, and the Great Chief removes him. Then another Superintendent tells us another thing, and another Great Chief removes him. Who are we to believe? Who is your Great Chief, and who is to tell us the truth? We don't understand the way you act. With us we are born chiefs; once a chief we are a chief for life But you are only common men, and we never know how long you will hold your authority, or how soon the Great Chief may degrade you, or how soon he may be turned out himself. We want to know the true head, that we may state our condition to him. Let him come here himself and see us. So many lies have been told him that we think he never hears the truth, or he would not compel us to suffer as we do.
    Captain Smith, U.S.A., Palmer, Metcalf and others promised us that as soon as the war was over we would be permitted to return to our country. Now the war is over. Why are we kept here still? This is a bad country. It is cold and sickly. There is no game on the hills. My people are all dying. There will soon be none left. The graves of my people cover the valleys. We are told that if we go back we will be killed. Let us go, then, for we might as well be killed as die here.
    The Table Rock Reservation was made under the treaty of Sept. 10th 1853. We made it with Generals Lane and Palmer. When the last war broke out we were driven away from there. We never sold "Uncle Sam" that land. General Lane is now here. He knows what was told us; that we would have to leave it for a while, but we never sold it. If "Uncle Sam" intends to keep it from us, then let him pay us for it.
    Several of the other chiefs spoke, but, as their "talk" was but a repetition of what "Sam" said, it is needless to repeat it. They all complained of the nonfulfillment of promises and of sickness among their people.
    There can be no doubt that the Grand Ronde has been much visited by sickness. I think the cause, however, is not owing to any want of salubrity in the climate, but a sudden change of life among the Indians. They are now lazy and inactive and live on flour and meat, whereas formerly they had to seek their own subsistence in the chase or on the rivers, and custom had made such food as they procured suitable to their constitutions. Besides, in the southern part of Oregon the climate is warm. Here the sharp winds from the ocean, passing through gaps in the mountains, blow with great severity during the summer months. Upon those who are not habituated to the cold, salt air its effect is deleterious, producing various lung diseases, to which the race is naturally prone.
SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE, SALEM.
    September 15th. Salem, the capital of the Territory of Oregon, is situated on the banks of the Willamette River, near the center of the valley, and is distant from Portland 45 miles. The legislature holds its sessions here, and the principal territorial offices are also located at this point. During the winter supplies are transported to Salem by water, and in summer daily stages run to and from Portland and Corvallis. It is convenient to the Grand Ronde and Siletz reservations, and is easy of access from all parts of the Territory. For these reasons it has been deemed expedient to locate the Superintendent's office at this point.
    Since the discontinuance of the Superintendency of Washington Territory, however, it has not been practicable for the present Superintendent, in whom the two offices are concentrated, to visit personally more than a small portion of his district. A glance at the map will show the great extent of the district and the utter impracticability of controlling the numerous tribes embraced within it under one Superintendency.
    The following table of distances from Salem to each agency and point of debarkation for supplies, prepared from the most authentic sources, and to some extent verified by my own knowledge of the roads, will enable the Department to form its own conclusions upon this point.
DISTANCES FROM SALEM, O.T.
To Portland 45 Grand Ronde, O.T. 35
To Vancouver, W.T. 60     Siletz, O.T. 60
To Rainier, W.T. 105 Umpqua River, O.T. 150
To Cowlitz, W.T. 135 Port Orford, O.T. 270
To Ford's, W.T. 157 Cascades, O.T. 110
To Olympia, W.T. 184 Dalles, O.T. 160
To Steilacoom, W.T. 206 Warm Springs, O.T. 225
To Puyallup, W.T. 218 Simcoe, W.T. 220
To Nisqually, W.T. 196 Walla Walla, W.T. 335
To Squaxin, W.T. 194 Pend d'Oreilles 550
To Seattle, W.T. 251 Flatheads 720
To Kitsap, W.T. 290 Rocky Mountains 900
To Port Townsend, W.T. 296 Colville 320
To Bellingham Bay, W.T. 341 Tillamook 60
    These are the principal points which it is necessary the Superintendent should visit at least once a year. The agents must know that their agencies are liable to be inspected at any time by some controlling power, otherwise, from their remoteness from headquarters, great abuses cannot fail to spring up.
    Now it is obvious that no one Superintendent, if he traveled continually throughout the year, could visit all these points. A portion of the route lies through the Snake country, where hostilities are constantly to be apprehended. Even to Walla Walla a military escort is now necessary. To most of the agencies which are regarded as accessible the means of communication are uncertain. Many of them can only be reached by Indian trails and canoes.
    I consider it indispensable to the success of any system which may be devised that the Superintendent should visit in person all the tribes under his control. To maintain friendly relations with them, it is absolutely essential that he should see them at frequent intervals, inquire into their condition, listen to their complaints, give them advice and counsel, make them occasional presents in token of his good will, and otherwise let them know practically that he is their friend. They can form no abstract ideas of unseen authority; they must see and know the ruling power.
    Such a range of duties as this, in so large an extent of territory, would fully occupy the attention of three able and energetic superintendents--one for Oregon west of the Cascades, one for Washington Territory embracing a large tract of country lying between the Columbia River and the northern boundary, the Cascades and the coast, and one for the Territories of Oregon and Washington east of the Cascades to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. This would surely give ample occupation to three of the best men that could be selected. But when it is taken into consideration that all these duties now devolve upon one Superintendent, that he must audit and transmit to the Department all the accounts of the agents; make out his own reports and conduct his own correspondence with the agents and with the Department; keep the books of his office, make contracts for supplies; turn over the monies transmitted to him for disbursement; make his estimates for expenditures during each quarter, and supervise the conduct of the various employees, as well as the wants and necessities of the Indians; that it devolves upon him to maintain friendly relations between the settlers and the tribes under his control; that he is not even allowed the assistance of a clerk or messenger--it will at once be seen that it is not practicable to find a person of the requisite qualifications to fill such an office at a salary of $2,500 per annum, or, in fact, at any compensation whatsoever.
    I would call the attention of the Department especially to the necessity of a Superintendency east of the Cascades. This vast tract of country is inhabited by wandering bands of Indians, whose depredations upon emigrant trains have for years past greatly retarded the settlement of Oregon and Washington. On the banks of the Columbia and its tributaries are some of the finest cattle ranges on this side of the Rocky Mountains. The Walla Walla country abounds in fine streams and rich farming lands. Previous to the late war, many settlers had taken up claims between the Dalles and Fort Walla Walla, which they were compelled to abandon in consequence of Indian hostilities. If the treaties made by Governor Stevens are considered objectionable, let others be made and, if practicable, this fine region opened to emigration. Thousands of hardy adventurers on the western frontier of the Atlantic States are ready to pour into it, and by means of their stock and labor give it an intrinsic value greatly exceeding the expense of opening it to settlement. But the necessity of some such action on the part of government becomes still more apparent, in view of the Mormon influences which are now rapidly extending throughout that region. Already have Mormon settlements been made on several of the tributaries of the Columbia, and it is a well ascertained fact that the continued disaffection of the Indians arises in great part from the teachings of the Mormon leaders, who are constantly instigating them to acts of aggression. Is it well, then, to suffer this fine country to fall into the hands of a renegade and debased people, from whom nothing but evil can come to the inhabitants of the adjoining territories?
    Much trouble has been experienced in the management of the Indians adjacent to the line between Oregon and California. The country is mountainous and difficult of access, and from the proximity of the mining population of Yreka and Scott's Valley it is scarcely possible to prevent acts of aggression and retaliation on both sides. This also is the case with reference to Port Orford and the Umpqua. It is especially desirable that the Superintendent should frequently visit these regions. In addition, therefore, to the Willamette Valley, the Grand Ronde, Siletz, Columbia River, and coast agencies, his district will be sufficiently large with the important, but now neglected, agencies of Southern Oregon. The local aides employed there no doubt perform their duties as well as they can, but a controlling head is required to supervise and direct them, and this can only be done advantageously by personal inspection of the country and practical knowledge of the Indians. It is better, in my opinion, to prevent bloodshed than to indulge in subsequent controversies about the authorship of it, and in the end incur war debts amounting to millions of dollars, which always sooner or later fall upon the government. I think, therefore, that the Superintendency of Oregon should only embrace that portion of the country west of the Cascades and south of the Columbia River, known as Oregon proper.
    In reference to the district of Washington Territory west of the Cascades, the proper boundaries have been distinctly marked by nature--the Columbia River on the south, the Cascades on the east, the Straits of Rosario on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. On the shores of Puget's Sound alone it is estimated that there are 15,000 Indians, and when the extent of the shoreline, embracing seventeen hundred miles, is taken into consideration, this does not appear to be an extravagant estimate. The late Governor and Superintendent of the Territory, Isaac I. Stevens, certainly held no sinecure during his incumbency, as may be seen by reference to his official reports. For reasons satisfactory to the Department or to Congress, it was deemed expedient to separate the offices of governor and superintendent, and of the wisdom of this policy I think there can be no doubt. But neither a local agent nor a superintendent residing in Oregon can effectually control so large a body of Indians, scattered over so extensive a range of country. I respectfully recommend therefore that application be made to Congress for authority to appoint a superintendent for the district of Washington.
OUTSTANDING INDEBTEDNESS AND ESTIMATE FOR CURRENT EXPENSES.
    Upon a careful examination of the books in the office of the Superintendent, at Salem, I have derived the following data:
    Outstanding indebtedness under Supt. Stevens, up to May 31st 1857, $73,416.84.
    By letter of June 17th 1857, Supt. Nesmith reported to the Department this indebtedness, enclosing abstracts showing the different heads under which it occurred, furnished by Supt. Stevens. The vouchers accompanying these abstracts were retained in the office, as a precaution due to the claimants, inasmuch as they afforded the only evidence on record of the respective amounts due. I have examined a number of these vouchers, and find them certified to as follows:
    "I certify that the within account is correct and just, and that the articles were necessary for the Indian Department service, that the prices are reasonable, and that there is due [name of claimant] therefor from the United States $_______.
"(signed) Isaac I. Stevens,
    "Governor and Supt. of Ind. Affairs."
    The face of the vouchers, however, shows an actual payment and an acknowledgment of the receipt of the money. That no such payment was made is shown by the certificate. The transmission of vouchers like this to the Department might be regarded as a violation of the Independent Treasury Act.
    It should be observed that the above estimate of $73,416.84, due under the Superintendency of Gov. Stevens, does not embrace the accounts of John Owens, special agent for the Flatheads; Craig, sub-agent for the Nez Perces; Lansdale, agent for the Flatheads; Kane, agent for the Columbia River District; Robey, special agent for the Yakimas; Yanty, special agent for the Indians of Colville Valley, and probably others not known to me. The accounts of these agents had not been received at the Superintendent's office when I examined the books, consequently there was no data upon which to base an estimate of the additional amount due. It is probable, however, that it will not exceed $15,000.
    The estimates furnished by Supt. Nesmith of accruing liabilities for the Territory of Washington, including the pay of agents, general and incidental expenses, restoration and maintenance of peace, aiding the Indians to procure their subsistence, purchase of presents, pay of necessary employees and fulfillment of treaty stipulations, amounted to $51,950, making, with the previous indebtedness, as far as could be estimated, $125,366.84. Of this amount there has been paid out of remittances from the Department, up to September 20th, only $19,500, for which vouchers are on file in the office of the Superintendent.
    The outstanding liabilities in Oregon up to June 30th 1857, as estimated and reported by the different agents, are $176,511.29.
    When the purchases were made upon which these liabilities occur it was the practice of the agents to take informal vouchers and give due bills or certificates for the sums due. Some of these vouchers, which were forwarded to the office by the agents, were transmitted with the abstracts to the Department, but for the most part they are still held by the agents as collateral security for the indebtedness incurred by them on government account. The Superintendent states that upon coming into office he found the public business in this branch of the service in so disordered a condition that he was at a loss what course to pursue. He soon saw the evils to which this credit system would lead, and the impracticability of obtaining an adjustment of the accounts of the office based upon such vouchers, and in order to arrest the practice in future he addressed to each of the agents the accompanying circular, marked D, under date of July 8th 1857. For the acts of his predecessors he was of course not accountable.
    In addition to the above it is estimated that the outstanding liabilities incurred by Superintendent Hedges amounts to $50,000.
    As Mr. Hedges left no data in the office upon which to base an accurate estimate, this can only be regarded as conjectural. It is made up from letters and applications addressed subsequently by the creditors to the Superintendency.
    From this it would appear that the total amount due in Oregon for supplies purchased and salaries remaining unpaid under superintendents Palmer and Hedges, and for a fraction of the 2nd quarter of 1857, is $226,311.29.
    Under date of March 18th 1857, the Department in its letter of appointment to Mr. Nesmith says: "You will without delay prepare and forward a succinct statement of funds required to meet existing liabilities of the service, and also a. statement of funds required for the expenses of the same to the 30th of June next."
    On the 5th May Mr. Nesmith, in a detailed communication to the Department, stated the condition of the office, and the impracticability of obtaining specific details of the outstanding liabilities. He addressed letters to all the agents, requesting them to furnish the desired data, and on the 17th of June transmitted the statements of agents Metcalfe, Miller, Drew and Dennison, in reference to the debts on public accounts incurred by them. In many instances the creditors gave no vouchers, but simply received the certificates of the agents, which they still hold as evidence of their claims upon government. These creditors are chiefly store-keepers, farmers, traders, and stock-drovers, scattered all over the country--so that it was not practicable to obtain more detailed statements of the items--the agents having usually kept only the gross amounts. No statements were transmitted from Superintendent Hodges and Agent Raymond, because they were either unwilling or unable to make them. None were received by the present Superintendent.
    In reply to Mr. Nesmith's letter of May 5th, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, under date of June 19th, says: "I cannot consistently with the rule made by the Department for my government in this respect make the remittances of the gross sums mentioned in your letter without viewing the purposes for which they are specifically wanted." He further requires "your (the Superintendent's) estimates based on the reports to you of the several agents to whom you have written on the subject, before making the remittances in question."
    As already stated, these reports were transmitted with the accompanying data, on the 17th of June. They referred to indebtedness incurred prior to the 1st of May, when Supt. Nesmith assumed the duties of the office. In reply, the Commissioner, under date of August 18th, says: "I have to refer you to [a] letter from this office of the 19th of June last, relative to making remittances on account of past liabilities incurred for the Indian service in Oregon & Washington, and again to state that no funds will be remitted therefor until the specific character of such liabilities are ascertained and reported to this office."
    Whilst admitting the propriety of these restrictions, which are based upon the best principles of public policy, may I not be permitted to suggest that if the estimates of superintendents Palmer and Hedges were regularly made and transmitted to the Department, they must now be on file. If these estimates do not show for what purpose the indebtedness was incurred, it will scarcely be practicable for the present Superintendent to ascertain it. The Department has on record the amount called for to meet the current expenses of the service, and the amount transmitted. If the estimates were not made in as detailed a form as the regulations require, it seems to me that the proper time to have applied the remedy would have been during the incumbency of the officers whose accounts are in question, and for whose neglect or dereliction of duty the service is now seriously embarrassed. The principal effect is the depreciation of government credit and a general want of confidence in public officers. It was well understood that when the Indians were removed from their homes and concentrated upon the reservations, large expenditures of money would be necessary to maintain them, that it would not be practicable for them at once to procure a subsistence for themselves. The Superintendents and agents were charged with the restoration and maintenance of peace. How was this to be accomplished? Certainly it could not have been expected that such a result should be achieved by starving them. But if the allegations of the agents can be relied upon, it would appear that they were forced to supply the Indians with food and clothing on their own responsibility, in consequence of the nonremittance of the necessary funds. Such remittances as were made were altogether below the estimates and insufficient for the absolute necessities of the service. The creditors of the government, on the faith of its officers, furnished the necessary supplies, and thus another outbreak, more disastrous perhaps than the last, was prevented. Many of them are poor, and still remain unpaid. Whatever may have been saved to government by the interposition of technical difficulties in the mode of making out accounts, it has been doubly lost by the subsequent depreciation of its credit. All the late contracts made for supplies of flour, beef &c., provide "that the contractors shall be paid upon the receipt of money from the Indian Department applicable to that purpose." Of course they base their prices upon past experience, and the result is that no single article furnished costs government less than 25 percent beyond its cash value in market. The principal article required for the subsistence of the Indians is flour. Now, upon diligent inquiry of flour dealers and others well acquainted with the market rates, I have ascertained that the quality of flour delivered at the two main reservations, at an average cost of about $17 per bbl., is not worth more than four dollars at the mills. At ten dollars per ton for transportation, which is a liberal estimate, the entire cost to the contractors cannot exceed five dollars, or at most six per bbl. One of the contractors told me himself that he paid five dollars per bbl. at the mills for the flour furnished by him. He said, however, that with the apparent enormous profit he made nothing by his contract, as he had not yet received his pay, and had to borrow money at 3 percent per month to meet his liabilities for the original purchase. But the original purchase, which is also made upon a credit, is from ten to twenty percent beyond the cash rates--according to the term of payment agreed upon.
    The same rule applies to all purchases made in the Territories of Oregon and Washington for the maintenance of peace and subsistence of the Indians, including the fulfillment of treaty stipulations. It is obvious, therefore, that out of the appropriations made by Congress for these purposes, the Indians receive only the benefit of from one to two-thirds of the amount appropriated. Having no voice in the appointment of agents, and no control over the adjustment of accounts, such a result to them is tantamount to a breach of faith, for which there is no excuse upon any principle of equity, and which I can scarcely conceive is contemplated by Congress.
    Assuming, however, that the decision of the Department, in reference to the non-payment of past liabilities, unless upon specific details of the items, is based upon just and proper grounds, and that it is irrevocable, I have respectfully to recommend the following as the only means of extricating the service from the embarrassment under which it now labors,
    That the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territories of Oregon & Washington be authorized to employ, at a compensation of $5 per day each, two competent clerks, to take down testimony and make copies or vouchers, to prepare the detailed statements required, to visit each reservation and make an accurate copy of the books, prior to the 1st of May 1857. That public notice be given to each creditor, requiring him to furnish his bill, in duplicate, with the necessary authentication of the agent who made the contract or purchase, in case such agent can be found, or such other testimony as may be deemed expedient in case of the death or absence of such agent.
    That hereafter the Superintendent be peremptorily directed to make no more purchases upon credit, but be furnished at once with the necessary means, upon his estimates, to make cash payments. If those estimates are not made in conformity with instructions previously given, let the remedy consist in removal; if they are made in due form, and the remittances are not forwarded as required by the exigencies of the service, then the Department should assume the responsibility which properly belongs to it, and the Superintendent should not be held accountable for the outbreaks and final overthrow of the whole system of reservations on this coast, which must naturally ensue. If necessary to ensure the faithful application of the monies committed to his charge, his bonds might be increased, but it is utterly impossible that he can state in advance every item of the expenditures necessary to be made in the branch of the service under his control. For example, expenses incurred in following up and capturing runaway bands of Indians; expenses of removing tribes from one point to another, where it may be necessary to locate them; expenses of special expresses for the transmission of important intelligence; expenses of replenishing stock for farming purposes; expenses of supplies lost by fire or shipwreck, and a variety of others which cannot be foreseen, but which are of constant occurrence. It is obvious that some discretionary power must be vested in the Superintendent to meet these contingencies.
    The estimates transmitted by Mr. Nesmith, by letter of June 17th, for current expenses of 3rd quarter of 1857, exclusive of sum required for the fulfillment of treaty stipulations, were, in accordance with the instructions of the Commissioner, based upon the estimates of the several agents. For the fraction of the 2nd quarter it was not practicable for him to submit estimates. He took charge of the office on the 1st of May, and of course could not tell, in advance of the reports of the agents, the amount of provisions and other supplies on hand. As soon as their reports reached him, he transmitted the estimates. The sums required for the district of Oregon were as follows:
    Siletz Agency $54,118.57
Grand Ronde 25,263.00
Dalles 11,625.00
Umpqua 5,800.00
Salary of Supt. to Sept. 30th 1,001.45
Express messenger 455.00
Contingent and incidental 10,000.00
Clerk hire, stationery & office rent, traveling expenses
of Superintendent, agents, sub-agents and transportation
of annuity goods 14,500.00
    Upon a second examination of the books on the 25th of September, on my return from the Siletz, the whole amount received from the Department applicable to the expenses of the 3rd quarter was $25,375.
    Applicable to current liabilities in Washington Territory, $19,500.
    This amount, as must be seen, was wholly inadequate to prevent the accumulation of debt. The contractors who were engaged in furnishing supplies, therefore, received but a fraction of the amounts due them for provisions actually necessary for the maintenance of the Indians for the 3rd quarter. This failure on the part of the government to meet its engagements they were enabled, in some degree, from past experience, to provide for, by imposing prices ranging from 25 to 33 percent beyond the cash rates in market for the articles furnished, but the result to the Indians is that they have received that much less of the appropriations than was designed by Congress, and that money dealers, who invest their cash capital at 3 percent a month, have derived the full amount of the difference. It will thus be seen that the laws of trade are impartial, and that even the government itself is not exempt from their operation.
    Another fact which has probably not been fully considered by the Department is that, during at least four months in the year, and frequently six, the roads to the reservations are rendered impassable for wagons by the quantity of rain that falls in that region. Hence it is necessary that provisions, annuity goods and all other articles necessary for the use of the Indians should be transported to and stored upon the reservations before the commencement of the rainy season. Otherwise the cost of transportation, admitting that pack mules can occasionally be used, almost equals the value of the supplies. The estimates, therefore, should be transmitted so far in advance of this period as to afford ample time not only to purchase the necessary supplies in market, but to have them delivered upon the reservations. In order to procure complete reports of the agents embracing these estimates, at least three months must elapse from the date of addressing them from the office of the Superintendent; otherwise, from the remoteness of some of them and the inconveniences of communication, the returns will be but partial and imperfect.
FULFILLMENT OF TREATY STIPULATIONS.
    Under this head may be enumerated a series of difficulties which, if not soon remedied by the action of Congress and the Department, must inevitably result most disastrously to the public interests.
    The chief source of difficulty consists in the fact that the various tribes with whom treaties have been made, whether ratified or not, are concentrated on the same reservations. Out of the whole number of treaties made with the Oregon Indians, only the following have been ratified.
    1. Rogue River, 10th of Sept., 1853.
    2. Rogue River, 15th of Nov., 1854.
    3. Shasta, 18th of Nov., 1854.
    4. Willamette, 4th of Jany., 1855.
    5. Umpqua & Calapooias, 29th Nov., 1854.
    6. Cow Creek, Sept. 18th, 1853.
    At the Siletz Reservation are the Shastas and Rogue River tribes, with whom treaties have been made and ratified as above, numbering 554. In addition to these are the Coast Indians, consisting of the Joshutes, Chet-coos, Tututnis, Mikonotunnes, Coquille, Port Orford, Sixes, Floras Creek, Shasta Costas and Euchres, with whom treaties have been made, but not ratified, numbering 1495.
    The fulfillment of stipulations of the Rogue River and Shasta treaties involves this insurmountable difficulty that, whilst they number but 554, the tribes, who have been forced away from their homes under similar circumstances, and with similar obligations towards them on the part of the government, number 1495 and are unprovided with annuities or other advantages resulting from the agreements made with them by the authorized agents of the United States.
    Living on the same reservation, governed by the same agents, knowing no reason why any partiality should be shown to one tribe above another, it is not within the power of the Superintendent to preserve order among them and at the same time carry into effect the provisions of the existing treaties. The delivery of annuity goods to one tribe, and the non-delivery to another, would be a signal for an outbreak which no force at his command could suppress. Nor is this at all unreasonable. The Indians know of no reason why there should be favoritism, and The whites are unable to justify any favoritism, and the Indians are fully aware of the fact, for they are sufficiently sagacious to understand the general principles of justice. It has been found necessary, therefore, to make presents to all the Indians, as far as practicable, at the same time, under the heads of different funds. This has given rise to the inextricable confusion in the accounts.
    Another difficulty consists in the delays experienced in the receipt of the annuity monies. The present year's annuities have not yet been received. Winter is approaching, and it is necessary the Indians should be provided with blankets and clothing. The money that should have been paid last year for goods purchased has to be paid this year, from which it will be seen that the ruinous system of credit is kept up even under the treaties, and that the Indians receive but a fraction of what Congress provides for them.
    The mechanics, school teacher, physician &c., provided for by the treaty, have necessarily been employed and their services paid for out of the fund for restoring & maintaining peace. It has not been practicable to make them work for one tribe and not for another on the same reservation. This is not in conflict with the 2nd art. of Rogue River treaty of Nov. 15th 1854, but it is also provided in that article that they shall have horses, oxen, wagons &c. Now, it is utterly impracticable to devote to one tribe exclusively the uses of any portion of the farming stock on the reservation. The whole must be used for the general good--otherwise the system is at an end.
    Under the treaty of Shasta, dated 18th of Novr. 1854, and the treaty of Rogue River, dated 10th of Sept. 1853, are several bands of the same tribe. Two of them are under the Rogue River treaty and one under the Shasta. They speak the same language, are of the same origin, and belong to the same chiefs. The cessions made by them join on Rogue River. None of the provisions of the 5th article of the Shasta treaty have been carried into effect, for the reason already stated, that no exclusive benefits could be conferred upon one tribe to the detriment of others. The Shasta and Rogue River Indians should be confederated.
