The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Notes on Joseph Lane

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Joseph Lane Campaign Ferrotype, 1860

    Joseph Lane is elected to represent the county of Vanderburgh.
"From the Indiana Gazette," Indiana Farmer, Salem, Indiana, August 30, 1822, page 2

    The following communication, copied from the Evansville Journal, will serve to show that the people of the South West begin to feel an interest in the cause of internal improvement. Mr. Breckenridge who declines a re election, has been a decided enemy to Internal Improvement, and to every liberal system of policy calculated to promote the interests of the state. We opine Mr. B. backs out opportunely.
To the Editor of the Evansville Journal.
    It is universally admitted that the next session of the Indiana Legislature will be the most important of any since the formation of our state government. It is probable that some plan will be adopted at the next session for laying the foundation of a general system of internal improvements--a measure upon which the future prosperity of Indiana so much depends. Fears are entertained that many wild schemes will be advocated by some, while lethargy and a cold, narrow-sighted policy may control others. In the selection of a Senator for the counties of Posey, Vanderburgh, and Warrick, we conceive that all party and personal considerations should be laid aside, and that a selection should be made with an eye single to the interests of those counties. The people should be studiously careful to select men for those important stations who, while they give a firm, steady, and energetic support to a prudent system of internal improvements, will at the same time guard them against every wild, chimerical, and tax-burdening scheme that may be introduced. For this purpose, it is necessary to select men of experience and integrity, whose individual interests are known to be identified with our own. We have, therefore, thought proper to suggest the name of Col. JOSEPH LANE for the Senator, and General R. M. EVANS for Representative, These gentlemen have had much experience in legislative bodies, and they are so well known that comment is deemed unnecessary. We know not their wishes upon the subject of becoming candidates, but we feel assured that if called by the voice of their country they will not hesitate to obey.*
    *This nomination is predicated upon the information that the Hon. C. J. Battell has resigned his seat as Senator, and that J. A. Breckenridge, Esq. declines being a candidate for reelection.
Republican and Banner, Madison, Indiana, April 16, 1835, page 3

    COL. JOSEPH LANE is a candidate for State Senator from the district composed of the counties of Vanderburgh, Posey and Warrick.
Indiana Journal, Indianapolis, March 30, 1839, page 2

    Mr. Joseph Lane, senator-elect from the counties of Posey, Vanderburgh, and Warrick, appeared, produced his credentials, was sworn into office, and took his seat.
"Indiana Legislature, In Senate," Indiana Journal, Indianapolis, January 18, 1840, page 1

    Vacancy in the State Senate.--Joseph Lane Esq. (V.B.), senator from the district composed of Posey, Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties, has resigned. The candidates to fill the vacancy are Eben D. Edson, John W. Lilleston, and James Lockhart, the latter of whom will be remembered as a former aspirant to a seat in Congress, the pretensions to which he relinquished, before the election, in favor of Robert Dale Owen. The V.B. majority in this senatorial district, at the late election, was 222.
Indiana Journal,
Indianapolis, December 5, 1840, page 5

the districts stood previous to the last apportionment, Warrick, Vanderburgh, and Posey counties composed a senatorial district. From the district as thus composed, JOSEPH LANE was elected in 1839, for the term of three years. He served at the session of 39-40, one year, and resigned. GAINS H. ROBERTS of Warrick County was then elected to serve the remainder of Mr. Lane's term. He served at the session of 40-41, at which the new apportionment was made.
"Posey and Vanderburgh Senator," Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, November 29, 1842, page 3

    BRING HIM OUT.--We are anxious that JOE LANE should not be permitted to go to the legislature, without some opposition. We shall have no fun if he runs alone. If our opponents have got "a horse in the stable" that can beat him, we call upon them to produce him instanter.
    P.S. Since the above was in type, the Journal has come to hand, with the name of WILLIAM C. PELHAM, of Posey, as the Whig candidate for Senator. A good man, but easy to beat.
Indiana Statesman, New Harmony, Indiana, June 29, 1844, page 3

    We understand that some of the Locos of Posey County are finding fault with the views put forth by Mr. Pelham, the Whig candidate for the State Senate, in his circular upon the subject of Relief; though what their objections are, we are not at present prepared to say, and if we are correctly informed they hardly know themselves.
    Well, as they will probably like their own candidate's sentiments and conduct better, we respectfully beg leave to recall to their memories a few facts which have some bearing upon this subject of Relief.
    Colonel Lane, it will be remembered, was elected to the Senate in August 1839. The Legislature met December 2nd following. Colonel Lane, as appears by the Senate Journal, took his seat in that body, for the first time, on the 6th of January 1840, just one month and five days after the session commenced.
    A bill was pending authorizing the issue of scrip to contractors, which had been amended so as to make scrip receivable for taxes &c. Mr. Moffat moved to amend this bill so as to require all officers (including the members of the Legislature, as well those who were to be paid full wages for half work as others) to receive the same scrip for salaries and per diem allowances, or wait one year or until the state should be able to redeem the same.
    COL. JOSEPH LANE voted against this amendment; while he supported the hill which required the contractors to take the scrip, and also to submit to au illegal and tyrannical canceling of their contracts before they could get that.
    COL. LANE also voted, at every stage, against the Relief Law of 1840.
    COL. LANE also voted against the BILL ABOLISHING IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT, that odious relic of barbarous times which so long disgraced our statute book.
    All this these grumblers at Mr. Pelham's circular will doubtless consider very proper and very democratic in Col. Lane; but we think there are a few good honest Democrats--(Democrats in fact as well as name) over in Posey who will regard such a course as evincing rather too much solicitude for the Relief of Col. Lane, and too little for that of the people, and will therefore feel under no obligation to discard au old friend and neighbor merely because his opponent pleases to call himself a Democrat while his every act is as opposite to true Democracy as night is to day.
Evansville Journal, Evansville, Indiana, July 11, 1844, page 3

    You will see by the last Statesman, of Saturday, that our little editor is endeavoring to create prejudice against Mr. Pelham, on account of Mr. Pitcher's having made a speech here on Saturday, the 6th ult., in answer to a general call made upon him by the meeting. Mr. Pelham was not present on that occasion, whereupon our little guardian of modern progressive Polk Democracy seizes upon that circumstance to endeavor to create the false impression that Mr. Pelham was afraid to meet his opponent Col. Lane before the people, and with his usual regard for truth he unblushingly asserts the falsehood that Mr. Pitcher had been "employed by the Whigs to plead Mr. Pelham's Jeffersonian Democracy." Now the simple truth is that this is a most pitiful attempt of Mr. Owen's "organ" to divert public attention from the shameful conduct of the Harmony locofoco clique, who under the name of a Democratic association seek to control the politics of the county. The first speaker on this occasion was the Hon. Robert Dale Owen, who occupied his hour in telling the people what the late Democratic Congress had not done. The Democratic House (he said) had not passed the bill to reduce the tariff, because the Democratic members from Pennsylvania and New York would not consent to a measure which they considered so destructive to the interests of their constituents, and because if the Democratic House had passed the bill the Whig Senate would not have done so. That the Democratic House did not pass the Whig Senate bill for a general reduction of postages, so that poor men could afford to write and receive letters, because it was not reached. And why were these and other important measures not reached (as Mr. Owen says) by the Democratic House of Representatives? Because, says Mr. O., the members were engaged in making stump speeches up to the very last days of the session, to the total exclusion of all business. Thus, according to Mr. O.'s account the locofoco members of the late House of Representatives instead of attending to the legitimate business of Congress, and the interests of their constituents, have been receiving their eight dollars per diem for the important service of persuading the people that they ought to vote for Messrs. Polk and Dallas, and yet these gentlemen are constantly preaching economy to the people, whilst they are comfortably pocketing eight dollars per day of their money, for no other service than making electioneering speeches. Mr. Owen concluded with a considerable sprinkling of self-glorification, and by declaring himself in favor of the Sub-treasury and the annexation of Texas, and of course opposed to all protection to American labor. He was followed by Dr. Lee, in a plain and lucid argument in favor of protecting our farmers, mechanics, and manufacturers against British competition. Next came Col. Joseph Lane, with a tremendous pile of books and documents to prove himself a real simon pure Jeffersonian Democrat "dyed in the wool," and this was the sum total of his very "forcible speech," to prove himself a Democrat, and that his opponent (Mr. Pelham) could never possibly be so. Because Mr. P., his competitor, was in favor of a "uniform national currency, regulated by the will and authority of the nation," and for protecting American industry against foreign pauper labor, to both of which measures he (Col. Lane) was uncompromisingly opposed. Ergo, he, the said Col. (according to his own reasoning, at least), is a real Jeffersonian Democrat, and his opponent (Mr. Pelham) is not. The Col. declared himself in favor of the existing relief laws, but omitted to tell the people that whilst he was in the State Senate, when the first relief measures were introduced, he opposed them at every instance. The Col. very prudently forgot to mention this little matter, no doubt concluding it might not be very popular for him to do so, but that he was a real Democrat he was quite certain. Alter Mr. Endicott had appeared upon the stump, and made some confused and stammering remarks in which he finally succeeded in making the audience understand that he too considered himself a real Democrat, a general call was made upon Mr. Pitcher, but the moment he appeared upon the stand the Harmony clique, having the fear of true Democratic principles before their eyes, were seized with such a panic, and became so much alarmed for the safety of the bones of locofocoism, that the President and ex-Secretary of this self-styled "Democratic association" absolutely sprung upon the benches and bawled out most lustily for all true Democrats to leave the House, and thereupon, the members of the aforesaid "Democratic association," led on, or rather off, by their President, with a most terrific cry rushed towards door as if his satanic majesty had actually been at their heels, calling out at the top of their lungs, "Come on, Democrats." To the infinite surprise and vexation of these secret guardians of the Democracy of Posey, the scheme did not work, and they soon found themselves alone. The respectable part of the audience had determined to remain. They were evidently of the opinion that nothing ought to be feared from a full, free and fair discussion, and were consequently determined to maintain their ground and hear both sides fairly argued. Thereupon finding that all their efforts were unavailing to induce the people to follow their shameful example of endeavoring to break up the meeting in a general row, the President and members of this "Democratic secret association," quite chapfallen, and as you may well imagine in no very pleasant mood, returned to the meeting and doggedly submitted to the severe castigation, which was well and skillfully administered to them, by Mr. Pitcher.
    Thus terminated the grand effort of this little Harmony locofoco clique to put down discussion, and keep facts from the people, the signal failure of which is the true cause of the Statesman's attack upon Mr. Pelham.
Very truly yours,
Evansville Journal, Evansville, Indiana, July 25, 1844, page 2

    POSEY--For the Senate, Joseph Lane, loco, 1039; William C. Pelham, w., 571.
Indiana State Journal, Indianapolis, August 17, 1844, page 2

    Next came Gen. Joseph Lane, of the Indiana Brigade. He was on the field from the onset to the close of the action, and never did any man more heroically devote himself to his duty. The thickest of the fight had no terrors for him, and to an observer it would seem that he was heaven defended, for he was continually passing in all directions against a shower of bullets. He was, however, severely wounded through the right arm, the ball passing about midway between his shoulder and elbow, through the center of the arm, yet not breaking the bone.
"Letter from Major A. F. Morrison," Indiana State Journal, Indianapolis, April 27, 1847, page 3

    The steamship Telegraph, Capt. Auld, arrived at New Orleans on Sunday evening, having left Vera Cruz on the 4th inst., Tampico on the 7th, and Brazos Santiago on the 9th.
    The Telegraph brought over, among others, the following passengers from the Brazos: Brig. Gen. Joseph Lane, and almost fifty officers of the Mississippi, Illinois and Ohio regiments, and 500 volunters and teamsters, under the command of Lt. Geo. W. McCook.
"From the Army of Gen. Scott," Hocking Sentinel, Logan, Ohio, June 30, 1847, page 3

    Col. Marshall, who was commander of the Kentucky cavalry at Buena Vista, has published a lengthy report in the Louisville Journal of yesterday, reviewing the late supplemental report of Brigadier General Joseph Lane. Col. M. defends himself in strong language against the charge made by Gen. Lane that the cavalry under his (Marshall's) command retreated before they received a fire from the enemy. It is a well-written document.
Fort Wayne Sentinel, Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 17, 1847, page 2

    A sumptuous dinner came off at Evansville, on the 2nd inst., in honor of Brigadier General Joseph lane, who had just returned from Mexico. The Journal speaks of it as a splendid affair.--Terre Haute Express.
Indiana American,
Brookville, Indiana, July 30, 1847, page 2

    Gen. Joseph Lane arrived at Mier on the 5th of August.
Lafayette Courier, Lafayette, Indiana, September 17, 1847, page 2

    Leave granted, Mr. Cookerly introduced a joint resolution relative to giving power to the Governor to procure a sword with suitable emblems and inscriptions thereon, expressive of the admiration and feelings of the people of the state of Indiana, to be presented to Brigadier General Joseph Lane of Indiana, for his distinguished services on the battlefield of Buena Vista; passed to a second reading.
"Indiana Legislature, House of Representatives, January 10, 1848," Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, January 20, 1848, page 1

    GEN. JOSEPH LANE AND HIS MEXICAN DETRACTORS.--As a tribute of truth and an act of justice to a most brave and meritorious officer, the following copy of a letter, by a nearly unanimous majority of the officers in his brigade, to Gen. Lane, which has been placed in our hands, is made public.
    It is not only an abundant vindication from slanders upon him, upon the troops under his command, and upon the cause in which they are engaged--but it affords a more intimate account of many facts connected with operations around Puebla than has yet been published.
    The causes which called forth this communication will be found very fully stated in the paper itself.
    Gen. Lane has rendered so many and important services to the country that his fellow citizens will be ready and eager as were his officers to repel any calumny against him, especially when originating in the statements of Mexicans.
    He is a worthy representative of western character--all of its indomitable courage--its resistless energy--its generosity and integrity.
For the Indiana Stale Sentinel.
Of a Meeting of the Officers of the United States Army,
Held at Puebla, Mexico, Dec. 9, 1847.

PUEBLA, MEXICO, Dec. 9, 1847.
To Brig. Gen. JOSEPH LANE,
    Commanding Department of Puebla.
    SIR: The undersigned, officers in the brigade under your command, have seen, with infinite regret, a communication from the Bishop of Puebla, covering and enclosing a communication from Sr. Baltazar, Prefect, addressed through Col. Childs, Civil and Military Governor of this city, to the general commanding
in chief.
    In these papers, complaint is made that, through your direction or permission, and by the troops under your command, defenseless towns have been entered, and the persons and property of noncombatants outraged--that churches have been broken open, especially that of San Francisco at Tlaxcala, and the sacred vestments stolen therefrom, worn in public profanation by soldiers, &c. &c.
    It is further set forth that these acts of outrage and sacrilege had been committed contrary to the protestations of Governor Childs--that he had done all in his power to remedy them, but that even he had been unable to recover all the church property plundered of Tlaxcala--and, to prevent future like acts of desecration, the General-in-Chief is implored to "strike at the root of the evil," by directing the order especially to you for the restraint of the troops under your immediate command.
    This document, printed in the Spanish tongue, is being hawked about and sold by hundreds in the streets, at a time when the inflammable and vindictive populace is encouraged to acts of open hostility and secret assassination, by the small number of troops under your command, and your inability, from the absence of mounted men, to scourge, as heretofore, the enemy's guerrillas back to their lairs at a distance.
    It seems inconceivable to us that Gov. Childs--if he possesses a knowledge of the true character of this document, in view of the regulations, of all established military etiquette of the truth as we know it to be and of the honor of American arms--can have forwarded at all, much less with approval, these libels upon you and your command. But in the possible contingency that he may have transmitted it, through inadvertancy or otherwise, it is due to you, to ourselves, and to truth and the national arms, to state the facts as they are. We do, therefore, General, make the following statement, which you are at liberty to use as you deem expedient, the correctness of which we are prepared to maintain by any test and before any tribunal.
    First, then, in relation to the entering of defenseless towns, and the outraging of the persons and property of noncombatants--so far as this relates to the city of Puebla, you entered it with your command, at the earnest and repeated solicitation of Gov. Childs, to rescue it and him from an infuriated enemy, quartered and fortified in more than one of its many churches. It was not a defenseless place--Col. Gorman and his officers can testify that they were fired upon near the eastern gate of the city, as also can Lt. Col. Dumont, commanding a detachment of that regiment, and the officers under him, and they fought and pursued a strong body of guerrillas, interchanging volley after volley into and through it. Colonel Brough and his officers can declare that they were fired upon by more than fifty guerrillas from the church of San Francisco, on the topmost spire of which floated a lancer's flag upon their first entrance. And Lt. Col. Moor, of the Ohio Regt., commanding a detachment with his officers, can also affirm that they fought and pursued another large body of the enemy from street to street, being also fired upon from windows and housetops at almost every step; and that the enemy made a final and desperate stand under cover of the church at the Alameda; further, that, before the door of that very church, they found the horridly mutilated corpses of several soldiers of Col. Child's command, who had been overpowered and slain that very morning.
    That some acts of pillage were committed that afternoon and the night following is true. There are bad men everywhere, and it cannot be claimed that your command is wholly exempt. Something, however, must be allowed to the excited passions of men, so opposed by an enemy fighting, not for victory, but for slaughter--and something more must be allowed for the first chaos of a conquered city, before government can be organized. Yet, even in respect to these acts, we unitedly aver that they were less extensive and flagrant than the wrongs committed by the Mexican troops upon their own people, noncombatants, these latter being witnesses; that by far the greater portion of them were committed by men under the immediate command of Gov. Childs, and that every possible effort was made by you, sir, eventually with success, to arrest them.
    And equally unwarranted is the charge in respect to the entrances of Atlixco, Tlaxcala, and Matamoros. The enemy had contested every practicable position for six miles of the road leading to Atlixco. Routed and driven with loss from each of these, by the cavalry under command of Capts. Ford and Lewis, they lined the hedges and housetops on the outskirts of the town, and discharged repeated volleys of small arms as the head of the infantry column approached. It was then quite dark--the plan of the town was unknown--the enemy in apparent force, and, as all supposed, with artillery. Under these circumstances, with the advice and approbation of every field officer near your person, you directed the artillery to open and continue its fire until the enemy's musketry was silenced. Even then, the town was not formally surrendered until we had entered it in force. The command of Col. Brough was quartered in the buildings appendant to a church, in which were found a quantity of bread for the enemy's troops, a room, seats, ink, paint, and a brazier containing yet living coals--that same room having been the guerrilla headquarters. In another church, as we have since then creditably informed, were there concealed four pieces of cannon and other arms. You made every exertion to prevent acts of pillage, and succeeded so far as was practicable.
    The first entrance into Tlaxcala we cannot suppose to be subject matter of complaint. The enemy was there and forcibly driven out. The second expedition to that town was projected by you, at eleven o'clock at night, at the instance of merchants, noncombatants, some of them Mexicans, all having American protection, who had been robbed by Gen. Rea of goods of immense value. The infantry, to the number of 400, in six hours marched upwards of 20 miles over rough road, and in the night, to recover and restore these goods. You entered with the cavalry under Capt. Roberts in advance--found the church of San Francisco in possession of guerrillas, and were fired upon from thence. Afterwards, Lt. Col. Dumont, with his command, seized at this church a large number of horses and arms, and several guerrilla officers and soldiers, concealed within its recesses. You
found the merchant train in the art of being fired by Rea and his robbers, who, since they could not keep, were determined to destroy this argosy of noncombatants. From out of the very building whence had issued a squad of thirty guerrillas, you obtained forage, and because it was claimed, with apparent truth, as private property, caused it to be paid for. You enjoined upon Col. Brough, left in command for the protection of the merchants' train, to protect also the persons and property of the citizens; and with such fidelity was this duty performed that a soldier caught plundering, and refusing to stop his flight or restore the goods he had taken, was shot and killed by the patrol.
    In the affair of Matamoros, but few of us participated. We have every assurance that it was not a defenseless town, but, on the contrary, a recruiting station and depot of provisions, clothing and arms, garrisoned by two or three hundred troops, with artillery. Defenseless it may have been when you left it--not when you entered it.
    Then as to the specific charge of breaking open and violating the church of San Francisco, at Tlaxcala, and the public profanation of sacred vestments stolen therefrom. This we understand to be the church in which the guerrillas were quartered, which you fired upon, and in which the horses, arms and persons of a large number of them were concealed. It was already broken open by guerrillas, or had been willingly opened to them. The vestments in question were found scattered on the floor in various places. A few thoughtless men took and brought some of them away. Upon the return march, in two or three instances, they exposed them upon their persons; which, as soon as it came to the notice of their officers, was rebuked and the things secured. When the command reached Puebla, we were met by an order from you, sir, to deliver up, at headquarters, all property taken at Tlaxcala. These vestments were so delivered--strict search being made among the men, and every vestment that could be found--all, we believe, that was in their possession--voluntarily given up by, or taken from them. If, in the face of this order, search for and restoration of things not stolen, but improperly taken away from where they were lying underfoot, a soldier had the assurance to display such a
garment upon his person in public, two conclusions are irresistible: First, that the man was not a knave, but a fool; and second, that who so imputes the act to you or your command as an outrage upon the religion of the country, is not a fool, but an incendiary enemy and arrant knave. We must be pardoned the use of such language, since there are no other terms sufficiently strong to express our indignant sense of the calumny charged, that you had permitted, or even failed to rebuke, an outrage upon the prevailing form of religious worship.
    It is strange to us that it should be said "that even Gov. Childs had been unable to recover and return all of the church property in question." The truth is that he recovered none of it, although he was the medium of restoring that which was taken to headquarters in pursuance to your order. Our purpose is not accusation, but vindication. We forbear, therefore, to inquire by what means the popularity so vaunted at your expense has been obtained among a hostile and vindictive people. You, sir, may well afford to admit that you have only treated them justly--you have flogged their armed bands too severely ever to become a favorite.
    With sentiments of the highest esteem, we are, General, your obedient servants,
W. A. GORMAN, Col. 4th Indiana regiment.
C. H. BROUGH, Col. 4th Ohio regt.
E. DUMONT, Lieut. Col. 4th Indiana regt.
A. MOOR, Lieut. Col. 4th Ohio regt.
LORENZO LEWIS, Capt. La. Mounted Vols.
G. A. RICHMOND, Capt. Ohio Vols.
JESSE J. ALEXANDER, Capt. 4th Indiana regt.
JOHN W. CROOKS, Capt. 4th Indiana regt.
D. LUNDERMAN, Capt. 4th Indiana regt.
M. L. PAYNE, Capt. 4th Indiana regt.
A. L. MASON, Capt 4th Indiana regt.
H. KESSLER , Capt. 4th Ohio regt.
S. P. MOSES, 1st Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
ALBERT G. BRACKETT, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
J. S. S. D. CAREY, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
JOHN C. GROOM, 1st Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
E. ROESSLER, 1st Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
ALEXANDER HAYS, Br. 1st Lieut. 8th Infantry.
SAMUEL DOUGLASS, 1st Lieut. 4th Ohio regt. and
    Aide to Brig. Gen. Lane.
GUSTAVUS H. WAY, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
M. M. VAN DUSEN, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
A. B. B. LEWIS, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
S. W. WATERS, 1st Lieut. La. Mounted Vols.
BEDNEY F. McDONALD, 3rd Artillery U.S.A.
W. FITZGIBBON, Capt. 4th Indiana regt.
JAMES A. GRAHAM, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
HENRY WILTZ, 2nd Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
JOHN W. DODD, Adj. and Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
J. C. LITTELL, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
D. B. ROBINSON, 1st Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
JONATHAN LEE, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
JOHN N. DYER, 2nd Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
BENJ. PILLBEAN, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
NOBLE HAMILTON, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
JOHN W. MULLEN. 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
THOMAS D. LUCAS, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
JAMES R. MILLS, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
WM. K. McCLANE, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
ISAAC FARLEY, Surgeon 4th Indiana regt.
D. S. BARBER, 2nd Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
C. C. GRAHAM, 1st Lieut. 4th Indiana regt.
LOTHAR EISEN, 2nd Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
JOHN FRIES, Capt. 4th Indiana regt.
M. C. LILLY, Capt. 4th Ohio regt.
S. P. SAYRE, 1st Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
CHARLES HEUA, 2nd Lieut. 4th Ohio regt.
EDWARD CANTWELL, 2nd Lieut. 12th Infantry.
Account of the Proceedings of a Meeting Held Dec. 9, 1847, at Puebla.
    At a meeting of the officers of the army at Puebla, Mexico, December 9, 1847, Lt. Col. Moor of the 4th Ohio vols. was called to the chair, and Capt. A. L. Mason, of the 4th Indiana vols., was requested to act as secretary. Col. Gorman, of the 4th Indiana vols., being called upon, explained the object of the meeting.
    Col. Brough, of the 4th Ohio vols., being called upon, read the following article (address, as set forth above) which, upon motion of Lieut. Douglass, was» adopted as the sentiments of this meeting.
    On motion of Lieut. Douglass it was also
    Resolved, That Lieut. Whipple, Assistant Adj. Gen., be requested to furnish a committee appointed by this meeting, composed of Lieuts. B. F. McDonald, S. W. Waters and Alex. Hays, with a statement of conversation between himself and the Prefect of Puebla this day.
    On motion of Col. Gorman, it was
    Resolved, That a copy of the article read by Col. Brough, signed by the officers present, be furnished Brig. Gen. Joseph Lane.
    On motion of Lieut. Col. Dumont, it was
    Resolved, That Col. Gorman, Col. Brough, Capt. Lewis and Capt. Kressler be appointed a committee to obtain a medal and present the same to Brig. Gen. Joseph Lane, in the name of the officers of his brigade.
    On motion of Col. Brough, Lieut. Col. Dumont was added to said committee.
    On motion of Lieut. S. W. Waters, it was
    Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by its officers, be published in the papers generally of the United States.
    After some most happy remarks by Col. Brough, Col. Gorman, Lieut. Col. Dumont, and others, the meeting adjourned.
    Lieut. Col. 4th Ohio Vols., President.
A. L. MASON, Capt. Company K, 4th Indiana. Vols., Secretary.
Indiana State Sentinel,
Indianapolis, January 20, 1848, page 6

General Joseph Lane.
    The last Indiana Journal, by innuendo, charges General Lane with improper, or rather felonious conduct, in suffering Col. Hays to keep Santa Anna's military coat, costing some eight hundred dollars, as a trophy of war. The Journal's morality would teach General Lane to deliver up the military articles found in Santa Anna's apartment, after the bird had flown from Tehuacan. The Indiana Journal appears to have great antipathy to General Lane, at a time too, when the whole Union is lisping his praises as a brave and meritorious officer. Last winter that paper charged him, in a communication, with being drunk on the battlefield of Buena Vista. Is there any reason for this abuse--for these charges of robbery and drunkenness--other than that Gen. Lane is a Democrat? Gen. Lane has been a member of both branches of our State Legislature; and is there a man that has ever heard the charge of intemperance urged or even insinuated against him; and we ask, in seriousness, even before his bravery was tested at Buena Vista and other fields of Mexico, was there a man in Indiana that ever supposed he would need the aid of the bottle to give him courage.
    There is no reason that can be urged for the course of the Journal, other than a desire, on the part of its editor, to disgrace our state. But what better could be expected from a paper that in 1840 said and sung such mournful ditties against employing bloodhounds in the Florida war, that now, in the very last number, when it appears that General Taylor was the author of that system of warfare in Florida, quietly takes back all its former abuse, and thinks the General was perfectly right in his recommendation of these dogs to the War Department.
    So far as General Lane is concerned, his conduct stands far above the puny efforts of the Journal to assail him. The first assaults of the Journal we passed by, as unworthy of notice; but it is due to the character of Indiana that the course of the Journal should be reproved. The name of Joseph Lane is destined to go down to posterity as one of the brightest stars in the galaxy of our renown, and the day will come when even the editor of that print, reckless as he is, will be ashamed of his puny attacks. They betray a disregard of private justice, which the humblest citizen of our state might demand from the hands of another, and show that the Indiana Journal is willing to blast the reputation of our state forever, if a contemptible party advantage might thereby be promoted. We are sick of human nature on witnessing such depravity.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, March 9, 1848, page 6

