The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Fruit Growers Associations

By-Laws of the Fruit Growers
Association of Southern Oregon.
    Sec. 1. This association shall hold its regular meetings on the fourth Saturday in every month.
    Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the president to preside at all regular and special meetings, to keep order during the hours of session; and to draw all warrants on the treasurer for any sum voted by a majority of the members present at any meeting, regular or special.
    Sec. 3. The president shall have power to appoint any person to fill vacancies until the day of general election.
    Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the vice-president to preside at any meeting in the absence of the president, and to discharge all the duties of said officer.
    Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep a fair record of all the proceedings of the association, to record the same in a book kept for the purpose; and to countersign all warrants drawn on the treasurer by the president. To receive and keep an account of all moneys voted and collected by the association, pay the same to the treasurer and take a receipt; also the date, number and amount of each order countersigned by him, and the purpose for which said order was drawn.
    Sec. 6. The treasurer shall keep in trust all moneys committed to his care and shall pay out on any order drawn by the president, and countersigned by the secretary, any sum of money so ordered. He shall keep a record of the amount of money paid to him, and the amount paid out; the purpose for which it was paid and carefully retain all orders paid which shall be his vouchers, for the amount so charged against him on the records of the Society; and shall make a report of the financial condition of the association at every regular meeting.

Members of the Fruit Growers
Association of Southern Oregon.
B. F. Miller
G. F. Pennebaker
H. W. Shipley
G. F. Shmidtlein
J. Henry Griffis
Z. M. Hall
Wm. M. Colvig
Tobias Miller
Henry Clock
Joseph Douden
W. H. Newton
Thos. Haymond
John B. Wrisley
R. F. Maury
W. Beeson
John W. Smith
Arthur Willson [sic]
I. B. Williams
A. L. Johnson
Abram C. Speer
H. F. Wood
Levi Gartman
W. H. Atkinson
J. M. McCall
G. F. McConnell
L. Martin
D. B. Bier
S. B. Galey
E. S. Townsend
J. H. Chitwood
F. Roper
J. W. Almutt
Robert Goodyear
Abram Bish
W. C. Myer
P. Lyttleton
C. B. Stone
John B. R. Hutchings
H. J. Teil
A. P. Hammond
W. H. Leeds
Ole Severson
S. J. Day
W. S. Fritzgerald
Martin Peterson
G. A. Hubbell
John E. Ross
R. S. Dunlap
I. W. Thomas
S. E. Stearns
W. T. Leever
Jesse Richardson
C. C. Beekman
H. McElroy
Edward Piening
James McDonough
A. H. Carson
Geo. W. Lewis
S. A. Borough
J. S. Gage
H. B. Miller
C. Wells
J. S. Denise
C. W. Clarke
Frank Dukes
I. J. Duncan
C. B. Miller
A. M. Jess
Fred Giger
Sam'l. Harkness
J. H. Stine
A. J. Leage
Thos. Curry
J. E. Potter
E. P. Geary
J. R. Cooper
T. M. Griffis
J. N. Woody
Thomas Hopwood
Wm. Kahler
M. A. McGinnis
Geo. A. Jackson
Scott Morris
L. P. Clark
G. W. Daley
W. P. Hammon
E. K. Anderson
F. T. Downing
J. W. Marksbury
S. W. Edwards
J. E. Pease
Robert A. Miller
S. S. Pentz
Ed C. Phelps
David Allen
J. N. T. Miller
C. Magruder
J. J. Frayer
Jas. McDonough
Dr. Geo. Kahler
G. Naylor
E. W. Hammon
J. H. Downing
C. A. Nutley
E. J. Kaiser
E. E. Gore
B. F. Adkins
F. J. Creed
Julius Goldsmith
H. E. Baker
P. W. Olwell
W. W. French
T. A. Newman
Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Gold Hill       
Jan. 22nd 1885.       
    According to previous notice the representatives of the fruit growers of Southern Oregon assembled at W. S. Fritzgerald's store for the purpose of permanent organization. The meeting was called to order by B. F. Miller, who was elected president (pro tempore). On motion J. H. Griffis was called upon to act as temporary secretary. The chair then appointed Messrs. H. W. Shipley, G. F. Pennebaker and Thomas Haymond as a committee on organization, after which the committee withdrew.
    Wm. M. Colvig then delivered an interesting speech on the future possibilities of the fruit growing industry of Southern Oregon. At the close of his remarks the committee on organization presented their report, and offered the following constitution and by-laws, which were passed upon, one section at a time, and accepted.
(To Wit)
    Sec. 2. [sic] The object of this association shall be to unite the fruit growers of Southern Oregon in promoting the best interests of the Society. For the purpose of an interchange of ideas as to the best manner of improving the different varieties of fruit, and the best modes of putting the same on the market; and the adoption of such means and measures as this body in its wisdom may think proper for the general interest of those herein represented.
    Sec. 1. This association shall be called "The Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon."
    Sec. 3. The officers of his association shall consist of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary and treasurer.
    Sec. 4. The officers of this association shall be elected by ballot, and to serve for one year and until their successors are elected and qualified.
    Sec. 5. Any person who is engaged in agricultural pursuits may become a member of this body by signing the constitution and by-laws and paying into the treasury the sum of fifty cents.
    Sec. 6. This constitution or by-laws may be altered or amended by a vote of two-thirds of the members present at any regular meeting.
    Sec. 1. This association shall hold its regular meetings on the fourth Saturday in every month.
    Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the president to preside at all regular and special meetings, to keep order during the hours of session, and to draw all warrants on the treasurer for any sum voted by a majority of the members present at any meeting, regular or special.
    Sec. 3. The president shall have power to appoint any person to fill vacancies until the day of general election.
    Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the vice-president to preside at any meeting in the absence of the president, and to discharge all the duties of said officer.
    Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep a fair record of all the proceedings of the association; to record the same in a book kept for the purpose, and to countersign all warrants drawn on the treasurer by the president. To receive and keep an account of all moneys voted and collected by the association; pay the same to treasurer and take a receipt, also the date, number and amount of each order and countersigned by him, and the purpose for which said order was drawn.
    Sec. 6. The treasurer shall keep in trust all moneys committed to his care and shall pay out on any order drawn by the president and countersigned by the secretary, any sum of money so ordered. He shall keep a record of the amount of money paid to him, and the amount paid out; the purpose for which it was paid and carefully retain all orders paid, which shall be his vouchers for the amount so charged against him on the records of the society; and shall make a report of the financial condition of the association at every regular meeting.
    Committee on Organization
        H. W. Shipley
        G. F. Pennebaker
        Thomas Haymond
    The following gentlemen then came forward and signed the constitution and by-laws: B. F. Miller, G. F. Pennebaker, H. W. Shipley, G. F. Shmidtlein, J. H. Griffis, Z. M. Hall, Wm. M. Colvig, Tobias Miller, Henry Clock, Joseph Douden, W. H. Newton, Thomas Haymond. After which the members proceeded to the election of officers. On motion of H. W. Shipley, G. F. Pennebaker was placed in nomination for president. On motion of Wm. M. Colvig, B. F. Miller was nominated for the same office. The nominations were then closed, and the society proceeded to vote by ballot. B. F. Miller, receiving the largest number of votes, was declared elected president.
    W. H. [sic] Shipley and G. F. Pennebaker were nominated as vice-presidents. The rules were suspended, and the above-named gentlemen were elected by acclamation.
    Wm. M. Colvig was unanimously elected treasurer, and J. H. Griffis secretary.
    H. W. Shipley moved that the next meeting of the association take place at Medford, on the 28th day of next February; carried. On motion of G. F. Pennebaker the association returned a vote of thanks to Mr. Fritzgerald for his kindness and accommodation. The secretary was instructed to send a copy of the proceedings of this meeting to the local  papers, and to purchase books suitable for keeping a record of the proceedings of the organization. It was resolved by motion of H. W. Shipley that every member present be considered a committee of one to solicit members. H. W. Shipley addressed the meeting, and spoke of the necessity of determined action on the part of members in the beginning of this very important move, until all the fruit growers of Southern Oregon are enlisted in the cause, and fully realize the benefits that will accrue to them from concerted action.
    G. F. Pennebaker offered some very wise remarks in regard to the sectional feeling that exists between different business points in this community and earnestly urged the fruit growers of Southern Oregon to rise above such a narrow-minded policy and let individual interest give way to such measures as are for the general good. On motion of G. F. Shmidtlein the meeting adjourned.
                J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Medford       
Feb. 28th 1885.       
President B. F. Miller in the chair