    Under the 3rd article of the treaty of 10th of September 1853 with the Rogue River Indians, it is provided that $15,000 shall be retained "by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, to pay for the property of the whites destroyed by them during the late war, the amount of property so destroyed to be estimated by three disinterested commissioners, to be appointed by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, or otherwise, as the President may direct." Under authority conferred upon Superintendent Palmer these commissioners were duly appointed. They estimated the damages at $43,040.75, and their report was transmitted to the Department in December 1855. By this report an excess of $28,040.75 was left to be provided for by appropriation of Congress. Neither the original amount retained by treaty, nor the excess called for, has ever been received at this Superintendency. I have not before me the letter of Supt. Palmer to the Commissioner, but have been informed that in his communication recommending the appointment of a commission, he took the ground that $15,000 would be sufficient to pay all damages and the expense of the commission. The persons selected by himself to perform this duty, in whom it is to be presumed he had great confidence, reported the value of the property destroyed, but their estimate so far exceeded. his own that he took ground against its payment in his report to the Department. The inference is that, having determined what the value was, he felt bound to sustain his own estimate in defiance of any commission, whether appointed by himself or by the President of the United States. As Congress has not yet appropriated the balance of $28,040.75, I respectfully recommend that application be made for that amount, and, in the meantime, that the $15,000 already provided for by treaty be transmitted to the Superintendent and distributed pro rata amongst the claimants. It seems but just that they should receive at least such portion of the sum estimated to be due them, as Congress and the commission have agreed upon.
SILETZ RESERVATION.
    September 21st. This reservation is situated in the Coast Range of mountains, and embraces a large tract of country abounding in almost every variety of surface. The boundary line commences at the mouth of the Siletz River, runs south along the coast 50 m. to the mouth of the Alsea, thence east about 20 m. to the western line of the 8th range of townships in the public surveys, thence north to the intersection of a line running east from the mouth of the Siletz River, embracing about 1000 square miles of territory, 800 of which are mountains, and the remaining 200 valuable for cultivation. The northern portion is heavily wooded with fir and abounds in game; the southern portions are somewhat barren. Between Fort Hoskins, on the edge of Willamette Valley, and the headquarters of the reservation, a distance of 30 miles, the face of the country for the most part is rough and mountainous, and from the continued deserts of burnt trees presents a singularly desolate aspect. The distance from Salem to the headquarters, via Fort Hoskins, is 60 miles. To the latter point there is a good wagon road, but beyond that the communication is by a very rough and precipitous pack trail. The arable lands of the reservation consist in bottom lands along the creek, and are very warm and rich.
    The first prairie lies 15 miles from the source of the Siletz River. A series of prairies extends from that point west towards the ocean, bounded by strips of woodland along the river, the meanderings of which form very distant boundaries to each prairie. These various spots of open land are estimated to contain altogether about 5,000 acres. The soil is a rich, warm loam, easily worked and remarkably productive. I have seen nothing to surpass the soil of these prairies in any part of Oregon in position or quality, being thoroughly irrigated and fenced in by natural boundaries, almost dispensing with the necessity of wooden fences.
    The agency is located in a central prairie, 6 miles from the embarcadero or depot at the head of the Yaquina Bay. It is easy of access from the ocean and presents unusual advantages in being at once accessible and isolated. The complaints of the bad position of this agency, transmitted to Washington through military sources, have their origin in a disposition sufficiently manifest on the part of the military authorities to depreciate the judgment and intelligence of those appointed by the Department to supervise and control the reservations.
    The original position of the blockhouse, six miles from the agency. was ill-advised and unfortunate. No practical protection could be afforded the employees, in case of an outbreak, by a military force stationed at that distance from headquarters.
    The selection of King's Valley, a branch of the valley of the Willamette, as a site of a military post is still more unfortunate. Fort Hoskins, the post referred to, is thirty miles from the reservation, at a point where the Indians could scarcely be driven by force. It has been suggested that the settlers in the Willamette were apprehensive of danger in case of an outbreak, and for this reason the post was located in King's Valley. I have made diligent inquiry of the principal settlers and find, without exception, they regard it as a nuisance and are opposed to its continuance there. They say it is a detriment to them instead of a benefit. As to any practical protection, they consider such an idea simply preposterous. Expensive quarters for the officers and men are now being built near the present site, which is upon a private claim. I beg most earnestly, in behalf of common sense, that this unnecessary expense may be discontinued, if it be in any way designed to benefit the Indian reservation. Every soul at the agency might be murdered a week before the tidings could reach Fort Hoskins. What is to prevent the Indians from cutting off all communication? If they commit a general massacre, they will take good care that news of it shall not reach Fort Hoskins until they are several days on their journey towards the mountains of the Umpqua, the only direction in which they ever attempt to escape.
    The amount of land put under cultivation this year at the Siletz is estimated to be 550 acres. Of this 150 acres were planted in wheat. The seed, however, did not arrive in time, and it was not until the 20th of April that it was sown. The wheat crop was consequently a failure. 30 acres were put in oats, 40 acres in peas, 60 acres in potatoes, and 8 acres in turnips. The oat crop is comparatively good, yielding 40 bushels to the acre. Potatoes and peas do well. A great source of trouble has been the difficulty of preventing the Indians from digging up the root vegetables before maturity. The entire potato field has been rooted up, and most of the potatoes stolen. In this way but a partial crop is obtained, and what is thus taken is wasted with the usual improvidence of the Indians.
    Agent R. B. Metcalfe took charge of this reservation on the 20th of August 1856. It was not until December, however, that he was located at the ground. No work was done prior to the 1st of January 1857. The rain commenced on the 25th of November, and continued, with an intermission of only 18 days, till the latter part of March following. On this account great difficulties and hardships were experienced, and but for the extraordinary firmness and energy of Agent Metcalfe the Indians would have abandoned the reservation. I consider that great credit is due to him for the manner in which he preserved order among these wild and warlike tribes under so many disadvantageous circumstances, and it is almost marvelous a matter of surprise how they ever got through the winter. When Mr. Metcalfe reached the reservation there were neither tents nor buildings of any kind upon it. There was no provision to support the large bands of Indians soon after congregated there. Dense floods of rain were pouring down day after day without cessation. The whole country was deluged with water. The Indians, naturally averse to being taken away from their homes, not knowing what was going to be done with them, strangers to the arts of civilization, disappointed in the fulfillment of nearly all the treaty stipulations, and suffering from cold and partial starvation, were in a disaffected and dangerous condition. To add to these sources of trouble, a schooner laden with a cargo of flour was wrecked on the 9th of December at the mouth of the Siletz River. In this was centered all their hopes of relief. The flour was packed ashore and carried up on the beach, 30 feet above high water mark. It was piled up there, ready to be carried to the reservation, which they were in the act of commencing when another storm arose and drove up the waters of the ocean to such a height that nearly the whole amount saved from the wreck was washed away and lost. In this way 55,000 pounds of flour, 1 ton of potatoes, and other substantial stores for winter use, were destroyed at this inopportune crisis.
    The mouth of the Siletz is 30 miles north of the Yaquina Bay and 5 miles south of the Salmon River station, where most of the Indians were at that time located. There were no houses for purposes of storage north of Yaquina, and no shelter for the Indians against the inclemency of the season. In a state of great destitution they were promptly moved down to the Yaquina, where a cargo of flour had previously arrived. This they rapidly consumed, having no other stores to supply the cravings of hunger. To prevent absolute starvation, the agent in the meantime contracted for a supply at the King's Valley mills, distant 30 miles over the mountains. It was impossible to deliver it by means of wagons, and even for pack mules the mountains were then impassable. On the summits there was from two to four feet of snow. Bands of the strongest and most reliable of the Indians were engaged to cross the mountains and pack this flour to the reservation, which they succeeded in doing after the most incredible hardships. They packed upon their backs in this way 20,000 pounds of flour. Having no funds to pay for this timely supply, the agent had to make such terms as he could, and the prices charged were, of course, very much beyond the cash rates.
    On the 7th of April another cargo of flour reached the Yaquina. What had been received from King's Valley was consumed, and by this last arrival it was hoped that further suffering would be prevented. Upon examination, however, it was found that the supposed flour was an inferior article of shorts and sweeps, ground over, and of course only fit for cattle. The contract was for a good article of fine flour, to be delivered at 10 cents per lb., or $20 per bbl., a price sufficiently high to ensure the delivery of the best quality. Flour at Portland was then worth about $8 a bbl. Allowing $2 a bbl. for transportation, it will be seen that even if good flour had been delivered, its cost to government would have been exactly double its market value. But to deliver ground shorts and sweeps at this rate was a fraud of the most palpable and enormous character. The agent, however, had no choice but to receive it. The Indians were in a state of starvation. In a few days more they would have been driven by the laws of self-preservation to abandon the reservation and seek relief by attacking the settlements. The flour was taken, with a protest against the fraud. Notice was given to the contractor that no more such flour could be received. Relying upon his promise that the next shipment would be of the quality provided for in the contract, the cargo of April 1st was carried up to the agency, where it was dealt out under the regulations as long as it lasted, but owing to its inferior quality it made many of the Indians sick. They got the idea that the whites had poisoned it, and it was with the utmost difficulty that the agent pacified them. He ate freely of the flour himself in their presence, and they saw that all the white employees used the same article. This shipment amounted to 27,000 lbs. On the 29th of April a cargo of 31,000 lbs. arrived. This was even worse than the other, but the agent was unable to reject it--having no provisions on hand or any means of obtaining a supply. It is not reasonable to suppose that such a thing could have occurred at any time by accident or without the knowledge of the contractor, but admitting the possibility of his being ignorant of the quality of the first cargo, the fact that the second was still worse is conclusive evidence of willful fraud--such a fraud, too, as under the circumstances must be regarded as evincing cruelty as well as avarice and is deserving of the severest penalties of the law. On the 26th of May a third cargo of the same sort arrived, amounting to 48,394 pounds. This last was nothing but the poorest kind of mill sweeps, worth about 2 cents per lb. In the meantime every effort had been made to procure supplies from other sources, but government credit, through the nonfulfillment of the promises of its agents, had become so depreciated no person could be found to trust to the remote chances of getting paid. This cargo was also received.
    On the occasion of my visit to the reservation, I went down to the Yaquina to inspect the last cargo, viz: of Sept. 23rd (under a new contract) which had just arrived. In the presence of Genl. Lane and the agent, I made an examination of each sack as it was delivered at the warehouse, and found more than half of it to consist of shorts and sweeps and the remainder a poor quality of flour, worth about $5 a bbl. in Portland.
    Under these circumstances, I recommended that it should not be received in the contract, but be permitted to lie there at the risk of the contractor till taken away. Also, that no payment should be made out of funds remitted by the Department for any of the bad flour received. This recommendation I made both to the Superintendent and agent. My opinion is that upon a suit against them by the contractor, it can be shown that there was an absolute breach of contract, and that no jury of common honesty would award more than the actual value of the article furnished. Subsequently, I saw the contractor at Portland and notified him of my action in the premises, as also of the apparent breach of faith upon his part. He manifested every disposition to do what was right, stated that he had been grossly swindled by the owners of the mill (ex-Gov. Abernethy & Co. ) where he had purchased the flour, that he was aware some of it was bad, but had only examined a few sacks on board the schooner and did not suppose the average was of that quality. He professed, however, that a fair arbitration of the value would be entirely satisfactory to him, and whatever it was found to be worth he was willing to abide by. This I communicated verbally to the Superintendent, recommending that the proposed valuation should be made, but that no payment should take place without advices from the Department.
    From what I can ascertain relative to the loss of the cargo at the mouth of the Siletz, a question will no doubt arise as to the liability of the contractors. They were bound to deliver the flour, but by agreement with the agent it was to be landed at the Siletz River, which was the most convenient point at that time to the main body of the Indians. The issue will be made as to whether it was not in the hands of the government as soon as it was taken ashore from the vessel. The agent, however, contends that it was saved by the Indians, and that he had not actually received it. My own opinion is that, although not formally delivered, the flour was safely landed, and that the subsequent loss might have been avoided had it been carried farther back from the beach. It was not the fault of the contractor that this was not done; hence, I presume, the loss must fall upon the government. If such be the case, care should be taken in future that no supplies shall be considered delivered until formally receipted for by the agent or some person duly authorized to sign the certificate of delivery.
    The buildings on this reservation consist of the following: 1 office and storehouse, built of hewn logs with bedrooms attached, used by the agent, clerk and other employees as a dwelling. 1 large warehouse, with bedrooms; 1 issue house; 1 cook and mess house for employees; 1 blacksmith shop; 1 school house; 1 slaughter house; 1 stable; 1 large barn; 1 hospital; 1 warehouse at upper depot on coast; a few shanties for fishermen at the mouth of Yaquina Bay; 27 Indian board houses, and timbers and boards ready for 30 more, which will probably be completed in a month. The houses of the agency are all built of substantial hewn logs, neatly put together, and with good shingle roofs. They were built partly by the employees and partly by the temporary aid of mechanics hired at $5 per day and boarded. As they were put up chiefly during the rainy season, when constant work could not be done, it is difficult to estimate their cost. Sometimes the regular workmen on the reservation were otherwise employed, and sometimes the temporary aid was larger than at others, so that the expense continually varied.
    All the employees, temporary and permanent, are boarded at government expense. This, I believe, is contrary to a regulation established by the Department in other cases, but I do not see how it could well be avoided on the Siletz. The position is so remote from the source of supply that it would be very difficult for the employees to procure their own rations. They could only do it at great expense and loss of time. Besides, constant temptation is presented to them in that way to use the Indian stores, to which most of them have occasional access. It has been found more economical on the whole to hire a man to cook for them and furnish them with the necessary rations out of the general stores. When boarded they are paid accordingly, but should they be required to board themselves their compensation must be increased. This, at least, will apply to men hired by the day. In reference to permanent employees, I have some doubt as to the propriety of their using the Indian stores. Their compensation, however, is not greater than is usually paid in Oregon to intelligent workmen when boarded at the expense of the employer.
    A licensed store is kept on the reservation by Mr. Bledsoe, who sells clothing, sugar, coffee, tea &c. to the Indians upon the certificates of the agent. These certificates are given to the Indians who are hired to work at a compensation of $30 per month. Good Indian wood sawyers earn from $2 to $3 per day. Mr. Bledsoe appears to be a correct and honorable man, but the system is, in my opinion, one which might lead to great abuses. If the Indians work faithfully it is but fair that they should receive the full amount of what is promised them. Government is not so poor that it should keep a creditor upon each reservation to supply it with small stores for the payment of Indians. When it becomes necessary to distribute such stores they should be purchased for cash and delivered at the discretion of the agent, who should have entire control of everything on the reservation.
    Of stock, 32 oxen have been purchased, at an average of about $60 a pair. This is a fair price for ordinary teams. A large number will be required next year.
    Some presents of horses have been given to the Rogue River chiefs, who complained that they had always been used to these animals and would prefer them to anything else. This was done to pacify them, in consequence of the dissatisfaction produced by the taking away of their guns. About 30 horses have been purchased and distributed in this way. They are charged to the fund for restoring and maintaining peace.
WAWA, OR TALK
with the Principal Chiefs and Headmen
of the Tribes of the Siletz Reservation
    Having signified to Agent Metcalfe my desire to hear from the Indians themselves their views concerning the policy of the government towards them, he gave notice to the principal chiefs and headmen to that effect, and on the following day, September 21st, a large concourse of the tribes assembled at the storehouse of the commissary, amongst whom were present John, the Shasta chief; Joshua, chief of Lower Rogue Rivers; Jackson, Limpy and George and other chiefs and headmen of the Southern Oregon tribes.
    The interpreter was directed to communicate to them as follows:
    In consequence of many conflicting statements which had reached the President in Washington, relative to the Indian tribes in Oregon, and their conduct both before and since the war, it was very difficult for him to determine what were the facts, and as his heart was good towards them, it pained him to learn that after all he had done for their benefit they still appeared to be dissatisfied. Now, although he had great confidence in the agents whom he appointed to live with them and whom he paid to take care of them and teach them how to work like white people, in order that they might no longer suffer for the want of food and clothing, yet as many people wrote to him that they were not contented and wanted to go to war again, he had thought it best to send an agent to talk with them and take down what they said in writing, in order that he might hear, as with his own ears, how they were disposed towards him and why they were dissatisfied. The President was powerful and had nothing to fear from them. His heart was good towards them, and he wanted them to be satisfied and live at peace with him and all his people. If the agents did not treat them well, he desired to know it from their own mouths, but until he was satisfied that such was the case, they must obey the agents in all things and look to them as their friends and teachers.
    Joshua. It is very good in the President to do this. We are glad to see a messenger from him come among us that we may state our wants and have our talk sent to him direct. I want to say for my people that we have not been dealt with in good faith. When we made the treaty, Genl. Palmer told us we were to have a horse apiece, that we were to have nets to fish with, cooking utensils, sugar, coffee &c., when we came on the reservation. That we were to have a mill to grind our wheat and make lumber to build our houses, that we were to have everything we wanted for ten years, that we would have a white doctor and plenty of medicines and none of us would die. That all these things were to be given to us in payment for our lands. That we would not have to work for them, but had a right to them under the treaty.
    The agent treats us well, except George at the Yaquina. I do not like him. He troubles our women. He beats them. This is all I have to say.
    John. It is well that you should understand what little I have to say. I never saw you before, but expect you came here for a good purpose. It is good in the President to send to know what our hearts are. For my own part my heart is sick. Many of my people have died since they came here; many are still dying. There will soon be none left of us. Here the mountains are covered with great forests. It is hard to get through them. We have no game; we are sick at heart; we are sad when we look at the graves of our families.
    A long time ago we made a treaty with Palmer. There was a piece of land at Table Rock that was ours. He said it should remain ours, but that for the sake of peace, as the white settlers were bad, we should leave it for a while. When we signed the paper that was our understanding. We now want to go back to that country.
    I am glad I can now send my talk to the President. During the war my heart was bad. Last winter when the rain came, and we were all starving, it was still bad. Now it is good. I will consent to live here one year more. After that I must go home. My people are dying off. I am unable to go to war, but I want to go home to my country.
    George. I also want to tell you what my heart is. What the white chiefs have said to me, I have not forgotten. When Palmer was buying our lands, we sold him all our country except two small tracts, one on Evans' Creek and one on Table Rock. That portion was reserved for our own use. We did not sell it, and such was the understanding when we signed the treaty.
    I would ask, am I and my people the only ones who have fought against the whites that we should be removed so far from our native country? It is not so great a hardship to those who have always lived near here. But to us it is a great evil. If we could be even on the borders of our native land, where we could sometimes see it, we would be satisfied. I have kept silent until now. The time has come when I can talk out. I want the President to know how we feel about it. I am carried farther away from my country than anybody else. My heart is not bad. It is sick. Palmer told us, when he bought our country, we could live at Table Rock and Evans' Creek for five years. Then we would have to come to the reservation. I told Palmer we would never consent to sell him those lands. We wanted them to live upon. We could always fish and hunt there. We only wanted the mountains, which were of no use to the whites.
    I am told the President is our Great Father. Why, then, should he compel us to suffer here? Does he not know that it is against our will? If he cannot fulfill the promises made to us through his agents, why does he not let us go back to our homes? Does he like to see his children unhappy? We are told that if we go back the white people will kill us all--that their hearts are bad towards us. But the President is powerful. Let him send a paper to the whites and tell them not to trouble us. If he is powerful they will obey him. We are sad now. We pine for our native country. Let us go back to our homes, and our hearts will be bright again like the sun.
    Before I end my talk, I would ask what has become of our guns. Palmer took them from us on pretense that he would return them as soon as we reached the reservation. We have never seen them since. Has he stolen them?
    John. I have a word more to say, and then I am done. My heart is for peace. When there was war we fought like brave men. But there were many of us then. Now there are few. I saw after we had fought for our country that it was no use--that we could not stand it long. I was the first to make peace. My people were dwindling away before the white man. All the tribes that were united with us were fighting in different parts of the country. But they were badly provided with arms. The whites were numerous and rich. They had muskets and ammunition. My son-in-law went to the Dalles to live with the Yakimas and Klickitats. I made peace and sent word to him, and to all the hostile tribes, to quit fighting. I told him to tell them I had made peace, and it was no use to fight any more. For this I think we deserve well of the President. He ought to let us go home, and not compel us to remain here, where we are all dying.
    Jim, chief of the Tututnis. My talk shall be short. I think we have been here long enough. We came from the mouth of Rogue River. There we had plenty of fish. It is a good country. We want to go back to our old fishing and hunting grounds. What George has said is our heart. We have long been wishing to see this tyee, sent here by the President. We want to tell the truth. We want the President to know our condition. This tyee is writing our names on paper. We hope that paper will be sent back to us. We are afraid to have our names on it. If it should be lost we will all die.
    The talk having thus ended, I desired the interpreter to communicate to the Indians as follows:
    I had listened to what they had to say with great attention, and taken it all down in writing. Every word of it would be transmitted to the President at Washington. He would read it all, as if he heard it with his own ears. It was true they had many causes of complaint, but this was owing to circumstances over which the President had no control. The people on the other side of the great deserts, where he lived, were very numerous. They came, many of them, from far-off countries, across the sea, and every year they became so numerous that the country became too small for them. Then they came over here to seek a place to live in. Here they found many tribes of Indians, and at first they were peaceable, because there were not many of them. Soon, however, as they kept coming, and became more numerous, they had to cultivate the lands to live by, and they got into trouble with the Indians. Now the President, being unable to stop all these white people from overrunning their country, asked the Grand Council to pay them for their lands, and furnish them with a place to live in, where they could be kept apart from the whites and protected against the hostilities of bad men. Why should they now desire to go back? They were fed and clothed; they had plenty of beans and flour, good blankets and shelter from the rain. Soon they would have fields of their own, but they must work. All white people had to work. The shirts and blankets they wore were made by white men's labor. Were they better than white men, that they should live without working? If they went back they would all be killed. Their country was all settled up and the game was nearly gone. In a few years there would be neither deer nor elk upon the hills. They ought to be paid for their lands. If Genl. Palmer deceived them about Table Rock and Evans' Creek it was wrong. But it would all be fairly represented to the President. In the meantime, however, they must remain quietly on the reservation. If they undertook to go back to their homes they would be shot down, and then the President's heart would be sad, because he could no longer protect them.
CHARGES AGAINST R. B. METCALFE.
    After a careful investigation of the charges preferred by Lieut. Sheridan against Agent Metcalfe, for alleged violent and improper conduct towards the Indians &c., as reported to the Superintendent through the Department of War, I have arrived at the conclusion that they are based upon the following facts:
    Lieut. Sheridan had undertaken to move certain tribes of Indians to the reservation. As they were somewhat averse to going and were in a disaffected condition, he deemed it expedient to disarm them, but promised them that upon their arrival at the reservation their arms would be returned to them. They were well provided with muskets, of which they well understood the use. A number of them, however, retained their arms, and as soon as they came upon the reservation they demanded the return of those which had been taken from them. At this time the condition of the various tribes was so threatening that Mr. Metcalfe did not think it safe or proper to comply with their demand. On the contrary, he felt constrained to compel them to turn over the arms which they still retained. The employees give him notice that unless this was done, they would be forced in self-preservation to quit the premises. The Indians refused to surrender their muskets. Mr. Metcalfe then armed himself and a party of four employees and, in defiance of their threats, took the muskets away from them. Lieut. Sheridan regarded this as a breach of faith towards them, and so reported it to his commanding officer.
    The whole quarrel seems to have arisen from a prevailing jealousy between the civil and military authorities as to the control of the reservations.
    The agents, being responsible for the maintenance of peace among the Indians under their charge and the security of the lives of the employees, I consider that the officers of the army have no right to interfere, unless called upon, and I can see nothing to disapprove in the course pursued by Agent Metcalfe.
    As to the various other charges, of insolent and improper language, exciting threats &c., it is no doubt true Mr. Metcalfe has a way of his own of talking to Indians, but they appear to like him nevertheless, and his wonderful control over them during the trying ordeals of the past winter shows that he thoroughly understands their character.
    As an example of this remarkable supremacy, I need only refer to an incident which recently occurred, and which is attested [to] by all the employees.
    The murderers of Ben. Wright, late an Indian agent on the coast, had brought with them to the reservation his scalp, over which they held nightly dances. Mr. Metcalfe regarded this as an outrage, and demanded the scalp. Upon their refusal to deliver it up, he took the murderers (two in number) dragged them into his office, in the face of two hundred Indians, and there told them that unless the scalp was delivered in fifteen minutes he would kill them both. One of them was then set at liberty. The Indians continued to gather, and there seemed to be a general determination to kill the agent and the few employees who stood by him. Before the expiration of the allotted time, however, the scalp was delivered and peace restored.
    It has been my desire in this report to furnish the Department with information on every point affecting the public interests that came under my observation. From the great extent of country traveled over and the variety of subjects introduced, it has been out of my power, in consequence of other pressing engagements, to conclude my labors on Indian affairs in time for this mail. There still remain the following agencies and reservations to be reported upon: Vancouver, Dalles, Warm Springs, Simcoe, Umpqua, Astoria and Flathead & Nez Perce agencies.
    I have also collected valuable data and contemplate reporting fully on the subject of the late Indian war in the Territories of Oregon and Washington.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. Ross Browne
            Special Agent of the Treasury Department
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 34-150.