Brig. Gen. Joseph Lane.
    If I were to select a fine specimen of a backwoodsman (says Cist's Advertiser) it should be Joseph Lane. I would take a foreigner, if in my power, 50 miles to visit Lane, as an admirable illustration of the workings of our political and social institution.
    I know nothing of his early history, and presume it to be that of thousands in the West. I know him only as a farmer and wood merchant, on the banks of the Ohio, in which character I first made his acquaintance. He came on board the S. B. Andrew Jackson, to receive pay for a lot of wood sold the boat, and was introduced to me by Capt. Eckert. He wore a blanket coat, and his general appearance was that of a backwoodsman, but I had not conversed with him five minutes before I set him down as a man of no ordinary cast.
    Later and more intimate acquaintance confirmed my judgment, and in his late military career in Mexico he has shone conspicuous for gallantry and good conduct, even in the galaxy of heroes which the war with Mexico has brought to public notice. It may not be amiss to state how he obtained his military appointment, taken, as he was, from the farm to lead armies to victory
    When it became the duty of the President to make the appointment of Brigadier General, it was felt by every western member of Congress to be a prize for his constituents. Probably some fifty names had been handed in to the President, accordingly. Robert Dale Owen, in whose district Lane resides, entertaining no such local pride, would probably not have furnished any name, but for a suggestion to that effect from one of the Indiana Senators, "who do you intend recommending?" "Why," said Mr. Owen, "I had not thought of offering a name. There are no applications to me from my own district, but if you think it due to it, to offer a name, I shall hand in that of Jo Lane."
    The Senator approved of the choice, and it was accordingly suggested. The President, as usual, said he would give it his favorable consideration. A few days afterwards, Mr. Owen was transacting some private business at the White House. After it was through--"By the bye, Mr. Owen," observed the President, "I shall have to appoint your friend Lane to the Brigadier Generalship. I hope you have well considered your recommendation, for the office is a very responsible one." "I know nothing," replied Mr. Owen, "of Lane's military talents, but there are about him those elements of character which in all times of difficulty prompts everyone to rally, instinctively, around him as leader. This has been the case in early days, when lawless men infested the river border. Whether on shore or among boatmen on the river, Lane was the man relied on to keep such men in order, and he was always found equal to every emergency. I would select him for the office before any other man I know, if I had the appointment to make."
    Lane was appointed. The sequel is history, and justified the penetrative judgment of Mr. Owen. Lane has developed qualities which place him in the front rank of military service.
    When the news of the battle of Buena Vista reached Washington, Mr. Owen called on President Polk.
    "Well, sir," exclaimed he, "What do you think of our Hoosier general!"
    "Ah!" said the President, with a quiet smile, "Mr. Owen, you are safe out of that scrape!"
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, May 17, 1848, page 2

    The following characteristic story of old Jo Lane is given in an extract of a letter from an officer of the 4th Indiana Regiment, which we find in the Lawrenceburgh Register.
    "Dr. Johnson, an old companion of General Joseph Lane, is staying with Col. Dumont a few days; he tells the story of Lane's entrance into the quarters assigned him at the city, [omission] so as to make it one of the rich ones. I must attempt to give to you but know it will be far short of the original, and you can embellish it without danger or injury in point. The General was shown into the building and delivered to the owner, who was as usual permitted to occupy a portion of it. After many tortuous windings through splendid halls, the general was shown into a large parlor, richly carpeted, sofas and chairs of mahogany, velvet-cushioned and scarlet at that, windows curtained with scarlet silk and tasseled with golden tassels, walls hung with the finest paintings, and altogether such a splendid array of rich furniture and fixings that one might reasonably have concluded the place to be one of the halls of the Montezumas, whose splendor has been boasted from half the stumps in Indiana. Old Jo looked about him, seated himself, walked about the room, occasionally going about half a square to spit on the stairway. At last he could stand it no longer and, damning everything Mexican, called for the man of the house, who came all bows and smiles, and inquired what he could do for the general, and seemed mighty pleased with the prospect of doing something to please the general. The old fellow looked at him and then told his interpreter to tell him to take all these things out of here; that the house was given up to him and he did not want the damn things (pointing to the chairs, sofas and curtains) about him. The poor Mexican, utterly dumbfounded at the extravagant notions of the general, protested the furniture was new and sound, and all as fine as the city could afford, and that he had no place to move to, hoped the general would try and make out with it, but he would add anything to the room the general would advise for his convenience. Says old Jo, tell him I can't go out of doors every time I want to spit, and these things must be taken away. Mex, with many bows sloped [away] but soon returned with a cargo of spit boxes and, ranging them about the premises, again left. These seemed to quiet the old turk a little and through the persuasions of Johnson and Pugh, who had now recovered from the fit of laughter with which they were convulsed at the general's late embarrassment, he took a nap on one of the sofas. With many oaths at the fixin's he managed to put in the day and night till bed time without any more serious trouble, but bed time came, and with it new troubles. He was shown into the bedroom and here another hearty damn was heard to issue from his throat in such a tone as showed him getting desperate. First here was a brass bedstead as [omission] gold, clothing of the finest silk, curtains all tasseled and fringed as only Mexicans know how to do it; toilet tables and all the little etceteras of the finest quality, a perfume too, that seemed to be composed of all [scents] united. So strong was it that the general said it went right through his head. After looking at it for some time, he called Pugh, takes the pillows and strips them, then the coverlets &c. were carefully put away. When all was disposed of, he sent for his blankets and rolled in.
    "About midnight, Pugh heard a noise and supposing the general to be sick, went to him. He had just succeeded in getting down the curtains and all the trimmings about his bed and rolled them up, where they laid as [long as] old Jo occupied the building. But his announces were too many, and he got permission to go to the country. About the same time he got command of different expeditions with the enemy's quarters which for some time kept him out of town, but as soon as the 'armistice' came to town he asked and obtained leave of absence, Johnson says to escape from fine chairs, sofas, tables, and silk hangings, the only things in Mexico which old Jo was really afraid to meet."
Campaign Palladium, Vevay, Indiana, June 4, 1848, page 4.  Lane mentions these quarters in his autobiography. Search "Napoleon."

    General Joseph Lane arrived in our city on Sunday night and proceeded to his home.
Evansville Weekly Journal, Evansville, Indiana, July 20, 1848, page 3

    Gen. Shields declined accepting the Governorship of Oregon, and Gen. Joseph Lane, of this state, has been appointed in his stead. So then the "Marion of the army" will not be in the way of his Democratic brethren for the Senate this winter, nor in the track for Governor of Indiana thereafter. Gen. L. will likely settle the Oregon Indians instanter.
Wabash Express,
Terre Haute, Indiana, August 30, 1848, page 2

    Gen. LANE acquired considerable reputation by his conduct in Mexico. His appointment as Governor of Oregon has been regarded as a good one. He is soon to leave for that far-off country. It must be a matter of sincere regret to his real friends that he should, just on the eve of his departure, lend himself for the purpose of abusing his old commander. [Whether] it has been done, whether in obedience to the dictates of his own heart, or at the behests of the administration, as a consideration for the appointment recently conferred upon him, we will not determine.
    The last number of the Evansville Democrat contains an article addressed "to the public," bearing his signature. He seems to think it necessary that he should appear before the public on a subject of "vital importance to Indiana." Now, without examining how "vital" this matter may be to "Indiana," we quote a paragraph of this production:
    "Interested partisans in this state (and I regret that it is so) appear resolved upon disgracing themselves and the state of their nativity, or adoption, by the publication of glaring falsehoods and statements wholly unfounded in fact, put forth in the attempt to secure a mere partisan triumph. I allude to the slanders which from time to time have been perpetrated by different persons, both in official documents and otherwise, upon the 2nd Indiana Regt. relative to their conduct in the battle of Buena Vista."
    We should like to know to whose allusion is made by the term "interested partisans." It must certainly apply to those "partisan" editors who insist that Gen. TAYLOR has denounced the Indiana troops as "cowards," when,in truth, he never did it. We know of no other "glaring falsehoods" being published than those to be found in papers whose editors are vainly attempting to prejudice the minds of the people against an honest-hearted old man whose duty required of him a disapproval of the acknowledged conduct of a portion of the Second Regiment.
    Gen. LANE proceeds:
    "A great and lasting disgrace has been attempted to be fastened upon the fair fame of our state, and I call upon every citizen, high and low, to vindicate her honor and to wipe off the foul stain cast upon her bright escutcheon."
    Now, we beg leave to say, notwithstanding the "grand flourish" in the above paragraph about "foul stain," "honor," and "bright escutcheon," there does not exist a single person in or without the state that has "attempted" to fasten disgrace upon its fair fame. Nor do we apprehend that the fact, which seems to be admitted on all hands, that about one-half of the Second Regiment could not be rallied after being ordered to retreat, would greatly affect the character of the state. Gen. Jackson reported, on one occasion, that the "Kentuckians ingloriously fled," and yet no one doubts Kentucky bravery. Gen. Cass says that over two thousand New York volunteers fled before six hundred British and Indians, in the most cowardly manner, without firing a gun, and yet we apprehend the whole state of New York does not feel disgraced.
    After quoting from Gen. Taylor's report, Gen. Lane continues:
    "There are two material facts known to everyone upon that field--known to Gen. Taylor when he made his report--which facts General Taylor does not even allude to--to wit: first, that the Regiment immediately rallied, and next, that they fought all day."
    Now, we will prove by the report of the Court of Inquiry that, in the above extract, Gen. Joseph Lane has deliberately stated that which he knew to be untrue. Recollect he says: "that the Regiment immediately rallied, and next, that they fought all day." The regiment consisted of near four hundred men. It was proven before that Court, that from one hundred and fifty to two hundred only were rallied! The "Regiment" could not have rallied if this finding of the court be true, and Gen. LANE is left in no very enviable position. The finding of the Court is referred to by Gen. LANE as true, and it is strange that he asserts that the "Regiment (the whole Regiment of course) immediately rallied," when that Court reports that only about one hundred and fifty or two hundred rallied.
    In Gen. Lane's Report, he says, in speaking of this Regiment, "a few of them, I regret to say, did not return to the field at all." Now, whether this be true or not depends upon how many may be regarded as "a few of them." This term is about as indefinite as the term used by Gen. TAYLOR, where he says a "handful only were rallied by Col. Bowles." The Court of Inquiry determined that "from one hundred and fifty to two hundred" constitute "a few of them," according to Gen. Lane, or "a handful" according to Gen. Taylor; so that each of these officers was correct, although indefinite as to number.
    The whole truth in relation to the matter may be stated in few words. Gen. Taylor, relying upon his own observation and the report of his subordinates, in giving an account of the battle of Buena Vista, stated that the Second Indiana Regiment, in consequence of the immense odds against them, and the murderous crossfire to which they were exposed, retreated in disorder, and only a few of them were afterwards rallied. Since that report was made, it turns out that a Court of Inquiry determined that about half of the Regiment was rallied and fought well afterwards. The proceedings of the Court have never been placed before Gen. Taylor in a form justifying a conclusion to that effect. When that is done by those whose duty it is to make such report, the correction will be made.
    Gen. Lane says that Gen. Taylor "leaves it to be inferred that no other troops retreated that day, except the 2nd Indiana Regiment." This cannot be true, because in that report he says, "The 2nd Kentucky Regiment was driven back and closely pressed by the enemy's cavalry." And, again, he says the light troops were compelled lo withdraw, which they did for the most part, in good order. "Many, however, were not rallied until they reached the depot at Buena Vista, to the defense of which they afterwards contributed."
    In Gen. Lane's whole address is exhibited the spirit of a bitter political partisan, determined to prostrate a political opponent, at the sacrifice of truth and justice.
Indiana Journal, Indianapolis, September 11, 1848, page 1

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 11, 1848
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd inst. directing the sum of $6,902.85 to be turned over to Govr. Jos. Lane on account of the Oregon sub-agency, and to inform you that he left here about the 1st instant for Fort Leavenworth, at which place I have just learned from the clerk of the steamer Mandan he was on the 6th last and making his preparations to start on the 9th for Oregon. From another gentleman I learn that there was some uncertainty about his starting so soon, and have accordingly written to him this day by mail and steamboat, informing him that the money, instructions, blanks, commissions &c. are on hand here for him.
With great respect I am sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        John Haverty
            Clerk Ind. Affairs
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 414-415.

By Telegraph for the Louisville Journal.
St. Louis, Sept. 22, 8 p.m.
    Majors Johnson and Bradley, of the paymaster's department, have arrived from Santa Fe, and report that Gen. Price and all the volunteers are on their way home, and would arrive in 20 days. They left Santa Fe on the 15th ult. All was quiet. Gen. Lane was met with his escort at Willow Springs on the morning of the 14th.
The Tennesseean, Nashville, September 25, 1848, page 3

    The last Metropolitan says that "Gen. Lane, the newly Governor of Oregon, is at present in St. Louis, making arrangements for his departure. He is accompanied by his family."
Saturday Morning Visitor, Warsaw, Missouri, September 9, 1848, page 2

    GOV. LANE.--The steamer Martha arrived from Weston last night. We learn from her officers that Gov. Lane left Fort Leavenworth with an escort of 25 men, under the command of Lieut. Hawkins, on Sunday, the 10th inst., for Oregon, via Santa Fe and California. The officers also report that Gen. Price was expected to arrive in Santa Fe on the second of last month.
Unidentified clipping marked "Sept. '48," pasted onto letter below. Weston is a town in Ohio; the Martha plied the Ohio River.

Office Supt. Ind. Affairs
    St. Louis Sept. 28, 1848
    On the 11th inst. the clerk of this office had the honor to inform you of the departure of Govr. Jos. Lane from this city for Fort Leavenworth on or about the first of this month, and of his having written to him by steamboat & mail, advising him of the amount of funds &c. These letters have since been returned by the postmaster at Fort L. to this office, the Governor having left there on the 10th instant on his way to Oregon.
    The remittance of $6,902.75, advised by your letter of 2nd inst. for the use of Govr. Lane, was recd. here on the 13th. It being no longer available here for the purpose intended, I have respectfully to ask your instructions to redeposit it to the credit of the Treasurer of the United States.
    The documents recd. from your office for Govr. L. have been returned here up to this time, in the hope that an opportunity would occur of forwarding them to Oregon; none such having presented itself, I have this day returned them as directed by the postscript of your letter above referred to.
I have the honor to be sir
    Yr  most obt. svt.
        T. H. Harvey
            Supt. Ind. Affairs
Hon. W. Medill
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 607 Oregon Superintendency 1842-1852, frames 416-417.

    From Santa Fe.--Mr. White has arrived at St. Louis from Santa Fe Oct. 18, with $58,000 in gold and silver. Gen. Joseph Lane, the new governor of Oregon, arrived on that day, to march in four days with his mounted dragoons for California.
Boston Post, December 5, 1848, page 2

"GEN. TAYLOR, GEN. LANE, AND THE SECOND REGIMENT."--Under this head, the Bulletin of the 10th inst. makes a lame and impotent attempt (the twentieth of the kind) to shift the blame of Gen. Taylor's false and libelous report in relation to the Indiana regiment upon Gen. Lane. A number of words are occupied in this attempt, and, we opine, a vast number more than the editor, assistant editors, and certain editors of that sheet could place upon paper previous to the 7th of November--will be necessary to convince the soldiers of the second regiment that Joseph Lane is their calumniator and enemy, and Zachary Taylor their friend and defender.
    The day of election fast approaches--the parasites of Indiana's slanderer tremble in their shoes--they fear the overwhelming rebuke which awaits their candidate at the hands of the injured and insulted people of Indiana; hence their attempts to mystify, misrepresent, and falsify the facts relative to a matter about which every Indianian feels the deepest interest. They have not only brought their newspapers and their habitual public speakers into their service to further the cause of Taylor and to defame Gen. Lane, but they have pressed into the ranks of public orators and writers certain individuals who were volunteers, who are stimulated by an unholy ambition and craving for office--a passion which appears to destroy every consideration of patriotism, state pride, and personal honor--into a wanton disregard of courtesy, honesty, and fairness, totally unworthy of a soldier. But even these have been hissed from the stage by the patriotic people whom they have attempted to seduce from their allegiance to their own state and their own sons, brothers, and friends. One individual who comes at the bidding of a corrupt faction to do their dirty work of slandering honest men and respected citizens, slinks back into the obscurity from which he emerged, despised alike by political friends and foes. Another who, after remaining as dumb as an oyster for four months of the canvass, at length ventures to hurl defiance at a man whom he well knew to be hundreds of miles distant, retires from the canvass and leaves his place to be filled by a miserable old hack. The Whig state elector who resides at Madison has not made his appearance on the stump for months, but sends forth in his stead an acknowledged public defaulter, who, next to Taylor, has done Indiana more serious injury than any other man, dead or alive, in blasting her reputation, destroying her credit, and bringing her to the brink of bankruptcy, an humble supplicant at the feet of her creditors--driven, through his recklessness and mismanagement, to a choice between open repudiation and compliance with any terms which they might see proper to dictate. Such is the material of which the corps of Whig orators in Indiana is composed. Such are the defamers of Lane and the eulogists of Taylor.
    We think we have at different times heretofore satisfactorily shown from public documents and from other sources, that the assumption of the friends of Taylor that Lane is responsible for his (Taylor's) report, is an afterthought hit upon by the federalists of this state, when it became probable that they would be called upon to support Gen. Taylor as their candidate for the Presidency. It is an assumption which is not and cannot be sustained by facts. But it is the last, the only resort of the federal leaders; if this fail them, they are done for, and hence the constant anxiety which they manifest to sustain and fortify their untenable position.
    We make the following extract from the Bulletin's article, above referred to:
    "We will remark, that it is conceded by all that the retreat of the 2nd regiment was in obedience to orders. This is a fact fully made out and acknowledged by all parties--none deny it. The Court of Inquiry called to investigate the conduct of Col. Bowles fully established that fact, and we have ever been proud to refer to as it is a matter beyond dispute, and had the finding of this court been forwarded to Gen. Taylor, as was the duty of Gen. Lane to have attended to without defalcation; but this Gen. Lane did not do. Had that report of the finding of the Court of Inquiry been forwarded to Taylor, and he had then refused to have sent it to the War Department as a correction of his report, or should have neglected to have amended his first report so as to correspond with such finding; then would we have been ready and willing to have denounced him for having done intentional injustice to the gallant Indianians."
    Now, what are the facts of the case? Courts of Inquiry were called for and held on the conduct both of Gen. Lane and Col. Bowles. These courts were authorized by Gen. Taylor and ordered by Gen. Wool. Gen. Lane had nothing to do with them other than as a prisoner on his trial before one, and perhaps as a witness before the other. He had no control over that of Bowles. General Wool was the officer who ordered the court, to whom its proceedings were sent by its officers, and who in "general orders No. 279," and "No. 281," proclaimed its findings, and his approval of them, to the army. But, exclaims the whole Rough and Ready phalanx, why were not the orders containing the findings of the courts forwarded to General Taylor, who says he never received them? He, they say, cannot be blamed for not correcting his report, when he was not furnished with the materials for doing so. Such is not the case. If Gen. Taylor was not furnished with these orders, it is he himself who was guilty of gross neglect of official duty in not demanding them, as is clearly shown by the following paragraph from the Army Regulations:
    "780. Should it happen that general orders are not received in regular succession, commanding officers will report the facts to the proper headquarters, in order that the deficient numbers may be supplied."
    Here, then, is another added to the long list of General Taylor's delinquencies. Had he performed his obvious duty, he would have demanded of Gen. Wool these missing orders, and, in obedience to the facts officially developed therein, corrected his report. Looking, therefore, at the case in whatever light we may, Gen. Taylor is still THE MAN who must be held responsible in this matter. Laying aside his first report, and admitting that that was made up from Lane's (which is utterly false), still, in not demanding from Wool the documents necessary to a correct understanding of the whole matter (of the existence of which he was fully aware) he neglected his duty, and is therefore justly responsible for allowing the glaring falsehoods contained in his report to go uncontradicted.
    Gen. Lane had nothing to do with the proceedings of the courts of inquiry. It was not his duty; he could not, if he desired it, have sent them to Gen. Taylor. He asked these courts for the purpose of clearing the regiment of the stigmas which had been cast upon it. He relied upon Gen. Taylor's sense of justice, when the facts were arrived at by a legal tribunal, which he himself had authorized, to make the necessary corrections. Gen. Lane immediately transmitted to the United States for publication a supplemental report, detailing all the events as they occurred, and as they had been developed in the proceedings before the courts. This supplemental report was, as is well known, intended to correct the wrong impressions which had obtained credence in consequence of the statements contained in Gen. Taylor's report and in letters from the army. The punctilious Taylor may not have regarded the document as "official" because it "first met his eye in the columns of a newspaper," but it was nonetheless a supplemental report of a General in the army for all that, and as such was entitled to that respect to which its high source entitled it.
    The editor of the Bulletin and the other Whig editors and speakers labor hard to prove that in his letters to Defrees and Dunn, Gen. Taylor does not repeat his charge of cowardice. It is true he does not apply the word "cowards" to the Indianians, but he asserts and reasserts that their retreat was caused by "panic"--that they were "panic-stricken" &c. Now to charge the retreat to any other cause than the true one, viz., the order given by Bowles, is false and libelous. That order, and not a "panic," was the sole and only cause of that retreat. Indeed, Gen. Taylor himself, in his conversation with Gen. Lane at the Walnut Springs, admitted that the fault lay with Bowles. Dr. D. S. Lane, in his statement of that conversation, says:
    "He (Gen. Taylor) was very sorry that he had not left Bowles at the mouth of the Rio Grande, where he could have done as well as anyone, and brought Col. Drake up. Had he done so, he said he had no doubt that all the discredit which had fallen to the state of Indiana would have been avoided--that with Col. Drake instead of Col. Bowles, the credit of the Indiana troops would have been safe."
    Nothing is here said about "panics." On the contrary, Gen. Taylor expressly declares that if the regiment had had a competent Colonel all would have been well and the credit of the state secure. Now what produced the change in Gen. Taylor's mind between the date of his conversation with Gen. Lane at the Walnut Springs and that of his letters to Defrees and Dunn? Instead of the findings of the court of inquiry (with which he was familiar) and the subsequent developments operating to convince him that he had wronged the regiment, they appear to have had a directly opposite effect. Viewed in whatever light the question may, Gen. Taylor still appears the cool, deliberate, and determined calumniator of the Indiana troops. All the mercenary presses, the ambitious office-hunting Captains, and the imported speakers from other states will fail to convince the people of Indiana that they have not been deeply, grossly, willfully, and irreparably wronged by Gen. Taylor; every attempt to palliate or excuse that wrong is but adding insult to injury; and every vote cast for the Taylor electoral ticket must be regarded as an endorsement of his report and his letters, and as an admission of their truth.
New Albany Democrat, New Albany, Indiana, October 19, 1848, page 2

    GEN. LANE A "SLANDERER"!--Gen. Joseph Lane is denounced by the Indiana Journal and the New Albany Bulletin as the "SLANDERER of the Indiana VOLUNTEERS"! Then "to this complexion has it come at last"! Gen. Lane, at whose urgent solicitation the court of inquiry, which fixed upon the guilty party the stigma for which the whole regiment was held responsible by the commander in chief, is charged with making "attacks" upon the regiment! And General Taylor, who made every effort to prevent that court from being held, advising General Lane to "let the matter drop," and thus forever fixing the stain of cowardice upon the regiment, is applauded as a just man--held up as the friend of Indianans and volunteers, and as worthy of their suffrages for the highest office within their gift!
New Albany Democrat, New Albany, Indiana, October 26, 1848, page 2

    Capt. Osborn (better known to volunteers of the second regiment as "Capt. Kyd") made a speech at the court house in this city Monday evening. It was not our good fortune to hear this "hero" (as he was styled "in the bills"), but gentlemen who were present inform us that the "speech" was a miserable, wishy washy affair, exhibiting neither fact, argument, nor eloquence. It was made up of the twaddle which is to be found in the mouth of everyone who attempts a defense of Taylor in refusing to correct his report relating to our volunteers. Capt. Osborn avers, as do all other Whig speakers, that Gen. Taylor could not correct his report because he was not (as he says) officially informed of the decisions and findings of the court of inquiry on Col. Bowles. We showed in our last that, according to the Army regulations, it was General Taylor's solemn duty to demand from the proper headquarters the missing orders containing the reports, decisions, and findings of the court. If he had performed this duty, he would have been officially placed in possession of all the facts necessary to a correction of his report. This he did not do, and here he is justly liable to the charge of official delinquency.
    These Whig speakers adduce Taylor's letter to Dunn to show that the supplemental report of Gen. Lane was not submitted to him before it was sent to the United States for publication. They argue from this that Lane must be held responsible for all the wrong which has been perpetrated against Indiana by Gen. Taylor! that that very conscientious officer is perfectly justifiable in writing private letters stating that although he was well aware of the decision of the court of inquiry, and although he had read Gen. Lane's supplemental report "in the columns of a newspaper," still "nothing had been developed since the date of his report to cause him to change it!"
    Now let us look a little further, and see how consistent Gen. Taylor is in this strenuous adherence to officiality in everything relating to Gen. Lane. On the subject of correcting his report, in one of his letters he says:
    "It is not to be expected that I should address a corrective report to the War Department, affecting any portion of the original report. Such a report must he upon official data, PROPERLY RENDERED, else it can be of no avail."
    Again he says:
    "It is possible that a report made by Colonel Bowles, even at this late day, might tend much to exonerate his regiment and himself from unjust imputations; and I am ready to receive and forward to the War Department, AS OFFICIAL, any report of that character which he may address to ME."
    Compare these two statements. Gen. Taylor refuses to acknowledge the supplemental report of Gen. Lane (an officer in the army) as "official," because perchance it may not have passed through all the prescribed forms of military etiquette; while at the same time he will receive, and forward to the War Department, AS OFFICIAL, any statement which Bowles, no longer an officer, responsible to no earthly tribunal for any statement which he might make--might see proper to forward to him.
    The case stands thus:
    Gen. Taylor regards the mere word of Col. Bowles as more worthy of credit and of being placed in the archives of the nation, than the statement of Gen. Lane (founded upon the decision of the court of inquiry) submitted under his oath of office!
    Those who defend and uphold Gen. Taylor of course think with him.
    Those who vote for Gen. Taylor will vote for condemning Lane and applauding Bowles.
New Albany Democrat, New Albany, Indiana, October 26, 1848, page 2

    It is a pleasure to meet a Hoosier Democrat. We saw them of the right stripe yesterday, Lt. Col. McCarty and Captains Lander and Fitzgibbon. The former was second in command of one 3rd Indiana at the battle of Buena Vista--the two latter were in Col. Gorman's fine regiment and consequently belonged to "Joe Lane's fighting brigade." (We have a notion of running Old Joe for President next time, by the way--he would go it like a steamboat.)--Cin. Esq.
    Suppose we do run Gen. Lane? There is no man in the Northwest, nor indeed of any other quarter, who would be a more popular candidate for the Presidency than Joseph Lane. We know of none more brave, more patriotic, more generous, or more firm in his adherence to the right in all things. Gen. Jackson himself did not excel Joseph Lane in these qualities. His career as a military man, which justly won for him, from generous Southern officers, the title of "the Marion of the Army," is unparalleled by that of any other officer. Enlisting as a private, with his musket on his shoulder and knapsack on his back, he was pushed along, without any effort on his own part, until he was commissioned a General by the President. This last was done without the solicitation or knowledge of Gen. Lane, and the President has said to those who advised the promotion, that they were "not mistaken in the man; that he had proved himself more than worthy of his commission." So say all who have carefully watched his career. He is as modest as he is brave. He did not have toadies about his person, in the shape of letter-writers, paid for puffing his exploits, as some other generals had. He was content to let his actions speak for him, and they have spoken.
    For more than ten years have we known Jo. Lane intimately; for two we lived close neighbors to him. At home, where he is best known, Whigs as well as Democrats admit his merits as a man. His neighbors always praised and never spoke ill of him--not even as a politician. He never sought office of any kind, yet was always elected when he would consent to be a candidate. Whigs who knew him would vote for him, regardless of party feeling. They knew he was a generous and an honest man; they repeatedly ventured to trust him; and they never were deceived nor disappointed by him. He was not only known and loved by his neighbors at home. Of the thousands of river men, from Louisville to New Orleans, who have "wooded" at Jo. Lane's, there is not one who can or will speak ill of him. He started in life as a poor boy without a dime in his pocket; and by his energy and industry became one of the most thriving farmers on the banks of the Ohio. He had no advantages of early education, being among the pioneers; but his course as one of the most efficient members of our General Assembly at repeated sessions, proves that he did not neglect to cultivate his strong native mental powers. He made a good soldier, because he is naturally the most brave, fearless and intrepid man among ten thousand; and yet, at the same time, good natured, and "generous to a fault."
    We know, that as President of the United States, Gen. Lane would be found equal to any emergency that might occur. And, though a Western man, he is one of that whole-souled, whole-hearted kind, that can regard the confederacy without the least sectional prejudice; one who would be as determined to protect the rights of every other section as he would those which justly belong to the Great West.
    The West will soon have to assume a position as the natural umpire between the East and the South, in regard to more than one important matter--to every matter, indeed, of national concern. The West must learn to lead upon the ground of principle, instead of being longer used as a make-weight, to be thrown into one scale or the other of eastern or southern interest or prejudice. In the furtherance of such a movement, candidates may be of comparatively little consequence at present. But whenever they shall be wanted, we know of no better one for the Presidency than GEN. JO. LANE, "the Marion of the Army."
    Let the People think of it.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, November 18, 1848, page 3

The First Victim Demanded.
    The Louisville Journal is out in favor of the prompt removal, by General Taylor, of General Joseph Lane, Governor of Oregon. The assigned cause is to be found in the fact that General Lane defended the volunteers of his state from unjust attacks.
    From the General in command to the lowest subordinate, the army boasted not a braver officer, or more devoted patriot, than General Joseph Lane. Wherever fighting was to be done, there General Lane was to be found, and so much was his daring and chivalrous conduct admired, that the army, officers and men bestowed upon him the sobriquet of the "Marion of the Army," the highest praise that could be bestowed.
    When appointed Governor of Oregon, he promptly left friends, home and all to rally to the rescue of the citizens of Oregon, in danger of slaughter by their savage enemies, and at the time this call for his removal was made General Lane was struggling with the snows of the Rocky Mountains, and is now, if not cut off by the savages, encountering the chill blasts of the prairies in a northern latitude, still struggling on, animated with the hope of reaching Oregon in time to defend it, with his single troop of mounted Riflemen, against the savage hordes whose numbers have cut off the best citizens of that land.
    Such is the man that Prentice, of the Louisville Journal, demands shall be removed from office--such is the victim who is the first marked for the guillotine by the leaders of a party that professed to proscribe proscription. Let them do the deed--let the gallant soldier be recalled and our Indiana friends will make him Governor of a state, instead of a Territory, and that, too, by a majority that will make Whiggery tremble.--Ohio  Statesman.

Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, November 18, 1848, page 6

    "INTERESTING TO GEN. LANE.---It is a gratifying fact that General Lane's own town in Indiana, which hitherto has always been a decided Locofoco town, did not on Tuesday give a majority of even one solitary vote against Gen. Taylor. The vote of the town was an exact tie. This shows how the infamous slanders against Gen. Taylor are regarded at the residence of this chief slanderer.
    "Gen. Lane has now gone to Oregon as Governor of that 'Territory. The office was the reward of his vile slanders against his commanding general. We trust that, if Gen. Taylor is elected to the Presidency, Gen. Lane will be promptly dismissed from his governorship. We do not desire to see any political proscription, but we would have Gen. Lane dismissed for the reason that he has shown himself an unprincipled calumniator."
    The above we extract from the Louisville Journal of the 10th inst. to join in expressing a desire to see Gen. Lane dismissed from the public service, as a man who would take advantage of his own wrong, forgetful of truth and country, to promote party. The appointment of such a man, by Polk, as a Brigadier General, was an outrage upon the army--it was trifling with the lives of men, and disgusting to many experienced Captains, Majors and Colonels in the volunteer service, who were qualified and deserved, and would have adorned promotion. It is not party rancor and bullheaded bravery that qualify a man to be a commander. It is knowledge (the result of study or experience) to secure a military police [sic] and to be prepared at all points to take advantage of circumstances that shall facilitate the execution of his orders and save the lives entrusted to his care. The official report of Lane touching the Second Regiment at the battle of Buena Vista, which he made up without calling upon any of the field officers to report to him, proves his want of a police--and his failing to make a supplemental report to correct his first censure, after the court of inquiry had brought to his knowledge officially that the Regiment was only obeying orders when it retreated, together with his late vile attempt to defame the gallant, skillful, and high-souled Gen. Taylor, for not doing what he (Taylor) could not do without official data, proves Lane's great want of the qualities which entitle a man to public confidence. The Governor of Oregon, we think, should be a man very essentially different from Gen. Joseph Lane. We are now of opinion that slander cast at Gen. Taylor unjustly, in relation to the Indiana volunteers, guiled votes enough to Cass of men who could not investigate the matter, to give him this state, which otherwise Gen. Taylor would have received.
Vincennes Gazette, Vincennes, Indiana, November 23, 1848, page 2

    The Louisville Democrat learns from Capt. Logan, of the steamer South America, which arrived yesterday, that the remains of the unfortunate Mr. Lane, son of Gen. Joseph Lane (who died of cholera in New Orleans), were brought upon his boat and left with the relatives of the deceased at his father's plantation, near Three Mile Island, and twelve miles above Evansville. Capt. Logan represents the scene as truly sorrowful. When the bell of the boat was tapped previous to landing, the relatives and friends of the deceased, who had been informed by other boats of his sudden death, came down to the water's edge and received the remains. The cries and lamentations of the relatives were indeed heart-rending.

New Albany Democrat, New Albany, Indiana, January 3, 1849, page 2

    Mr. Joseph Lane, son of Gen. Joseph Lane, died of cholera in New Orleans on the 21st ult.
Logansport Telegraph, Logansport, Indiana, January 6, 1849, page 2

    The body of Mr. Joseph Lane, son of the gallant Gen. Lane, was brought to this city yesterday on the steamer John Hancock. This young man died of cholera--suddenly stricken down with death by the disease, while walking along the levee at New Orleans on the 21st ult. He is said to have survived the attack but a few minutes. We believe his body is to be taken from this place to his father's home in Indiana.--Cincinnati Commercial.
Indiana State Sentinel,
Indianapolis, January 6, 1849, page 3

A Territorial Government for Oregon--A Supreme Judge Arrived--
A Governor, Other Officers and an Escort on the Way.--Uncle Sam a Gentleman

    From passengers arrived from the Undine, we learn that a Territorial government has been organized for Oregon; that a Mr. Pratt, of Illinois, has been appointed Supreme Judge for the Territory, who came on board the Undine, and will be in the city in a few days; that Gen. Lane of Indiana has been appointed Governor, and messenger Meek Marshal, who with other officers and an escort are on their way here by land, and may now be wintering at Fort Hall. We have been unable to learn the names of the other officers, also whether or not any land law has passed for Oregon. Trusting that Uncle Sam has done or will do justly by the citizens of Oregon, we doff our hat and call him a gentleman of the first water. With the passage of a just land law, nothing prevents Oregon from speedily becoming the strong right arm of America upon the Pacific. In the name of the good people of Oregon, their Spectator joyfully greets the arrival of Judge Pratt into Oregon.
    Gen. Lane is a young man, self-made, and has won many and imperishable honors in the Mexican War. No Territorial government has been organized for California.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, January 25, 1849, page 2

    It appears that "Judge Pratt" is not the Supreme Judge of Oregon Territory, as supposed by his fellow passengers, and so announced in our last.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, February 8, 1849, page 2

Home Voyage of the Argonauts.
    Ancient poetry tells of the voyage of the men of Argos of the Golden Fleece, and the time may come when poetry and history will deal with the voyages and sauntering of more modern seekers of the golden fleece, very few of whom came home shorn.
    I have in mind a memorable voyage that occurred in 1849 when a hundred Oregonians, who were stranded in San Francisco, chartered the bark Jeannette, an East India-built ship, made of teakwood, to take them home. Shipping was plentiful at that time in San Francisco Bay because the fleets of all nations were beginning to arrive, many of them to lie there and broil in summer suns vainly waiting for some turn of fortune to send them home. The commerce of the world set only way way then, and that was toward California. Most of those Oregonians were returning after fortunate efforts in the mines. Oregon was early at work in the diggings, and the luck of an Oregonian was a proverb. The immigrant who dared so much and braved uncounted hardships and danger found his recompense in part in the reward he got for his labor in the gold fields to the southward.
    There was a meeting of those who wanted to voyage homeward, and they appointed a committee to charter a room ship to take them to Portland. The committee stood on the shore and selected a vessel with high bulwarks, but as preparations were making for departure, they learned that the shippers had substituted a much smaller vessel. They held indignation meetings, and remonstrated loudly, and secured the vessel originally chartered. This was roomy between decks, and was fitted up with bunks amidship. The cabin proper could only hold a dozen, and was devoted to the comfort of General Lane and a few leading men and the elders of the company. The ship had no cargo and very little ballast, and was a rather slow sailer. The smaller vessel they discarded sailed after they did and reached the Columbia first, but our Argonauts were carrying their gold dust home, and cared more for comfort than for speed.
    Colonel W. W. Chapman for the first time met General Lane in San Francisco at that time. He had been resolving to remain in California permanently, but General Lane persuaded him to return to Oregon and take a hand in public life, as he was going there to establish a territorial government. Oregonians were numerous in San Francisco that winter, and could "paint the town red" if any occasion warranted such artistic effort. It looked like it when the ship owners tried to force them on board the little Mercedes, but they made a demonstration that was effective and had their own choice of ships.
    There were many prominent men on board the Jeannette, men who were to make their mark in the history of their times. There was General Jo Lane, just returned from being a hero in the Mexican War. He was afterwards to be Governor of Oregon, our Delegate to Congress, a Senator during the troublous times that preceded the Great Rebellion and who was to be candidate for Vice President on the [Democratic] nomination of 1860, when Breckinridge ran for President. There was Jim Nesmith, a young fellow, full of mischief and alive to all possible humor and frolic. Nesmith, then a young man with moderate aspirations, a scarcely educated frontiersman, yet would live to be a Senator in Congress and do noble duty for his country in time of need. There was Colonel W. W. Chapman, who came fresh from prominent dealings with public affairs in the new state of Iowa; Jo Meek, the mountain man, who was to take his first tussle with the sea; the Monteiths, who settled at Albany and have been always prominent; Colonel Ford of Polk County; S. S. White, Sol. Tetherow, and scores of men Colonel Chapman cannot now recollect, whom to name would be to recall many who have proved to be eminent in the work of building up our state.
    Over 100 passengers paid $100 each, so the good bark Jeannette made a good cash business of carrying them. She purchased a load of lumber for her return, so it is likely the trip was profitable all around. Our Oregonians were not even freshwater sailors, most of them, and the freaks of old Ocean annoyed them immensely. They had to beat up against a north wind, and it was, in sea parlance, a long leg and a short one. The long leg was hundreds of miles out to sea, the long tack. And they found themselves 800 miles on the fair Pacific when they put about to make the Columbia River. Among the hundred passengers were some who were piously inclined. They had rested on the Sabbath when going inland to the diggings, but somehow they couldn't see how to keep the Jeannette in a proper frame of mind on Sundays. They had to consent to Sunday travel, as there was no way to tie up on that day. But they protested against those who relieved the ennui of the long days by playing cards. Many who kept Sunday disorderly before they went to the mines in some manner "lost their grip" on the Sabbath, as some other things, while working in the gold mines.
    Those who kept their faith warm and bright protested against Sunday card-playing, and a committee of them made a tour of the ship to urge the carders to respect the day. It is related that Nesmith added greatly to the power of their solicitations by accompanying and singing with great effect a song that was very popular with all good people, entitled:
    We can imagine what sort of voyage they had when we learn that Nesmith was on board, and was not seasick. He was in his prime then, and though his experience was not so varied as it afterwards became, there had been enough variety in his life to make him a boon companion not to be despised.
    The horrors of seagoing culminated when the Jeannette put about and from 800 miles to windward started forth before the wind for the Columbia River. The Jeannette had no ballast to hold her down, and went rolling and plunging towards Columbia Bar, heedless of all complaint and reckless of all consequence. It had been bad enough before, so bad that Sol. Tetherow, hearing one day that the ship was not far from the mouth of the Umpqua, had feebly held up his sack of gold dust, valued at $5000, and offered it to the captain if he could be put ashore. He forgot that the Umpqua Indians were more hostile than the billows of the rocking ocean. He stayed on board and outlived the rolling of the ship and the fun and devilment that Nesmith furnished so freely.
    Just imagine a hundred Oregon land-grabbers rolling for 800 miles before the wind! The situation was only ludicrous, but most of them thought it dangerous. Bob Kinney was unable to sit up or sit down, so he laid his bulky form across the cabin table. When the vessel went over one way his heels were in the air; on the recover his head was up, and it took all "the grip" he had to keep where he was. He yelled, periodically, that he was "gone this time, sure." Some of them actually believed the ship would roll over and under. Judge S. S. White was so apprehensive and so sick withal that he could do nothing but say: "Now we are going under, sure!" Go they did, but it was before the wind with a spanking breeze. The cabin was full of groans and lamentations, and between whiles would be heard the voices of "Nes" and his brigade of funny fellows, who were neither seasick nor afraid, singing, "A Life on the Ocean Wave," or prescribing remedies for seasickness that were worse than the disease.
    But the wind drove them at last to the Columbia River, and they safely crossed the bar. Once inside they chartered a launch to take them up to Portland. On the voyage they couldn't eat, but now they had voracious appetites.
    Colonel Chapman tells amusing incidents connected with that journey up the Columbia. At Welch's there were four or five kettles over the fire, filled with food of various sorts, and hungry Argonauts wondered if the fish, meats and vegetables were equal to their needs. The result proved that there was no surplus. They brought back from California a fair store of gold and good appetites.
Probably Samuel A. Clarke, "Pioneer Days," Oregonian, Portland, July 26, 1885, page 3

United States of America   )
Territory of Oregon            )
Clackamas County               )
March the 24th 1849
Whereas Joseph Lane, Governor of the Territory of Oregon, arrived in Oregon City in the said Territory of Oregon on the second day of March A.D. 1849, and on the third day of March 1849 was duly sworn to support the Constitution of the United States and faithfully to discharge the duties of Governor of Oregon Territory during his continuance in office as Governor of the Territory of Oregon;
    Said oath was administered by S. M. Holderness, the Secretary of the Territory of Oregon, under the provisions [of the] government of Oregon under the belief that the 18th section of an act to establish the Territorial Government of Oregon authorized said Secretary to administer said oath, but as doubts may arise from the express language of the eleventh section of said act, and for greater caution;
    The Governor takes and subscribes the following oath of office:
    "I do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States and faithfully to discharge the duties of the office of Governor of the Territory of Oregon during my continuance in office, so help me God."
Joseph Lane
Clackamas County
Territory of Oregon, United States
    I, Gabriel Walling, justice of the peace of Clackamas County, Oregon Territory, certify that the above-named Joseph Lane personally appeared before me this day, and although he deems himself qualified to perform the duties and exercise the powers and office of Governor of the Territory of Oregon without any other oath than that which he has taken before the Secretary of the Territory of Oregon under the provisional government of Oregon, yet as doubts may arise and for greater caution took and subscribed the foregoing oath before me.
Gabriel Walling J.P.
Oregon City 24th day of March 1849

The Journal and Gen. Lane.
    The Journal of Aug. 23 contains a very scandalous article under the caption of "Gen. Joseph Lane." We copy, and comment upon it, as we proceed.
    "This gentleman served several years in the Legislature of this state. Possessing very moderate natural abilities, and very little general intelligence, he did not acquire much reputation as a legislator; and, had it not been for the Mexican War, would never have been heard of beyond the limits of Vanderburgh County, the place of his residence."
    Isn't that a smart paragraph to begin with! Where would the "first" Washington have been, had it not been for the War of the Revolution? Who would ever have heard of the "second Washington" himself, had it not been far this same Mexican War! Almost every child in this country has learned that great events bring into activity the powers of great men, who might otherwise live and die unheard of. If Gen. Lane did not "acquire much reputation as a legislator," it was not so much because he did not deserve it, as because he did not seek it. But he was undoubtedly one of the must efficient legislators that ever sat in our general assembly. He never was noisy or clamorous, but he seldom failed to carry a measure to which he was friendly. This was the reason why he was never defeated in the Whig county of Vanderburgh.
    "That Gen. Lane is a brave man we are not disposed to question--that he may have fought well we shall not dispute."
    Of course the Journal has some doubts on this point; but that is not of much consequence, for nobody else has.
    "He returned from Buena Vista the warm admirer and eulogist of Gen. Taylor; declared that he would make a most excellent President, and that should he run as an independent candidate he should support him. Not one word was said by him then about injustice having been done the second regiment by Gen. Taylor, in his report, because he knew that the report contained nothing more than the truth justified in regard to it. He knew that he had himself (when attempting to check their flight) cursed them in the bitterest terms--that he addressed them in such language as follows:
    "You damned cowards! You have disgraced yourselves and the state of Indiana and ought never to show your faces in that state again!"
    That Lane felt friendly towards Taylor originally--before he found out his true character, and while he was professing to be a Jeffersonian Democrat--is probably true; but the Journal cannot substantiate the assertion that Lane ever declared Taylor fit for the Presidency. Lane "then" said nothing about Taylor's unfairness towards our volunteers, because he did not then think him willfully unjust. Taylor had positively and solemnly promised him that he would correct his unfair report, but he falsified this promise, willfully and deliberately; and never could crawl out of it, until the letter of George Dunn taught him the way. Lane may have denounced his men for yielding ground, unaware, as he was, of the order of Bowles for retreat: no one would blame him if he did. But that is a very different thing from stigmatizing them, as Taylor did after the Courts of Inquiry, and other evidence, had elicited the extenuating facts, which should exonerate them from the foul charge of cowardice. This charge, by the way, the Journal in the above paragraph repeats, on its own responsibility. It asserts that Lane "knew" that Taylor's "report contained nothing more than the truth," and talks about Lane's "attempting to chock their flight." This is a wholesale charge, and though it is attributed to Lane by the Journal, the Journal alone is responsible for the infamous imputation. After all the evidence within the Journal's knowledge, in the face and eyes of the notorious fact that every regiment on that field, except the 3rd Indiana, did give ground; after all that has been said, officially and unofficially; such a charge as the Journal thus makes, for the rake of pandering to Taylor, is as outrageous as it is disgraceful. It is an unpardonable as any act of our volunteers could possibly have been. It is not only libelous as to the volunteers, but it is an absolute courting of the scorn of the world against them, and that without the slightest qualification or exception. If any man could commit a greater outrage upon the reputation of this state, we are at a loss to know how he would go to work. The only sentence fit to be passed upon him, before hanging, would be that which the Journal affirms was passed by Lane upon the fugitives.
    "Long after Gen. Taylor's report was published, Gen. Lane professed the highest regard for that gallant old soldier. Gen. Taylor invited him in his tent and treated him with that kindness which has always been a prominent trait in his character.
    "Gen. Taylor became the Whig candidate for the Presidency. Gen. Lane received the appointment as Governor of Oregon. It was necessary that he should pay for that appointment, and he did it by slandering his old commander in the vilest terms. It is no wonder that Gen.Taylor regarded him as being unworthy [of] the place he occupied, and hence his removal."
    The Journal seems to think that because Lane honored Taylor by visiting him in his tent, that therefore he should become his slave, like itself, and quietly pocket falsehood, meanness and injury. But no man of spirit will condemn Lane for respecting himself too much to submit to such degradation.
    The representation that Lane "assailed Taylor, to pay for his appointment as Governor of Oregon, and that he did it by slandering his old commander in the vilest terms," is a lie of so abominable a character that it is impossible to find an epithet in language severe enough to fix the degree of its flagitiousness. It is an outrage quite as odious as the Journal's renewal of the charge against the volunteers. It is made for the same purpose, and in the same diabolical spirit: for the purpose and with the deliberate intention of heaping disgrace and defamation upon the volunteers, by discrediting their defender.When it is remembered that the Journal never had the manliness, nor the decency, nor the honesty, to publish to its readers Lane's defense of the volunteers, which it thus libels, and has continued from time to time to libel, and endeavor to discredit, its object cannot be mistaken: it is determined to do everything in its power TO DAMN THE REPUTATION OF THE STATE, so far as it is involved in that of her volunteers, TO LASTING INFAMY. It is impossible for us to conceive of any worse degree of moral treason than the Journal thus exhibits. If we really believed, as the Journal seems to believe, in regard to our volunteers we would not pursue the course which it has followed, we would sooner relinquish our citizenship in Indiana, and shake the dust of its soil from our feet forever.
    The Democratic press set up a most dire howl over this event, in the hope of prejudicing the people against Gen. Taylor and of creating sympathy for Gen. Lane. The game is an old one and will not succeed. Gen. Lane will return to his old business, on the banks of the Ohio, one better suited to his capacity, and in a short time those who now are most loud in his praise will forget that such a man ever existed.--Journal.
    Indeed! This comes with great force from the very talented, profound, and sagacious editor of the State Journal! Wonderful man! The country of course will give up its high estimate of the character and capacity of General Lane, the Marion of the war, and the hero of more brilliant service than any man who was in it, all for the sake of being able to agree with John D. Defrees, the efficient editor of that almighty crack model newspaper the Indiana State Journal! Very likely.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, September 5, 1849, page 4

    GOVERNOR OF OREGON.--The Washington correspondent of the Baltimore Clipper, of the 10th inst., says that the Hon. Mr. Lincoln, ex-member of Congress, of Illinois, has been appointed Governor of Oregon in the place of Mr. Marshall, of Indiana, who, before he left the city, last week, declined the tendered honor; and Col. Hamilton, of Ohio, was appointed Secretary of State.
[Ind. State Jour.
    And we venture the prediction now that Mr. Lincoln will not accept the office of Governor of Oregon tendered him by the Regency; nor do we believe a prominent Western man can be found among the Whigs who will accept the office now so ably filled by Gen. Joseph Lane. Mark the prediction: Lincoln will not accept it. If he has not already declined, he will decline.
Daily Courier, Madison, Indiana, September 29, 1849, page 2

    The Salem (Ia.) Democrat raises the flag of Gen. Joseph Lane as its candidate for the next Presidency. This is one of the richest jokes of the season, and the Democrat is, without exception, the funniest paper in existence.
Richmond Palladium, Richmond, Indiana, December 5, 1849, page 2

For President in 1852, Gen. Joseph Lane of Indiana.
    We fling from our masthead today our banner to the breeze, inscribed with the name of General Joseph Lane of Indiana for President of the United States in 1852. Under this flag we intend to fight; and that too as a matter of choice. In taking this position we do not bow to the bright luster of his military achievements, however splendid they may be; for, in our opinion, military glory is but a poor qualification for the highest office in the gift of a free people. We recognize in Gen. Lane the inflexible patriot, and a statesman of no mean capacity. When our country called upon her sons to repel the aggression of Mexico, we behold him leave the endearments of home, and the peaceful pursuits of the affairs of life, and among the first and foremost, rally under the flag of Liberty; we see him rising in rank, and taking his place as one of the leaders of his country's armies; and in the hot and bloody conflict of Buena Vista, and other well-contested fields, displaying not only the most daring personal bravery, but the most cool and fearless courage; and when returned, and participating in the joys of home, we behold him ready and willing to sacrifice ease and comfort for the welfare of his country, and at almost a moment's warning take his journey over the plains of the untrodden wilds of the West to enter upon the discharge of his duties as Governor of Oregon. We behold him by his indomitable energy surmount the dangers of a wintry trip, over the storm-swept heights of the Rocky Mountains, and entering upon those duties to which he was called by Polk, and the almost unanimous voice of the Senate of the United States; and by his wise and prudent measures, restoring confidence and tranquility to the panic-stricken inhabitants, and inspiring the warlike tribes of Indians with respect and fear. All this influences our choice; but further, we love General Lane because his home is in our midst, and because when disgrace was attempted to be placed on our brave volunteers, he met the infamous charge, and caused it to recoil, with all his weight upon the heads of the base calumniators. He is our choice, because the proscribed victim of personal revenge and hatred, we think him worthy to the highest office in the gift of his fellow citizens, and we wish to see that hatred and revenge rolled back by the silent but resistless power of the ballot box from Maine to California.
    We have now spoken out fearlessly; we have no concealments on this subject. And now we say DEMOCRATS TO THE RESCUE; INDIANANS, cluster around your brave defender; VOLUNTEERS, rally once more at the voice of your brave OLD GENERAL; and victory will perch again upon your standard.--Salem, Ia. Democrat, Nov. 17.
Indiana State Sentinel,
Indianapolis, December 13, 1849, page 7

Gov. Lane's Departure.
    It will be seen from the proceedings of the Steamboat Company that Gov. Lane has consented to visit the States as agent of the company. No one acquainted with the condition of things in Oregon can justly take any exception to the course pursued by his excellence in this matter. The commerce of the Territory by the mere force of circumstances has crowded itself to its present flourishing condition. But it has reached its ultimate extreme. Nothing but steam power can force it any farther. This power it is now proposed to apply, and there is perhaps no man in the Territory better qualified than is Gov. Lane for giving direction and energy to this enterprise. We regard its completion as involving the permanent prosperity of the Territory.
    As for any exception that may be made to the propriety of the Governor's leaving his official post, we are persuaded that all who sincerely regard the prosperity of Oregon will agree that in the present peculiar conjuncture in our affairs he can serve us more extensively in this private enterprise than he could in his public station. The civil government of this Territory is virtually dissolved, and hence the Governor being literally alone could effect but little as Governor of the Territory. Under these circumstances it must surely be proper for him to serve the country and promote its welfare as best he can.
"Gold in Oregon!" Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, January 24, 1850, page 2

    GOV. LANE.--His Excellency Gov. Lane has gone up the valley, expecting to be absent a week or two. We are not officially informed on the subject, but our impression is that he has gone in pursuit of the soldiers who deserted from this city. Hope he will be successful.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, March 7, 1850, page 2

Gov. Lane--The Cayuse Murderers.
    Gov. Lane, immediately on his return from the Umpqua, left for the Dalles, on business connected with the Cayuse affairs. The murderers of Dr. Whitman have at length been arrested, excepting one or two who are dead. The nation are willing to surrender them and make peace. The Governor is anxious and will spare no effort to bring this matter so long in agitation to a final issue.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 18, 1850, page 2

The Deserters.
    Gov. Lane has returned from the Umpqua, having arrested and brought back some 70 or 75 of the deserters. Col. Loring continued the pursuit after the remainder, some 50 men. There is a rumor in town that after progressing as far as the Kanyon, he was obliged to return to the Umpqua, having found two of the bodies of the deserters. Strong fears are entertained that the whole band will have perished by starvation ere they can be reached with provisions.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 18, 1850, page 2

Correspondence of the Tribune.
From Oregon--Defense of Gov. Lane, &c.