    The secretary was instructed to call the roll, and read the minutes of previous meeting. On motion of John B. Wrisley, the minutes were adopted as read. W. Beeson addressed the house on the advantages to be derived from united action among fruit growers and gave it as his opinion that so soon as they learned to put up their fruit in a neat, attractive manner, and were able to furnish sufficient quantities to attract the attention of the markets of the northwestern country, the demand would equal the supply, and at good prices. John B. Wrisley said that he had tried the experiment of shipping fruit in small quantities, and found it would not pay. By associating together and loading a car or several of them at a time, the fruit growers could receive a handsome profit, owing to the difference in the cost of transportation. J. H. Stewart said that while he was a stranger to our soil and climate, he was not a stranger to a horticultural society, for he had belonged to one for years and knew they were of great benefit to the fruit interest. He desired to impress upon the minds of the gentlemen present that too much care could not be taken in selecting varieties of fruit before planting orchards. While there were many varieties of fruit that possessed merit, there were but few kinds that would prove profitable to ship for the general market. J. W. Smith made a spirited speech recommending our apples as being superior to those of California or the eastern states, and looked forward to an increased demand for them. From apple trees eight and ten years old, he gathered last fall of each ten to fifteen bushels of apples of fine quality; and from pear trees four years old last year received a profit of two dollars to the tree. Arthur Wilson gave his experience in planting fruit trees in different kinds of soil. On motion it was decided to hold the next meeting at Ashland on Saturday, March 28th 1885. On motion of W. Beeson, B. F. Miller was selected to enquire into the different varieties of fruit and ascertain what kinds are best adapted for shipping and would be the most profitable to raise. The society returned a vote of thanks to Mr. Byer for the use of his hall, and instructed the secretary to send a copy of these proceedings to the county papers for publication.
    A. L. Johnson made a rousing speech, a portion of which was as follows, "I consider this the beginning of one of the grandest moves that has ever been inaugurated in Southern Oregon. I looked upon the Grange as one of the greatest benefits to the producing class of the United States, and attribute its present backwardness to the fact that the farmer being set off to himself and accustomed to rule his little kingdom as a monarch unquestioned in his authority he has failed to learn the necessity of commingling with his fellow man for mutual advantage. You must learn to give and take in the interchange of ideas and fight the evil not the man, or you can never hope to have an equal show with men in other branches of business. The merchant has his chamber of commerce. The mechanic has trades unions and so on in nearly all branches of business men are associated together for mutual protection. Why should not the fruit growers stand together and work for each other's interest in securing a market and remunerative prices for their fruit? I cannot too strongly urge upon you the necessity of protecting the birds; they are your friends. Wherever the birds have been destroyed insects have never failed to become troublesome pests. Protect your birds, they are a part of the equilibrium of nature. The game belongs to the man that cultivates the soil; you should guard it well if you would foster your own interest."
    Messrs. W. Beeson, J. W. Smith and G. F. Pennebaker were appointed as a committee to secure a hall for the next regular meeting. On motion of J. H. Griffis the meeting adjourned.
                J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Myer's Hall Ashland       
March 28th 1885       
    Meeting called to order by vice-president G. F. Pennebaker. By order of the chair the secretary read the constitution and by-laws. Call of the roll was omitted. Nineteen prominent gentlemen came forward, signed the constitution and by-laws and became members of the association. The minutes of previous meeting were read and approved. The secretary read a communication from president B. F. Miller stating that it was impossible for him to attend without neglecting important business at home. He also reported progress in the matter of gaining information and making a report as to what varieties of fruit can be shipped at the most profit. Wm. M. Colvig handed in his resignation as treasurer, which was received. Abram Bish was nominated for treasurer, the rules were suspended and he was elected by acclamation. It was moved and seconded that W. M. Colvig, ex-treasurer, should pass over to the secretary what money he had in his possession belonging to the association; carried. W. H. Wickham spoke of the necessity of having a fruit cannery at Ashland, and thought there would be some effort made this year toward starting one. G. F. McConnell said, "I have shipped peaches from Ashland successfully; they were of fine quality and found ready sale. I have also shipped a quantity of apples this season which brought a higher price than any other apples in the market. The railroad companies already are offering reduced rates for the transportation of fruits and with proper solicitation by this association might be induced to be still more liberal. We should endeavor to have one good house in San Francisco and one in Portland that we could rely upon to receive our fruit. The Early Crawford is the favorite peach, and the Northern Spy and Fall Pippin apples the best to ship, in my estimation." Mr. McConnell was followed by several other gentlemen who made remarks upon the preparation of the soil before planting orchards, gave different methods of planting trees in order to have the rows straight and at right angles, and discussed the question of high and low training for fruit trees. W. C. Myers while he was back east took with him some specimens of apples and pears which he said astonished the people there. On being asked by a number present what kinds of fruit were best adapted to this country, he named several kinds that he had tested and proved to be a success which were of excellent quality, but remarked that perhaps some of the new kinds now being introduced might be much better and if so they must be very good. On motion of J. H. Chitwood, the president, secretary and treasurer were authorized as a permanent committee empowered to select specimens of fruit and forward to the state Board of Immigration, for the purpose of being placed on exhibition in their rooms at Portland. On motion of J. M. McCall the chair was empowered to appoint a committee of three to revise and improve the present constitution and report at the next regular meeting. The chair appointed A. L. Johnson of Medford, W. Beeson of Wagner Creek and S. B. Galey of Ashland as the committee. On motion of W. H. Atkinson, L. Martin and Abram Bish were appointed to solicit persons engaged in fruit culture to become members of the association. The next regular meeting was ordered to take place at Jacksonville on Saturday April 25th 1885. A vote of thanks was tendered Mr. Myer for the free use of his hall. On motion of J. M. McCall the meeting adjourned.
            J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
Held at Jacksonville April 25th 1885.       
    Meeting called to order by president B. F. Miller. The constitution and by-laws were read, and the roll called. Ole Severson, S. J. Day, W. S. Fritzgerald, Martin Peterson, G. A. Hubbell, S. E. Stearns, W. T. Leever, John E. Ross, R. S. Dunlap, I. W. Thomas, Jesse Richardson, C. C. Beekman, H. McElroy, Frank Krause and Chas. Nickell joined the association. The minutes of previous meeting were then read and approved. B. F. Miller presented the report on the question of varieties of fruit and their adaptability for shipping. He also read a communication from Capt. Morgan of Portland on the subject. Mr. Miller's report was received as far as given, and he was requested by the association to continue his enquiries and make a further report at some future time. The secretary read a communication from J. P. Rogers, general freight agent of the Oregon and California Railroad, stating that any specimens of fruit the association desired to forward to the state Board of Immigration would be carried free of charge over their line.
    G. A. Hubbell offered the following resolution; Whereas the state Board of Immigration has invited each county in this state to organize a county board of immigration to supplement its work, Therefore be it resolved that
    The committee appointed by the association at last meeting to forward specimens of fruit to the state Board of Immigration be ordered to wait on the county commissioners to induce them to cooperate with the association in organizing a county board of immigration. Considerable discussion took place on the motion. W. M. Colvig, John E. Ross, G. A. Hubbell and several other gentlemen spoke on the question. On being put to a vote the resolution was adopted unanimously. John B. Wrisley moved that the president appoint a gentleman from each important district in the county to sit with the committee appointed to confer with the county commissioners on the immigration question; the motion was carried. The president appointed G. F. McConnell, G. F. Pennebaker, Martin Peterson, John B. Wrisley, G. A. Hubbell, R. F. Maury and Thomas Haymond. G. F. Pennebaker was chosen chairman of the committee. H. McElroy of Grants Pass favored the house with a short speech which demonstrated him to be a clear and impressive speaker; he assured the association that the citizens of Grants Pass and vicinity would not be lacking in enterprise and sympathy with the fruit growers of Southern Oregon. G. F. Pennebaker moved that we meet at Jacksonville on Saturday June 27th 1885 for the purpose of deciding where the association shall establish permanent headquarters; motion carried. The next regular meeting was ordered to take place at Grants Pass May 30th 1885. On motion of Martin Peterson the meeting adjourned.
            J. Henry Griffis
                Sec., Fruit Growers of Southern Ogn