Dayton O.T.
    18th Nov. 1857
Sir
    I have a right to know anyone from my native state, and will not charge myself with presumption in writing to any such, most especially when I find them in the halls of the nation.
    You will perhaps recognize my name; I think when I was a youth I frequently saw you at Scottsville, Ky., at which time I was living with David Walker, then acting clerk of the Allen County circuit court. I am the son of Col. George Walker of Nicholasville, Ky. This I deem a sufficient introduction. My business with you and others (who I shall hereafter name) is in behalf of a deceased and worthy friend of mine, whose wife and little children are the sufferers from an act of injustice practiced upon the husband and parents by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs & the agents of this Territory. The circumstances are these: In the early part of last year, Joel Palmer, then acting Supt. Ind. Affairs, wrote to Mr. James P. Day (the decd. person of whom I spoke) and requested him to search the mountains of the headwaters of the Umpqua and Rogue River for the scattered Indians who were left behind after the major portion of the tribes had been removed to the Coast Reservation. Accompanying this letter from Genl. Palmer to Mr. Day he, Palmer, sent Mr. Day a commission authorizing him to act as special agent and conductor for the purpose stated. Mr. Day accepted and went about and accomplished the required duties satisfactorily, at his own cost. But before he left the Umpqua Valley with the Indians for the reservation he was taken sick, so as to prevent his accompanying the Indians. This duty he assigned to another, and the work and duty was faithfully done, but before the arrival of the Indians Genl. Palmer was removed from office and Mr. Hedges appointed, and when Mr. Day presented his account for pay, this officer (Hedges) refused to pay him. Mr. Day, then very sick, called upon me to make out his account and forward [it] to the Indian Department at Washington. I done so whilst Mr. Manypenny was acting as Commissioner of Indian Affairs. That functionary has never made answer to the letter, or acknowledged the recpt. of the papers. Mr. Day lingered with the disease he contracted whilst in the service of the government until last June, when he died, leaving a wife and two children to mourn his loss and suffer for the want of the money that is justly due him from the government. All the papers (letters, commission, accounts &c.) pertaining to the duties done and means and materials used are on file in the office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington City, to which you can refer. I hope that something can be done for Mr. Day, by way of a special act of Congress, and think it a most legitimate matter for legislation. Mrs. Day has written me several times on the subject, and I have exhausted all plans to move the acting Superintendent to favorably consider the case. And now, when hope through them is deceased, I turn to you and other friends of justice in Congress to do something for these protestless sufferers (Mrs. Day and children). It is true, I am an agent for them (and I was also for the husband), but my warmth for them on this account is no greater than if I were only a looker-on. I believe I can venture to depend upon the Hon. Mr. Crittenden, Senator, and the Hon. Messrs. Talbot, Marshall, Stevenson and Underwood, Reps. from Ky., to aid in the affair. Mr. Talbot was my schoolmate at Nicholasville, Ky., and Mr. Stevenson I well knew at Scottsville, Ky. And Mr. Crittenden, being a contemporary and acquaintance of my father, will be sufficient evidence to clear me from any suspicion of venality.
    I shall feel myself most happy and honored could I receive through you and the others named above papers, public documents &c. from Congress. I have been 24 years in this wild; this period has passed without my being favored with a correspondence with anyone at Washington, except on a few occasions, through my patron friend, the Hon. Joseph R. Underwood.
    The vote of our territory has been cast on the question of adopting a state constitution; the constitution is adopted, declaring for a free state. I am doubtful of its passage through Congress. Our country & population are entirely too small for a state; by all means Washington Territory should be annexed to this for state purposes, and if both territories, leave out all the country east of the Cascade Range of mountains. Not the millionth acre of that whole country is calculated for the abode of a farming population. It is alone adapted to stock raising. Its rivers (from the occurrence of almost perpetual rapids and frequent falls, dalles & cascades) are entirely unfit for navigation; hundreds of thousands of square miles may be found in bodies, without growing on them a single tree & not perhaps 100 acres of arable land.
    Should my request be met favorably by you, and you shall feel at liberty to correspond, any information in the scope of my knowledge that you desire to know I shall take the greatest pleasure in giving.
    I have not written to our representative delegate in Congress (Hon. Joe Lane) in relation to the affair of Mr. Day, from the fact that the Genl. has not in 3 campaigns met with my support, or that of Mr. Day--although I am in politics a Democrat (somewhat, however, of the native-born order). But the Genl. has ever been nursing and caressing and imposing upon us the ---------- set of boobies & asses that ever tormented mankind. Of my identity, however, I will refer you to the Genl.
I am
    Hon. sir your
        Obt. humble servant
            C. M. Walker
Hon. J. B. Thompson M.C.
    Washington City
        D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 707-713.




Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, Nov. 20th 1857.
Sir,
    Herewith I have the honor to transmit the bond & contract of Henry Fuller for the delivery of thirty thousand pounds of beef per month for six months at the Siletz Agency, Coast Reservation, Oregon Territory.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affs. O.W.T.
To
    Hon. J. W. Denver
        Comr. Ind. Affs.
            Washington D.C.
   

    I, Henry Fuller, of the County of Benton, Territory of Oregon, in consideration of the subjoined covenants, promises and agreements of R. B. Metcalfe, United States Indian Agent of the Territory of Oregon, do hereby for myself, my heirs and legal representatives, covenant and agree to and with the said Indian agent in the penal sum of ten thousand dollars to deliver to said agent or his successors in office at the slaughterhouse near the agency on the Siletz River thirty thousand pounds [of] good, fresh beef per month for the term of six months, to be delivered in quarters and all the offal thrown in except the hides free of charge. Said beef to be delivered in such quantities as the agent in charge shall from time to time direct at the price of nine & 75/100 dollars per hundred pounds. It is understood that it shall be optional with said agent to increase or diminish the quantity of beef to be delivered under this agreement one third in each month by giving ten days notice to the contractor. The first issue of beef under this contract to be delivered on the first day of December 1857.
    In witness I have herewith set my hand and seal this sixteenth day of November 1857.
Henry Fuller
Witness
G. E. Coles
Nat. H. Lane
   