OREGON CITY, Sunday, April 21, 1850.
    HORACE GREELEY, Esq.--Sir: Although a stranger to you personally, I have taken the liberty of addressing you on a subject in which I feel a deep interest. Your Oregon correspondent, who signs himself "Lansdale," has been guilty of the grossest slanders on some of our most worthy citizens. Gov. Lane, Jesse Applegate, Esq. Judge Nesmith, and Mr. Pritchett seem to have received the largest allowance of his venom. In the Weekly Tribune of Jan. 19, 1850, he says that "Gov. Lane has rendered himself unpopular by throwing himself," &c. Now with regard to Governor Lane's popularity I will only state that it is impossible for a man to be more popular than he is, and were the choice of Governor to be submitted to the people today he would receive an almost unanimous vote. The manner in which he has transacted the business of the Territory, his conduct with regard to the Cayuse and other Indians, the measures which he took for arresting the deserters from Col. Loring's regiment, have all been at once prompt, judicious and effective. "Lansdale" also speaks of the intimate relations between Gov. Lane and a "fugitive from justice in Arkansas." Judge Nesmith is, I suppose, the "fugitive" alluded to [it's W. G. T'Vault], as I am told that Thornton has heretofore accused him through the columns of the Tribune of desertion from the U.S. Army. Mr. Nesmith has now in his possession an honorable discharge, and after being discharged he was employed as a mechanic at the very same barracks where he had before served as a soldier, and bears a far better character than his assailant.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, August 22, 1850, page 4  
Bancroft assumes "Lansdale" to have been J. Quinn Thornton. I've been unable to find any newspaper that reprinted the Lansdale letters--not even the daily edition of the New York Tribune.

From Oregon.
    It will be remembered that the Rev. Mr. Whitman, together with his lady and family, were massacred by the Indians at the Mission above the Cascade, in the Cayuse country, Oregon, sometime in the year 1847. There were some eight or ten other families temporarily stopping in the place at the time, the male members of whom were also murdered. The women and children were taken prisoners by the Indians, and the young women compelled to become the wives of some of the chiefs. Soon afterwards, Maj. Ogden, commander at Vancouver Island, assisted by Gen. Gilman, started with a file of soldiers into the Indian country, to rescue the unfortunate prisoners and punish the Indians for the outrage. They found the Indians, gave them battle, in which many of those engaged in the murder at the Mission were killed, and finally succeeded in recovering the women and children, some fifty in number, by hiring the savages to deliver them up. Thus the matter ended for the time. But we learn by a Mr. Field, now in this place, who left Oregon City fifteen days ago, that Gen. Lane has taken decided steps to have a more satisfactory settlement. In March last he formally demanded of the Indians the remainder of the murderers, and nine of them, including two Catholic priests, have been delivered into the possession of the government of Oregon. By proclamation of the Governor, the Legislature of the Territory was convened on the 13th of May inst., at Oregon City, to give the prisoners a trial, and our informant thinks that ere this they have been convicted and put to death.
    The chiefs of the Klickitats and Calapooias have tendered the services of their tribes to Gov. Lane. When our informant left, they were encamped at Linn City, opposite Oregon City, awaiting the sentence of the murderers on trial before the Legislature. They are to join the forces of the Territory and march under Gov. Lane over the land route towards California till they reach the neighborhood of Rogue River. It is known that there are hostile tribes of Indians in this country. It was infested by them last season, and several helpless companies of Oregonians were murdered while on their way to California. Lately, some friendly Indians have given information in Oregon that the wives and children of some families who journeyed over this route last season are now prisoners among the Digger Indians--the men having been murdered. The Oregonians are highly incensed at these outrages, and it is thought they will not be satisfied until the offensive Indians are exterminated. The energetic steps taken by the Governor will doubtless be the means of opening a safe overland communication between California and Oregon.
Sacramento Transcript, May 28, 1850, page 2

Gov. Lane and Rogue River Gold.
    Gov. Lane has gone to the Rogue River country to negotiate, if possible, a treaty with the Indians in that region, preparatory to working the gold mines there. It is the Governor's intention to explore that section of Oregon pretty thoroughly with reference to its mineral resources.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, May 30, 1850, page 2

    In 1850 Dan Waldo and Martin went with Jo Lane to make a treaty with the Rogue River Indians.
"Pioneer Days," Oregonian, Portland, January 3, 1886, page 2

Our Oregon Correspondence.
OREGON CITY, June 15, 1850.
The Legislative Assembly--Politics--
Trial and Execution of the Cayuses--Gold, &c., &c.

    Popular attention has latterly been strongly attracted towards Oregon City, where events of a deeply interesting character have been transpiring; and so far as they are, or may be, interesting to your readers, they will be noticed.
    The Legislative Assembly convened in special session in Oregon City, on the 6th of May, on the call of Governor Lane. This session was called to provide for some things which had been overlooked by the Assembly at its former session. Their doings, however, were entirely of a private nature, and their rehearsal would add nothing to the interest of this letter. Governor Lane is making commendable efforts to have the civil affairs of the Territory in the best possible condition when the hour of his official departure shall arrive; and, in order that he might effect his object, the Assembly were asked to alter, amend, or add to some of their former acts. In doing so, they remained together two weeks, and passed, perhaps, some half dozen acts, original or supplementary. The members of [the] Legislature are men of good sense and sound integrity, and they have on the whole framed an excellent code of laws.
    One subject of discussion, though not of definite action, deserves a passing notice. The idea of a State government has been extensively discussed in private circles; and as the measure is decidedly popular, the subject was agitated in both branches of the Assembly, and there is little doubt that the question of calling a convention to frame a constitution would have been submitted to the people if the election had not been so near at hand as to prevent a full and fair canvass of the matter. We shall be feeling for the knocker by the time California is disposed of. With the actual and rapid influx of population, and the many encouragements held out to immigrants, there is little doubt that in less than eighteen months there can be no objection made to the admission of Oregon as a State of the Union on the ground of a want of population. All here feel that the claims of Oregon require a more numerous delegation to Congress. We do not wish to kill our present talented and popular delegate, and shall soon be asking to add at least two coadjutors on the floor of the national Legislature.
    It may be proper here to remark that the subject of party politics has been, for a few weeks past, warmly discussed. The meeting of the Legislature brought together the leading Democrats of the Territory, and the removal of Governor Lane afforded a favorable pretext for a party rally; so a Democratic meeting or convention was got together, for the double purpose, I should judge from their published proceedings, of organizing the party and adopting some indignation resolutions with reference to Governor Lane's removal. At this meeting the party was only organized by the appointment of central and local committees, and the other formalities usual on such occasions. The movement is received coldly by the masses, and the prospect at present is that the party thus formed, though undoubtedly the strongest on the question of principle, will for a time be defeated by the combined power of the Whigs and the no-party party. Most surely will this be the case until party papers are established, as the Oregon Spectator, the only paper now in the Territory, is badly neutral on every subject.
    But the subject of most thrilling and intense interest has been the trial and execution of five Cayuse Indians, who were delivered up to Governor Lane by their nation, as the only survivors of the murderers of Dr. Whitman and others, at the missionary station on the Walla Walla. After much negotiation, and especially after seeing company after company of the rifle regiment coming into the Territory, the nation determined to purchase peace and safety by surrendering the perpetrators of that horrible massacre into the hands of American justice. Being thus given up by their own people, these five persons might have been justly executed on the testimony of their own nation. They were, however, tried in open court: first indicted by a grand jury, then arraigned before a petit jury, and there, by the surviving females of the massacre, who remembered, recognized, and identified them every one, were they fairly tried. They were defended by K. Pritchett, Esq., Secretary of the Territory, Major R. B. Reynolds, and Captain T. Clayborne, of the army. Everything the zeal of counsel and Hudson Bay and Catholic influence could do was done to save them from the gallows. The jury, however, pronounced them guilty, and the Judge declared they must be hung; and notwithstanding the Archbishop of the Catholic Church labored to the last to save them, and followed them to the scaffold with his wax doll and crossed sticks, which the savages were required repeatedly to kiss, yet all would not do; they were hung by the neck until they were dead, dead!
    Thus ends an affair which gave rise to a war which cost the nation little short of two hundred thousand dollars, and which most probably grew out of the attempt of the Catholics to establish a mission in the heart of a tribe already occupied by Protestant missionaries. From this, reflecting minds will draw their own conclusions.
    The election came off throughout the Territory on the first Monday of the present month. Party lines were not fully drawn in any except two counties. In one of these (Marion) the organized Democrats carried their ticket throughout, while in the other portions of the Territory the no-organization party carried all before them. So far as the political principles of the successful candidates are concerned, the result shows that the Whigs and Democrats are about equally represented in the Legislative Assembly. It ought, however, to be borne in mind that the election did not turn on politics, except in two instances, persons voting indiscriminately for Whig or Loco, as they were influenced by personal or local considerations.
    The first of this month may be noted as the commencement of a new era in the progress of Oregon. The United States mail steamer Carolina arrived at Portland on the Willamette, on the 1st instant. This steamer is one of Aspinwall & Co.'s line, which are to run regularly between this point and San Francisco hereafter. This at once converts months into weeks, so that we now are one week from San Francisco, and five or six weeks from New York. And not only are we assured of the regular trips of the mail steamers, but some two or three others will soon commence to run regularly between this point and San Francisco. Nor is the business in any danger of being overdone. There is an immense travel on this coast, and the travel and commerce on these waters require only the necessary facilities to cause a great and rapid expansion. Oregon possesses a remarkable degree almost every element of real greatness and permanent prosperity, and she awaits only the applications of the appropriate means to ensure their development. Hitherto the steamers have confined their operations to the coast below San Francisco, and both trade and travel have been restricted to the slow and irksome motions of sail vessels, but now, the improved prospect of affairs is hailed with universal joy.
    Well, really, a person will need to write fast to keep up with the rush of events, as they pour into the bosom of our people new elements of excitement every day. The people of Oregon have become convinced that gold might be found plentifully on Rogue River and other streams in the south part of the Territory, and there was a good deal of preparation made to commence mining operations in that quarter as soon as the waters should subside and leave the bars exposed. But it has been announced that gold, in rich and extensive deposits, has been discovered in the tributaries of the Columbia. This news, for the moment, has brought everything up standing. The specimens exhibited from that region certainly indicate a rich vein of metallic wealth. The rivers are, however, flush of water, and it may be some weeks before successful operations can be commenced. Among the persons who have gone into that region are some one or two of our most intelligent men, who will return shortly with authentic particulars.
    But contemplate for a moment the condition and prospects of Oregon. Unrivaled for her agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial privileges, she adds to these also the valuable possession of the shining ore. Must not this Territory, for social comfort, universal intelligence, domestic happiness, and unbounded wealth, soon occupy an enviable position. Side by side with California will Oregon run the high and bright career of prosperity in rearing up the mighty empire of the Pacific.
New York Herald, September 9, 1850, page 3

    News from the gold mines comes in slowly. We learn that Gov. Lane has gone on to Rogue River. The washings on South Umpqua yielded a fair remuneration to the industrious. It was confidently believed, however, that Rogue River would pay much better, and most of the companies have passed on to that river.
"News from the Gold Mines,"
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, June 27, 1850, page 2

    RESIGNATION.--Gov. Joseph Lane has resigned the office of Governor of this Territory. The resignation took effect on the 18th inst. The executive functions devolve for the present on the Hon. K. Prichette, Secretary of the Territory.

Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, June 27, 1850, page 2

    Gov. Lane, of Oregon, has resigned his office as Governor, and is contemplating a trip to the Illinois River, in search of the gold region.
"Items from Oregon," Burlington Hawk-Eye, Burlington, Iowa, September 5, 1850, page 2

News from the Gold Mines.
    Persons have come in from the Rogue River country who are confident that gold may be found there in considerable quantities, though the waters were still too high to "prospect" satisfactorily. Gold, however, was found. Gov. Lane, not finding things to suit him on Rogue River, after negotiating a treaty of peace with the Rogue River Indians had gone on to Trinity, on his way to California.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, July 25, 1850, page 3

    By arrival of steamer Carolina three days from Astoria, and four days from Fort Vancouver, we have advices from Oregon. We learn that Gov. Lane and party, whose departure to Rogue River has been previously announced, had been unsuccessful in his explorations for gold in that region, and had proceeded to the Umpqua.
"Oregon News," Sacramento Transcript, August 9, 1850, page 2

    Gen. Lane, the Governor of Oregon, had left the city on the 1st of June with seventy-five Klickitat Indians and a few regulars for Rogue River, on an exploring expedition, and also for the purpose of making a treaty with the Rogue River Indians, who have lately been committing robberies and depredations on the emigrants. Gen. Lane's party had proceeded as far as the South Fork of the Umpqua River, where gold dust was discovered in quantities on the bars of the river. Here the party stopped and went to mining. As they had but few utensils, however, they only averaged about ten dollars per day. Great excitement prevailed in Oregon in regard to the flattering rumors of the existence of great quantities of gold in the Spokane country, north of the Columbia, which had been confirmed. Great quantities had left for the mines.
"From Oregon," Illinois Daily Journal, Springfield, August 21, 1850, page 2

By Fred Lockley
    "In the spring of [1850], after returning from the California gold fields," said Cy Mulkey of Roseburg, "I went to work on William Martin's farm. After digging gold and fighting Indians, plowing seemed pretty prosaic, so at the end of the month I said to Mr. Martin that he need not pay me anything if he would give me his white pony with blue eyes. He agreed to this so I rode to my home in Yamhill County.
    "A few days after I had gone home General Lane passed our place. He was following some soldiers who had deserted at Oregon City and he wanted a posse of citizens to go with him. He promised to give a reward of $30 for each deserter captured and returned. These soldiers were mounted dragoons who had come across the plains the year before. A good many of them were soldiers who had served under General Lane during the Mexican War.
    "Stories of the fortunes being made in the California gold fields were too much for them. A large number of them had deserted and had started for California. General Lane knew that the men were not prepared to make the 800-mile trip. They had left without supplies except what they could carry on their backs. We overtook 83 of them at Grave Creek in the Rogue River Valley. Their clothes were worn out. They were out of food and were not at all unwilling to be captured. We took them back to Oregon City, and General Lane paid the reward to those of us who had gone with him.
    "On this trip General Lane told me that he himself was going to California on the first of June and on his way he was going to stop, hold a peace council with the Rogue River Indians and try to get them to cease their attacks on the miners traveling through their country. As I had lost two good horses and a silver-mounted saddle, bridle and spurs and $3600 in gold dust the fall before, I was anxious to go along in the hope that I might recover some of my property.
    "General Lane offered me a position as interpreter. I gladly accepted his offer. At this time there were a good many Klickitat Indians in the Willamette Valley. Their chief was very anxious to make a raid on the Rogue River Indians to get the horses which they had stolen from miners and packers. They had several hundred stolen horses.
    "'Quarterly,' the head of the Klickitat Indians, asked General Lane if he would let 40 of his warriors go along with him so that if General Lane failed to make the treaty, the Klickitat Indians could make a raid on the Rogue River Indians and secure the horses. General Lane agreed to this and took the Indians along.
    "We had with us about 500 head of beef cattle which belonged to General Lane, Phil Thompson and Mr. Martin and Mr. Angel.
    "We reached the South Umpqua River, near what is now the town of Canyonville, without special incident. We camped there several days while the Klickitat Indians were out scouting to find the Rogue River Indians. They located a small band near the head of the South Umpqua. They brought these into camp. With them there was a boy about 15 years old whom the Rogue River Indians had captured from the Calapooia Indians. This boy could talk good Chinook, so could I. General Lane would give me his message which I would translate into Chinook to the boy and he would translate into the tongue of the Rogue River Indians. The Rogue River Indians agreed to send runners out and get all of the tribe together at a council on Rogue River, just above where the town of Gold Hill is now located. They kept their promise and met General Lane as agreed.
    "After a two-day council they signed a treaty. We named the chief who signed the treaty for his people, Chief Joseph, naming him after General Joseph Lane. General Lane killed two beeves and gave the Indians a big barbecue. In return, the chief of the Rogue River Indians made General Lane a present of an Indian boy whom they had captured from the Calapooia Indians. During the treaty I saw an Indian on one of my horses which had been stolen from me the year before. General Lane had my horse returned to me and one of the Indians gave me $100 of the gold dust that had been taken from me. The rest of it, about $3500, they had thrown in the river. They had taken from our party the year before over $20,000 in gold dust, and of this entire amount they had only saved $100 in nuggets, throwing all of the rest away.
    "General Lane was afraid that as soon as he left the Klickitat Indians would make a raid on the Rogue River Indians, steal the horses and break the treaty he had just signed. He called the chief of the Klickitats and told him that I was his personal representative and would go back with them to the Willamette Valley and that he would hold him responsible for any harm his Indians did on the way back.
    "The Indians made no trouble whatever on the way back. General Lane went on to California while I returned to Oregon where I spent that winter.

Oregon Journal,
Portland, December 28, 1913, page 6

A Letter Offered by One of His Descendants.
    PORTLAND, Feb. 26.--(To the Editor.)--I wish to enter a protest against the estimate which is placed upon the character of the late General Joseph Lane, as it was portrayed in the article entitled "Oregon Forty Years a State," which appeared in the Oregonian upon the 40th anniversary of the admission of Oregon as a state.
    The article does wrong to the memory of General Lane, inasmuch as a spirit of unfairness seems to pervade it--the impression created by reading it being that he was a shifty politician of intriguing spirit and low moral tone, who was prepared at any price to advance his personal interests at the expense of his fellow citizens. No one who was acquainted with General Lane will approve such an estimate of him, either as a man or a politician, and I do not think it fair or just to perpetuate such an estimate of him in an article which, being historical, should be absolutely free from prejudice, and of unquestioned accuracy. The article to which I refer was, I am told, compiled from the old files of the Oregonian of some 40 years ago, and if it had been published as such a compilation no blame would attach to it. Forty years ago and at a later time, as is well known, the Oregonian was engaged in a bitter personal and political fight upon General Lane, and the party to which he belonged, and its estimate of him was that of a partisan of radically different views upon nearly all subjects, and any findings drawn from that source are open to question and should be carefully weighed before being accepted as history.
    History should be a narration of facts entirely freed from bias or prejudice, and may not be accepted as such, without investigation, when it has its source in a pronounced and uncompromising enemy. I am aware that Bancroft's history of Oregon sums up against General Lane about the same kind of findings as does the article to which I refer. Inasmuch, however, as the matter in Bancroft's history was likewise made up largely from the old files of the Oregonian, and was written by, and tinctured with, the bitterness of certain well-known detractors of his, the same charge of unfairness will lie against its findings as does against these.
    General Lane was not free from faults or mistakes; no man is. Yet he was an honorable man, at all times a gentleman, and personally a brave man, who fought fair and asked no odds; and it is in justice due to him that the interpretation of his character and his acts should be vested in the hands of impartial observers. Having been born and raised in the South, he no doubt failed to see the injustice of slavery as we see it today; yet personally he would no more have owned and held a slave than would Wendell Phillips. Being a Southern man, however, his associates and best friends were the men who were, or were kin to, the slaveholding planters of the South, and he either had to turn traitor to every tradition of his life, or stand with the South in the upholding of an institution which they believed to be an inalienable right. I do not remember of many strong opponents of slavery having been born in the Southern states. Washington and Jefferson were slaveholders, and believed in slavery, and no doubt would have fought for it. They, too, were assailed with the most bitter indictments by contemporary writers, though not for that reason, yet who accepts those writers as the true  historians of their time or rehashed their findings as history? It was stated in the article that General Lane brought home from Washington with him a case of muskets to be used in an effort to force Oregon out of the ranks of the Union. I quote this statement as evidence of the old-time spirit of unfairness which pervades it.
    The very fact that this statement is gravely put forth in good faith an an historical truth bears out my claim that the entire article is made up from old political campaign literature loosely strung together, and served up as history. It seems a pity that a general write-up of our state's early history could not, by some slip of the cogs, have been viewed from a more intelligent standpoint.
    As another evidence of the old-time spirit of unfairness which insidiously pervades the entire article I wish to call attention to the fact that any praiseworthy action of General Lane in behalf of his country or this state has been scrupulously suppressed. By no slip of the pen was any kindly word of commendation allowed to assert itself bearing upon the fact that he was wounded while gallantly fighting in the Mexican War, or that he was a fearless Indian fighter, who fearlessly and cheerfully exposed his life in the early Indian wars of Oregon in behalf of his fellow settlers. There are not many of the old-time settlers of Oregon left, and it is to be regretted that a new generation of its people are to be impressed with a narrow view of a man who in its early history was one of its leading spirits.
    When General Lane died, his death having been caused by inflammation in an old wound received in one of the battles with the Indians, his estate was found to have a value of $300. Evidently he had not combined thrift with politics. General Lane is dead and his views and ideas upon questions of the past are not known to me; still it is not beyond the bounds of reason to suppose that, with rare foresight, he might have been skeptical concerning the motives of some of the gentleman who were most in evidence upon the subject of slavery in those days, as I am of the mouthings of those who continue to draw moral deduction upon the horrors of slavery, from a state of affairs which ceased to exist well nigh a generation ago, yet evince no interest in the fact that scores of Chinese women are bought and sold for money outright and held in slavery right here in Oregon today. These gentry who find time and energy to "yawp" and blatherskite around of their three-ply allegiance to "Old Glory" and American freedom go along seemingly indifferent to the miseries of helpless fellow creatures whose moral and physical state of hopeless and utter degradation is not to be matched outside of hell. Perhaps in looking out and down the vista of time he saw a party grow up which under the guise of loving kindness cinched a burden of taxation upon the common people, and the poor, which sweated out of them one-half of all their earnings; perhaps saw it with one hand stealing this money from the earnings of the many, and with blatant vociferation bestowing it with the other hand upon the fatted and specially protected industries of the few. Perhaps he saw under this anomalous condition of affairs, and the fostering care of this party, trusts and close combines spring up as thickly as the lice sprang up in Egypt at the stroke of Aaron's rod; perhaps saw a party, planted by and rooted in a Lincoln, put forth its buds and grow and blossom, and, reaching in due time the full fruition of its greatness, bring forth as the matured fruit of its wisdom, its honesty and its existence a Mark Hanna, a McKenna, an Eagan and an Alger, God wot.
Oregonian, Portland, February 26, 1899, page 22

Joe Lane's Trip to Yreka.
    The S.F. Call, in a sketch of Yreka, furnishes this heretofore unpublished story:
    Joseph Lane, the Governor of Oregon Territory, had a narrow escape from discovering the richness of the Yreka gold flats. He had manfully resisted the onslaught of the gold fever in 1848, while passing through California on his way to Oregon. In the summer of 1850, however, the Governor convinced himself, if not others, that it was necessary for him to make a protracted official visit to the southern portion of his territory. He set out in July with a half dozen white men and three times the number of Indians. That he failed to halt when he reached the southern boundary was an oversight that he could hardly be held responsible for, as the exact location of the line was not determined until many years later. On reaching the Klamath River Lane's party prospected a little and then went on farther south. Quite a little work was done on Shasta River, near the mouth of Yreka Creek, on what is now known as Joe Lane's Bar. But they looked for still richer diggings and went on southward.
    Parties of prospectors were now passing over the flats constantly, on their way to diggings at Scott Bar, Shasta River and Greenhorn. Yreka Creek was the favorite camping place. It was by one of these parties from Oregon that the great discovery was made. This was in March of 1851. In the party was one Abraham Thompson, a more curious or more persistent gold-searcher than the others. On the morning of the discovery--the exact date of which is unknown to the local historians--the party was breaking camp and preparing to cross over to the Greenhorn mines. Thompson wandered off to the west and became separated from the others. He concluded to prospect a little on his own account, and washed three pans of dirt in running water that came down a small ravine since called Black Gulch. The result showed him a good prospect of coarse gold.
    Thompson went back to his party and showed his friends the yellow specks he had washed out. The amount was not great, but the coarse gold in it made them hesitate to leave the place without further prospecting. This they did, with even better results than those obtained by Thompson, and later on, when they saw little scales of gold clinging to the roots of the long grass, they were still further convinced of the richness of their find.
    With two or three fortunate exceptions the men in this party were newcomers at the mines and quite ignorant of mining customs and laws, and the men who made the exceptions were no better posted on these matters than they should have been. They knew enough, however, to tell the others that they must organize a district and make regulations. Accordingly a meeting was held the next day, and Thompson's Dry Diggings was formally organized.
    The size of the claims was fixed at 30 feet. This was done in deference to the opinion of the more experienced miners, but the claims might legally have been made 50 feet, though this was not known until the claims had been staked off and work commenced on them. It was too late to change then, and, as it was, the claims yielded fortunes to their owners. Thompson and his partner, Bell, were given an extra claim between them for the discovery.
    Thus was launched upon the world the celebrated dry diggings of Yreka Flats. How men poured in from all directions and Shasta Butte City, with a population of 5,009 souls, sprang into being in less than six months from the time that Thompson washed his first panful would be an interesting narrative in itself.Valley Record, Ashland,  August 1, 1895, page 3

By Fred Lockley.

    "In the spring of [1850], after returning from the California gold fields," said Cy Mulkey of Roseburg, "I went to work on William Martin's farm. After digging gold and fighting Indians, plowing seemed pretty prosaic, so at the end of the month I said to Mr. martin that he need not pay me anything if he would give me his white pony with blue eyes. He agreed to this, so I rode to my home in Yamhill County
    "A few days after I had gone home General Lane passed our place. He was following some soldiers who had deserted at Oregon City, and he wanted a posse of citizens to go with him. He promised to give a reward of $30 for each deserter captured and returned. These soldiers were mounted dragoons who had come across the plains the year before. A good many of them were soldiers who had served under General Lane during the Mexican War.
    "Stories of the fortunes being made in the California gold fields were too much for them. A large number of them had deserted and had started for California. General Lane knew that the men were not prepared to make the 800-mile trip. They had left without supplies except what they could carry on their backs. We overtook 83 of them at Grave Creek in the Rogue River Valley. Their clothes were worn out. They were out of food and were not at all unwilling to be captured. We took them back to Oregon City, and General Lane paid the reward to those of us who had gone with him.
    "On this trip General Lane told me that he himself was going to California on the first of June, and on his way he was going to stop, hold a peace council with the Rogue River Indians and try to get them to cease their attacks on the miners traveling through their country. As I had lost two good horses and a silver-mounted saddle, bridle and spurs and $3600 in gold dust the fall before, I was anxious to go along in the hope that I might recover some of my property.
    "General Lane offered me a position as interpreter. I gladly accepted his offer. At this time there were a good many Klickitat Indians in the Willamette Valley. Their chief was very anxious to make a raid on the Rogue River Indians to get the horses which they had stolen from miners and packers. They had several hundred stolen horses.
    "'Quatley,' the head of the Klickitat Indians, asked General Lane if he would let 40 of his warriors go along with him so that if General Lane failed to make the treaty, the Klickitat Indians could make a raid on the Rogue River Indians and secure the horses. General Lane agreed to this and took the Indians along.
    "We had with us about 500 head of beef cattle which belonged to General Lane, Phil Thompson and Mr. Martin and Mr. Angel.
    "We reached the South Umpqua River, near what is now the town of Canyonville, without special incident. We camped there several days while the Klickitat Indians were out scouting to find the Rogue River Indians. They located a small band near the head of the South Umpqua. They brought these into camp. With them there was a boy about 15 years old whom the Rogue River Indians had captured from the Calapooia Indians. This boy could talk good Chinook; so could I. General Lane would give me his message which I would translate into Chinook to the boy, and he would translate into the tongue of the Rogue River Indians. The Rogue River Indians agreed to send runners out and get all of the tribe together at a council on the Big Bar on the south side of Rogue River, just above where the town of Gold Hill is now located. They kept their promise and met General Lane as agreed.
    "After a two-day council they signed a treaty. We named the chief who signed the treaty for his people Chief Joseph, naming him after General Joseph Lane. General Lane killed two beeves and gave the Indians a big barbecue. In return, the chief of the Rogue River Indians made General Lane a present of an Indian boy whom they had captured from the Calapooia Indians. During the treaty I saw an Indian on one of my horses which had been stolen from me the year before. General Lane had my horse returned to me, and one of the Indians gave me $100 of the gold dust that had been taken from me. The rest of it, about $3500, they had thrown in the river. They had taken from our party the year before over $20,000 in gold dust, and of this entire amount they had only saved $100 in nuggets, throwing all of the rest away.
    "General Lane was afraid that as soon as he left the Klickitat Indians would make a raid on the Rogue River Indians, steal the horses and break the treaty he had just signed. He called the chief of the Klickitats and told him that I was his personal representative and would go back with them to the Willamette Valley and that he would hold him responsible for any harm his Indians did on the way back.
    "The Indians made no trouble whatever on the way back. General Lane went on to California, while I returned to Oregon City, where I spent that winter."