Fruit Growers meeting held at       
Grants Pass May 30th 1885.       
    President B. F. Miller in the chair. The constitution and by-laws were read. Eighteen gentlemen became members of the association. Reading of the minutes was omitted in order to save time. C. W. Clarke spoke on the question of hop culture, and said that he had been informed by dealers to whom he had sent samples of hops from the vicinity of Woodville that they were superior to any grown on this coast. Mr. Clarke requested the association to take up the hop question and include hop culture as well as fruit growing. On motion it was ordered the association take up the hop question at the next regular meeting. Hon. H. B. Miller made a short but very enthusiastic speech; he considered fruit growing was destined to be the leading industry of Southern Oregon. He said some of the Portland people think we have no good fruit, because shippers have been so careless in assorting and packing their fruit for market when it arrives, thus throwing discredit on fruit growers and depreciating the market value of our fruit. There is work to do. I will do all in my power for the Association. A. H. Carson made a fluent speech; among other things he said, I know we [have] the best of fruit lands. Land that will produce forest trees will produce fruit trees. While we can grow many varieties of fruit almost to perfection, in apples we leave [sic] the world. Our high lands are the best for fruit; it is not necessary to irrigate; trees, if properly cultivated, do well without irrigation, and the quality of the fruit is better from unirrigated trees. Col. J. S. Gage likes this climate better than the climate either north or south of here. He said he had received information which led him to believe the railroad would soon be completed [i.e., to California--it was completed in 1887]. On motion the president was instructed to appoint someone to speak or write on some particular kind of fruit at every meeting. J. H. Stine, the editor of the Grants Pass Courier, expressed his willingness to do what he could for the fruit growers, and invited members to send communications to him in reference to the culture of the different fruits, and he would be only too glad to publish them. C. W. Clarke suggested that the members of the association were becoming quite numerous, and if everyone would give his knowledge and experience the result would be a vast fund of useful information such as would astonish many of us. He found that some of our members were overmodest, that while they might possess knowledge they did not deem of much importance, it would probably be the very thing that someone else was looking for. On motion the meeting adjourned to meet at Jacksonville Saturday June 27th 1885, at one o'clock p.m.
            J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers Convention       
held at Jacksonville June 27th 1885.       
    The house was called to order by vice-president G. F. Pennebaker; the roll called; and the minutes of the two previous meetings read and approved.
    On motion it was resolved that hop culture be considered one of the interests of the Fruit Growers Association. A communication from C. W. Clarke on hop culture was read by the secretary.
    The question of locating the headquarters of the Fruit Growers Association was then taken up. Gold Hill and Jacksonville were placed in nomination; the vote was taken by ballot. Whole number of votes cast 13, Gold Hill receiving 6 and Jacksonville 7. Jacksonville was therefore designated as the future headquarters of the association. On motion of R. F. Maury the association resolved to hold its annual meeting on the 8th day of October 1885 at one o'clock p.m. C. C. Beekman moved that the association hold a horticultural exhibition at their annual meeting October next, lasting one or two days, according to the discretion of the permanent officers of the association; carried.
    The chair was empowered to appoint a committee of five to make arrangements for the exhibition. On motion of Martin Peterson the association invited all persons interested in fruit growing and hop culture to preserve such fruit as could not be exhibited green in order that as many kinds may be exhibited as possible.
    On motion of Wm. M. Colvig it was ordered that the secretary of this association be allowed $20.00 per annum for his services and all expenses while in the employ of the association. On motion it was ordered that the secretary be paid what money is now on hand (twenty-nine dollars) to remunerate him for money expended and services rendered up to this time. A communication from an experienced orchardist on pruning was read before the association. On motion of Martin Peterson the meeting adjourned.
            J. Henry Griffis

Minutes of Fruit Growers meeting       
held at Jacksonville Aug 26th 1885       
Special Meeting.
    Pres. B. F. Miller in the chair. The object of the meeting was to make arrangements for an exhibition in Oct. next. But owing to a lack of public spirit and the scarcity of choice samples of fruit, caused by the late unusual frost last spring, a motion was made and carried to postpone the exhibit until next year. The committee on finance and arrangements for the exhibition were discharged. The committee on constitution and by-laws, appointed March 28th 1885, was also discharged.
    A. H. Carson of Josephine was appointed to deliver an address on the peach.
    Hon. H. B. Miller was also appointed to deliver an oration and choose his own subject. L. D. Brown of Portland addressed the meeting a few minutes. On motion of G. F. Pennebaker the meeting adjourned.
            J. H. Griffis,

Jacksonville, Oct. 8th, 1885.           
    The Fruit Growers of Southern Oregon met today at 1 o'clock.
    The house was called to order by the president B. F. Miller. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. Col. R. F. Maury presented the association with a large bucket full of choice samples of apples and pears, consisting of the Ben Davis, Dutch Mignon, Sady and Baldwin apple, and the Beurre de Anjou pear. Wm. Kahler presented a very fine basket of fruit containing specimens of the Yellow Bellflower and Belmont apple, second crop Bartlett pear, also sweet potatoes of the Nancemond variety weighing  between 2½ and 3 pounds. B. F. Miller exhibited a splendid specimen of the Souvenir du Congres pear, and gave an extended report on varieties of fruit most suitable for shipping purposes. A. H. Carson addressed the meeting at some length and dwelt particularly on the cultivation of the peach. Mr. Carson gave it as his experience, together with the knowledge gathered from others on the subject, that it is best to plant peach trees about 16½ ft. apart; see that the ground is well drained to a depth of 30 inches and in planting set the trees the same depth as in the nursery. In pruning he considered it best to head low about 18 inches from the ground in order to protect the trunk of the tree from the heat of the sun. Keep the tree well balanced and cut back one-third of the new growth every year. It was Mr. Carson's opinion that Rogue River Valley could find a large market for late peaches in California. Speeches were made on the merits and demerits of irrigation in fruit raising by Col. John Ross, Wm. Kahler, esq., A. H. Carson and Col. R. F. Maury. On motion Mr. L. P. Clark was invited to deliver an address before the Fruit Growers on any subject he should choose. The meeting adjourned subject to the call of the president.
            J. H. Griffis,

Minutes of Fruit Growers Meeting       
Held at Jacksonville February 27th 1886.       
    President B. F. Miller the chair.
    By the request of the members, the constitution and by-laws were read, and the minutes of last meeting approved.
    The next in order being the election of officers, it was decided on motion of C. C. Beekman to suspend the rules and vote by acclamation the following officers and then elected unanimously B. F. Miller president, G. F. Pennebaker and H. W. Shipley vice-president, Abram Bish treasurer and J. H. Griffis secretary. After discussing various subjects connected with fruit culture, a motion was made by Col. R. F. Maury to adjourn subject to the call of the president.
            J. H. Griffis,