    We, Rowland Chambers and Price Fuller, of the County of Benton and Territory of Oregon, do hereby bond ourselves, our heirs and legal representatives as sureties for the said Henry Fuller for the full and faithful performance by them of all and each of the foregoing covenants.
    In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this sixteenth day of November 1857.
Henry Fuller
Rowland Chambers
Price Fuller
Signed in presence of
G. E. Coles
Nat. H. Lane
   

    I, R. B. Metcalfe, United States Indian Agent in and for the Territory of Oregon [sic]. The foregoing named contractor Henry Fuller complying with the foregoing contracts, covenants and agreements on their part, I as such Indian agent do hereby promise and agree to and with the said Henry Fuller to pay them at the rates of nine and 75/100 dollars per hundred pounds for the beef mentioned in the foregoing contract, the payment to be made when the necessary funds for said purpose shall be received by me from the Treasury Department.
    In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this sixteenth day of November 1857.
R. B. Metcalfe
    Ind. Agent
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1155-1159.



Dayton O.T.
    22nd Novr. 1857
Dr. General
    I have been engaged about a year in asking the Indian Department to pay the claims of James P. Day & Messrs. Boyle and Bowman for services done in removing some Indians from the head of the Umpqua River (under the special authority of the Superintendent Ind. Affairs) to the reservation. And up to this time my efforts have availed nothing. I have written some friends in Congress in relation to these claims and asked their aid and interference in behalf of these persons, and have cited them to you for my identity. Mr. Day died last June, leaving a widow and two children. Mrs. Day has written me and requests I press her claims. I see no chance only by a special act of Congress, as the Commissioner & Superintendent have refused to act.
    All the papers and evidences of right of Mr. Day etc., etc. are in the office of the Commissioner at Washington, to which you can refer if you see proper to act in the premises.
    The constitution is adopted, slavery question voted down, also free negro question.
    The weather is fine, waters very low--no rains, very pleasant. Country quiet &c. &c.
I remain dr. sir
    Very respectfully
        Your obt. svt.
            C. M. Walker
Hon Joseph Lane
    Washington City
        D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 185-188.