Oregon Daily Journal,
Portland, December 29, 1913, page 6

    "In the spring of 1850, when I was sixteen," resumed E.L.A, "the Klickitat chief, Quatley, came again into our neighborhood--his band was the same to which King's girl belonged--and for two or three reasons we got better acquainted and more regard for him and his. He had learned some American, and we had acquired enough Chinook to communicate simple ideas and facts.
    Beginning away back in the rusty ages, this band of four to five hundred had been pure nomads, fearing no man and the soul of honor; but this chief was a complete patriarchal despot inside his own tribe.
    For unnumbered years they had had a treaty with the Calapooias to roam the foothills, Chehalems, Yamhills and Coast Range to the ocean for trapping and hunting. Of course mutual defense was included. The tradition ran that many years before, Quatley had exterminated the Molallas from the Coast Range, and they were now found only in the remote and high Cascades. These latter, as told elsewhere, were sad cannibals and brutes and perhaps richly deserved their fate.
    He went on to tell Father and Uncle Jesse that he was called 'Quatley' because it was the name of the tribe; and both tribe and reigning chief had borne that name from time immemorial. Uncle Jesse asked him 'Konse "Quatley" tyee inika 'Tuck a mo nuk, kionass,'* replied he! Then for historical you might write 'Quatley C'! He said the whole tribe was related, notwithstanding he and his predecessors never allowed connections nearer than third cousin. He claimed that he had gone into and beyond the Rockies and had fed on buffalo. He boasted, too, that they had a more decided eye for the beautiful than other nations because they always chose romantic camps. To this latter we also can bear witness; and they were a unique lot. They had always avoided entangling alliances, and when any tribal contention threatened they would simply load their ponies and disappear. They never donned war garb or indulged in battle dances. If an Indian or Indians got in their way they merely shot an arrow through him or brained him with the tomahawk. They had treaties with all Coast tribes, except the Cascade Molallas, which they claimed originated prior to all memory or history. No change had occurred within their own families in manners or customs for all the ages known. Also they learned that the early navigators had nameless diseases and in that line kept free from contamination. (At the 'King' episode Dr. McLoughlin had to assure the chief before he would yield. K.) None of Quatley's retainers could take a partner without his consent.
    (*What number chief are you? Perhaps, hundred.)
    They were unmistakably the handsomest and most intelligent that any of us have ever met.
    When Gov. Jo Lane came, Quatley asked to be introduced, and they proved to be highly pleased with each other; so much so that you will see how genuine it was. Lane said to Father: 'Why, Applegate, I'm astounded! That old fellow is so self-possessed that he never says or does anything unworthy of a sage or a statesman!'
    Rumor came in early 1850 that the Rogue River Indians had three white women prisoners, and thereupon Lane said he'd take a battalion and go investigate. Quatley heard of the matter and came to Lane to offer the services of some of his own tribe, which the Governor accepted.
    Lane proposed that the whites, after their service was done, might stay and mine if they chose. In their march some skirmishing occurred with the Umpquas, which had no disaster for the Oregonians or allies; but when they reached the Rogue River Valley and made known their errand the natives were so defiant that Lane was led to deem them guilty. Hostilities began, but whites and Klickitats together were too much for the hostiles, who sued for an armistice in which they would seek the prisoners demanded and if found deliver them to the Governor. The latter demanded six Rogue River squaws as hostages, that were handed over to Quatley, who was left in command, while Lane and his battalion went to Yreka, where all engaged in mining while the search was in progress. Decision was left with Quatley, who, after all was done to his satisfaction, reported to Lane that in his opinion the suspicion was, then at least, unfounded. The Governor accepted the decision, released the hostages with presents, while the former hostiles promised better conduct, and the whole matter was dropped. Quatley and his braves returned to the Willamette, whence they moved on to their tribal home, Klickitat Mountain, north of the Columbia.
Elisha Lindsay Applegate, quoted in Reese P. Kendall, Pacific Trail Camp-Fires, Chicago 1901, pages 195-198

    Persons have come in from the Rogue River country, who are confident that gold may be found in considerable quantities, though the waters were still too high to "prospect" satisfactorily. Gold, however, was found. Gov. Lane, not finding things to suit him on Rogue River, after negotiating a treaty of peace with the Rogue River Indians, had gone on to Trinity on his way to California.
"From Oregon," Illinois Daily Journal, Springfield, October 2, 1850, page 2

    A gentleman who arrived a few days since informed us that the Indians on the Sacramento are inimical to the whites. They are constantly committing all kinds of depredations upon the whites. They have committed several murders, to which he was a witness. One was represented as having been killed in the coolest manner, and another whilst lying in his tent in a helpless condition.
    Our informant states further that Gen. Lane was about to abandon the mines, his success not having been encouragingly large. He was under the impression that Gen. Lane intended to repair to Sacramento City. For anything further deponent knew nothing.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 14, 1850, page 2

(From the Louisville Democrat.)
Letter from Oregon.

Sketch of the Journey of General Joseph Lane to the Pacific,
and of His Course as Governor of Oregon Until His Removal
by the Federal Government.

Astoria, (Oregon) Dec. 6, 1850.
    Since General Joseph Lane's removal from the office of Governor of Oregon, we have noticed in several papers of high repute attacks upon his character and political reputation, which, if left unanswered, may produce erroneous impressions upon the public mind, not only as regards the course he pursued while in office, but also as to the motive and principle which actuated his conduct.
    We will notice no particular slander, coming as they all do from political opponents, for we have no sinister motive in view--"no political projects to build up"--and must be excused from shaping this article only to subserve the purpose of a refutation to partisan declarations or heated political assertions. Our sole object is to do justice to the character of one who has devoted a large portion of his life and services to his country, and is now in the eyes of his countrymen an example--verifying the truth of that maxim, which belongs to the vocabulary of the sneering monarchist, that republics are ungrateful.
    Let these simple facts attest: Gen. Lane, at the time he was commissioned Governor of the Territory of Oregon by President Polk, resided on the banks of the Ohio River, one hundred and fifty miles below the city of Louisville. He was absent from home, and received the first telegraphic news of his appointment at Madison. On his return he visited General Butler, to whom he expressed doubts as to the correctness of the news previously heard, for he had never asked for or in any way solicited that or any other appointment from the administration. Gen. Butler, with characteristic judgment, assured him that he had no doubt of its truth, for, said he, when I was in Washington Mr. Polk spoke to me on the subject, and I told him if I had the appointment to make, and the whole world to choose from, I would say Gen. Lane is the very man. Gen. L. proceeded home, where he arrived the 27th August, and found his commission in the hands of Major Meek. On the morning of the 28th, at one o'clock of that morning, he, with his eldest son and Major Meek, started for Oregon.
    It is to be regretted that so few officers, and particularly the recipients of executive favors, display that decision of purpose and energy of character that mark the conduct of Gen. Lane on this occasion. The distance to be traveled, the obstacles and almost insurmountable difficulties attending it, the political condition of the people of Oregon, their utter destitution of any effective social organization, and their distant cry for the protection of their homes and families from the merciless tomahawk of the savage, all demanded of the President the appointment of a man to their chief magistracy of the Territory who would quickly repair to his post of duty, and discharge faithfully and fearlessly the responsibilities of his office. President Polk doubtless knew well the man of his choice; he knew, as the history of the Mexican War fully attests, that he was selecting one whose stern integrity, undoubted courage, firmness and decision of purpose, had been sufficiently tried and fully established by the annals of "times that try men's souls."
    Gen. L. arrived at St. Louis on the evening of the 30th August, visited Gen. Kearny at Jefferson Barracks on the morning of the 31st, who promptly furnished orders for Capt. Roberts, of the Rifles at Leavenworth, to hold himself in readiness to escort the General and party to Oregon. Gen. Kearny, seriously doubting the possibility of making the trip so late in the season, attempted to dissuade them from starting. Gen. Lane, however, feeling the responsibility incurred by accepting his office, moved on. He arrived at Fort Leavenworth on the 4th September, and was told by both officers and citizens that it was impossible to cross the mountains so late in the season. An outfit was purchased, and with an escort of 20 men under Lieut. Hawkins they left the fort on the 10th September, and arrived at Los Angeles, on the Pacific coast, on the 30th December following. The party camped out more than one hundred nights, and from Santa Fe to Los Angeles, a distance of several hundred miles, were without tents and compelled to pack their provisions. They encountered the deepest snows, covering rugged mountains, and slept on the rocks without the common comforts of the camp. They traveled, at one time during the trip, over one hundred miles without water, necessarily suffering the most painful sensations of thirst. It is remarkable that Gen. Lane, a man, we suppose, more than fifty years of age, should have retained the physical ability to undergo the toils and hardships of the journey, and to no other agency can we now attribute it, other than that fixedness of purpose which belongs to the energetic mind of the man.
    Gen. Lane arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon, on the 18th February, at a time when there was no means of transportation to Oregon City, one hundred and fifty miles above, except the small canoe of the Indian. There were but five white families at Astoria, and the dangers attending a voyage up the river were sufficient to deter many from undertaking it. The new Governor, however, promptly chartered a Chinook canoe, and taking the bow oar himself pushed off for the capitol of the Territory, where he arrived 2nd March, 1849. He took the oath of office, and commenced the discharge of its duties on the day following.
    It is necessary, in order to a fuller understanding of the arduous duties of the executive of Oregon during the time he was in office, that we make a brief statement of the political and local condition of the country, and the relations which at that time subsisted between the white settlers and the various Indian tribes. Oregon was without a territorial government, and thus for several years had the inhabitants lived exposed to internal convulsions and the dangers of anarchy. True, they had established with the view of protecting individual liberty and property what was termed a provisional government, but from the necessity of the case--the absence of a sufficient population, as well as the want of power to enact and enforce laws--their organization was weak and inefficient.
    After the organization of the Territory by Congress, for the want of proper officers, no writs of election had issued to convene a Legislature, and nothing had been done towards the organization of courts or the election of any officers, judicial or ministerial--those appointed by the President had not yet arrived.
    The Indian title to the lands remained unextinguished, and no treaties had been established between the United States and the savage tribes; the fierce warriors of the Cayuse and the white man had never smoked the pipe of peace together, and the temple of Janus had never been closed west of the Rocky Mountains. Depredations were almost daily being committed by the Indians upon the emigrants and peaceful settlers, and some of the tribes seemed already to have resorted to murder and rapine, not only as an occupation by which they accumulated wealth, but with the more savage intent of exterminating from their midst the intruders upon their soil.
    At this time the arrival of  Gov. Lane, the first officer under the territorial government, was hailed with joy by the people of Oregon. They could now anticipate a brighter future, a more desirable destiny, and looked forward with hope to the time when their country should become one of the bright and fixed stars in the American constellation of sovereign states. What did Gov. Lane do towards the realization of these hopes and these anticipations? Again let facts attest:
    His first official act was to appoint officers to take the census of the Territory, to cause apportionment to be made preparatory to the election by the people of members to the legislative assembly. This accomplished, in but a few days after his installment, he visited the Indians on the Columbia at the "Dalles," and having assembled the tribes in that section of the country, held a talk, and established our relations with them upon a proper basis. Immediately on his return to the seat of government, having learned that some bad white men had been stealing horses from the Indians, he set out in quest of the guilty persons; he arrested and brought them back, and delivered the property that had been taken to its rightful owners. It will be remembered that there were no territorial officers to aid him in the execution of these duties. While out the last time, Governor L. learned that the Snoqualmie Indians had murdered a party of white men at or near Puget's Sound; he immediately proceeded to the Sound, a distance of more than 200 miles, through a wilderness country--took with him arms and ammunition, and placed the settlers there in the best state of defense. On his return, he convened the first Territorial Legislature of Oregon. He then crossed the mountains, a distance of many miles, to Yacoac [sic], and visited and established friendly relations with all the Indians in that region.
    At this time some seventy or eighty soldiers of the Rifle Regiment, stationed at Oregon City, determined to go to the gold mines of California. They armed themselves, and in defiance of law and the threats of their officers marched boldly off in broad daylight. The officers in command of the regiment and various companies were unwilling to risk their lives in an attempt to arrest men who declared themselves ready and willing at all hazards to resist any efforts that might be taken to prevent the success of the undertaking. As soon as the news of their departure reached Governor L., he together with some of the officers and a small body of men started on the trail of the deserters. He followed them to the Canyon, three hundred miles--was out 35 days, 32 of which it rained, and was in swimming water over 100 times--he succeeded in arresting and bringing back about 60 of the men. After his return, still acting in the capacity of a ministerial officer, he went to the Cayuse country and brought to the seat of government the murderers of Whitman and his companions.
    These facts are stated because they best show with what energy and indomitable perseverance Governor L. discharged the duties of his office; they are "stubborn facts" that more clearly exhibit the real worth and merit of the man than any eulogy that we might write. It is the sentiment of nearly every man in Oregon that deep wrong and great injustice was done by the cabinet at Washington to a great and good man, when they issued their premature edict proscribing Governor Lane. His policy in managing the Indians was ever open and honorable, and had gained for him the unbounded confidence of that unfortunate people. His removal from office is deeply regretted by the nation as well as the adopted sons of Oregon, and for months to come must occur to the memories of the people only to arouse in the mind mingled feelings of regret and indignation.
Indiana State Sentinel, Indianapolis, February 27, 1851, page 2

    Up to February 1851 after my arrival in California I was a resident near Shasta in Shasta County in that state. Whilst there in the fall of 1850 I made the acquaintance of Genl. Joseph Lane, now delegate in Congress from Oregon Territory. Genl. Lane, being quite a favorite with the frontier men, was early informed of the prospects of Scotts River and vicinity and as early in the season of 1851 (and I think February) as the weather would permit set out for the new diggings and invited me to accompany him, which I did. We arrived on Scotts River in the last of February of that year. Upon our arrival on the upper waters of Scotts River the Indians, who had heard of Genl. Lane through the Oregon Indians, learning that the Genl. was leader of the company, came into camp and expressed a wish that all hostilities between them and the whites should cease and that Genl. Lane should be "tyee" or chief over both parties. Up to this time during our journey, which had been protracted to eighteen days, we had been under necessity of standing guard both over animals and camp both day and night. This proposition of the Indians was a great relief to us. Among the Indians who came in at that time were the chief of Scotts River Indians (calling themselves Otte-ti-e-was), whom we have christened John, and his three brothers, Tolo, now called "Old Man," chief of the band inhabiting that part of the country upon which Yreka is now located, and the chief of the Cañon Indians as they are called inhabiting the cañon and mountains on the lower part of Scotts River including the bar. He is since called Charley and has not been any way implicated in any of the difficulties since that time though previous thereto he was the most formidable enemy that the whites had to encounter.
    In March of that year diggings were struck on what is now called the Yreka Flats and on Greenhorn. In company with Genl. Lane I then moved from Scotts River to those diggings, where a little town was established called Shasta Butte City. The news of the new discovery was soon spread by the traders, and the exceeding richness of the district caused a sudden and heavy influx of miners who, excited by the prospect of suddenly realizing their fondest anticipations of wealth and competency, would turn out their horses and mules on the Shasta plains and pay no further heed to them until they had either realized their anticipations or had met with disappointment from not striking it and were again in want of them to either start for their far distant homes or in search of other and to them more lucky diggings. . . .
    As a consequence of the inattention of the miners to their horses and mules they frequently strayed off a long distance, and when wanted could not be found by their owners and but for the influence of Genl. Lane much irritation and difficulty would have grown out of that source, which would have involved us in a fatal Indian war. Genl. Lane commanded the respect of the whites and had won the confidence and affection of the Indians, and at a word from him Old Tolo would send out his young men to look up any lost animals desired. Upon bringing them in and delivery to him he would award to the Indians a shirt, pair of pants or drawers or some little trinket according to the value of the animal and the trouble in finding. This duty which by common consent was awarded to him was a heavy drain both upon his time and his means, but was performed with a cheerfulness which has endeared him to all of the old settlers here. Many times the owner of the animal had nothing with which to reimburse the Genl., and the horse was his only means of exit, in which case he never allowed the owner to go out on foot, but bid him take his animal and ride.
    After the Genl. left for his home in Oregon the Indians, from having seen me frequently in his company and at his tent, came to me with their troubles, and I had to take his plan with them, they styling me for some time "Tyee Joe Lane's codawa," meaning Genl. L.'s brother.
Elijah Steele, letter of November 13, 1857,
Cayuse, Yakima and Rogue River Wars Papers, University of Oregon Special Collections Bx47, Box 1, Folder 47.

    Mr. BRIGHT. Mr. President, I have taken my seat in the Senate today for the first time during the session, and consequently have had no opportunity of hearing in person the arguments that have been had upon the resolutions now under consideration. I learn, however, in conversation with Senators around, and from the remarks of my colleague this morning, that in discussing the relative merits of the persons removed by the late Executive, the name of General Lane has been noticed, and I understand that the Senate from Ohio alleges that he was removed for causes not political, but connected with the discharge of his official duties. I had the pleasure of hearing the remarks of the honorable Senator from North Carolina (Mr. Mangum) this morning, and he puts the removal of General Lane upon other and very different ground than that of the Senator from Ohio. As I understood the honorable Senator from North Carolina, General Lane was removed for the reason that he had given publicity to falsehoods against the late Executive of the United States. I will preface what I have to say with the remark that I am not now prepared to discuss this question at length, but at a proper time I propose to do so. I think I can show most conclusively that the Senator from Ohio, to say the least, is mistaken, and that General Lane was never removed from office for a dereliction of his official duties as Governor of the Territory of Oregon. I think I can show most conclusively that he performed his duties while in that position, under the embarrassing circumstances surrounding him, in a manner that may well challenge the scrutiny of all, even those who seek to find fault with him.
    I am as conversant with General Lane's official acts, and perhaps a little more so, than any gentleman upon this floor. I know the circumstances under which he took the office of Governor of the Territory of Oregon. I know something of the toils and privation he underwent in reaching his new home in that far-off Territory. I think I may say, without fear of successful contradiction, that he performed those duties in a manner highly creditable to himself and eminently satisfactory to the citizens of Oregon. Hence, sir, I am unwilling, as one of his friends, and he one of my most valued constituents, it should be announced that he was removed for a failure to perform his duty. No, sir, he was removed for political considerations--none other--and not for the reason assigned by the Senator from Ohio.
    I think I am in possession of proof to show that from the hour that General Lane received the telegraphic dispatch advising him of his appointment--and at that time he was a guest in my domicile--until the day he was dispossessed of his office, no public man ever labored more industriously or faithfully to discharge his duties as became an American patriot than he did. But I do not propose pursuing this point at this time.
    I now turn for a moment to the remarks made by the Senator from North Carolina. I say to him, in all kindness, that he is mistaken when he charges that General Lane ever made a publication derogatory to the reputation of General Taylor.
    Mr. MANGUM. I have an indistinct recollection of the circumstances. I heard of the matter about two years ago. My impression was derived from the public prints of the country, that not only a publication was made which reflected upon General Taylor's personal honor, but went to the extent of insinuating an impeachment of his veracity as a gentleman. And I have heard further, since I came into this hall this morning, from a Senator, that a gentleman in whom he reposed confidence, a man of character, had informed him that General Lane had repeatedly stated in public addresses to the people of Indiana that General Taylor's view of the subject, as presented to the world, was false in reference to the Indiana volunteers. I did not speak upon my own knowledge; I only assumed that if the facts were so, General Taylor could not have done otherwise than discharge him from public service under him.
    Mr. BRIGHT. I did not misunderstand the honorable Senator from North Carolina. I did not say that he had asserted that General Lane had made such publication, or that he uttered such declarations, but hypothetically that if General Lane had done so, he ought to have been removed. I concur with him in that opinion, unless he stated the truth, but I venture to assert that General Lane made no such publications, and I will say that in the public addresses which I heard General Lane make--and I heard him on several occasions--he made no such statement as that to which the honorable Senator from North Carolina alluded. If time be extended to me, and I should hereafter go into an investigation of the reports, the unfortunate reports, made in reference to the troops that volunteered from the state of Indiana, I trust I shall be able to show that they have been more misrepresented than any troops that ever took up arms in defense of their country. I will go into that investigation hereafter, if this discussion is continued. I think I shall be able to show that the fault in that case was not attributable to the men, to the soldiery, to the volunteers from the state of Indiana, not attributable to General Taylor, not attributable to General Lane, but attributable to another officer, who gave the order to retreat, and concealed the fact from the commanding general at the time he made his official report. And I will here take occasion to remark that a braver set of men never fought upon a battlefield. I will call upon the honorable Senator from Mississippi (Mr. Davis), a distinguished participant in all that occurred, to sustain me. To use his language, in talking to me on the subject some months since (and I am sorry that he is not now in his seat to repeat it):
"The second Indiana regiment gave that unmistakable evidence of bravery that challenges contradiction; it was the number of dead left upon the ground they occupied."
Congressional Globe, Senate debate of December 19, 1850, page 84  For much more on this, including incriminating quotes from Lane, refer to subsequent debate here, or in the Globe here, January 2, 1851 session of the Senate, pages 154-157.

    Up to February 1851, after my arrival in California, I was a resident near Shasta, in Shasta County, in this state. Whilst there in the fall of 1850 I made the acquaintance of Genl. Joseph Lane, now delegate in Congress from Oregon Territory. Genl. Lane, being quite a favorite with our frontier men, was early informed of the prospects of Scotts River & vicinity, and as early in the season of 1851 (& I think February) as the weather would permit set out for the new diggings and invited me to accompany him, which I did. We arrived on Scotts River in the last of February of that year. Upon our arrival on the upper waters of Scotts River, the Indians, who had heard of Genl. Lane through the Oregon Indians, learning that the Genl. was leader of the company, came into camp and expressed a wish that all hostilities between them & the whites should cease, and that Genl. Lane should be "tyee," or chief, over both parties. Up to this time during our journey, which had been protracted to eighteen days, we had been under the necessity of standing guard, both over animals and camp, day & night. This proposition of the Indians was a great relief to us. Among the Indians who came in at that time were the chief of the Scotts River Indians (calling themselves Ot-te-tie-was), whom we have christened John, and his three brothers, Tolo, now called Old Man, chief of the band inhabiting that part of the country upon which Yreka is now located, and the chief of the Cañon Indians, as they are called, inhabiting the cañon and mountains on the lower part of Scotts River, including the bar. He is now called Charley, and has not been in any way implicated in any of the difficulties since that time, though previous thereto he was the most formidable enemy that the whites had to encounter.
    In March of that year diggings were struck on what is now called the Yreka Flats, and on Greenhorn. In company with Genl. Lane I then moved from Scotts River to those diggings, where a little town was established called Shasta Butte City. The news of the new discovery was soon spread by the traders, and the exceeding richness of the district caused a sudden and heavy influx of miners, who, excited by the prospect of suddenly realizing their fondest anticipations of wealth and competency, would turn out their horses and mules on the Shasta plains, and pay no further heed to them until they had either realized their anticipations or had met with disappointment from not striking it, and were again in want of them to either start for their far distant homes, or in search of other & to them more lucky diggings.
    The Indians now called the Shastas were then quite numerous, including the band occupying the Yreka Flats, under the chief Tolo, and those inhabiting the valley of the Shasta River and the contiguous mountains, under chiefs called "Bill," and another called "Scarface" (the latter so denominated from a deep scar on his cheek, caused by a cut received at the time he killed the chief of the band & usurped his authority). These Indians were all congregated on what is called Yreka Flats when we moved over and received us in a very friendly manner. They, with those of Scotts River and Rogue River, all talk the same language and were formerly under the control of one chief, but each of the bands being under the control of a subordinate chief. This head chief, who was the father of "John," of Scotts Valley, had been killed accidentally a few years previous, and John being young, a strife for the supremacy had been carried on for some time by Sam & Joe of Rogue River & Scarface of Shasta, and John of Scotts Valley, old Tolo remaining neutral in the contest. The whites coming in among them, their difficulties ceased, and each chief took supreme control of his separate band. At this time they had no stock among them, knew nothing of the use of horses & mules except for food, except what they had seen of their use when white people had passed through their country in the transit from Oregon to California or when the Modocs (a word signifying with them strange Indians) came in among them in war parties. The Indians were naked and lived an indolent life, game, fish & roots, upon which they subsisted, being then very abundant and easily obtained. As a consequence of the inattention of the miners to their horses & mules, they frequently strayed off a long distance & when wanted could not be found by their owners, and but for the influence of Genl. Lane much irritation & difficulty would have grown out of that source, which would have involved us in a fatal Indian war. Genl. Lane commanded the respect of the whites and had won the confidence & affection of the Indians, and at a word from him old Tolo would send out his young men to look up any lost animals desired. Upon bringing them in & delivering to him, he would award to the Indians a shirt, pair of pants, or drawers, or some little trinket, according to the value of the animal and the trouble in finding. This duty, which by common consent was awarded to him, was a heavy draw upon both his time & his means, but was performed with a cheerfulness which has endeared him to all the old settlers here. Many times the owner of the animal had nothing with which to reimburse the Genl., and his horse was his only means of exit, in which cases he never allowed the owner to go out on foot, but bid him take his animal & ride.
Elijah Steele to Charles S. Drew, November 15, 1857

    GEN. LANE IN THE MINES.--That gallant officer is now laboring in the mines on Olney's Creek, Redding's Diggings, about four miles from the Springs. He is represented as being one of the most steady and hard-working miners in that whole region of country, being engaged from early morn to the close of day. He has in his employ two half-breeds, but neither they nor any around him have the same powers of endurance with himself.
    Gen. L. is represented as doing quite well in the mines. Although he has made none of those large strikes, yet by diligence and frugality he is getting what will soon constitute a snug competency.--Sac. Transcript.
Western Star, Milwaukie, February 20, 1851, page 3

Gen. Lane in Tennessee.
    We publish today the proceedings of a meeting of the Democracy of Indiana on the subject of nominating a candidate for President of the United States. It will be seen that the meeting consisted of members of the Constitutional Convention of the General Assembly, and of the citizens of the state. It seems to have been a large and enthusiastic meeting. General Joseph Lane was nominated, subject to the decision of a national Democratic convention, as the choice of the state of Indiana for the Presidency of the United States. Gen. Lane's reputation as a civilian, and a military man, is national. Indiana may well be proud of him, and style him the "Marion of the Mexican War, the Andrew Jackson of Indiana." There can be no doubt the unjust conduct of Gen. Taylor's cabinet--we suppose the Old General himself had about as little to do with this as with the other acts of his administration--towards General Lane, and the late violent attacks in the Senate of the United States by prominent Whigs, will largely tend to strengthen him in popular favor. We take pleasure in spreading the proceedings of the meeting before our readers.--Nashville Union.
Indiana Sentinel, Indianapolis, February 20, 1851, page 1

Gen. Lane.
    We have been kindly furnished, by Mr. R. R. Thompson, with the following extract from a letter received by him from Gen. Joseph Lane, in answer to solicitations of numerous friends asking his consent to run for Delegate to Congress:
    "As to the Delegateship, I will leave the matter entirely to my friends. Oregon is, and shall be, my home. Should I be elected, I will try to be useful to the Territory. I am not ambitious for office. If it is agreed that I am to run, I will perform my part promptly."
    It is expected, from the tenor of the letter alluded to, that he will reach Oregon in two or three weeks.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, March 6, 1851, page 2

    BUTLER AND LANE.--The Roseville Democrat
has hoisted the banner of Col. Butler for next President, and Gen. Lane for Vice.
Oregon Spectator,
Oregon City, March 20, 1851, page 2

Yoncalla, Umpqua,
    March 14, 1851.
Editor of the Spectator:
    The announcement contained in the Spectator of March 6th that Gov. Lane was shortly expected home, and was willing to serve the people of Oregon as their Delegate to Congress, will doubtless be hailed with pleasure in all parts of the country, as it has been in this valley.
    Permit me here to observe that by giving your support to a man with whom not only political, but in the case of the proprietor even personal, differences exist, you vindicate the neutrality of the Spectator, give the best evidence of the disinterested patriotism and magnanimity of its owner and conductor, and deserve the highest meed of praise from the people of Oregon.
    I most cordially unite with you in supporting Gov. Lane as the people's candidate for Delegate. And as his eulogium is written in the history of his country, and the page is too bright to be sullied by the detraction of his enemies, or to receive additional luster from the praise of so humble a friend as myself, I shall briefly give the reasons why, in my opinion, he should be chosen as the Delegate to Congress in preference to any other citizen of Oregon.
    As he is known in the United States aside from his military renown as a man of truth, probity and honor, he will be able to exercise a greater influence with the government than an individual less known to fame.
    As he has adopted his political and religious sentiments from his honest convictions, he extends to others all the rights he claims for himself, and will hereafter, as he has heretofore, in the discharge of his public duties, know neither party nor sect.
    And as he has served his country here as elsewhere with that devotion that knows no selfishness--being found ever at the post where he could best serve the people regardless of personal comfort or official dignity, the interests and honor of Oregon will be safe in his hands.
    For these reasons our selfishness alone should prompt us to support the election of Gov. Lane, but there are others of a higher character. He has been removed by a Whig administration from an office he filled faithfully and impartially, for opinion's sake, and the honor of the Whig party is concerned in rebuking this anti-Whig spirit at the ballot box.
    And lastly, the people of the southern frontier (of which I am one) owe to Gov. Lane a debt of gratitude too strong for party prejudices to cancel, and too great for time to erase. When we cease to do honor to the man who--casting aside the high dignity of his station, and the exemption from excessive fatigue and exposure he might claim from his age--rifle in hand, gallantly braved the floods and storms of winter to save our property, wives and daughters from the rapine of a lawless soldiery--may the finger of scorn point us out, and the curses of all good men follow us.
    I send you this communication because the partiality of some friends has caused my name to be mentioned in connection with the office of Delegate--and while deeply sensible of the honor their preference does me, I wish them distinctly to understand that I have no political aspirations whatever, and I am proud of the opportunity of so far justifying the high confidence they place in my integrity thus publicly to point out the man whose claims infinitely exceed my own, both in services rendered and ability to render more.
With the highest respect,
    Your obedient servant,
        J. APPLEGATE.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 10, 1851, page 1   See the letter of August 5, 1851, below.