Minutes of Fruit Growers Meeting       
held in Jacksonville Feby. 25, 1888       
    President B. F. Miller occupied the chair. Owing to the resignation of the secy. the president appointed C. B. Miller secretary pro tem.
    Reading the minutes of last minute was postponed till next meeting.
    By request of new members, the constitution and by-laws were read.
    By a two-thirds vote of the members present, the by-laws were amended and six vice-presidents instead of only two were elected.
    The next in order being the election of officers, the following persons were elected for the term of one year.
    R. A. Miller president; B. F. Miller, Thos. Curry, I. W. Thomas, H. B. Miller, S. B. Galey and J. H. Stewart vice-pres.; C. B. Miller secretary, and J. D. Whitman, treasurer.
    The newly elected president made an enthusiastic initiatory address urging the members of the Association to action and interest in fruit business. He presented many interesting facts and worthy of consideration by the members of the Asso. The speaker advised advertising and gave many proofs of the advantages by instances of his own experience and that of other men of business.
    Packing and shipping was talked about intelligently; shipping only the best was especially advised.
    Plans for the protection of the fruit business from fraudulent dealers who desire to use brands and trademarks having a good reputation was duly discussed. To this end the Association considered the merits of a trademark.
    Mr. Marksbury made prudent remarks on fruit culture, also as to the best manner of disposing of the crops. Suggestions were offered by several members requesting that preparations should be made to have speaking on different subjects on next meeting. Accordingly the president appointed the following speakers: B. F. Miller on budding & grafting, W. P. Hammon on drying, R. F. Maury on strawberry culture and J. E. Pease on pruning. The right of all members to make reply or criticisms was reserved; the attendance of the appointed speakers at next meeting was especially desired.
    A motion by I. W. Thomas was made to hold next meeting at Medford on Saturday March 31, 1888.
    By motion the meeting was adjourned.
        C. B. Miller, secretary.

Minutes of the Fruit Growers Meeting       
    Following are the proceedings of the last meeting of the Southern Oregon Fruit Growers Association, held at Medford Saturday March 31, 1888.
    The house was called to order by pres. R. A. Miller. The secretary was instructed to read the minutes of previous meeting which were approved as read. An invitation was then given to those who desired to become members of the Association and Mr.  E. C. Phelps came forward and signed the roll.
    The trademark business was brought up for discussion and wisely handled by men who are informed on the subject. Mr. Whitman reviewed many advantages secured by this means of protection, also the indispensable necessity of proper means to discourage careless packing [of] fruit to be shipped to distant markets. He says, "Great injury is done to the business by indolent men."
    Mr. Pentz explained very plainly the necessary steps to be taken to secure a trademark. He says first choose a name, secondly draw a diagram of proper design and send to the Secretary of State, and if not already on record it can at once be established. A motion to adopt a trademark was carried.
    Mr. Whitman then made a motion to appoint Mr. Pentz as a committee of one to draw a design for said trademark. By request of Mr. Pentz a motion was carried requiring all members to select a design and to be presented at next meeting or to be handed to Mr. S. S. Pentz of Medford or C. B. Miller of Gold Hill personally.
    The subject of pruning was introduced by Mr. J. E. Pease. He says after pruning several years in the orchards of Oregon he notices the habit of cutting off large limbs has been practiced too much for the good of big orchards. Large limbs will not heal over readily, consequently leaving a portion of wood exposed to the elements, and thus injuring the entire tree. Though admitting the free use of the knife to be of advantage on small limbs, the speaker thought best to leave a portion of the water sprouts, clipping off only the tops.
    Mr. Pease thinks the proper season for pruning is from Mar. 15 to June 15 or during the free flow of sap.
    Mr. J. H. Whitman made some good suggestions in regard to insect pests and how to dispose of and prevent them from infecting our orchards; by his request pamphlets containing important portions of the laws of California on this subject were read to the Association.
    The secretary was instructed to correspond with other associations engaged in horticultural industries for the purpose of gaining information and making known the object and desires of our Association, rendering such reports as will be most compatible to fruit-growing interests, thus bringing into more intimate intercourse the settled and remote districts, and unite the dream of this great enterprise by a connecting link.
    Owing to the absence of several members who were appointed to speak, their names will appear on [the] program for next meeting. By motion the meeting adj. to meet at Central Point, Apr. 29, '88. C. B. Miller, secy.

Minutes of Fruit Growers Meeting       
held at Central Point July 28, 1888       
    President R. A. Miller called the meeting to order and directed the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting, which stood approved as read.
    The committee appointed to draw a design for a trademark was called on to report and the chairman of the committee made the following verbal report. He proposed using a large red apple for [the] central figure and surrounding with leaves and scroll work.
    Other members suggested using a peach, as a more important production of Southern Oregon. The majority of the members agreed with the committee in its selection.
    It was also suggested to use the apple for the central figure and surround it with other fruit such as peaches, prunes, pears, grapes, etc.
    Mr. Leever made a motion to adopt the design proposed by the committee. Mr. Pentz advised that each member should secure a stencil stamp of the trademark and have his name beneath.
    Mr. Cain, a commission merchant of S.F., was invited to speak, and he mighty commends Oregon apples and thinks they are by far the most important crop of our valley. He expressed his surprise to find the orchards of Oregon in so neglected a condition after handling such fine fruit as Oregon produces.
    The trademark business was again postponed in order to have all the members together before disposing of this important business. Messrs. Galey, Pentz and Leever was appointed as a committee to draw a diagram and complete arrangements for adopting a trademark. The necessity of legislation for the protection of our orchards from pests was again urged by several prominent members, and plans were proposed to take action in this direction.
    The president advised the Association to make an effort to put a stop to killing such birds as destroy insects. He thinks they are of great value in orchards.
    Mr. Whitman also prizes the little birds very highly, and says that the fruit they eat is of very little importance compared with the good they do in destroying insects. He also adds that they are our best friends in the fruit business instead of being destructive enemies, as regarded by many.
    Mr. Kelly addressed the Association on this subject and advised the appointment of a State Ornithologist, also an entomologist. He recommended the eastern canary as an insect destroyer and mentioned the linnet as a very destructive fruit eater.
    Mr. Leever believes the sapsucker to be more beneficial than destructive since it lives principally on insects and rids the trees of borers.
    Several members spoke about protecting the feathered songsters, and much interest was manifested in their behalf.
    In addressing the Association on the subject of planting, Dr. Hinkle says the tap root should not be cut off when transplanting trees, for he says this leaves a source of decay which will not heal over.
    After discussing various topics on fruit culture, preparations were made to have an exhibition on the next meeting of the Association. Accordingly Mr. Whitman made a motion to have an exhibition and a picnic on next meeting. The motion was unanimously carried & it was decided by the majority of the members present to hold that meeting at Orchard Grove near Medford on Saturday Sept 29, 1888. It was moved and seconded that the president be appointed as a committee to arrange this picnic grounds, carried--S. S. Pentz, C. C. Magruder, E. Roper and C. B. Miller were appointed as a committee to prepare a programme. On motion the meeting adjourned.
                C. B. Miller secy.

Minutes of the Fruit Growers Meeting       
    A regular meeting of the Southern Oregon Fruit Growers Association was held at Heber Grove Sept. 29 1888 and the grandest display of fruits and vegetables ever recorded in Southern Oregon history was spread out with lavish hands. About 10 o'clock wagons and carriages began rolling in, each bringing choice selections of the best that could be produced, until about one o'clock, when the long row of tables began to groan under their luscious burdens and it was found necessary to pile some of the delicious fruit upon the ground.
    Crowds of eager spectators gathered around the proud producers who were eagerly describing the peculiar merits of some fine varieties of fruit to the many credulous hearers, who seemed to believe, and well they ought, that Southern Oregon could not be equaled in the production of peaches, pears and apples, beside other fruit which cannot be excelled.
    One gentleman was heard to remark that after traveling through a greater portion of the fruit-growing sections of the western states, that he here found the finest display of fruit that had ever met his view.
    After the fruit was well tested and examined greatly to the satisfaction and encouragement of all, it was announced by the president that the Association would have the rare privilege of listening to an encouraging address on fruit culture by Mr. James O'Meara, formerly of the Rogue River Valley.
    When the speaker came forward and saluted the large assembly he at once secured the undivided attention of all. The speaker began by describing the vast change that had been wrought in the wilderness of Rogue River Valley since his departure, dwelling with appropriate compliments on the present prosperity of the citizens and the development of the resources of the country.
    The speaker then pictured to us in flowery eloquence, the magnificent prospects of its future.
    He refers us to California for scientific horticulture, and says that the California fruit growers are an example worthy [of] our patronage, and that they are far ahead of us in this line of business.
    Mr. S. A. Clark, editor of the agricultural dept. of the Oregonian, was next introduced to the Association.
    Mr. Clark is another pioneer of S.O. He is now an elderly gentleman, but still possesses his well-developed power of reason and experience, and the magnetism of his presence is felt in his audience.
    In rising to address the Association Mr. Clark said that he just wanted to express his appreciation of our faculties for fruit culture and added that he believes that Southern Oregon possesses qualities that cannot be equaled by even California.
    He says he came here just on the eve of the mining era and had been here during the most flattering productions of gold. "But now," he says, "I come when a new enterprise begins to grow, and no other business can compare with it in magnitude or importance."
    He says a man is loyal to his country--a hero--when he engages in planting an orchard, for he not only reaps a bountiful harvest for himself, but leaves something for his children, and leaves a permanent business not to be destroyed by each harvest. Mr. Clark urges the fruit growers to look well to the cultivation of their orchards, as this has much to do with the size and quality of the fruit, and size was estimated second to none as a quality that will sell fruit. After the speaker was seated a motion was made to extend a vote of thanks to the speakers; the motion was carried. Ten names were added to the roll.
    It was agreed by a majority of members present to hold next meeting at Medford on the second Saturday in November. The meeting adjourned to meet at Medford.
            C. B. Miller,