Ashland Mills O.T. Nov. 23 A.D. 1857
Mr. J. W. Nesmith Dear Sir
    Having made out my claim for the loss of my pack train by Indians while crossing the Siskiyou Mountain 6th of July 1856 and sent the same to I. Philo Calender and not having heard anything relative to it I thought best to write to you, having been informed that you are the proper person to send such claims to.
    I have written once to Calender and received no answer. I learned by a gentleman from the Santiam country by the name of Driggs that Calender had went to the Atlantic States. He advised me to write to Bush. I done so but have received no answer, and I begin to feel uneasy about my claim. Knowing that if the papers are lost I cannot procure proof to make out others, I wish you to get the papers and keep them until such times as government will pay off spoliation claims.
    In short I wish you to attend to or see to getting my money from government.
    John H. Taylor, the person who lost his pack train the same day, wishes you do with his claim as with mine. I will give you an order to get the claims from Calender or agent.
Yours
    A. McNary
Mr. I. Trilo Calender or agent please let J. W. Nesmith leave the papers we made out and sent to you for the loss of our pack trains while crossing the Siskiyou Mountain 5th of July, 1856.
A. McNary
John H. Taylor
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 303.



Newburgh, N.Y.
    Nov. 23rd 1857
Mr. F. J. Seybolt
    Dear Sir
        Your will please inform me by inquiring at some department; I presume one of the judges of the Court of Claims would be most likely to have the requisite knowledge. However. you will know best where answers to the following questions may be obtained.
    First--property owned by me, having been destroyed by Indians, in the Territory of the United States, said Indians at the time having signed a treaty of amity & peace with the United States, whether or not in such case the value of said property would not constitute a legal claim against the general government--provided the destruction of said property did not grow out of any wrong on my part toward said Indian tribes.
    And, if the government is holden for the same, what way am I to proceed to recover.
    I have been living the last four years in Oregon and in close proximity to the redskins, and have had property destroyed by them. I was making inquiries the other day of your brother-in-law Judge Wilkin, and he thought I had better write you upon the subject, that you would be able to find out through some of the departments.
    You will please give me the detail minutely of the modus operandi and much oblige
Your most humble servant
    Alexr. Sutherland
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1273-1275.




Office Supt. Indian Affairs
    Salem, Oregon, November 25th 1857
Sir,
    Referring to your letter of the 15th enclosing copies of certain letters of Gen. Clark, Capt. Augur and Lieut. Sheridan of the army, with an endorsement thereon by the commander in chief relative to alleged impropriety of conduct on the part of Agent Metcalfe in regards to his treatment of the Indians at Siletz in March last, I submit the following:
    In accordance with your instructions I have instituted inquiries, and made such examination into the matter as my limited time would allow, and am satisfied from information, and from my own personal knowledge, that the charges made against Agent Metcalfe are in many important particulars unsustained by the facts.
    Capt. Augur in his letter of April 20th makes use of the following language: "Mr. Metcalfe's complaints of the apprehension of his employees should attach to himself and arises from his having located his agency so far away from the military post &c." "There is no reason connected with the good of the service in my opinion why the agency should be at its present location." With due deference for the opinions of Capt. Augur, I must beg leave to differ with his statements for the following reasons: When the Indians were located at the Siletz, it was understood by the Department here to be the desire of the government, after a reasonable time, to make the reservation self-sustaining, or nearly so, by teaching the Indians to obtain their own living by the cultivation of the soil. With this object in view Mr. Metcalfe did make the very best possible selections for the accomplishment of that purpose, and located the agency at the only point on the reservation suitable for extensive farming purposes, and if he had established it [at] any other point, I should now consider it my duty to direct him to make the change to its present location.
    When Capt. Augur speaks of the "post," I presume that he has reference to a temporary blockhouse erected some seven miles up the Siletz River above the present agency, and in a narrow portion of the valley entirely unsuitable for extensive agriculture. Another and very important consideration in selecting the present point for an agency was the advantages it possessed in being seven miles nearer the coast and harbor from whence supplies were to be obtained.
    The additional expense of transporting the supplies for the Indians over the seven miles of pack trail would have involved a very heavy outlay to the government.
    So far as the location of the agency is concerned Agent Metcalfe's conduct in that particular has my hearty and decided approval. It was his duty as I concur to make the selection for his agency without the interference of the military, and the manner in which he discharged that duty reflects credit upon his good judgment.
    With reference to the "post," the blockhouse which composed it has since been removed down to the agency at a much less expense than the supplies for Indians during the winter could have been transported to its former location.
    In relation to the requisition made on Lieut. Sheridan by Agent Metcalfe to furnish military protection to the employees, and also to disarm the Indians, I am unable to see any impropriety. Those Indians had nearly all been recently engaged in hostilities in the southern portion of Oregon, and gave frequent evidence of their intention to commit further depredations.
    They were situated on the western side of the Coast Mountains, forty miles from the Willamette Valley where the nearest assistance or protection could be obtained. The Indians were in a state of great destitution, and attributed their sufferings and starvation to bad faith on the part of the government in its neglect to relieve their distress. Metcalfe and his few employees were among them alone and at their mercy, liable at any moment to be butchered. There are few men similarly situated who would not have desired protection and the Indians disarmed.
    In many of the minor points of the controversy there is, as you will observe by the Indians' letter from Agent Metcalfe, questions of veracity raised between himself and Lieut. Sheridan. Without expressing any opinion in relation thereto, it is but proper to say that Metcalfe offers to corroborate his statement by the introduction of proof. I have not deemed it necessary to go to the trouble and expense of obtaining those proofs, neither could I spare the time from the urgent business of the office to do so.
    The whole matter in controversy, as I conceive, resolves itself into the question as to who was the agent for those Indians, and who should exercise the functions of agent--Metcalfe or Sheridan.
    The charge contained in Lieut. Sheridan's letter of 13th April in relation to the improper conduct of Agent Metcalfe employees, and their having been engaged in hostilities with Indians in Southern Oregon, is presumed to allude to Messrs. Bledsoe & Abbott, the former late capt. and the latter lieut. in the volunteer service of Southern Oregon. It is true, Lt. Sheridan says, that they were both engaged in the late war in Southern [Oregon]; it is also true that they discharged their duties and acquitted themselves in a manner which could have reflected credit upon other and abler soldiers. Capt. Bledsoe I am acquainted with, Mr. Abbott I only know from reputation. So far as I know, or am informed, they are both gentlemen of good character, and I think one undeserving of the strictures of Lieut. Sheridan.
    Agent Metcalfe I have known for four years, and while his intercourse with the Indians has been characterized by firmness, I never before heard of his exercising harsh or cruel treatment towards them.
    He certainly exhibits ability as an agent, and his conduct so far as known to me has my approval.
    Herewith transmitted is a copy of a letter from Capt. C. C. Augur under date of Octr. 7th by which you will observe the capt. coincides with Agent Metcalfe in the policy of disarming refractory Indians, and at the same time placed a detachment of troops at the disposal of Agent M. for that purpose.
    In conclusion it would perhaps be proper to state that "Fort Hoskins," the post which Capt. Augur has built and commands is, in my opinion, in a very improper place. Its location is in the settlement at the western side of the Willamette Valley, and at the eastern base of the Coast Range of mountains.
    The agency and the Indians are located thirty-five or forty miles west of him, on the opposite and western side of those mountains. The road over those mountains is a difficult one at best, and frequently in the winter totally impassable. The location of the fort with reference to the agency does not afford the latter the slightest protection whatever, and might as well for all practical purposes be on the eastern base of the Allegheny Mountains. It is true, however, that Capt. Augur does keep a small detachment of his command consisting of some twenty or thirty men at the blockhouse near the agency.
    In your last I represented to Brig. Genl. Clark, commanding the Department, the necessity for establishing the fort and entire force on the reservation and near the agency for the purpose of protecting the latter, and also to keep the Indians in proper subjection, and this interposes a barrier to prevent them from leaving the reservation, and returning along the coast to their old homes in Southern Oregon.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affrs. O.&W.T.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 7; Letter Books F:10, pages 118-121.  Original on NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 1169-1176.



Siletz Agency
    Novr. 25th 1857
Dear Sir
    Enclosed please find the bids on beef contract. I suppose from the returns that the Negro question has gone up the spout; I will send you one hundred dollars by the first opportunity. The schooner Calamette [sic--Klamath?] is still on the beach, but in a fair way to be afloat in a few days; they will not attempt to go to sea until the wind changes, which cannot be expected soon.
Very respectfully
    Yr. obt. servt.
        R. B. Metcalfe
            Ind. Agent
To
    Col. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affrs.
            Salem, O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 30; Miscellaneous Loose Papers 1850-1873.



Washington City
    Nov. 25th 1857
Sir:
    Upon reexamination at the Second Auditor's office I find my compensation as Indian agent is credited to the 30th June 1856. I tendered my resignation of said office several weeks prior to that date with the request I might be relieved of duty by that date, but my successor was not appointed for some time after, and I think I am entitled to compensation until he entered up[on] his duties. I was legally in office until my resignation was accepted or the office changed by the appointment & qualification of my successor, and besides this fact a broad equity for the payment of this salary arises from my having after my resignation traveled a distance of three hundred miles to see the Supt., Genl. Palmer, at an expense of about three hundred dollars, for the purpose of paying over to him the balance of the money in my hands and turning over to any authorized agent the public property which was yet charged to me.
    All of which expense would not have occurred had I been released of duty at the time I requested.
Very respectfully yours
    Geo. H. Ambrose
J. W. Denver Esqr.
    Commissioner of
        Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 21-23.



To the Hon. J. W. Nesmith
    Supt. Ind. Aff. of O. [and] W. Tery.
We the undersigned citizens of Umpqua, Coos & Curry counties would humbly pray your hon. to make a change in the agency of the Siletz Reservation for the following reasons, viz: Believing and knowing the universal dissatisfaction of the Indians through the mismanagement of their affairs by the present incumbent upon said reservation, and their expressed determination to leave the same at the sacrifice of their lives, we being the only persons directly endangered in both our lives and property claim the right to examine into and petition your hon. for relief from dangers most imminent.
    Again some of your petitioners have visited and witnessed the gross partiality shown to some and the neglect of others in the issue of their rations. Again, we have witnessed the arming of a part of those who are equally hostile against others of the same character, when by proper treatment peace and harmony would be maintained. Again, the whole management of affairs have become a family arrangement, R. B. Metcalfe agent, James Metcalfe (his brother) commissary and R. Bledsoe (their cousin) storekeeper. All transactions are done with orders upon the store, when the most extravagant charges are made and exacted from the Indian, which paralyzes his energies, as in the end he gets nominally nothing for his labor. All these facts combined have a direct tendency to keep the savage disposition of the Indian excited, rendering him hostile and discontented. Having lived many years among these same Indians, we claim to have a knowledge of Indian character.
    Having prayed for a change in the above-named agency, we would humbly recommend Doc. E. P. Drew for the position from the high esteem and respect entertained for him by all the Indians upon the reservation, a man of true integrity and unimpeachable moral character, having a family resident with him, would have a tendency to restrain their vices, [and] give an example of virtue for their imitation. These being our reasons prayer and recommendation we would ever pray.
    If we believed it to be requisite the entire citizens upon the coast would urge the above.
    James Maxey William Tichenor                                        
Madison Scobey James Flanagan
Stephen Hedden W. H. Harris
Patrick Flanagan Turner Emery
John Lake
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 326.  The petition is undated.



Office Superintendent Indian Affairs
    Salem Oregon, November 26, 1857
Sir:
    In accordance with your instructions in relation to outstanding and unpaid liabilities contracted previous to my assuming the duties of Superintendent, I herewith forward the following accounts for your instructions.
1.  R. E. Miller for removing the Rogue River Indians from Jacksonville to the Grand Ronde Reservation, Oregon Territory, in the spring of 1857 $2187.00
2. Thomas Snee for services as carpenter at Siletz Agency, Oregon Territory, eight and one-half days at $5.50 per day 402.50
3. E. Milwain, bill for supplies furnished for use of tin shop at Grand Ronde Reservation, Oregon Territory in March 1857 1028.20
4. E. Milwain for supplies furnished Sub-Agent Raymond at different times in 1856 and while the said Raymond was in charge of Grand Ronde Reservation in Oregon 1058.40
5. Robert Shortess for office rent while local agent at Astoria in 1850 & 1851     168.40
Total         $4844.50
    The foregoing accounts have the certificates of the agents who contracted them, and I am satisfied that they are correct and just and should have been paid long since. Shortess' bill for office rent forms an exception. The enclosed letters from late Supt. Dart bear evidence of his having acted as local agent. Whether, under the circumstances, he is entitled to office rent during the period of his service is a question for the Department to decide. I am however of the opinion that the account is just and should be paid.
    In the event of your directing the payment of these accounts it will be necessary that the funds be placed in my hands for that purpose. In any event I have to request that all the papers be returned to me, as I have promised to return them to the claimants.
I am, sir, very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. W. Nesmith
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
                Oregon & Wash. Territories
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Comm. Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 264-266.