Gen. Lane.
    "The adjourned meeting of his friends in Indianapolis, held on Saturday last, unanimously nominated Gen. Lane as a candidate for the Presidency in 1852, subject to the decision of a national Democratic convention. The General has not yet reached home from Oregon, but is expected daily."--[Cincinnati Enquirer.
This is quite a mistake. The General's friends are looking for him here every week. This is not all; they expect to elect him as the next Delegate to Congress to represent Oregon.
    There are now three candidates in the field. One has announced himself through a circular containing some 16 pages. In this it is made to appear that he has fought, bled and almost died for his people. The Western Star has placed at the head of its columns Judge Lancaster, who is said to be a very fit man for that post. The Oregonian has hoisted the name of Gen. Lane, in large capitals, and enters into his support with a hearty good will. Our bellicose neighbor has not hoisted his colors--the man who tells "my people" who to vote has not come along yet. Our neighbor professes to be a Democrat. The friends of Gen. Lane are asking themselves the question--how can he serve two masters? This is a question they have a right to ask, and they have a right to expect a candid answer. It is rather queer that the same mouth can blow both hot and cold at the same breath. General Lane has strength, and what is more of it, it lies along the bone and sinew of the country. The times are increasing in interest.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 10, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
The Administration and the Removal of Gov. Lane.
    The article in the Statesman, under the above caption, is as unjust as it is injurious to His Excellency Governor Gaines. The statements therein set forth are to this effect: That Mr. Ewing of Ohio vindicated the action of the Administration of President Taylor as to the propriety of the removal of Gen. Lane as Governor of Oregon upon the ground that he had vilely and calumniously slandered Gen. Taylor touching his official report upon the conduct of the Indiana volunteers at the battle of Buena Vista. The question is simply a question of veracity between Gen. Taylor and Gen. Lane. The people of the United States were the jury to whom this question was submitted by Gen. Lane. This verdict is recorded and is part of the history of the age. The removal of Gov. Lane, therefore, was but the executive act demanded by the verdict. No one ever questioned the right of appeal from the decision of Gen. Taylor to the Great Tribunal of the people. The people having decided, it is a reproach to the people to liken the action of the executive to the enforcement of the "sedition law."
    The defense of Mr. Whitcomb, the Senator from Indiana, against what the editor of the Statesman terms "assaults" upon Gov. Lane, is just about as accurate in point of logic and in point of fact as the editor upon the conduct of President Taylor.
    Mr. Whitcomb declares, and the editor of the Statesman adopts the declaration, that Gen. Lane came to the Territory overland "in the garb of a western man with a small company of men, with a rifle in his hand at his own expense, an exile from his family." Whereas Gen. Gaines came "out at the government expense in a government vessel."
    The editor has stated these things which he and Mr. Whitcomb, his authority, call facts, and asks the verdict of public sentiment in the premises. Let the public decide--but let the jury have the facts before them. Gen. Lane did not come out alone--his son came with him to California and went into the mines to dig gold. Gov. Lane did not come hither at his own expense. He came under an escort of twenty-five soldiers commanded by an officer of the United States army, at an expense of not less than $50,000. Gov. Lane did not therefore come at his own expense. What now are the facts in regard to Gov. Gaines? He had permission to embark himself and family on a ship sent with supplies to the Pacific Coast--a ship whose destination and the expense of whose voyage was not in any manner affected by the transportation of Gov. Gaines. He received no favor from the government in this regard that has not frequently been accorded to citizens of the republic who held no official rank whatever. He paid for his traveling expenses as much, if not more, on the public vessel as he would have been required to pay on a merchant vessel. He came, in his own emphatic language, to become a citizen of Oregon. Embarked his fortunes and his family--and truly "burnt his ships behind him." He gave the strongest pledges known to men--all his pecuniary wealth, and that wealth which none but a father can truly estimate, his family.
    "Dearer than gold! Richer than Pluto's mine" as guarantees of his devotion to the rights and interests of his devotion to the rights and interests of the people of Oregon. What man among us did or could do more? Can Oregon ever repay him the sacrifice of those "dear ones" who fell by the wayside on their journey hither? And how does the character of the two men, presented for the public judgment in their conduct here, contrast? What has Gov. Lane done here? With what recollections or with what interests is the public mind of Oregon familiar, public or private? No breadth of imputation reaches the conduct of Gov. Gaines regarding the sacrifice of public interest to private purposes.
    We impute no neglect of duty to Gen. Lane, but we demand that a just statement of facts shall be presented to the people if the decision of the people is to be invoked as to the conduct and character of the late and present executive of Oregon.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 10, 1851, page 1  See the Statesman's reply to this letter, below.

The Removal of Gen. Lane.
    A correspondent of the last Spectator, who signs himself "Justice," and whose signature contains all the justice comprised in his article, complains that our remarks in the first number of the Statesman upon the removal of ex-Governor Lane, and the reasons therefor, as given by Mr. Ewing, were "unjust and injurious to his excellency Gov. Gaines." The article has a semi-official air about it, and was probably written "by authority."
    After making proclamation of the "injustice" and "injury" to Gov. Gaines, without stopping to establish it, the writer proceeds to the statements of Generals Taylor and Lane respecting the conduct of the Indiana volunteers at the battle of Buena Vista. He says--
    "The question is simply a question of veracity between Gen. Taylor and Gen. Lane. The people of the United States were the jury to whom this question was submitted by Gen. Lane. This verdict is recorded, and is a part of the history of the age. The removal of Gov. Lane therefore was but the executive act demanded by the verdict."
    The "verdict" referred to as being "a part of the history of the age," can be nothing else than the result of the Presidential election of 1848. We were not before aware that this "question of veracity" was an issue, either local or general, in that campaign, but if this vindicator of Gen. Taylor and Gov. Gaines is disposed to have it so, we will meet him upon his own ground. If it was an issue at all, it was confined to the state of Indiana, the people of which were immediately interested in the decision, and the "verdict" of that state is anything but flattering to Gen. Taylor. Its vote was cast against him by an unprecedentedly large majority, and if, as "Justice" asserts, that vote involved the question of veracity, it acquitted Gen. Lane and fastened the charge of falsehood upon Gen. Taylor. This is his own "accurate logic and fact," and he has no right to complain of the inference.
    When "Justice" asserts that "the removal of Gen. Lane was demanded by the verdict" of the people, does he really believe that if that question had at any time been submitted to the people of the United States, it would have been decided against Gov. Lane? Would the Democratic divisions which gave Gen. Taylor New York and Pennsylvania, and elected him, have existed? Or would the thousands of Democrats who there and everywhere supported him have been united as one man against the ruthless act of proscription? If "Justice" was in the States when this removal was announced (and we doubt not he was), he knows that it received the decided condemnation of the public press and popular voice. And if he has had authentic information from there since, he must be well assured that the United States Senate would have expressed their disapprobation of the act by the rejection of his successor, had not Gov. Lane's resignation been received before they were called upon to act in the matter, and had not that successor been far on his way to Oregon.
    But Mr. Ewing says Gen. Lane was removed for his "vileness of abuse" and "gross calumny and slanders" of General Taylor, and that "abuse," "calumny" and "slander" consisted in his vindication of the bravery of his soldiers, and his complaint that Gen. Taylor had done them injustice in the official report of the battle of Buena Vista. For this he was removed by a man who had "no friends to reward, and no enemies to punish." According to the confession of one of the then cabinet officers, that removal was based upon personal prejudice and hatred. By the act President Taylor disgraced his exalted position, and forfeited his character for high-mindedness and generosity. It was in the genuine spirit of the old sedition law of John Adams' "reign," and received, as it merited, the unmistakable condemnation of the people.
    "Justice" finally comes to the defense of Gov. Gaines, and asserts that he came out here without expense to the government, and that "he received no favor that has not frequently been accorded to citizens of the Republic who held no official rank," while Gen. Lane came out, accompanied by his son, who went to California to dig gold, under and escort of twenty-five soldiers, and "at an expense of not less than $50,000." As "Justice" has placed the two men and their manner of transit to this country in contrast, he will not complain if we examine the facts.
    Gov. Gaines came here in a government vessel, at the government expense. This "Justice" will not deny. Nor would we be understood to say that censure attaches to Gov. Gaines for so doing. But does "Justice," as he states, know of a single instance where "persons who held no official rank whatever" have been transported thousands of miles with their families, freight &c. at the public expense, and if so, will he cite as to it. It may have been done by the "Galphin" administration, but we question if it ever was by any other.
    Gov. Lane came here under an escort of twenty-five soldiers, as "Justice" asserts. But those soldiers were intended to remain permanently in Oregon, and would have come here had they not escorted him. He purchased animals for himself and son, and the provision necessary for the trip, and paid for them out of his own private fund. And from the same fund was also paid all their personal expenses. The only favor they received from government was the use of one wagon. So that, with that trifling expedition, their passage here cost the government not one dollar. And had not Governor Lane's son, coming here at his own expense, the same right to "dig gold" or pursue any avocation his interest or fancy dictated, that any other citizen had? Then why this ungenerous insinuation of "Justice" that he came here at the public expense to pursue his private interests? Would he consider such insinuations, even if based upon fact, fair in the case of the present incumbent? And is he disposed to invite inquiry and contrast in this particular?
    But whatever excuses "Justice" may make for those misrepresentations, we do not see how he can escape the imputation of willful falsehood in asserting that Gov. Lane came here at an expense of not less than $50,000. How could that sum have possibly been expended if the troops had come here expressly to escort him? If he will make a calculation he will see that the pay of the soldiers and men could not well have exceeded $2,000. That leaves "not less" than $48,000 to pay the salary of the officer who commanded, and the expense of the outfit. A pretty large margin, but no larger than this writer uses in all his statements. He seems to think that the employment of truth is not at all important when speaking of a political opponent.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, April 18, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
Mr. Editor:
    Considerable has been said of late in the newspapers in relation to "removals from office," and if you will give publicity to the subjoined extract of a "Speech of Mr. Ewing of Ohio," delivered in the United States Senate upon that subject, January 7, 1851, you will probably confer a favor upon the citizens of Oregon.
    Although some speeches are very plenty here, such, I apprehend, is not the case of Senator Ewing's speech:
    "This general fact I mentioned, and I stated it the other day from memory, and I remembered, too, that there had been complaints against General Lane by individuals from Oregon, who were entitled to credit, which I designated as the most reliable sources. I know that the Senator from Indiana says, with respect to the alleged complaints against General Lane, that he has searched the Department and can find nothing of the kind. He goes into the curious exposition of the imaginary contest between the Departments for power and patronage, by way of showing that he had found the proper place to make search for papers, if there were any, and that he had found nothing. Where he searched, in the State Department, he could of course find nothing, and he certainly ought to have known it. It was matter that belonged to the Indian Bureau of the Home Department, and he had but to go there and find it.
    "Mr. Whitcomb. That is the very place to which I did go.
    "Mr. Ewing. I referred to the Senator from Indiana, not now in his seat (Mr. Bright), who says that he searched in the Department of State and found nothing. He was truly fortunate, for, if he had found something, perhaps it might have interfered with the beauty and perfection of his speech, especially that part of it in which he gives vent to his virtuous indignation for my unfounded aspersions of the official character of General Lane. The Senator saw fit to say he wished it understood that the statements made by me with respect to those complaints rested on the authority of my assertion alone.
    "Well, suppose it did rest there; is not the statement of a Senator in his place sufficient authority for a fact within his knowledge? It used to be so when I was a member of this body some years ago. The Senator from Indiana is better able than I am to determine how it is now. But that Senator cannot have his wish; the fact does not rest on the statement of the Senator from Ohio, but is also sustained by a document which I have before me. The Senator demands, however, specifications, and he has a right to them. He requires me to designate what were these complaints, and I will do it. The first charge was that General Lane did not exert himself as he might and ought to have done to separate the Indians from the white population, and to prevent them from camping in the towns, where they became, from their gross habits, offensive to decency. Whether this charge be true or false I know not, but it was vouched by the Delegate from Oregon in two letters, which I now have before me, subject to the inspection of the Senator from Indiana, whenever he chooses to examine them. The first is as follows:
"'Washington, February 6, 1850.
    "'Sir: This morning I had a conversation with Mr. Brown, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, relative to the Indians located in Linn City by Governor Lane, and concerning which I had an interview with you last night. He, like yourself, heartily concurs in their removal from the limits of the town. He said it would be proper that it should be stated in the order to the Governor that the removal was in no way to affect any title said Indians might have to the lands. To this I very willingly consented. Now, the town there was laid off out of a part of two claims, the Linn City part by Robert Moore, and the Multnomah City part by Hugh Burns. I am aware that the Indians will not be removed unless the order is peremptory and unequivocal. I have to desire you, therefore, to cause an order to be issued to Joseph Lane, Governor of Oregon Territory, or to his successor in said office, or whoever may be discharging the official duties of Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs when said order shall reach the seat of government of said Territory, to cause all Indians now camping or living within the towns of Linn City or Multnomah City, as laid off in lots by Robert Moore and Hugh Burns, in Oregon Territory, at the Falls of the Willamette River, to be removed outside the limits of said towns and not to allow the same to return within said limits for the purpose of camping and dwelling.
    "'I have been thus specific because I believe your order should be so to the letter to ensure obedience. I should have added, provided the order and removal consequent thereon shall in no way affect any title which said Indians may have to the lands included within the limits of said towns.
    "'Let me assure you, sir, that such an order will be greeted by the people of said towns or villages with gratitude, and the modesty of our women not a little relieved by its prompt execution.
    "'I would suggest that your order go as soon as possible, and if you will cause me to be furnished with a duplicate, that I may inform the people, in case the order should not be obeyed, that the Department has desired otherwise, you will oblige me.
    "'I have the honor to be, sir, with high consideration, yours, truly,
"'Hon. Thomas Ewing, Secretary of the Interior.'

    "The second letter I will not read. It refers to and enforces the same charges.
    "Now, I wish it understood that I affirm nothing and know nothing of the facts stated in these letters, except that I know they come from the Delegate from Oregon, who is of course entitled to attention and respect in all things which he states touching the interests of the people of that Territory. Whether he represents the case truly or not, T cannot determine, and I assume no responsibility concerning it.
    "The next charge is that General Lane not only did not prevent the British Hudson's Bay Company from keeping up trading establishments in the Indian territory of the United States in Oregon, but that he encouraged, and patronized, and maintained them there, to the injury of the rights of American citizens. One paper goes further, and says that he purchased, or directed to be purchased, from the Hudson's Bay Company, blankets in considerable quantity, and then suffered that company to distribute them as presents from themselves to the Indians. I cannot say that this is true, but it is the charge, presented by the Delegate from Oregon, certified to and sustained by the Chief Justice of Oregon, both Democrats, and both supposed to be responsible men. These charges come, then, as I said, from authentic and reliable sources.
    "Mr. Dodge, of Iowa. Will the Senator from Ohio allow me to make an inquiry?
    "Mr. Ewing. Yes, sir, I yield to an inquiry.
    "Mr. Dodge. Were these charges, which the Senator asserts were made, before the removal of General Lane?
    "Mr. Ewing. They were not, and I did not say they were--nothing of that kind. Being called on suddenly, the other day, touching the official conduct of General Lane, I threw out my impression at the moment as to what had been objected against him, without stating the time when the charges were made. These charges, however, were made orally long before the papers which I have produced bear date, for I had frequent conversations with the Delegate on the subject, and he pressed the alleged grievances of his people strongly upon me long before he presented them in writing. I produce them now only to sustain my own statement of fact, indirectly questioned by the Senator from Indiana (Mr. Bright), not to sustain the removal of Governor Lane, which, as I find on examination, rests on other and very different grounds.
    "It is but fair that I should say that the specifications in the last charge, namely, that the blankets purchased of the Hudson's Bay Company for the Indians were distributed by the servants of that company as presents from them, upon investigation, proves to be unfounded. I have looked at the evidence taken upon the spot, which disproves it. But the general charge which I have referred to above is sustained--namely, that he suffered the Hudson's Bay Company to trade with the Indians in Oregon, and it is further shown, by Governor Lane's own vouchers, that he bought from houses of that company, at some five or six places in the Territory, sundry articles of merchandise for the Indians."
    Thus it will be seen that Mr. Thurston has been representing at Washington that Indians had been "LOCATED in Linn City by Gov. Lane," when it was known to him (Thurston) that the houses of the Linn City or Fall Indians were fired and burned down in their absence, and that Gov. Lane as Superintendent of Indian Affairs only allowed them to rebuild upon and occupy the site of their former residence, as he felt it his duty to do.
    I have no doubt but that the good people of Linn City would be very glad if the Indians were removed, but I trust that no one man in Linn or Multnomah cities will commend our sustain Mr. Thurston in his departures from truth.
    The allegation that "one paper goes further, and says he has purchased, or directed to be purchased, from the Hudson's Bay Company blankets in considerable quantity, and then suffered that company to distribute them as presents from themselves to the Indians" refers to the 80 blankets purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company and paid to the Indians as a reward for bringing in the murderers of Wallace. The fact that the blankets were bought at the company's store at the Sound, where there was no American store, and at a time when, perhaps the amount of blankets could not be bought in all the American stores in the Territory, would surprise no one here, but persons unacquainted with the affairs of Oregon might suppose that American merchants had been passed by with a view of favoring a foreign company.
    The truth is that Gov. Lane did not suffer the Hudson's Bay Company to distribute those blankets "as presents from themselves to the Indians." Again the truth is that the Indian agent purchased the blankets, and not Gov. Lane. And again, the truth is that the blankets were delivered to the Indians by the U.S.A. captain of artillery stationed in the neighborhood of the Sound, and not by the H.B. Company or any of its agents or servants. This charge has been investigated by the governor, and Senator Ewing says, "I have looked at the evidence taken upon the spot, which disproves it." It must have been extremely mortifying and painful to Mr. Thurston that a Whig Senator, who was attempting to justify the removal of Gov. Lane, felt constrained to say "It is not fair that I should say that the specifications in the last charge, namely, that the blankets purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company for the Indians were distributed by the servants of the company as presents from them, upon investigation, proves to be unfounded," publicly acknowledging the falsity of one of the main charges of his own witness.
    If Mr. Thurston is the best man in Oregon, he should be re-elected.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, April 24, 1851, page 2

    We have been requested by Gen. Joseph Lane to announce him as a candidate for Delegate to the next Congress.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 1, 1851, page 2

General Lane.
    On Monday evening last many of our citizens had the pleasure of greeting the arrival of Gen. Lane. His arrival had been anxiously looked for and expected for several weeks past by his numerous friends. It was not our lot to have had a previous acquaintance with the General. Upon receiving a grip of his hand (hardened by labor) and after witnessing an exhibition of his affableness, we could not help thinking that he is truly the whole-souled man that his friends had previously represented him to us.
    It will be seen by today's paper that Gen. Lane is regularly announced as a candidate for Delegate to Congress for this Territory. We predict that the General will have a clear field; though we do not intend to make the Spectator a party political paper, we cannot deny, however, that we would be much gratified to see the Territory so ably and honorably represented. And though we differ, individually, with the brave old veteran in politics, yet we would spurn to deny our support to any gentleman merely because we happened to have some personal differences. We go for the interest of our whole country and will give our support to the man that we think will best advance that interest.
    We say the General has a clear field. It was expected that our much-esteemed, talented friend and neighbor, the lamented Samuel R. Thurston, who so ably represented the Territory for the last two sessions in Congress, would have been a candidate in opposition to Gen. Lane, but Providence has seen fit to deny the country and its citizens the benefits of his labors and talents. It becomes us now to look around and select from amongst our other great, talented and valuable citizens to find someone to fill his place in our national councils. Gen. Lane seems to be the man.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 1, 1851, page 2

    Will address his fellow citizens of Oregon City and vicinity today at 3 o'clock p.m., at the Main Street House.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 1, 1851, page 3

    We raise today the name of GEN. JOSEPH LANE for Congress, and take down that of Judge Lancaster's by his request, who declines in favor of his personal and political friend Gen. Lane. Judge Lancaster by this patriotic course has done honor to his noble heart, which will be fully appreciated by the people of Oregon.
    General Lane has received the formal nomination of a public meeting in Yamhill County, and believing him to be the people's choice--we therefore acting upon the platform of Jeffersonian democracy--which we adopted at our commencement--we go in for General Lane heartily, and shall give him all the support in our power. We believe him deserving, and well qualified to fill this most important place--and we know that he will wear his honors meekly, and labor hard with heart and hands for Oregon's growing interests.
    General Lane is the people's man--a farmer by occupation, a wise and discreet legislator from experience, a soldier from patriotism, and a most accomplished and successful general from bravery and noble daring, as the history of many a hard-fought battlefield in Mexico bears ample proof. And we having commenced the first Democratic newspaper in Oregon, it is with pride that we are now enabled to be the first Democratic paper to run up that man's name who universally receives the honor of the "Marion" of the Mexican War. We are proud to inscribe the name of Joseph Lane upon our banner and nobly defend it free from stain or blemish. Gen. Lane is a noble champion of honesty, patriotism and fidelity, and we are most happy to announce his name and honestly advocate his cause--having confidence to believe that our friends will approve our course and unite with us in bestowing deserved honor upon him [to] whom it is due. We go in for honest JO. LANE, "live or die, sink or swim, survive or perish."
Western Star, Milwaukie, May 1, 1851, page 2

Gen. Lane in the Field.
    It will be seen by the following notice that Gen. Lane proposes to canvass the Territory previous to the election. He had made up his mind to run for Congress before the news of the death of Mr. Thurston was received in Oregon, and had notified his friends to that effect. We are authorized to say [that] the particular object of Gov. Lane in canvassing the Territory is to become well acquainted with the wants of the people and the interests of Oregon, having been absent for some time. We are not aware that there will be any other candidate in the field; therefore, the election of General Lane is almost certain.
    Gen. Lane met his friends in Oregon City on Thursday, at Milwaukie yesterday, and will be in Portland today. He will also be at the following places at the time specified:
    Harrison Wright's, Monday, 5th inst., 2 p.m
    Salem, Tuesday, 6th inst. at 3 p.m.
    Syracuse, Santiam, Wednesday, 7th, 1 p.m.
    Jacob Speere's, Lane Co., Thursday, 8th inst., at 3 o'clock p.m.
    E. Bristow's, Friday, 9th, at 2 p.m.
    Richardson's Ferry, Long Tom, Butte Co., Monday, 12th, 1 p.m.
    Marysville, Tuesday, 13th, at 1 p.m.
    Leggett's, Forks of Luckiamute, Polk Co., Wednesday, May 15, 2 p.m.
    Nesmith's Mills, Thursday, 15th, 10 a.m.
    Cincinnati, Polk Co., Friday, 16th, 1 p.m.
    Lafayette, Saturday, 17th, 2 p.m.
    Hillsborough, Monday, 19th, 1 p.m.
    Vancouver, Wednesday, 21st, 1 p.m.
    St. Helen's, Thursday, 22nd, at 1 p.m.
    Astoria, Saturday, 24th, 1 p.m.
    Lexington, Clatsop Co., Monday, 26th, 1 p.m.
Oregonian, Portland, May 3, 1851, page 2

    We this week place at our masthead the name of Gen. Joseph Lane as the people's candidate for Congress. We recognize in the General marked characteristics: firmness, independence, honesty of purpose, a well-balanced and discriminating mind; just such points as a man holding an office of this kind should possess.
    It was our good fortune to have listened to his speech, delivered in this place on Thursday of last week. He says he is an out-and-out Democrat; he was brought up in that school, but he can see no reason why this Territory should be distracted by party politics. The Delegate in Congress has no vote--we are one people--we have one common interest, and that should be uppermost in the minds of both Whigs and Democrats. The General, it seems, had made up his mind to run for Congress previous to his arrival here, thus showing that he would not be the tool of a party. As an independent, honest and decided man, we give him our support, with the consciousness that the wants and interests of the country will be well cared for and the mantle of power will not be inappropriately placed.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 8, 1851, page 2

    The intelligence from the mines is rather encouraging than otherwise. Quite a large number have returned from the mines, or, rather, gave up the trip before they arrived there, having become disheartened at the bad state of the roads, and the unsettled weather that caused them. Gen. Lane reports rather favorably of the mines. He says that the most of the miners, by proper exertion, can make from $6 to $12 per day. There are some instances where men do much better. The General is of opinion that the mines in Oregon and California, the Shasta and Klamath diggings, will pay well for the next fifty years. There is a large scope of country in that part of Oregon that is decidedly rich. But the great obstacle in the way is the want of protection going there in the Rogue River country, those Indians having sworn eternal hostility to the whites. Several persons have been brutally murdered lately by the savages near what is generally known as the Umpqua Canyon. The General thinks government should by all means establish a garrison in that country, to protect persons going to and returning from the mines. It appears to be a well-conceded fact that up through the Willamette Valley is far the most preferable route to go to the mines, and that eventually the greater part of the supplies will seek this channel. The location of the Territorial road to the Umpqua, and the improvement of the small streams by bridging, etc., will remove many of the difficulties that are now in the way. This portion of Oregon is well represented in the mines. We hope they may all be successful, and live to return loaded down with the "root of evil."