Jacksonville Or. Feb 24 1889       
"Town Hall"       
    The annual meeting of the Sou Oregon Fruit Growers Association, pursuant to the call of the president, met in the room of the Town Hall of Jacksonville Oregon Saturday afternoon at 2:30 p.m.
    The president and secretary being absent, the meeting was called to order by Hon. J. D. Whitman, and on motion Mr. Whitman was elected chairman and Mr. S. S. Pentz sec. pro tem.
    There being no regular order of business on motion of Mr. S. S. Pentz the names of Scott Griffin, C. C. Ragsdale, S. C. Lawrence, Samuel Colver and J. A. Whitman were proposed for membership in the Association, and these gentlemen were duly elected [sic].
    The president suggested that as this was the regular time for the election of annual officers, but as there was not a full attendance of the members the election be postponed until the next regular meeting.
    The election of officers for the ensuing year was postponed until the next regular meeting.
    On motion Mr. Colver addressed the meeting upon the subject of "lines of transportation" to the nearest & best markets as also upon the question of the best methods for the "preservation" of fruit and "Processes of Drying," advocating the "Evaporating" instead of the "Sun-dried Process."
    After a short discussion of these and kindred subjects, on motion the Association adjourned to meet in Medford Or on the last Saturday of March A.D. 1889 at the hour of 2 o'clock.
    The following initiation fees were received and handed over [to] the treasurer to wit
    C. C. Ragsdale                50¢
    J. A. Whitman                 50
    Saml. Colver                   50
    S. C. Lawrence               50
    Scott Griffin                   50
    W. H. Barr                      50
            S. S. Pentz
                Secretary Pro-tem

Medford Or Sept 19th 1889       
    No minutes of the last meeting of the Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon having come into my possession (although record of the same having been requested of the former sec'y) I am unable to furnish any minutes of said meeting or meetings.
            S. S. Pentz
                Sec'y S.O.F.G. Assn.
Fruit Growers Association of Southern Oregon Record Book, 1885-1889

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    A called meeting of the fruit growers of Southern Oregon was held at Jacksonville last week. There was quite a large attendance, G. F. Pennebaker presiding and J. H. Griffis acting as secretary. Among other things it was resolved that hop culture be considered one of the interests of the fruit growers' association. A communication from C. W. Clark on hop culture was read by the secretary. The question of locating headquarters of the association was then taken up, resulting in the selection of Jacksonville. On motion of R. F. Maury the association resolved to hold its annual meeting on the 8th of October, 1885. C. C. Beekman moved that the association hold a horticultural exhibition at their annual meeting in October next, lasting one or two days, according to the discretion of the permanent officers of the association; carried. The chair was empowered to make arrangements for the exhibition. On motion of Martin Peterson, the association invited all persons interested in fruit and hop culture to preserve such fruits as could not be exhibited green, in order that as many kinds could be exhibited as possible.
Oregonian, Portland, July 16, 1885, page 3

    Last Saturday the fruit-growers of Rogue River Valley met at Medford, R. A. Miller presiding.
    The subject of a trademark was discussed, and the society made arrangements to adopt one, a committee being appointed to consider the question.
    The subject of pruning was opened by J. E. Pease. He says, after several years of experience in pruning the orchards of Oregon, I notice the habit of cutting off large limbs has been practiced too much for the good of our new orchards. He says that large limbs will not heal over readily, consequently having a portion of unprotected wood exposed to the elements is an injury to the trees. Though admitting the free use of the knife to be of advantage on small branches, the speaker thought best to leave a portion of the water sprouts about the tree, cutting off only the tops of the same. He thinks the proper season for pruning to be while the sap flows most readily, thus giving nature a chance to operate most effectually.
    Mr. Whitman made some good suggestions in regard to pests and how to dispose of and prevent them from infecting our orchards. Pamphlets containing important portions of laws of California on this subject were read to the association.
    The secretary was instructed to correspond with other associations engaged in fruit-growing, for the purpose of giving information and becoming familiar with the ways and means and uniting the forces of all, thus giving strength and interchanging ideas.
    The Jackson County society should enter into correspondence and maintain brotherly relations with the North Pacific Fruit-Growers' Association, which contemplates including in its objects the entire North Pacific region and is gaining a large membership. By harmonious action the two societies may accomplish more good for the public, and that is the great object of both associations.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, April 12, 1888, page 6

Of Southern Oregon Meet at Ish's Grove, Near Jacksonville.
A Glance at the Old Timers and Comparison with the Times That Were--
The Future of This Region to Be Great.