Office Sub-Ind. Agency
    Umpqua City O.T. Dec. 2 / 57
Sir--
    On the 11th of November I left this office for the purpose of proceeding at once to Chetco agreeable to your order. At Coos Bay I was detained on account of indisposition. I immediately dispatched Mr. Flanagan as spec. messenger to Spec. Agt. Tichenor.
    Mr. Flanagan has returned with news from Capt. Tichenor to this effect. The Indians have agreed to remove to the reserve & are now being collated for that purpose. The last of this month has been agreed upon by the parties as the time of leaving. I will by the 20th of this month send a detachment of troops from this post as an escort & to prevent the escape of any of them on the way--means of transportation has also been provided. I will start down in person as soon as my health will permit.
    Capt. Tichenor informs me that Mr. Ruffner has the only bill against the Department. Mr. Ruffner was at this office a few days since to tell me. His bill was for subsistence & amounted to about six hundred ($600) dollars.
    The Indians built their own houses--no expense to the Department--the Indians are now subsisting themselves & are at no great expense to the government if at any.
    A few of the Chetcos are on the Klamath reserve & I sent an order to Tichenor to get them from the agent in charge & bring them with their people. A few people are now in Illinois Valley. Capt Tichenor is in pursuit of them. Mr. Flanagan says they all expressed a willingness to come to the reserve. I apprehend no difficulty in removing the whole of them in a few weeks.
    Maj. Scott has been ordered to Fort Umpqua, is expected on the next steamer.
    While at your office last fall I spoke with you regarding the clerkship in your office. Mr. Blanchard is still at the post & would like the situation if you desire his services. His time does not expire until January next, yet he can leave at any time on "leave of absence."
    Eight hundred ($800) dollars will I think cover the entire expense thus far incurred by Capt. Tichenor & he is incurring no expense at present.
I am sir
    Most respectfully
        Your obt. servt.
            E. P. Drew
                Sub-Ind. Agt.
To
    Gen. J. W. Nesmith
        Supt. Ind. Affairs
            Salem O.T.
NARA Series M2, Microcopy of Records of the Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1848-1873, Reel 15; Letters Received, 1857, No. 308.



Dayton O.T.
    3rd Dec. 1857
Sir
    I enclose you the letter of Mrs. Day (before Mrs. Hunter) who says she is your acquaintance.
    By reference to documents previously submitted to your office, you will see that Mr. Day, under the appointment of Joel Palmer, late Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this Territory, was made special Indian agent to collect, provide for & remove to the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation some scattered parties of Indians from the headwaters of the Umpqua River, for which service he has not been paid. This arose from the indisposition of Supt. Hedges to pay or acknowledge his claim, as may be seen from a copy of his letter to Sub-Ind. Agent Raymond, with other papers sent by me to your office in Novr. 1856. I have never yet recd. an answer from Commissioner Manypenny or yourself in regard to this claim of Mr. Day. By supposing from this silence that no favorable steps would be taken in the premises by the Indian Department, I have written to some of the members of Congress to try & have a special act passed [by] Congress for the relief of Mr. Day et al., whose claims are filed with Mr. Day's. And that they may be in possession of all the necessary facts establishing the right of Mr. Day to pay, I have referred them to your office for these evidences. I conceive that greater injustice could not have been practiced upon anyone than has in this case been done Mr. Day. And I hope, if you can in honor do anything for the relief of the widow & orphans of Mr. Day, you will do. And if it is out of your power to act in the matter as an officer in the Ind. Department, you will offer your encouragement to the members of Congress who will make the attempt for a special act.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        C. M. Walker
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Comr. Ind. Affairs
        Washington City
            D.C.
   

Canyonville O.T.
    25th Nov. 1856
Dear Sir
    I received yours of the 16th instant. Mr. McKay was here and will see Messrs. Boyle & Bowman immediately and proceed to answer your request.
    I had grown quite impatient at your silence, and you can easily imagine my anxiety when I tell you unless that money is paid everything that I possess will be sold to liquidate the claim against the estate. All that Mr. Day furnished the Indians he paid out his own money for, and laying sick so long incurred a great many expenses. Consequently, I shall be turned out of house and home if you do not succeed. I believe you will use every means in your power without any further importunities from me.
    I believe if you will write Gov. Floyd at Washington City he will use his influence in the Indian Department there. He is an old friend of Mr. Day's. Raised [as] boys together, the two families were intimate while in Virginia. Mr. Day's father has written to Floyd in regard to this matter. General Denver is a friend of mine when my name was Hunter, but he is absent or I would write to him. He is in the Indian Department at Washington.
    I regret that you postponed your visit this winter. I should be very much pleased to receive you and your daughter. My compliments to yourself and family.
Mary A. Day
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frames 717-722.



Letter from
        J. Ross Brown
                Special Agent of the Treasury Department
to the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Reviewing the
Origin of the Indian War of 1855-6
in the
Territories of Oregon
&
Washington
 