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 8, 1851, page 2

    The Western Star, with the consent of Judge Lancaster, has taken down that gentleman's name and hoisted the name of the old war horse, Gen. Joseph Lane, at its masthead. The General is stumping the Territory. He spoke in this city on last Thursday evening, in Milwaukie on Friday, and in Portland on Saturday. The General having doffed his mining suit and brushed up, he may now be said to be himself again. He had a large and attentive audience when he spoke here. The Western Star goes for Gen. Lane entire, as the following will show:
    "General Lane is the people's man--a farmer by occupation, a wise and discreet legislator from experience, a soldier from patriotism, and a most accomplished and successful general from bravery and noble daring, as the history of many a hard-fought battle in Mexico bears ample proof. And we, having commenced the first Democratic newspaper in Oregon, it is with pride that we are now enabled to be the first Democratic paper to run up that man's name who universally receives the honor of the 'Marion' of the Mexican War. We are proud to inscribe the name of Joseph Lane upon our banner and nobly defend it free from stain or blemish. Gen. Lane is a noble champion of honesty, patriotism and fidelity, and we are most happy to announce his name and honestly advocate his cause--having confidence to believe that our friends will approve our course, and unite with us in bestowing deserved honor upon him whom it is due. We go in for honest JO. LANE, 'live or die, sink or swim, survive or perish.'"

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 8, 1851, page 2

    This noble old veteran of the West, having recently returned from the Oregon mining districts, and being brought out for Congress, is now on a tour, addressing the people in different parts of the Territory upon subjects of public interest--and for the better understanding of the wishes of the people in different sections of the country.
    On Friday evening, May 2nd, the citizens of this place and vicinity convened at Union Hall and organized by appointing proper officers and a committee to wait on General Lane and invite him to the hall. He was accordingly ushered into the hall and introduced to the chairman, and by the chairman introduced to the meeting, when General Lane proceeded to address a full house upon public affairs generally.
    Gen. Lane spoke of the immense resources of the Territory, giving a flattering account of the Oregon gold mining districts, stating them to be healthy and furnishing rich placers for years to come. Miners were averaging from $8 to $10 per day when he left. He advised those who were doing well to remain at home and cultivate their farms. He spoke of the importance of a military station in the Umpqua Valley, to protect those who were passing to and from the mines from Indian depredations. He was opposed to the removal of the Oregon Regiment of Mounted Riflemen--and spoke of the land law as being a very good one, but if elected to Congress he would endeavor to get it amended so as to provide for such as were not included in the bill as it now is.
    He said that if elected he would faithfully represent all sections of the Territory and their varied interests. He said that Oregon was his home and always should be, and that as soon as practicable he should bring his whole family to Oregon. His opinion was that Oregon would become a state within two years--and he anticipated that Oregon would be one of the most flourishing states in the Union, and her destiny was onward. His whole theme was for Oregon--and we think he can do more to advance her interests than any other man in the Territory.
    We were extremely well pleased with the man--and it gave us pleasure to shake the hand that had been hardened by honest toil. And when we considered how that hand had nobly drawn the sword of his country in defense of her honor during a whole war, and how many laurels clustered round the head of the brave old hero, our feeling of love for him was enhanced when every act and word showed him to be one of the noblest works of God, an honest man.
    Gen. Lane addressed the people at Portland on Saturday evening last, and is now on his way up the Willamette Valley, where he will address the citizens at different points.
Western Star, Milwaukie, May 8, 1851, page 2

    Our neighbor thinks he has satisfied the people at Salem that Gen. Lane had not intended to run as Delegate to Congress previous to hearing of Mr. Thurston's death. He may succeed in making persons at a distance think so who were not present when he addressed the people in this city, but everyone present knows that the reverse of what our neighbor says is the fact. He came out for Gen. Lane in his last--he is truly the eleventh hour man. He no doubt thought it was better late than never. Bro. Waterman, like a man, came to the work at once.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, May 15, 1851, page 2

    As the time for the election approaches, matters of political interest are discussed, and men and measures are freely commented upon, with all that freedom which is their especial privilege and guarantee by our republican institutions. We love those institutions which give all free men, whether high or low, rich or poor, the priceless privilege of thinking and voting as they think best--"without fear or favor of any man"--"unawed by influence, and unbribed by gain." We always repose the greatest confidence in the people, the hardy yeomanry, that pride and strength of every state and government. And let us ask who can they confide more trustingly in than he who is a yeoman, and earns the bread for himself and family "by the sweat of his brow," and whose calloused hands and sunburnt face gives truthful evidence that he is a true republican? None, of course. Who among the people in Oregon stands out as that man we have described? GENERAL JO LANE, responds the yeomanry. We require a Delegate who will represent Oregon, the whole of it; one who has ascended her remotest hills and traveled her extensive valleys and knows the whole Territory--its wants, and its resources. Who has done this but LANE, and who so well prepared to give the information required at a Delegate's hand? We want a man of known and acknowledged character, both here and at home. Who so well answers this requirement as GEN. LANE? His character is well respected throughout the broad Union; his fame belongs to the Nation, and his name is inscribed upon her scroll of fame, along with those who have won unfading laurels in her defense. Is there another man in Oregon whose position, worth and knowledge combined can procure for us the amount of consideration in Congress that GENERAL LANE can? If there be one, we have yet to learn his name. We consider it fortunate for Oregon that LANE has consented to be a candidate--and that no one will ever have a reason to regret voting for an honest, deserving man like him.
    We understand that Dr. Wm. H. Willson, of Salem, has come out as a candidate to run against General Lane, and is going to canvass the country for Delegate. Dr. Willson we only know from reputation, and have formed a very favorable opinion of him, as a man--but we never heard until quite lately that he had aspirations for Congress. It will be no dishonor for him to be beaten by General Lane--and we presume that Lane will be just as well prepared for opposition as he was at Buena Vista. There is a saying that "there is no honor in victory where there is no opposition," and for that reason have no serious objection to a little opposition, but we cannot for a moment give any countenance to the proceeding of a professional Democrat like Dr. Willson, if his intent be to defeat General Lane. We are satisfied with Lane; we take pride in supporting so deserving a man, and if every fifth man in the country comes out against him, we will stand by him; we will "never surrender," and if vanquished we'll spike the cannon.
    We can see no cause for Democrats to get up opposition--and can foresee bad results which will naturally grow out of such a course. The Whigs lose no political strength by supporting Lane for Delegate, as he has no vote in Congress--and both Whig and Democrat in Oregon will be equal participators in every measure he brings about for Oregon's advancement. We cannot see as there is to be any newspaper opposition, as the four papers in Oregon are all committed for General Lane, and have his name at their head. If any of them wish they were free, and now regret their committal, we are not of that number; we are committed just where we want to be and could not be induced to change our position on any account whatever. We are confident that Jo Lane will get one vote, if we are able to get to the polls on the first Monday of June.
Western Star, Milwaukie, May 22, 1851, page 2

Oregon City May the 26, 1851
Genl. Palmer
    Dear Sir,
        I have just returned from Astoria, where I found all right. Clatsop will give over one hundred and fifty votes & not more than six votes against me. Lewis County will give me one hundred fifty votes, Clackamas two hundred against fifty; in Washington I will not lose thirty votes. In Marion I think I will divide the vote and also in Linn. Lane County I can't tell anything about; in Umpqua I shall get all the votes or nearly so; in Yamhill you will know better than I do how the vote will be. I have strong faith in old Yamhill. She will be right side up; so says Joel Perkins, who is down here at this time.
    Now, sir, let me tell you what I regret escaped my memory while speaking at Lafayette, that is that I will request Congress not only to make an additional appropriation for the defraying [of] the expense of the Cayuse War but also ask that each and every officer, noncommissioned officer, musician and private who served in that war be allowed the same bounty of land that other soldiers who have served their country are entitled to under the law of Congress and I have no doubt but it will be done made and provided.
    And furthermore let me tell you that I have no doubt but it will be done. I pledge myself to try hard to get [it] done.
    Leave nothing undone that can be honorably done to help me; see my friends and talk for me all you can. I want to beat Wilson badly. I will do good for this Territory and no mistake.
    Read as much of this letter as you please on day of election.
With great respect
    I am, sir, your obt. servt.
        Jo. Lane
Letter, Joseph Lane to Palmer, Oregon Historical Society Research Library Mss. 114, folder 1/18

For the Spectator.
Astoria, O.T., June 8, 1851.
Mr. Schneely:
    I suppose you have had communicated to you the result of the election in Clatsop County, so I need not repeat it. The election went off finely at this place, no event occurring to mar the good feeling always existing here.
    Everybody was glad to have an opportunity to throw in a vote for old Jo.--the Lane that has no turn in him.
    At eleven o'clock, a.m., the troops at this point paraded under the banner which had been painted for the occasion by one of the servants, and which certainly looked splendid. Upon the banner was the following:
Candidate for Delegate,


Candidate for Representative,



    Forming a procession, they marched to the polls, where each man deposited his vote, many of them voting for the first time in their lives. A more orderly set of men on the day of an election it would be difficult to find, and I doubt if ever they will have the fortune to vote for a better man that that same old Jo. Lane, for a more honest or more capable man I am well convinced does not exist in Oregon. Success to him.
Yours,            T. J. E.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, July 3, 1851, page 2

    Gen. Lane passed here [Yoncalla] last week en route to the mines. During his absence from the mines, one of his Indian miners has been murdered, and others driven off. The unfortunate Indian was shot by--it is supposed Oregon men (after being so frightened so that he was speechless)--simply because he would not speak. There are several reports of the matter in circulation--all of which agree that it was an unprovoked attack on the Indian.
"Arrival of Gov. Gaines," Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 4, 1851, page 2

    GEN. LANE arrived in this city last Thursday evening from the mines and the Indian country. He intends to leave for Washington on the first steamer out. Several interesting letters from him will be found in another column.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 22, 1851, page 2

    GEN. LANE arrived in this city on Thursday evening last, direct from the Rogue River country. He leaves here tomorrow on the mail steamer for the States. We wish the brave old soldier a safe journey.
    When the General arrives in Washington and lays the true state of affairs before the government, we feel assured that justice will be done to the people of Oregon.

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, July 22, 1851, page 2

    GEN. LANE left in the steamer Willamette, on Thursday morning for the States, and to take his seat in Congress at its assembling, as Representative of Oregon. The Gen. was in good health and fine spirits. He informed us he should proceed at once to Washington for the purpose of making such representations to the President as would secure a military force sufficient to protect our citizens from further hostilities from the Indians. We shall look with confidence for an able and efficient representation in the person of Gen. Lane.
Oregonian, Portland, July 26, 1851, page 2

    Gen. Lane was met at the landing at Astoria, on his way to Washington, by a procession of the citizens, and addressed in their behalf by John A. Anderson, Esq. He replied in a short and appropriate speech.

Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 29, 1851, page 3

    ARRIVAL OF THE COLUMBIA.--By the arrival last evening of the steamship Columbia, Captain Leroy, from Oregon, we are indebted to the purser for the ship's memoranda, a list of her passengers, and a file of papers down to the 22nd inst. . . .
    Among those who have arrived we notice the name of Gen. Lane.
"Later from Oregon," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, July 30, 1851, page 2

Correspondence of the Times.
Astoria, July 25, 1851.
    I cannot suppress the inclination to group a little picture which I had the pleasure to look upon this morning, upon this classic ground of Astoria. Would that I had the classic ability to inspire the emotions which thrilled every heart that was present. We were honored on our trip down from Portland with General Lane as a passenger, on his way to the embraces of his family and friends on the beautiful Ohio. Arriving late in the afternoon at Astoria, the General remained on board during the night. Early in the morning, after breakfast, a deputation from the village came on board, and invited the old hero to go on shore. The object was explained to the passengers on board, and all went ashore, ladies and gentlemen, to witness the ceremony. After the debarking of passengers, General Lane, under the escort of the deputation and a number of gentlemen, was brought to the wharf, upon reaching which the "big gun" announced in tones of thunder "that a man was there, whom the people delighted to honor." The General was conducted to the head of the wharf, where the entire population had congregated to meet him. Arriving upon the stand, his name was distinctly announced to the audience by General Adair, the Collector of the Port, after which immediately Mr. Anderson, a young lawyer of the place, stepped forward and delivered one of the most beautifully thrilling and appropriate salutatories I ever listened to upon any similar occasion.
    When the speaker alluded to the recent death of the gallant Stuart, on Rogue River, in the subsequent skirmishing with which tribe of Indians the General participated, I thought I saw the noble old soldier's heart "overflooded, and his undimmed eye swam with a tear of sorrow for the gallant dead." The General responded, most appropriately, and with three cheers for General Lane the crowd came forward, and every man, woman and child took a cordial shake of the old warrior's hand, wishing him pleasant seas and prosperous gales to waft him to the "loved ones," so long bereft of his society. The scene altogether was a most imposing one to me. There was no little formality, everything that was done appeared so impromptu. No formal resolutions or set speeches, and above all there was such a modest acquiescence in the compliments and honors paid on the part of the noble old hero himself, that I felt like embracing him. I have given you my thoughts just as they occurred. If I should never revisit Oregon, I shall never cease to love her, because her hardy sires and sons have delighted to honor Jo, the honest old hero, who is the very impersonification of the poet's idea--
    "An honest man is the noblest work of God."
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, July 31, 1851, page 2

    Gen. Lane left here on the morning of the 25th for the States. He informed us it was his intention to proceed at once to Washington, and make a representation of our various interests and wants to the government there--so that the President would be able to call the attention of Congress to them in his annual message next December. He then intends visiting his family in Indiana, previous to the assembling of Congress, and will bring them with him on his return to Oregon. The General was in most excellent health and spirits. He leaves with the undivided confidence of the people, and their prayers and their sympathies attend him.
    But few men of America occupy a more dignified and desirable position than General Lane does at this time. He is a self-made man--and emphatically the people's man.
    In April 1846, at his country's call, he left his home for the battle fields of Mexico, where he won unfading laurels as a consummate general and tactician. Scarce had he returned from the scene of his military glory before his services were required by his country as a civilian, as Governor of Oregon, and at three days' notice he was on his way to Oregon over mountains, through trackless snows of winter, and swimming the icy waters that intercepted his path.
    Leaving the States late in the season of '48 he arrived in Oregon and issued his proclamation on the 3rd of March 1849. He organized the Territorial Government, bringing order out of chaos, made treaties with the Indians, and in all things labored hard for the advancement of Oregon. Having been removed from his office, he never murmured, but like a true republican he turned his attention to retrieving his pecuniary affairs, and worked the golden mines of California and Oregon long and hard. In May last he returned, and at the solicitation of the people he consented to become a candidate for Delegate, to which office he was elected in June with but little opposition.
    Since then his services have been volunteered in whipping the Indians into submission at Rogue River--and he has now gone to represent Oregon in the councils of the nation. God speed him a safe and pleasant journey.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, July 31, 1851, page 2

Oregon City, July 26, 1851.
Editor Spectator:
    Sir--Your paper of July 22nd is before me, and in it I notice a communication purporting to come from the pen of one of the deserters from the Rifle Regiment in the winter of '49 and '50, containing some very green slanders upon the character of Jesse Applegate, Esq.
    I regret that I have not time to enter into a full history of the case and to wholly refute this most base attack.
    To those who know Mr. Applegate any denial of these charges is unnecessary, but persons unacquainted with him may be led to believe them if no reply is made.
    From the article alluded to, I quote as follows:
    "A party of these men, numbering 97, arrived at Mr. Applegate's in the beginning of March 1850, and remained there some fourteen days, during which time they expended with him, in the purchase of cattle and other necessaries, something over six hundred and fifty dollars. In addition to this they split him over four thousand rails and eight hundred clapboards, to be used in the improvement of his claim, for which nothing was asked, and he had not the liberality to offer a single cent of compensation. This took place on the party's progress on the route to California. On the return of the same men in a short time after, with Gov. Lane and Col. Loring, he did endeavor to detain and entice several of them to run away the second time, offering to conceal and furnish them with provisions and other necessaries until such time as all search for them might be discontinued, and then to assist them on their route to California."
    Being myself a member of Gov. Lane's party, I had an opportunity of knowing something about the matter in question, and know these charges to be wholly, totally and outrageously false.
    The deserters arrived in the Umpqua as stated, in March 1850, and immediately applied to Mr. Applegate to purchase beef, &c., at the same time plainly intimating that if he did not see fit to sell they would take what they wanted by force. He was alone and unprotected, and choosing the least of two evils he preferred to sell his cattle rather than be robbed of them.
    A portion of the men, however, had neither money nor provisions, and by reason of the inclemency of the weather were compelled to remain. To these Mr. Applegate (being compelled to feed them) proposed that they should work while they remained in the neighborhood, and receive a fair compensation for their labor. They accepted his proposition, and he and the other settlers employed them in making rails, for which they were paid $1 per hundred (and board). I saw Mr. A. pay a portion of the money myself ($18, I think).
    The clapboards mentioned were not made for Mr. Applegate, or ever used by him, but were made by the deserters for their own benefit, and used by them in building a shed to protect them from the rain and snow.
    The charge that Mr. A. endeavored to "entice several of them to run away a second time, offering to conceal them and furnish them with provisions," &c., &c., I know to be foully
and flagrantly false.
    Mr. A. never offered any inducements to the men to desert, but on the contrary endeavored (and in one or two instances succeeded) in persuading them voluntarily to return. He also gave to Gov. Lane and Col. Loring every assistance in his power in effecting their object of overtaking the men, and accompanied Col. Loring as far as the Klamath in the capacity of guide.
    I am at a loss to conjecture what could have been the motive of this perjured deserter in thus vilifying the character of a man who not only has never injured him, but on the contrary has often extended the rites of hospitality to his fellow soldiers and perhaps to himself.
[no signature]
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, August 5, 1851, page 2  On August 12 (page 2) the Spectator ran an apology for printing the letter in the July 22 issue.

    GEN. JOSEPH LANE.--This renowned hero of the Mexican War arrived in our city yesterday from Oregon, on his way to Washington, as Congressional Delegate from that Territory. He was warmly received by his hosts of friends and admirer, but "old Joe," who always wished to avoid display, took advantage of the first opportunity and ensconced himself with a few friends in a private house, much to the disappointment of many who wish to pay their respects to him. He looks in fine health and spirits, and we have no doubt will, in his civil capacity, render good service to his constituency. We regret that he has determined on leaving us so soon, but the General has been always celebrated for rapid movements.--San Francisco Star.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, August 19, 1851, page 2

    We were fortunately present last evening at a reunion at Jones' Hotel given by Gov. McDougal to Gen. Lane, "the Marion of the Mexican War," and Delegate from Oregon Territory. Captain Pearson was also present and a ring, a description of which appears in another column, was presented by Judge Norton on the part of the Governor to the chivalrous Captain. Gen. Lane, Senator Gwin, Holmes, McDougal, Morse, Broderick, Hays, Estell, Hutton and others enlivened the evening with their remarks.
    "The Lane that never turns" his back on friend or foe was the "bright particular star" of the evening, and interested all with his sensible remarks and apt anecdotes. God bless him and the Territory of Oregon that are honored in their representative--Star.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, August 28, 1851, page 2

Letter from Gen. Lane.
Panama, Aug. 21, 1851.
    I have the pleasure to inform you that I arrived in this city yesterday morning. I am much pleased with my trip; the very names of the boats on which I traveled were calculated to make the trip pleasant. I left on the Willamette. From Astoria to San Francisco I came on the Columbia, and from San Francisco to this place on the fine steamer Oregon. So I have just got out of, or rather off of, Oregon. Tomorrow morning I shall set out for Chagres. The most of our passengers have already gone; I delayed going for the reason that it is understood that no steamer will go from Chagres before the 25th, consequently I preferred staying here to staying in Chagres. The Oregon brought down four hundred passengers. From Cape St. Louis to near this place the weather was excessively hot. Yet notwithstanding the crowd of passengers and great heat we had but three deaths on the passage. One was a lady from near New Harmony, Ia. to California, where she was taken sick, and in that condition came on board. She was buried at Acapulco.
    Her husband, Mr. Wiltse, remained at that place for the purpose of getting his babe--only two months old when the mother died--nursed. Mr. Bush, of San Francisco, bound to Rochester, N.Y., came on board sick, said he should die, and did. The third was a young man who caused his death, as was supposed, by eating fruit at Acapulco.
    The Oregon has a lucky name, is a fine boat, and [is] commanded by a good sailor and popular gentleman, and has a worthy set of subordinate officers. The Willamette and Columbia are also fine boats, with first-class accommodations and gentlemanly and experienced officers.
    I have had the good fortune to fall in with Major Lee and Capt. Hardcastle, of the army, and Dr. Hewett, late surgeon of the army, all of whom I find to be honorable gentlemen and noble-hearted, chivalrous Americans. I shall have the pleasure of their company to the States. Hardcastle has been engaged in the boundary survey, and has acquitted himself with credit. He speaks well of Col. Weller, and says there was no good cause of removal, and that Weller's successor has expended some two hundred thousand dollars and done no good.
    My health is excellent.
Respy. yours
    JO. LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 30, 1851, page 2  This letter was reprinted in the Oregon Weekly Times on October 2.

    OREGON NEWS.--We see by the
Oregon Statesman that Gen. Joseph Lane is to be supported by the Democrats of Oregon, as Delegate to Congress. Gen. Lane was Governor of the Territory, and was for good cause removed by Gen. Taylor. His decapitation will give the Democrats all the grounds they wish for, in his support.--Springfield Republican, Whig.
    General Lane was supported by almost all citizens, without regard to party; and by them was triumphantly elected. The fact of his being removed was never alluded to, except playfully and good-naturedly by the General himself. The Oregonian was the first to advocate his election, and the effort of a certain journal to claim his election as an evidence of Democratic strength in Oregon is the veriest piece of party humbug that we have heard of for a long time; particularly as it came from a paper withholding from him its support until the eleventh hour.
Oregonian, Portland, October 4, 1851, page 2

Gen. Lane--His Supporters.
    The Statesman is laboring desperately at this time to gain the favor of General Lane. It is trying hard to make up for delinquency--for its coming out in his favor at the eleventh hour--after all three of the other papers had declared unconditionally in his favor. We think the Gen. has sense enough to understand such fealty and can appreciate fully the twattle of the eleventh-hour man. The Oregonian took the lead in favor of Gen Lane, the Times next--and then the Spectator and the last of all the Statesman. Yet he has the hardihood to cry over the General's election our, the Statesman's victory! "Oh! shame where is thy blush?! echo answers where!! Now, we do not court the favor of Gen. Lane, nor anyone else of the officials. He can have our support always if he does not violate the trust confided in him. But to say he can have it "right or wrong" is something he must not expect, much less count upon. He was not elected on party grounds. It is too fresh upon the minds of every person here for the cringing sycophant of the Statesman to pervert the facts and make anyone believe differently who was a resident of the Territory at the time. We repeat it, we ask no favor at his hands, save to serve well his country. That will please us and every other reasonable man.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 4, 1851, page 2

General Joseph Lane.
    We publish in another column a letter received from a gentleman in Oregon announcing the triumphant election of "the Marion of the Mexican War," as the delegate of Oregon to the next Congress. Every effort was made to defeat General Lane, but it was unavailing, and a tried and gallant soldier has been vindicated by his own people from the aspersions which political malice has sought to heap upon him.--Washington Union.
    We regret exceedingly to see such a gross perversion of facts as the above in a paper occupying the position of the Washington Union. It is characteristic of the vilest recklessness, and is not warranted even by the correspondence to which it alludes. The facts are, Gen. Lane was first taken up by the Oregonian (professedly Whig) some three or four months in advance of all the other papers, and the only opposition the General had to contend with was the two-penny opposition found in the person of Dr. W. H. Wilson, a brother Democrat, who was most gloriously defeated even in his own county, and who, when the votes were counted, could scarcely convince his friends that he had been a candidate. But immediately in the fact of all these facts, the Statesman would fain create the impression that his (Lane's) election depended mainly upon itself--whose support was only secured by the death of the Statesman's first love [Samuel R. Thurston]. Every paper in the Territory lent the General support, and the last to "give in" was the Statesman, "the eleventh-hour man." The second love of the veritable sheet is of the most enthusiastic order. We should not be surprised if it would go off "in a conniption."
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 4, 1851, page 2

For the Spectator.
Mr. Schneely,
    I have been noticing, for some time past, that the truth-loving editor of the Statesman has been laboring diligently to convince his readers that it was mainly through his instrumentality that the people's Delegate to Congress is indebted for the present elevated and responsible position which he now occupies. And it would seem, from his weekly quotations, that he had been successful in palming these willful deceptions off upon at least a portion of his foreign readers--that the election of Gen. Lane was warmly contested on party grounds, and that his opposers, the Whigs, had sustained a most disastrous and glorious defeat--that the only opposition with which he had to contend was of this complexion, but that he had been triumphant over all, by a majority, or voice of 2,000 freemen. I would ask this editor, by whom the General was first put in nomination, was it by the Statesman or those who adhered to its teachings? This community would answer, No; he was first nominated by a convention of the people assembled at Lafayette, Yamhill County, for the purpose of nominating a candidate, independent of party, to be run in opposition to the then incumbent. This convention was not composed of Democrats, for the majority of them declined any participation in its deliberations; accordingly the Whigs and a few Democrats who had assembled brought forward the name of Gen. Jos. Lane as their first choice for Delegate to Congress, who received the nomination without a dissenting voice.
    When the Oregonian, the only Whig paper published in the Territory, hoisted at its masthead the name of the veteran soldier, next the Star, a Democratic paper, that was then discarded by the Statesman, and its followers, came to the General's support. Shortly after the Spectator, neutral in its politics, volunteered its services in the Governor's cause. And a few days prior to the election, the Statesman editor found himself compelled by public sentiment to follow in the sentiments of his predecessors. The General, while canvassing the Territory, declared himself to be a Democrat, but he thought that the time had not arrived in Oregon when distinctions of a party character should be drawn. And it was his desire, owing to certain past political transactions, to receive nearly as possible the unanimous support of the people of Oregon, and, if elected, no party or particularly locality in the Territory need expect his services or favor to the exclusion of another. And if asked by the President or his cabinet with reference to the political views of persons appointed here to office, that he might be expected to speak the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Those were Gen. Lane's views as expressed by himself publicly while a candidate before the people, and I doubt not for a moment that those promises will be strictly adhered to. Now, where and by whom did the General meet with opposition? This is all perfectly understood in Oregon. The most violent effort to defeat the old soldier, the "Marion of the Mexican War," was in and around the late defunct capital, by men who profess
to be Democrats. Some of the would-be teachers of democracy in Marion County mounted the stump in opposition to the people's candidate and proclaiming from this pinnacle of fame that Gen. Lane was not worthy [of] the confidence of the people of Oregon! That moneys entrusted to his care by our government for disbursement he had converted to his own private use &c. Now, this is the only county, and those the only men who have organized themselves into what they term a Democratic party, and it is well known here at home that those organizers voted in mass against the Hon. Jos. Lane. But those foul calumniators who thus labored to deceive the people are marked, and can be pointed out for years to come as was Cain in the land of his banishment. But I fear this condemnation will be more than they can bear, for such officious worthies always have a very ravenous appetite for office, which the people will be sure never to gratify.
    O.T. Nov. 8.                MARION COUNTY.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 18, 1851, page 2