    Leaving Eugene City at 10 o'clock at night, one goes to sleep in the Willamette Valley to wake up next morning in another region of country. We breakfast at Medford in the heart of Rogue River Valley, and before we reach there go racing through a broken, hilly country where cornfields lie wedged in between lava hedges, towering ranges being always the graphic background. During the night I was wakened by something unusual--some different movement from railroading over prairie land or even from climbing steep grades. We were evidently going downhill and moving in curves at a tremendous pace. Supreme confidence in the management of the road, and the thought that the engineer would be in as much danger as the rest of us, dispelled thoughts of fear, but the way that long train went tearing down the steep grades of the Calapooias, the Umpqua Mountain and the Grave Creek Hills was a caution to timid travelers, that, too, when Cimmerian darkness was over all. Drowsy as I was, memory went dreamily back to the first trip I ever made over this same identical route in good part. It was 1851, early spring, that news came to Portland that mines were discovered in Northern California, near the Oregon line. Moved by a spirit of adventure I rigged an ox team and started for the new diggings. The Indians were hostile, and by the time we reached Rogue River we had grown into a company of over seventy, including many teams and wagons, with Hembree of Yamhill for our captain. We prospected down Rogue River and went past and around rich placers that were found that same fall and reached Shasta Butte City, afterwards Yreka, about the first of July, a journey of six weeks that is now made in less than a day.
    Thirty-seven years ago we did not dream of the time to come when the iron horse should make up those hills and annihilate time as it does today, nor of the time to come when the foothills of Southern Oregon should furnish peaches and grapes for western commerce as they do now.
    Breakfasting at Medford, we took the stage for Jacksonville, the place where gold once rewarded labor in a most remarkable way, and where now the surrounding hills begin to grow vines that yield grapes and rich wines, good for old age and tired natures. I here look down upon the washed gravel from the mines that once were. I am not able to say that these same vineyards are rendering a good account of themselves this year, for there came a sort of blizzard touch upon Southern Oregon last February. A warm touch of weather was followed by a sharp frost that froze the marrow of the vines, and while it killed some outright, [it] had the effect to kill the fruit buds and materially lessen the crop. There were more grapes on the vines last fall, late in November, than today at the beginning of the harvest. There is not a third of a good yield, and the grapes are not quite as large and tender as usual. This is a misfortune to Oregon as well as to the grape growers, but as it is something that does not occur often [it] is not discouraging. A year ago the same thing happened to many of the vineyards of California by a frost that occurred as late as May 11th. That frost did not harm the grapes of this section, but circumstances were against them last February, and the vines were unfortunately just in condition to be easily damaged.
    Jacksonville has an old and decayed appearance, for there is no new building going on to make an era of progress and development. The railroad gave it the "go by," to all intents and purposes. The mines that created the place and made it once a center of extravagant life and unusual prosperity have become exhausted. The creek that brought down gold in rich placers is worked out, and all its golden wealth is exhausted. It was possible, it is said, to have induced the railroad builders to have located their route near enough to Jacksonville to keep its health and prominence undisturbed, but they failed to appreciate the necessity, and nothing now can give animation and vitality to the place beyond the fact that some good country is tributary to it and must bring trade there.
    The fruit growers of Rogue River Valley met today in a grove between the two places--Jacksonville and Medford--and the occasion called out the beauty as well as chivalry of this section. Many families came with their lunch baskets, and the scene was enlivened by the presence of old and young inclined to make the most of the opportunity for enjoyment. There is a commendable display of harmony and interest manifest here in the fruit industry that must make the valley in time a center of wealth and prosperity. A year ago they feared prohibition would interfere with their business, but the "third party" did not pan out well last spring. Greatly as one might depreciate the manufacture and use of intoxicating liquors to excess, there is a legitimate use of the grape that has existed for all time.
    The extent of country adapted to fruit growing is really very great on Rogue River and its tributaries, even though it does not include the valley lands of this section. There is an immense scope of foothill land lying on the numerous tributaries and much of it facing the south, so as to be favorable for grapes and peaches. This land is so extensive in area that it must require many years to develop it for this purpose. Of course there is an advantage in nearness to transportation that will count in favor of the lands most available on that account, but as development continues roads will be constructed and the outlying fruit lands will be furnished with the necessary facilities.
    Speaking of Jacksonville, it was possible to locate the road through a gap on the north, so that it would be four miles shorter through the valley, but this cutting would be expensive, though they claim here that the cost would be something in favor of the route by Jacksonville. Some here claim that the present route included a fine body of timber, I suppose in the limits of the land grant, and this was as valuable to the company as the $40,000 subsidy asked of Jacksonville. But this is hearsay, the road is built, and Jacksonville is out in the cold with only a tolerably good courthouse to compensate for its other losses. This is their anchor to windward, and they pin their hopes to it, thinking it will be many a day before Jackson County will feel able to throw this away and build another.
    There is still some mining country left that may prove good pay. It is only eight miles over the ridge west to the Sterling mine, where the Ankenys are interested. Henry Ankeny was at the meeting today, and seems to have made his permanent home here. Strange to say that while millions of gold have been washed from the gravel, no pay quartz has been discovered, save in pockets here and there. No mother ledge has been found, and there is always a chance that some such discovery may create permanent wealth and restore prosperity, like the old times they speak so proudly of. Here I met many old friends, among them Col. John E. Ross, once so strong in matters of peace and war, business and politics. The colonel looks well, but is growing old.
    Here was J. N. T. Miller, who was active in politics once but who has been succeeded by his son Robert, who is a member of the House, and is active in all home affairs. For instance, he is president of the Fruit Growers' Association and shows a commendable interest in all such matters. I met also Mr. Beeson, who showed eighteen kinds of apples, and is quite a fruit grower. One of the standbys of this region is Judge P. P. Prim, so long on the supreme bench. He lives in Jacksonville and much resembles Marius of old, who gazed, you know, on Carthage in ruins. Wm. Klippel [Henry Klippel?] is also of this place, and a pleasanter man one seldom meets. Plymale is waiting for Jacksonville to go Republican, and has some satisfaction in seeing Democratic majorities reduced. He may live to see the millennium if these foothills shall ever be cut up into small farms Some way, these men who run small fruit farms are generally Republican in faith. B. F. Miller of Rock Point, of Gold Hill now, was there, full of fruit-growing. These were all old-timers, and as old-timers are melting away so fast it seems only just for one who was with them in the long ago to wish them "hail and farewell." Among the active fruit men of our day is J. H. Settlemier of Woodburn nursery, who is practically an orchardist also. He responded to a suggestion that some thorough fruit man should assort and arrange the present exhibit when sent down to the Mechanics' Fair this week by offering to do this much for them. They are fortunate in securing his services, as he thoroughly knows the range of fruits and having been present can do the work well.
    Saturday morning we drove to Ish's grove, about two miles from Jacksonville and three from Medford, and found there assembled a crowd of moderate proportions, most of them engaged in displaying their fruits. The place was formerly located as a claim by Overbeck, and was bought by Mr. Ish, now deceased. His widow lives there, and the home lot is part of a beautiful, high prairie covered with grand oaks the Druids might have loved, if capable of so common a passion as human sympathy and affection.
    Druidical oaks they certainly were, and nowhere else in Southern Oregon did we meet with their equals. One feature that pleased was the presence of the red-barked evergreen laurel. There were grand oaks and laurels fully as grand and graceful too. These mingled their shadows and threw the same over the table spread with nature's prodigal gifts. There were squashes and pumpkins of immense size. Through the vegetable world the exhibit came gradually to the proper realm of horticulture, and the long table groaned with fruits; a great abundance was manifest in the line of apples especially. There were pears, too, but the time of the Bartletts is past [i.e., they were out of season]. Southern Oregon claims to be the natural home of the pear, and to produce them in uncommon excellence. The display is to go down to the fair of the Mechanics' Institute at Portland, and the world of Oregon can see it and give this region due credit. One cannot enumerate all that was to be seen in such an effort as this but can generalize to advantage. The display was good of apples and pears and some superb varieties of late peaches. The choicest fruits in this last line were past and gone, and many lamented because the exhibit was held too late to do justice to the best fruits of this valley. However, there were peaches that they said weighed a pound, late and of the clingstone variety. Those will also go below. To sum up the display, there were fruits covering a table one hundred feet long, and all things shown there would be a credit to any country on the globe.
    This being the first occasion of the kind, they claim [it] was not all it should be, and the attendance will be larger another year. Certainly they may call out more people and products, but I doubt if in either respect the display will be better if it continues for a generation. For a beginning it is a success, and no doubt it will grow and improve and become an agricultural society of excellent character and proportions. Some facts that come to my attention are valuable. Mr. Gore, who has a farm three miles south of Medford, says he planted apples and peaches in 1860 that have kept in bearing almost constantly. The peaches have borne for twenty-four years with only two occasions that approached failure, while the apples have borne every year, with no failure in any respect.
    Critical judges say that the apples of Southern Oregon are smoother and more perfect than those of the Willamette, but are not quite so large in size. In flavor the difference is probably in favor of the Willamette. For keeping qualities the southern apples are best.
    They claim great excellence for pears, but if they have finer pears than grow in the northern valley they are welcome to them. They have the codling moth and are not pleased with its acquaintance and attentions. When the legislature meets the representatives of all counties south will be ready to sustain a bill for the purpose of preventing and destroying these pests. Something of the kind is necessary and must sometime become [omission].
    After the tables were spread with the product of orchards and gardens the good people present went to their carriages and drew forth the lunch baskets, and bountiful supplies were laid out and everyone was included in the general hospitality. I shared in the joint hospitality of Mr. Prim and Mr. J. N. T. Miller, and the "jovial" party gathered around their spread had certainly an abundant feast. There is something appetizing in an al fresco feast like this that does not come in the ordinary course of a dinner service. This abundant feast was flavored with sundry bottles of Miller's wine that greatly assisted the digestion and did not hinder the hilarity.
    When the dinner, or lunch, was cleared away the crowd gathered where seats and a rostrum were prepared and listened to a speech from James O'Meara, the orator of the day. He formerly lived in Jacksonville, and met many old friends there. Several brief addresses followed, and the occasion ended with a general feeling of satisfaction at the success achieved. It will no doubt prove the beginning of a county society. Rogue River Valley will be the leading fruit-growing section of Oregon, and its fruit-growers should work together to make that interest successful. They must study it from their own standpoint, and be advised by their own experience and success. There is a great future before this people in connection with horticulture, and they should do all in their power to foster and properly encourage it.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, October 2, 1888, page 6