San Francisco Cal.
    Decr. 4th 1857.
Hon. J. W. Denver
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Sir,
    In the course of my late tour of inspection through the Territories of Oregon and Washington, under your instructions of May 1st, 1857, I had occasion in my inquiries respecting the condition of the Indian reservations to investigate the causes of the late Indian war. The information thus obtained has so important a bearing upon our Indian policy and the future prospects of our territorial possessions on the Pacific coast, that I am induced to believe it will not be unacceptable to the department.
    On my arrival in Oregon I conferred with all the leading citizens and obtained the views of nearly every federal officer in the country. During a tour of more than two months I heard but one sentiment expressed--a general denial of the allegation that the hostilities were commenced by the settlers for purposes of speculation. From previous acquaintance with the people of Oregon, I had formed the opinion that they were peaceable, honest and industrious, and it seemed to me scarcely possible that they could be guilty of so great a crime as that charged against them.
    In view of the fact, however, that objection might be made to any testimony coming from the citizens of the Territories, and believing also that it is the duty of a public agent to present, as far as practicable, unprejudiced statements, I did not permit myself to be governed by any representations unsupported by reliable historical data.
    Upon a full review of the origin and progress of the war, I arrived at the conclusion that the feud between the commanding officer of the military department on the Pacific coast and the citizens of the Territories--out of which the charge of speculation upon the public treasury grew--is a matter of very little national importance. The result of a mere political and personal quarrel of this kind cannot affect the great questions at issue. The origin of the war is not different from that of any other Indian war. It is the natural result of emigration and settlement, and whether the governors of the Territories, public officers and citizens generally committed an error in not placing themselves under the control and direction of Genl. Wool, who came up after the war had commenced, or whether the part taken by him was best calculated to preserve and maintain peace, is not the question now to be decided.
    A war took place--an expensive and disastrous war--from the effects of which the Territories will suffer for many years. Neither the commanding officer of the military department, nor the citizens of the Territories, in my opinion, could have prevented it. The quarrel between them is undignified and unstatesmanlike. It was a war of destiny--bound to take place whenever the causes reached their culminating point. Although occasional hostilities have been engendered between the whites and particular tribes of Indians in every state of the Union by individual acts of aggression, either on the one side or the other, the history of' our Indian wars will show that the primary cause is the progress of civilization, to which the inferior races, from their habits and instincts, are naturally opposed. From the time of the landing of the Pilgrims on Plymouth Rock to the present day we have had wars with the Indians, and they have all had a beginning. It matters little whether an individual act of aggression or a general movement becomes the signal for hostilities--a prior cause must exist.
    The explorations of Lewis & Clark, who were sent out by the government of the United States in 1802 to ascertain the character and boundaries of the territory west of the Rocky Mountains, with a view of investigating the unwarranted assumption of the British Hudson's Bay Company of an exclusive right to trade with the Indians, present the first official narrative of American intercourse with the Indians of Oregon. From that period, during a series of many years, the country was visited by trappers and hunters from the frontiers of Missouri--a wild, reckless, and daring race of men, whose intercourse with the Indians was not calculated to afford them a high opinion of the Americans as a people.
    In 1835 missionary establishments were formed west of the Rocky Mountains. The French, through their connection with the Hudson's Bay Company, established Catholic missions and the Americans Protestant missions, between which jealousies and bickerings soon sprang up. Misrepresentations were no doubt made on both sides, and the result was that bitter hostilities were engendered between the cliques attached to each persuasion. In the autumn of 1847 Dr. Marcus Whitman and his family were murdered by the Indians. Mr. Spalding, another missionary, charges that it was done with the knowledge and connivance of the Catholic missionaries. I send enclosed the reply of Father Brouillet, which professes to refute this charge. A perusal of the pamphlet will abundantly show the bitterness of feeling existing between the different sects, and its evil effects upon the Indians. It will readily be seen that as little dependence can be placed upon the statements made by one side as by the other and that, instead of Christianizing the Indians, these different sects were engaged in quarrels among each other--thereby showing a very bad example to the races with whom they chose to reside.
    The fact also is shown that as far back as 1835 the Indians west of the Rocky Mountains protested against the taking away of their lands by the white races--that this was one of the alleged causes of the murder of Dr. Whitman and family.
    It is needless to go into a detail of all the difficulties between the whites and the Indians since the first emigration to the Territory of Oregon. The same primary causes existed in every case--encroachments of a superior upon an inferior race.
    In 1840 and '41 the subject of the settlement of Oregon was agitated in the Senate of the United States by Senators Linn and Benton. Valuable Information as to the value and extent of this Territory was published to the country in their speeches. Settlers were encouraged to go there and secure homesteads for their families. Congress was urged to grant liberal donations of lands. Senator Linn made it, session after session, the especial subject of his mission to Washington, and never ceased until the day of his death to urge upon government the great value and importance of our Pacific possessions, and the expediency of encouraging emigration there.
    In 1849 Mr. Thurston went to Washington City as a delegate from the Territory of Oregon. He represented to Congress the unsettled condition of affairs in that Territory, arising from the proximity of the Indians to the white settlements, and the difficulties which were frequently occurring between them. He urged that the people of Oregon were in an isolated and unprotected condition; that inducements had been held out to them by the government to settle there, but they had not as yet acquired a legal title to their lands, and the Indians were constantly threatening to dispossess them. In fact, they only maintained their position by sufferance. They were liable at any moment to be massacred. In consequence of these representations, and the pressing petitions of the people through their delegate, Congress in June 1850 passed a law authorizing the appointment of a commission to treat with all the Indians west of the Cascade Mountains. On the 27th of Sept. following, the donation law was passed, granting to single persons, who had settled prior to the 1st Decr. 1851, 320 acres, and to married couples 640 acres of the public domain &c. No reservation was contained in this act predicated upon the action of the commission. The land was to be granted in fee simple, upon actual residence for four years. In the preemption act of Sept. 4th, 1841 Section 10--extended to Oregon July 17th 1854--provision is made excepting from preemption lands held in reserve by the government or to which the Indian title has not been extinguished. In the donation act government departed from its usual policy and made no such exception. That this has been a fruitful source of difficulty there can be no doubt. It was unwise and impolitic to encourage settlers to take away the lands of the Indians. It was well understood, from experience with the Indians of other States, that they always claimed a right to the lands upon which they had always lived resided. They could never be taught to comprehend that subtle species of argument by which another race could come among the-- put them aside--ignore their claims, and assume possession, on the ground of being a superior people. Ever since the ordinance of 1787 it had been the practice of government to recognize in them a possessory right, which could only be extinguished by purchase or mutual agreement. Of course as the terms were always dictated and enforced on the one side, whether the other party was satisfied or not, this compulsory process cannot properly lie dignified by the title of Treaty. None of the so-called treaties with the Indians are anything more than forced agreements, which the stronger power can violate or reject at pleasure, and of which privilege it has availed itself in all the treaties made with the Indians of Oregon.
    The organic act of August, 1848, creating the Territory of Oregon, reserves to the general government the right to make such regulations respecting the Indians as it may deem expedient--in other words, to treat with them, purchase their lands, remove them to reservations, or otherwise dispose of them, as might best subserve their welfare and the public interests. Such portions of the act of 1834, regulating trade and intercourse with the Indians, as were found applicable, were extended to Oregon by act of 1850. This has relation chiefly to municipal control over the relations trade between the settlers and the Indians--selling whiskey &c. Here again was another source of trouble. Each settler under the donation act, holding his title direct from government, could hire as much Indian labor as he pleased for whiskey--the article held in highest esteem by the Indian. The Indian law of 1834 could not reach this offense, for government had ignored the Indian title. It was beyond any military power, and was made the subject of civil action, the same as any other offense against the laws of the Territory. The accused was entitled to a trial by jury. The jury consisted of his peers--that is, of men who hired Indian labor in the same way. It was impracticable to procure the necessary testimony of white witnesses. I do not believe offenses of this kind prevailed amongst the better class of settlers in Oregon, but they were sufficiently common to produce constant trouble with the Indians.
    In reference to the question of original right, I believe there is but little difference of opinion at the present day. Civilization cannot be held back upon grounds of priority of possession. The question is simply one of public policy. When it becomes necessary to remove the aboriginal races to some more convenient location, they must be removed. But the stronger power, from motives of humanity, concedes to the weaker certain rights which it is bound in honor to respect. That Congress recognized these rights and intended to provide for them is shown by the passage of the act providing for the extinguishment of the Indian title prior to the donation act of Sept. 27th 1850.
    In pursuance of the authority vested in him, the President appointed a commission, consisting of Genl. Gaines, Governor and Superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory of Oregon, Mr. Allen, special commissioner, and Mr. Skinner, an Indian Agent.
    The commission met at Champoeg, in the Willamette Valley, in March, 1851, and proceeded to negotiate with the various tribes of the Willamette. In April they concluded several treaties. Under these treaties reservations were fixed at the forks of the Santiam and at Yamhill. The selection of lands thus made was singularly unfortunate, most of them being already covered by claims under the donation act. The removal of the Indians from one part of the valley to another, where the interests of the settlers were the same, could in no way have operated advantageously. The sum of $20,000 was expended in making these treaties, without any beneficial result. The settlers held meetings and protested against the acts of the commission. Petitions to the same effect were forwarded to Congress. It was considered that the treaties were injudicious in their terms and ought not to be ratified. But this was not the fault of the Indians. A solemn compact was made with them. The terms were imposed by the stronger power and accepted by them from necessity. Most of their lands had already been taken away from them under the donation act, and under the treaties they gave up, for certain considerations, what remained. But the agreement thus dictated to them was never ratified, and they never received the promised considerations under that instrument. Between private individuals this would be regarded as obtaining property under false pretenses.
    In the meantime the commissioners were preparing to go south and. treat with the Rogue River and Shasta tribes; whose disaffection was becoming formidable, when an order came from the Indian Department suspending their functions. The offices of Governor and Superintendent were disconnected, and a new Superintendent (Dr. Dart) was appointed. This officer, acting in conjunction with Mr. Skinner, Indian Agent, made treaties with the Clatsops and other coast tribes, near the mouth of the Columbia--a peaceful and degraded race, of no importance, and with whom there was no pressing demand for treaties. Mr. Skinner was then ordered south to prepare the way for negotiations with the southern tribes. He held councils with the most powerful and warlike, urged them to be patient awhile, that government would soon make treaties with them and pay them for all their lands. But neither the promised treaties nor the promised payments were made till they forced government to pay some respect to their demands by an attempt to exterminate the white settlers who were crowding in upon them, and whose encroachments had been the subject of protest and complaint amongst them since the first claims under the donation act. The Rogue River war of 1853 will not soon be forgotten. These tribes were in constant intercourse with those of the Willamette Valley. They saw that there was but one way of securing their rights--by force of arms. Nor were they by any means conquered when they agreed to the treaty of Sept. 10th 1853. Had they chosen to hold out and take to the mountain fastnesses of their country, it might have taken ten years to subdue them. It was not only through the determination and gallantry of Genl. Lane, who led the volunteer forces in this war, but his thorough knowledge of Indian character, his skill in that sort of diplomacy, his general sagacity and prudence, that it was brought to a close. The most enlightened and influential of the chiefs knew him personally, and respected him both in war and peace. But they either misunderstood the terms of the treaty, or the inducements held out to them to stop the war were such as it was not afterwards practicable to fulfill. Their views upon this point are fully set forth in my report of Nov. 17th ult., in which the result of a "talk" with them at the "Siletz Reservation" is given in detail.
    In order to preserve as far as practicable the connection between the causes of war in different parts of the Territory, I must again return to the treaties of Champoeg. As already stated, they were never ratified. It was well known to the public authorities in Washington that the donation act had gone into operation, and that the nonratification of the treaties left the Indian title unextinguished. The causes of the Rogue River war of 1853 were fully detailed in the various reports of the officers of the Territory. It cannot therefore be said with justice that it was the fault of the settlers that nothing was done to arrest the impending war. Sufficient warning had been given. The newspapers, from day to day, were filled with accounts of murders by the Indians--sometimes pack trains attacked; the camps of miners robbed, dead bodies of white men found on the mountain trails &c.
    At the time the treaties of Champoeg were negotiated (April 1851) the valley of the Willamette was the main resort of the Klickitats, a powerful and warlike tribe from the country west of the Simcoe, in the Cascade Mountains. This tribe has well been compared to the Arab merchants of the East. Bold, adventurous and cunning, they had gradually acquired an influence over nearly all the Indians of Oregon as far south as Rogue River.
    At an early date (probably between 1835 and '40) they descended from the Simcoe to the banks of the Columbia River, on the northern side, where they commenced a war against the Cowlitz, Chinook and other inferior tribes, whom they soon conquered and reduced to such terms of tribute as they chose to dictate. In 1841 they began to turn their attention to the south side of the Columbia. Rich valleys and fine hunting grounds existed there, of which they had heard traditionary reports. At this time the Clackamas, Molallas, Yamhills, Santiams and the other tribes of the Willamette Valley had become greatly reduced by diseases introduced among them by the whites. Smallpox, measles and venereal had swept them off by thousands. They were wholly unprepared to resist the encroachments of their warlike and formidable neighbors. From time to time, as opportunity occurred, the Klickitats crossed over, made inroads upon them, and finally entirely subdued all the tribes of the Willamette, whom they caused to pay tribute. Assuming a possessory right over the whole valley, they established camps on the various rivers, and in the course of a few years, by gradual advances, pushed their way over the Calapooia Mountains into the valley of the Umpquas.
    In former times the Umpquas were a powerful tribe, owning all the country between the Calapooia Mountains north, the Cañon Mountains south, the Cascades east and the Pacific west. The Shastas and Rogue Rivers had frequent wars with them, but finally through mutual interest effected a coalition. From this time the Umpquas began to lose much of their original independence, and at the period of the invasions of the Klickitats had greatly degenerated. The Klickitats, fresh from the scenes of the recent victories, skilled in the arts of war, and still determined upon subduing all the races of the south, found no difficulty in reducing the Umpquas to such terms of submission as they thought proper to dictate. One great source of their success was their skill in the use of firearms, of which they had procured an abundant supply from the trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company.
    They opened an extensive trade with the southern tribes in furs and peltries, and crossed the mountains at various intervals during the year. The valley of the Willamette was their public highway to the north and their depot during the greater part of the year, where they left their property and families. After the emigration, under John [sic] Applegate, in 1843, they found it profitable, during particular seasons, to work as farm laborers, and soon became well skilled in the arts of husbandry. These services were regarded as more valuable than those of any other class of Indians. Desirous, however, of pushing their conquest still further south than they had yet penetrated, so as to obtain the same supremacy over the Shasta and Rogue River tribes which they had already obtained over the Umpquas, they proffered their aid to the whites on the occasion of every outbreak or manifestation of war. As early as In 1851, when Lieutenant Stuart was killed on Rogue River, near the mouth of Stuart Creek, they armed themselves ready to unite in any expedition against the hostile tribes. In 1853 Genl. Lane considered it expedient to avail himself of their repeated offers, and a party of 60 Klickitat warriors, well mounted and armed, proceeded to join him at the scene of war. They had reached as far south as the Grave Creek Hills, where they were met by Mr. Grover, one of the commissioners who had negotiated the treaty of Sept. 10th 1853, just concluded at Table Rock. As there was then no necessity for their services, they were directed to return. At their request, however, Mr. Grover gave them a written certificate that peace had been declared and that they had complied with their promise, in order, as they said, that the whites should not doubt their friendship.
    It will be observed that the commissioners of 1851, in their councils at Champoeg, had wholly ignored the claims of the Klickitats to the right of possession over the Willamette Valley. They were notified that it was not their country--that they had no voice in the relinquishment of the Indian title to the lands.
    That such a right had been asserted, and to some extent maintained by them, can doubtless be seen by reference to the records of the courts.
    At a term of the United States district court held in Washington County in 1851, complaint was made before the grand jury by one Donald McLeod that a band of Klickitats had committed a trespass upon his property by destroying timber which he had prepared for his house. The accused were brought before the court, with Agent Parish as their interpreter, but after an informal hearing of the case, the judge could not find any law to meet it. They maintained their right to destroy their own timber--that it grew on their own land--that they had acquired the land by conquest--that they had given McLeod warning not to settle there--that it had never been purchased from them &c. The judge held that there could be no action for trespass against them--that it was not shown that McLeod had acquired any legal title to the land, but it was shown that the accused had a possessory claim to it which government had never extinguished.
    Another case was brought before the same court. One Bridgefarmer built a fence across a certain trail which had been opened by them and which was their public highway. They broke down the fence and passed as usual. An attempt was made to bring an action of trespass against them. The judge delivered an opinion to the same effect.
    From this and many similar cases which might be cited it will be seen that there was at least some recognition of the rights assumed by these Indians. They had become familiar with the people of the valley and were esteemed as a superior tribe; nor were their repeated proffers of friendship without effect. It is true they had in view the subversion of the southern tribes and sought power, but whatever may have been their motives, they were entitled to some consideration. Incensed at the action of the commission in 1851, it was with difficulty they could be pacified, but they soon found consolation in the general disapproval of the treaties by the settlers, who were of opinion they would not be ratified.
    Early in the spring of 1855 the Superintendent of Indian Affairs thought it expedient to remove them from the Willamette Valley to their original country north of the Columbia. Under the provocations which they had already received, it may readily be supposed they left with no good will toward the whites. From the moment of their departure they were in a state of war. Driven from a country to which they had established a right under Indian usages, back to their homes in the Simcoe Mountains, they openly declared their determination to fight. They charged fraud and bad faith on the part of government and its agents, accused all the whites of cheating them, and protested that they would have satisfaction.
    Having now followed up the provocations of war from the southern line of Oregon to the north side of the Columbia, I propose taking a glance at the condition of affairs in Washington Territory. The most formidable of the tribes in this Territory were the Yakimas, inhabiting the country on the eastern slope of the Cascades. This tribe has long been connected, by strong ties of blood and interest with the Klickitats. They frequently crossed the mountains and descended to the Sound, but their principal field of adventure was eastward. They traded with the tribes still further of the east, from whom they purchased furs and peltries, and held a profitable connection with the post