Jackson County Should Have One--What Its Advantages Would Be.
    The time has now come when the further development of the fruit interests of this section make it imperative that the fruit growers unite in an organization for their benefit.
    There are at least half a dozen reasons why a fruit growers' union would be a help to the fruit industry of this valley. The chief advantage would be in securing better prices for the fruit. The local middle men could be eliminated and the profits that they make could be retained by the growers, for they could, through an association, dispose of their fruit direct in the leading markets of the world. An association by handling fruit in big lots can always be sure of commanding the top price in the market, and has the further important advantage of being able to keep the fruit out of a glutted market, where prices are demoralized.
    To establish a name for our fruit, that will be known and recognized in the markets of the world, is the work for an association. Hood River strawberries are known from Portland to Chicago, and a box of berries having "Hood River" upon it needs no further recommendation to consumers in all the vast territory where that berry is sold. Southern Oregon fruit cannot be excelled by that of any other section of the United States, and if it was marketed under some special name it would not be long until consumers would recognize the name as a synonym for first quality, as they now do "Hood River" for Oregon strawberries, or "Watsonville" for California apples.
    While advertising the name of Southern Oregon fruit in the markets of the world is an important work for an association, the maintaining of that name is a matter of still more importance and that can only be done through the united efforts of all who are interested in the success of our fruit industry. Already there has been improperly packed and short-weight boxes of fruit shipped from this section, and if there is much of that kind of work it will not be long until our fruit will be given such a bad reputation that its sale will be seriously injured at home and abroad. One dishonest shipper can do an almost irreparable damage to the fruit interests of a place. Only by a thorough organization by the fruit men can they protect themselves from the injury caused by dishonest packers and shippers, for what is everybody's business is nobody's business, and that applies quite as much in the fruit business as in other activities.
    While Southern Oregon is as yet quite free from fruit tree pests, the time is coming, if stringent preventatives are not employed, when these pests will swarm over the valley, as they have in other places, and bring to an end the most profitable industry that this country possesses. There are indolent farmers in each locality who allow their orchards to be infested with all manner of noxious insects, while the towns eventually become veritable nurseries for the propagation of every kind of a pest that torments the fruit man. No one grower can enforce the state fruit pest law, and only through the efforts of a powerful association can the indolent farmer and the negligent town man be made to keep their fruit trees from sending forth a myriad of insects each season to prey upon the surrounding orchards.
    In the matter of freight rates an association would have a decided advantage over an individual. The railroad companies in quoting rates to distant markets would give far greater concessions to an association having hundreds of carloads to ship than to an individual having but two or three carloads to handle. In providing better shipping facilities an association would be of great benefit to the fruitmen, for it could provide ample warehouses at each of the stations from which fruit is shipped. In buying boxes and fruit paper the association, by buying in large quantities, could save quite a margin over that paid by individual buyers.
    Hood River, Oregon has one of the most successful fruit growers' organizations on this coast. Of the work of this union, Hon. H. L. Smith, president of the Oregon State Board of Horticulture, has the following to say in an interview given in the Portland Telegram: "We sell our fruit through our association, which has been in existence ten years, and we find that it is the best means of disposing of it.
    "Individuals can do nothing in these days of organization, and the purchasers will hardly condescend to talk to the grower who tries alone to sell his produce.
    "The association guards against a glut in any portion of its market and thus distributes the fruit in accordance with the demand. The price, so far, has been fair this season, and leaves a fair margin for the grower. Our berries are all sold at the depot, and so we take no chances of decay or a falling market. The association method is the only proper means of fruit disposal. We have found that out by ten years' experience, and we would not go back to the individual, haphazard method again."
    This union buys the fruit of each grower, paying for it as fast as delivered at their warehouse in Hood River the regular market price, and then at the close of the year whatever profit has been made is divided among the members in proportion to the amount of fruit delivered to the union. This method of dividing the profits precludes the possibility of a few getting control of the stock of the union and absorbing all of the profits. When marketing fruit the union has a man in the East, who keeps in close touch with the market and routes the cars, in transit, to the city where prices are highest. But if a sudden glut should happen in the market of any city to which a car is being sent, this manager promptly changes the destination of the car to someplace where there is a firm market, thus avoiding a forced sale at a losing price. Such a system as this would enable the growers of Southern Oregon fruit to secure better prices than they now realize with each grower handling his own fruit.
Medford Mail, June 20, 1902, page 1

Mr. Olwell Discusses the Fruit-Growers' Union.
    John D. Olwell, one of the owners of the famous Olwell orchard, four miles north of Medford, and which by the way is one of the largest apple orchards on the Pacific Coast, and for that matter in the United States, was in this city Tuesday. Speaking of the proposed fruit-growers' union, which is being talked of by the fruit men of this valley, Mr. Olwell stated to a representative of the Mail that he thought that in the matter of marketing fruit a union would be of little assistance to the growers who have from ten to forty, or more, carloads of fruit to ship, but to those having small quantities, and who are compelled to sell to local buyers, a union would be an advantage to them. Especially so would a union be to peach and berry growers, who usually have small quantities to market, and whose fruit is of a perishable nature and has to be rushed to a market. To such persons a union would enable them to secure better prices, through pooling their crop and reaching a distant market, but to the apple growers, at least those who have large quantities, a union would not be of much advantage, for their crop is not perishable at once, but can be held for months until it is convenient to ship.
    In other ways Mr. Olwell thought a union would be of considerable benefit to all the fruit men of the valley. The present laws for the suppression of fruit pests he considered inadequate, and it would require a united effort by all the fruit men to get the legislature to make the necessary changes to the law. A union could do much toward enforcing the present fruit pest laws, and thus prevent careless farmers and town residents from allowing their fruit trees to become a nursery for the propagation of pests that would swarm out and overrun the orchards of those who try to keep their trees clean and healthy. Mr. Olwell wished it distinctly understood that he was not opposed to the fruit men getting together for their mutual interests, or that he even desired to discourage the effort to organize a union. On the contrary he was willing and anxious to do all that he could to push the fruit business of Jackson County, and to make it possible for the growers to maintain the high quality and splendid reputation that their fruit now has, and also secure to them the best prices that the markets of the world can afford.
Medford Mail, June 27, 1902, page 2

Its Organization Now a Certainty. Fruitgrowers Pledge Their Hearty Support.
Board of Trade Will Help. Date of Meeting, About August 16th.
Some Pertinent Facts Concerning the Union.

    When the Mail took up the question of bringing about the organization of the fruit growers of Rogue River Valley, it was with some misgivings as to the success of the undertaking, for previous efforts had been made by some of the fruit men to organize a union among themselves, but through lack of a thorough understanding of the objects and aims of the society, and a fear that it would end in a disastrous failure, as has been the fate of similar organizations in several of the fruit districts of this coast, nothing was accomplished and the matter was dropped by those interested in it. But now there is every assurance that a strong union of the fruit men of this valley can be effected, and that it will be organized on a basis that will ensure its permanence. The work that the Mail has done in showing the imperative need and the manifold advantages of a fruit growers' union has met with the hearty approval of both the fruit men and the business men of this valley, and they are actively cooperating in promoting the establishment of the Rogue River Valley Fruit Growers' Union.
    It has been suggested that it would be better to have a union for each locality in the Rogue River Valley, lest one organization for the whole valley should be unwieldy and unable to cope with the local interests that would tend to disintegrate it. Small local unions, from their lack of strength, would be of no advantages whatever to the fruit men, and, if organized, their ultimate failure would be certain to come, thus doing a lasting injury to the development of the fruit interests of Jackson County. The local interests are not so diverse as to cause any friction in an organization that would embrace all the fruit men of the county. And there is no part of the work pertaining to a union but what could be better carried on by a big organization than by a little one.
    The rock that has wrecked many fruit growers' unions, and which has brought disaster to the first year's life of many that weathered the storm, was attempting to do too much at the start, before the union got into good working order and got men at the head of it of proved ability and capacity. The successful unions on this coast are the ones that went slow and only took up such features of their work as they could readily handle in their weak and inexperienced condition. The one thing that a newly organized union should let alone is that of attempting to market their fruit. In the first year many of the members are of a doubtful, critical mind, and the least mistake or failure is sure to arouse their bitter condemnation. The other equally dangerous factor is that a union may not be able to start off with just the right man at the head of it. When a union undertakes to conduct a sales department, it is assuming great responsibilities, and that department, to be a success, must be in the hands of trained business men. After a union has got into good working order, and its heads of departments have proved that they are fully competent to fill their positions, then may the marketing of their fruit be undertaken with success as an assured fact.
    There are activities in plenty to fully employ the time and the resources of a fruit growers' union during the period in which it is getting into shape to undertake the principal work for which it was organized. To enforce the law against the fruit pests and to prevent unscrupulous persons from injuring the reputation that Rogue River fruit has in the markets of the world are the two most important matters that will require the immediate attention of the Rogue River valley union. For if the pests are permitted to increase by the countless myriads that they are now doing in the uncared-for orchards in this valley and in the neglected trees in Medford and the other valley towns, it will not be long until fruit raising in Jackson County will cease as an industry, and the boasted Rogue River apples will disintegrate into the knotty, worm-eaten apologies that are grown in the Willamette Valley. And it must be borne in mind that a few dishonest pickers and shippers can undo all the good work done by the growers in the valley by making the name Rogue River, when on a box of fruit, a guarantee that it is strictly first class. The law cannot be made to reach such unscrupulous persons, but the growers, by a united effort, can soon put an end to careless or fraudulent packing, short-weight boxes, and falsely labeled fruit as to quality. To secure monthly reports as to the condition of fruit crops throughout the United States, and to keep its members posted as to the probable changes in prices, is another work that the association can take up immediately on its organization. In the matter of boxes and fruit paper, the association can be of much benefit to its members, for the union could secure lower prices and more prompt delivery than could a private individual. But the marking of the fruit had better be let alone until acquired experience makes the venture a safe one. To handle the $300,000 worth of fruit grown in Jackson County is an undertaking of such magnitude that no newly organized union should take hold of it.
    A fruit growers' union can be of very great advantage to its members in an educational and social way. The union should meet once a month, all day, afternoon or evening, as the convenience of the members permitted, and the meetings should not be all in one place, but in the different localities of the territory covered by the association. Papers could be read and discussion had on the various topics of interest to fruit raisers, and to give added interest to the meetings, the members could bring samples of their fruit and have a small fruit fair and tree exhibit, a feature that could be made highly instructive. One of the chief causes for so many country people, especially the young folks, moving to town, is the lack of social advantages in the rural districts. A fruit growers' union could, in a considerable measure, supply this want. The meetings could be given a social cast, and become a place where people could get acquainted with each other, and where neighbors could renew friendships, and all be given something to think and talk about for the coming month, besides the weather and the shortcomings of neighbors. And a dinner, such as the good mothers of the farms know how to prepare, would stimulate mightily this fellowship, so often wanting in farm communities.
    The business men of Medford have taken a deep interest in the proposed union of the fruit growers, and through their board of trade will render all the assistance possible to the fruit men in getting their organization perfected. The board of trade will provide a suitable hall in which to hold the meeting, and arrange, in conjunction with the fruit men, a suitable program for the day. The board will invite prominent horticulturists, and others who are interested in the development of the Oregon fruit industry, to be present and take part in the meeting, that our fruit men may have the benefit of their advice and experience. Among those to be invited will be Hon. E. L. Smith, of Hood River, and president of the Oregon State Horticultural Society. Mr. Smith is one of the leading fruit growers of Hood River and is one of the prominent members in the famous Hood River Fruit Growers' Association, which is one of the most successful on this coast. Among others to be invited will be Prof. Lake and Prof. Cordley, of the State Agricultural College, at Corvallis; Henry E. Dosch, of Portland, and a leading fruit grower of Oregon; Col. R. C. Judson, industrial agent for the O.R.&N. Co.; W. E. Coman, general passenger agent for the S.P. Co.'s lines in Oregon, and H. E. Lounsberry, traveling freight agent for the same company. Other men prominent in the fruit and the transportation business in Oregon will also be invited to attend and discuss, with the local fruit men, the various phases of the fruit industry of this part of the state.
    From the interest taken by the fruit men throughout Jackson County, the Mail is able to state that there is every assurance that there will be a big attendance at the meeting, for the fruit growers now realize that the time has come when vigorous action is required, both to preserve their industry from deteriorating influences, and to put it on a firm basis for future prosperity. As to the time for holding the meeting it is thought that about Saturday, August 16th, would be a convenient date. That date will allow ample time in which to arrange the program and to correspond with the prominent men who will be asked to take part in the meeting. The middle of August is a comparatively slack season with the farmers and there will be no hindrance, by reason of a rush of work, to their attending. There being moonlight on that date, farmers at a distance will be able to drive in and attend the evening session.
Medford Mail, July 4, 1902, page 1

The Following Circular of Advice Regarding a Number of Features Pertinent to the Horticultural Industry Covers the Outlook Up to Date, as Reported from Headquarters of the Rogue River Fruit and Produce Association.

To Stockholders and Friends:
    Do you realize that it is only four weeks until we commence to ship peaches, and a little later, pears, and that your Manager and his assistants have worlds of work?
    Are you ready and will you do your part to the end that this first season of your Association will be a success? To accomplish this certain things are necessary, all of which are your concern as well an my own.
    Get busy with your neighbors and friends and if they are not with us, see that they become members, no matter whether their orchards are in bearing or not. Lately I have met one good soul, who on my soliciting him to be one of us, remarked--show me that you are successful, and I will then join. If everybody was like this chap, you never would have an Assn., and, speaking personally--after we are successful, I never would ask him to join, nor thank him for his support. At this time I am ready to take off my hat to any who have joined, or will join before shipping commences.
Give Us Your Produce to Handle.
    We have our fixed expenses that we cannot avert, but with a very small additional expense we can double and treble our output if we have the goods to handle; knowing this, it is the duty of every producer in our territory to cooperate with the Association at least until you prove it a failure.
    The value of our products going through one shipping source permits judicious distribution, while if each grower ships independent and not knowing the market his neighbor uses, one can readily see how some markets can be overstocked while other markets are bare of Rogue River products.
Benefits of the Association.
    Your Association is a failure if by cooperation it cannot get $.15 to $.25 per box more for your apples and pears that in past years, market conditions being taken into consideration. By purchasing your supplies in large lots, lower prices can be obtained. When in need of help we want to help you. Work hard to improve your pack and instead of being well down to the bottom of the list as packers, be at the very top.
Respond Promptly.
    If you receive a communication from this office and it calls for a reply, get busy on it at once--no matter whether it is for a remittance, crop estimate, or a notice of any kind. Please do not lag on this matter.
Fruit Packers.
    It has been deemed advisable that all who pack fruit this season should have a number, which will be stamped on each box as finished, and to get these numbers, each packer should call at this office for registration. Notify all your packers to do this, as this plan will not interfere with you retaining such packers as you desire. If packers will notify us when through at a certain place and our growers will notify us when more packers are needed, we hope to be of service to all parties concerned.
Orchard Labor.
    We intend to list all applicants for work who apply here, and when in need of help call us up and we may have such as you need. If a party asks for work and you do not need him, send him to us.
Orchard Supplies.
    We have closed contracts for shook, nails, paper, labels, etc., and whether it is because the general markets are lower or because we are in a position to buy in large lots, we find we will save you to 10 percent over last year's prices.
    When you know what supplies you will need and we have them to deliver, come in and get them, and you are then sure your crop will not suffer on this account. If you lag on this matter and you cannot get everything you want, do not complain.
    Come in and get better acquainted with us.
Ashland Tidings, June 20, 1910, page 8

Last revised December 22, 2018