Headquarters, Pacific Division,
    Benicia, July 9, 1851.
WHEREAS, it has been represented that a great portion of the men who were induced to desert from the army of the United States have expressed a desire to return to the service, it is therefore announced to all deserters from the army in California and Oregon that a full pardon is extended to them--on condition that they will deliver themselves up at some military post on [or] before the 15th of September next--forfeit all pay and allowances that may have been due them at the date of their desertion, and make good the time lost.
    By order of Bvt. Brig. Hitchcock
(signed)    J. HOOKER,
                       Asst. Adj. General
July 29, 1851.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, December 9, 1851, page 2

    Gen. Lane has introduced a resolution in Congress, calling upon the government for the return of the Rifle Regiment, U.S.A., which were ordered out of Oregon at the earnest solicitation of the late delegate. This caused considerable debate, which we shall endeavor to publish next week.
Oregonian, Portland, April 10, 1852, page 2

General Lane's Letter.
    The Statesman of the 11th inst. publishes what purports to be a letter from Gen. Lane to Mr. Deady, the contents of which, if true, will only serve to do Gen. Lane serious injury, which, no doubt, the "association of gentlemen" desire. Every man will see at a glance that before O. C. Pratt and his echoes can stand at the head of the Democratic Party in Oregon, Gen. Lane must be politically slain. Therefore they parade a letter, in conspicuous array, which makes Gen. Lane GAINSAY the very things he often proclaimed to the people during his canvass for the office he now holds. The letter, no doubt, is a forgery, and designed for the double purpose of deceiving and guiling the people and giving the first blow towards Gen. Lane's destruction. We have too much confidence in Gen. Lane's patriotism and intelligence to believe that recent political movements made by such men as this "association of gentlemen," would induce him to give the lie direct to all his declarations against the policy of drawing party lines in Oregon. Gen. Lane was interrogated by King, O'Bryant & Co., on the day he addressed the people of this city, last May, as to his views of the location act. His answer then did not correspond with their desires, consequently, they all voted against him, and did all they could to defeat his election. The people of this county and the territory remember well the events which took place at the last June election; and the declarations made by Gen. Lane as to the course he should pursue if elected. They also remember very distinctly who opposed and who voted against him. Therefore we say this letter looks and smells very much like scores of willful and malicious falsehoods which have made their appearance in the columns of this same organ of the renowned "association of gentlemen," the Oregon Statesman.
Oregonian, Portland, May 13, 1852, page 2

    It will be recollected that one of the excuses conjured up by Tom Ewing & Co. for the removal of Gen. Joseph Lane as Governor of Oregon was that he had not been prompt in his reports to Washington. There was not a word of truth in the charge. But it is true that the department at Washington made no communication to the Governor during the eighteen months that he was on duty in that far remote region of the Republic. Yes, we forget, they did send him two communications; one was to inform him that an error had been found in his accounts whilst he was General in Mexico to the amount of five dollars cash. He had paid out the sum for some purpose which he was informed could not be allowed, and he was directed to pay over five dollars and no cents to some official in Oregon--a duty which the Governor promptly performed, taking a receipt for the same. Another communication informed him that the department at Washington had no further use for his services. The latter communication was in order and became a [political] party that was particularly opposed to proscription for opinion's sake.
    But that five dollars and no cents cash is a matter of more gravity, requiring a dispatch all the way to Oregon. It ought to be inquired into. Which of the Galphins got the money?--Louisville Courier.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, November 29, 1852, page 2

    "It will be remembered that Gen. Lane was the first victim of Whig proscription under Gen. Taylor."--Oregon Statesman.
    Another falsehood. Gen. Lane resigned before he had any notion of his removal.--Oregonian.
    Gen. Lane had notice of his removal, and the appointment of his successor, months before he resigned. This attempt of the odium of the act is as silly as futile. "Butcher Ewing," who was a member of Taylor's cabinet at the time Gen. Lane was decapitated, last winter defended the removal in the Senate of the U. States, and was seconded and sustained by every Whig member of that body.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, December 16, 1851, page 2

    Gen. LANE of Indiana, who is a Democratic and Reform Presidency seeker, has sold his fine estate of 1,000 acres, on the Ohio, to Judge Bryant. Both gentlemen are of Oregon, and it would seem that the General has a closer eye to the meadows on the Columbia than the Land Limitation Law.--Tribune.
Oregonian, Portland, December 20, 1851, page 3

Oregon Territory.
Circular of Hon. Joseph Lane, Delegate from Oregon, in reference
to the Settlement, Soil and Climate of Oregon Territory.
Washington City, January 1, 1852.
    The great number of letters I am constantly receiving, making inquiries in reference to the Territory of Oregon, has induced me to embody in the form of a circular such information as is usually desired, that I may thus be enabled to furnish it more promptly and more in detail than a due attention to my other public duties would allow me were I to endeavor to give a written answer to each. I hope this course will not be considered discourteous to my correspondents, for in pursuing it I will more effectually and satisfactorily serve them, which is my chief desire.
    Oregon is a mountainous country, interspersed with many extensive, rich and beautiful valleys, watered by cool, pure streams, having their sources among its snow-clad mountains. It is exceedingly healthy--no country is more so. The atmosphere is pure and the climate delightful, especially during the summer. From April to November there is but little rain, but a cool, gentle breeze blows almost perpetually from the north. The winters are rainy, but mild, for during this season warm south winds constantly prevail.
    The country is well watered, and the soil very fertile and well adapted to the growth of all the small grains, grasses, potatoes and other culinary vegetables--and yielding most abundantly, except Indian corn, which is not regarded as a successful crop. Many of the hills and mountains are covered with inexhaustible forests of fine timber, generally fir and cedar. Those forests frequently skirt the valleys and streams.
    As is well known, the Columbia is the only great river on the Pacific Slope, and stretches from the seacoast to the Rocky Mountains. From its mouth to the Cascades, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles, there is an uninterrupted navigation for vessels of the largest size. The Willamette empties into the Columbia about ninety miles from its mouth. This river is also navigable for the largest vessels to Portland, fifteen miles from its mouth, and many have ascended as high as Milwaukie, seven miles further.
    At the risk of some little repetition, it may not be deemed improper or unnecessary to give a more detailed and minute description of the valley of this and some of the other streams of Oregon.
    The Willamette Valley is bounded by the Coast Mountains on the west, and the Cascade Range on the east. The soil is excellent, and is not surpassed, if equaled, by any portion of the continent in its adaptation to the growth of wheat, rye and oats. Potatoes are produced in great abundance and of a superior quality, while wheat is invariably a certain crop, subject to none of the diseases and uncertainties peculiar to it in the States: it matures slowly, hence the grain is always full and plump, and the straw unusually solid and elastic, and not subject to fall. In consequence of the cool, dry summers, and the entire absence of rain during the harvest season, the farmer is enabled to gather in his grain without waste.
    This valley is about one hundred and fifty miles in length, and thirty-five in breadth, and is sparsely settled throughout its whole extent. Many fine locations are yet unoccupied which will richly repay the labor of the thrifty husbandman. Natural meadows, as yet untouched by the hand of cultivation, afford abundant and rich pasturage for immense herds of cattle. The valley is mostly prairie, skirted by beautiful groves of timber, while through its center runs the Willamette River.
    The Umpqua Valley is distant from the Willamette about twelve miles, and is separated from it by the Calapooia Mountain. It is about ninety miles in length and varies from five to thirty-five miles in width. It is made up of a succession of hills and dales and furnishes but little timber, yet abounds in a natural luxuriant growth of the richest grass.
    North and South Umpqua rivers run through this valley, and form a junction about forty miles from the bay of the same name. The entrance to this bay is found to be practicable, as many ships and steamers have crossed the bar at its mouth, finding from three to three and a half fathoms of water upon it, without the aid of pilots, buoys or lighthouses. A few slight accidents, however, have occurred for the want of such improvements. A port of entry has been established here, and appropriations have been made for a lighthouse and fog signals.
    This bay is destined to be an important point to the southern portion of Oregon; here will be the outlet for the produce of the Umpqua Valley, and, consequently, here will be its commercial city. Many pack trains are already employed in the transportation of goods and provisions from this point to the "gold diggings" on Rogue, Shasta and Scott rivers.
    Rogue River Valley, which takes its name from the river that passes through it, is about seventy miles by the main traveled route from the Umpqua. The valley is well watered by never-failing streams; the soil is generally good, and it is skirted and interspersed with groves of fine timber. As it borders upon a rich gold region, it must eventually become densely populated. As yet, however, it contains no white settlement, but is occupied by the Rogue River Indians, who have rendered it the seat of much trouble and suffering from their depredations.
    There is no portion of the Territory, and, indeed, I may almost add of the world, better adapted to grazing than this valley. In extent it is about fifty by thirty miles. Surrounded by mountains, the eye seldom rests upon a more beautiful, picturesque and romantic spot. It extends to within a few miles of the boundary between Oregon and California. These valleys all lie west of the Cascade Mountains, and south of the Columbia.
    There are also many small valleys, rich and fertile, in this part of the Territory, affording good inducements to settlers, and which no doubt will be speedily occupied so soon as suitable protection can be extended over them by the government.
    A very interesting portion of Oregon lies north of the Columbia, and is being rapidly settled. The Cowlitz, which rises in the Cascade Mountains, north of the Columbia, runs through a large tract of fine, arable land, entering the Columbia some forty or fifty miles from its mouth.
    A French settlement, of many years growth, commences near this river, about thirty miles from its mouth, and now embraces some large and valuable farms. Americans also, have, within the last six years, settled between it and the Chehalis, and are doing well. The country is level and fertile, and beautifully interspersed with prairies and timber.
    The valley of the  Chehalis is also fertile, and well adapted to cultivation. Between it and Puget Sound the country is level and well timbered, with occasional small prairies. This Sound is one of the safest and best harbors in the world. It affords fine ship navigation into an important portion of the Territory. Surrounded by a large district of country, rich in soil, with immense forests of the finest timber in the world, and combining many advantages, agricultural and commercial, it is destined to be, at no distant day, one of the most important points on the Pacific Coast. A low pass in the Cascade Mountains offers a route for a good road from the Sound to Fort Walla Walla, on the Columbia. Such a road would be important for military purposes, and would also be a great saving of distance and time to emigrants going to the Cowlitz and Chehalis rivers, Puget's Sound, or to any other point north of the Columbia. At present, emigrants are compelled to take the road across the Cascade Mountains, south of the Columbia, to Oregon City, from whence it is as far, by a road almost impassable, to Puget Sound as it would be from Walla Walla by the road suggested.
    There are, also, east of the Cascade Range, north and south of the Columbia, now in possession of the Indians, large districts of country finely adapted to grazing, with occasional good tracts of farming land, which will, no doubt, ere long be occupied by the whites.
    Oregon City is situated at the Great Falls of the Willamette. Steamboats run daily from this place to Portland, and those of a small class also run daily up the river, above the falls, from thirty to fifty miles, and in some instances, recently, as I am informed, they have even gone up one hundred and fifty miles. A small, judicious expenditure would render the river constantly navigable for such boats that distance.
    The population of Oregon, including the immigration of the last season, is probably twenty thousand. The immigration is rapidly increasing, owing not only to the natural advantages of the country, but the liberal provisions made for actual settlers by a late law of Congress. By that law liberal donations of lands are made to all who will settle upon them previous to the first day of December 1853. To a single man one hundred and sixty acres, and to a married man three hundred and twenty--one half in his own right and the other half to his wife in her own right, upon condition that they will live upon and cultivate it for four years.
    The population is of a substantial character, much better than is generally found in new countries. The people are enterprising, industrious, frugal and orderly. Many of the earlier settlers have large well-cultivated farms; indeed, agriculture everywhere in the Territory may be said to be in a flourishing condition, remarkably so for a new country. California and the Sandwich Islands afford markets and good prices for all our surplus products, and will undoubtedly for years to come.
    Many of the various religious denominations have established churches in the Territory, to some one of which the majority of the settlers belong. Great interest has also been manifested by the people in the establishment of good schools, and admirably have they succeeded in their laudable efforts. The Institute at Salem, under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Academy at Tualatin Plains, under the control of the Presbyterians, are excellent and flourishing institutions. There are also two female institutes in Oregon City. Portland, Lafayette and other small towns have good schools. Indeed, they are common in the country wherever the population will justify them. A grant of land was made by the last Congress for the endowment of a university--the site of which has been fixed by the Territorial Legislature at Marysville.
    The Indians immediately bordering on or near the settlements are perfectly friendly and well-disposed; settlers have nothing to fear from them. Those upon Rogue River are troublesome to persons passing through their country, and will probably continue so until a garrison shall be established to overawe and keep them in subjection. This I hope will soon be done, for their depredations upon travelers have already caused much trouble and suffering. They are upon the great thoroughfare from Oregon to California, a fork of which leads to Fort Hall, being the road frequently traveled by emigrants from that point to Oregon.
    Emigrants have the past year suffered considerably from the Snake Indians, who infest the great road west from Fort Hall, and who are scattered over a large extent of territory through which the road passes. The establishment of a garrison in their country is essentially necessary for the maintenance of peace, and the protection of the lives and property of persons passing to and from Oregon. A number of emigrants have, during the past season, been murdered by the Indians, and many of their animals and other property stolen from them. Emigrants should exercise great care and prudence in passing through this district of country, and they should remember that it is essential to their safety, upon all parts of this road, that in no case should they suffer themselves to be taken by surprise, or the least advantage had of them by the Indians, for the least carelessness, or want of proper precaution, often seriously endangers the safety of not only their property but their lives.
    Those who contemplate emigrating to Oregon should be ready to leave St. Joseph, on the Missouri River, with a proper outfit, by the first day of May. Ox teams are much to be preferred. Provisions for the trip, and sufficient blankets for bedding, with such tools only as are necessary to repair a wagon, should be taken. Each man should also carry his gun and plenty of ammunition. The journey is a long and tedious one, and all who undertake it must expect to endure fatigue, privations and hardships. I would advise every person, or at least every company, to procure Palmer's Emigrants' Guide. It correctly lays down the fords across the streams, the camping grounds, and also the places where grass, wood and water can be found. No article not necessary for the journey should be taken, as there is great danger of overloading and breaking down the teams.
    Dry goods, groceries, furniture and farming utensils of all kinds are abundant in Oregon, and no one should think of taking such things with them. It must not, however, be supposed that no inconveniences are to be experienced by emigrants after they arrive there. These are always incident to the settlement of new countries, especially for the first year, but they are fewer in Oregon than are usual in the settling of new territories.
The Sabbath Recorder, Alfred Center, New York, March 11, 1852, page 156

Speech of Hon. Joseph Lane.
    In the House, Feb. 10th, a debate took place upon Gen. Lane's resolution calling upon the President to provide protection for the emigrants bound for Oregon. The following is the resolution: [The debate actually took place on February 9.]
    Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested to communicate to the House what steps, if any, have been taken to ensure the protection of emigrants en route to Oregon, against the depredations of the Indians of that Territory, and in case no steps have been taken for that purpose, that he be requested to cause the regiment of mounted rifles to be placed upon duty within the Territory of Oregon; the service for which said troops were created--and that he cause a portion of said regiment to be posted upon the main emigrant road from St. Joseph, on the Missouri, between Fort Hall and the Dalles of the Columbia River, and the remainder thereof to be posted in the Rogue River Valley, on the road from Oregon to California, said troops being necessary for the protection of emigrants and others traveling said road.
    Mr. Haven, of New York, moved a reconsideration on the ground that it gave directions [to the President of the United] States with reference to the mode of employing the military force of the United States, whereupon Gen. Lane said:
    I called upon the President in person, and the House is aware that he is of the opinion that the Army is too small to afford all the protection that is necessary for that country, and that he has recommended an increase of the Army. I called upon the Secretary of War recently relative to this matter, and asked him if any troops could be sent to that country to afford protection to the emigrants bound to Oregon this season? I have received no definite answer from either of them. The President feels friendly disposed towards that country; and I have no doubt he is anxious to do his duty. I make no charges at all. But I charge that the rifle regiment has been diverted from the purpose for which it was raised and organized. It ought not to have been ordered to Texas, if it has been done.
    I say to the gentleman from Texas that if an order has been issued from the Department here, ordering that regiment to Texas, it ought not to have been done. It was not raised for Texan service, nor for the protection of the boundary between Mexico and the United States; and I can say another thing to the gentleman from Texas, that they there are not in an exposed condition as are the people of Oregon, and as are the people of the States on their way there; and I know that it is an easy matter in Texas to raise a force of sufficient numbers to whip all the Indians who may make any attempt upon their settlements. I know there is no state more gallant, or a people more ready to turn out on duty at a moment's warning, than the people of Texas. I know their ability to defend themselves, and that all they want is to know that their services are needed, and they are ready to go out and destroy the Indians. But how is it with Oregon? In that portion of Oregon, for which I ask protection, there are not any settlements within seven hundred miles. The population even in the settled portion of Oregon is small; and can this House for a moment expect them to raise a force of five hundred or even three hundred men, and send them out with subsistence seven hundred miles from a settlement? Emigrants bound to Oregon, when once within the settlements, are as safe as they would be in Washington City. But look at the district of country they are to pass over to get there; and who is to give them protection? Can the people of Oregon turn out and do it, but recollect that every man's time is worth five dollars a day to him. Now, if you want to raise a force you must first say to the volunteer that you will give him five dollars a day, and find him horse, arms and equipment. And is that Territory, with only three thousand voters, able to do that, and can they extend to the country the protection which it ought to have? Why induce people to go there? Since I have been here I have received thousands of letters making inquiries about Oregon, and making known to me that certain persons in the neighborhood of the writers were making preparations to start for Oregon. And every man who has made up his mind to go there this year must leave the settlements soon, and be at St. Joseph with every necessary for outfit on the way, by the first of May next. Can we begin, at this late moment, to authorize the raising of the force required, arm it, and get it ready in time to render them the necessary assistance? No, sir, we cannot; and if we fail to do it, what will be the result? Let me tell you, it will be the tomahawking, in the most cruel and barbarous manner, of the men, women, and children, and helpless families, who have been induced to go to Oregon, and that, too, after a regiment has been raised for the specific purpose of protecting them. Why should it be ordered to Texas? I am not sure that such an order has been made. If it has been, I ask, in the name of the people who will be exposed to Indian depredations, that it be countermanded, and let the regiment go to Oregon, where it should go, and where it is the duty of the President to send it. If he fails to do it, I shall never cease to say that, in my judgment, he has failed to do his duty. I am sure that it will be wrong to divert that regiment from that country. The regiment arrived in Oregon at a time and under circumstances the most unfavorable. It was just at the time of the breaking out of the great gold excitement, and in the midst of that excitement many of the privates abandoned the service, disgraced themselves by forsaking their flag and going off in search of gold. But a portion of them did not desert, and a sufficient number were left to afford all the protection necessary for that country. They said, "We have enlisted for this service, and will remain and serve out our time, get our discharge, and then become citizens of this country." While the regiment was in that condition, and able to render service to the country, and afford the protection we needed, they were ordered from that country to this; and from what the gentleman from Texas now says, I suppose it is ordered to Texas, and is now upon the way thither. If so, it is all wrong. A portion of that regiment, contrary to justice, contrary to law, in my judgment--I am no lawyer, but if I make a declaration which is not warranted, I wish some good lawyer to correct me--I say a portion of that regiment, raised for service in the Oregon Territory, before they were ordered out of it, were transferred from that regiment into the dragoon service, and ordered into California. That was, in my judgment, a violation of the contract between the government and the soldier, and would, I have no doubt, have entitled him to his discharge, if he had taken the proper steps for that purpose in due time. Nevertheless, the transfer for the time being was fortunate for us, because it gave us their invaluable services a few weeks longer than we would have had them if they had gone off with the rifles. It happened to be just at the time the troubles broke out among the Rogue River Indians, when our people were being murdered by them, when they were thus transferred from the rifles to the dragoon service. The troops thus transferred consisted of two companies, one commanded by Captain Walker, the other by the gallant and lamented Stewart, who, after covering himself with unfading laurels in Mexico, unfortunately fell in that distant land, in defense of his exposed countrymen. The people of Oregon will ever cherish his memory, and I hope and believe they will, as they ought, erect a monument to perpetuate it.
    Those troops, the whole being under the command of Major Kearny, moved in the direction of the Indian troubles; and it was my fortune, with a few gallant Oregonians, to fall in with them then, also including some brave volunteer Californians, and witness and participate in the service which followed. But for those troops, who remained only two weeks in the country, and at the seat of Indian trouble, the whole outside settlements would have been crushed. But they gave the Indians a severe flogging and a severe chastisement, such a one as has kept them, up to the present time, in that quarter, apparently friendly, though they have killed a few whites since; but that is so frequent an occurrence that we hardly think of asking this government to avenge it. The killing of one or two men is no unusual thing there; but we take care of these comparativly small disturbances ourselves. But when it is evident that there is a general hostility, as there is now, it is the imperative duty of the Government to interpose and give us aid.
    Now, while I am speaking of that Indian war in which Captain Stewart fell, I would like to say to South Carolinians, of which state he was a native, that he was an ornament to that gallant state; that he was the best officer of his age in the American Army, and more familiar with the duties of an officer than any young man in the Army. He had distinguished himself in every battle he was in in Mexico--and he was in nearly all of them--and fell fighting for the people of Oregon. I learned, about the time of his death, that a portion of his salary was annually or quarterly devoted to the benefit of his mother, now, I learn, living in this district. I hope that some friend of that man will take care to propose that a pension be granted to that mother; a mother who bore such a noble son is entitled, in my opinion, to the benefit of a pension.
    But I am wandering from the subject. Now, as to the resolution, if there is anything in it, any wording of it that is not just right, I am willing to change it. I do not ask to direct the President of the United States. He is the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United States, and I do not want to abridge his authority. I want to request him simply. If the word request is not in the resolution, I want it inserted. I want to draw the attention of the President to it, and request him, in the most respectful manner, to extend to the people of Oregon Territory that protection which they are entitled to, and that he will send out that regiment to Oregon, which was raised by a law of Congress for that service. Now, to undertake to raise a regiment, and get them on the ground in time to protect emigrants this year, is out of the question. No such thing can be done. If members of this House are willing to afford this protection, they must request the President, or the President must do it without request, to send out some troops now in the field, and who are regularly in the service.
    If you let it go this year, there is no certainty of getting them the next; and when will we get that protection our citizens need and demand? I am satisfied myself, that the Army is sufficiently large for all purposes. Are there not more troops stationed along the southern states than are needed there? Why are troops needed in the old states of the Union? Why not send them where they will be on duty, affording protection to the unsettled portions of our country? Or is it that Oregon is too far off, and nothing is cared for the people out there? I am satisfied that there are enough in the regular Army, properly distributed, to afford all the protection that Texas may need, without calling upon her gallant sons to turn out, and to defend themselves. That, however, they have been in the habit of doing ever since an American lived there. They are enough to afford protection to Texas, and also to emigrants en route for Oregon. Why not let the rifles come to Oregon--let the troops who have enlisted for that service serve out their time there? Now, let me again ask that the resolution be amended so as to make the resolution read "request" instead of "direct," wherever it may occur. I trust the vote to reconsider will not prevail.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, April 17, 1852, page 2  The speech can also be found on page 508 of the Congressional Globe for the first session of the 32nd Congress.

The Determined Grumblers.
    One of the curtained editors of the Oregonian continues the attacks upon, and misrepresentation of, Gen. Lane in the last number. He says:
    "Is not Oregon possessed of interests which might not profitably be looked after by the general government? She has rivers and harbors--the property of the United States--which, as far as sound policy in the government might justify, should be improved with lighthouses and the safe means of a safe navigation. She receives an annual addition to her numerical force of several thousand, who cross a barren plain of two thousand miles--through hostile Indian tribes against whom their government have instituted no defense--And why are these things so?"
    And there have already been appropriations made for lighthouses in Oregon, and the work is now under contract. For the reason it has not been before commenced, ask the federal department at Washington.
    The resolute effort of Gen. Lane to get troops upon the emigrant road in time to protect the immigration of the present season is well known. His speech in the House on that subject we published several months since. And he only desisted in his efforts to obtain protection from Congress when solemnly promised by the federal Secretary of War that the would immediately order troops upon the route, and in time to effect Gen. Lane's object, the protection of the immigration which is now entering the valley. That promise was utterly violated; for the reason why, as the federal Secretary at Washington. After having been deceived by him, Gen. Lane has again caused the matter to be brought to the notice of Congress, and by reference to the proceedings of that body, which we publish today, it will be seen that they have a bill under consideration which provides a remedy for this grievance.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 11, 1852, page 2

Gen. Lane
    Has been addressing the Democracy of Jefferson County, Virginia, at the Sulfur Springs. A correspondent of the Baltimore Sun says:
    "Gen. Lane and Mr. Ingersoll are both sojourning at Jordan Springs. The former is one of the most gentlemanly, plain and unassuming men I ever saw, and is just what a brave American soldier should be, but an uncompromising Democrat. The general is no mean orator, and the Democracy may safely rely on him as their champion in the cause, for he talks about as well as he fights."
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 16, 1852, page 1

    The Indiana papers publish the following letter from Gen. Lane in reply to an application to join a company under his guidance to proceed to Oregon next spring by the overland route. It is addressed to D. H. Long, Brownstown, Idn.:
    DEAR SIR: Yours of the 17th is before me. I have no intention of forming an exclusive company for Oregon. I have not concluded whether to go by land or water to the country. Should I, however, take the overland route, I shall go as other emigrants, with such company as I may chance to fall into.
    Respectfully, your obedient servant,
Evansville Daily Journal, Indiana, January 22, 1853, page 2

Gen. Lane in the House.
    We give the following letter from an old and respectable citizen of Oregon, who happened to be at Washington on the day that the Oregon matters were disposed of--not only to show the opinion of a man that was previously prejudiced against Gen. Lane, but at the same time to give our readers some idea of how attentive and interested he is for Oregon. It will be seen that he was cool and deliberate--was on the battle ground early, and inspired confidence in his friends by his personal presence and offhand speeches. The 8th day of February was a great day of victory for him, and for Oregon. He displayed as good tactics on this occasion as on the morning of the 22nd Feb., 1847, when he opened the battle of Buena Vista.
    Feb. 8, 1853.
Editor of Oregon Times:
    I am induced to give you the incidents of this day. I arrived here at 6 o'clock this morning. At 10 o'clock I called upon our Delegate from Oregon, and was politely and most cordially received by him. After the solicitous inquiries respecting old friends and acquaintances in Oregon, Gen. Lane remarked to me that the "Oregon Land Law" would come up today in the House and also the proposition to divide the Territory. I at once determined to go to the House and see for myself how we were represented. Our Delegate in the morning manifested a great deal of anxiety and sent his friend and little son to request, as a special favor, that certain members whom he knew to be friendly to Oregon, and had assisted him thus far in his efforts for Oregon, would not forsake him in the hour of trial. We went at an early hour to the House, and our Delegate was not idle. He besought of one as a favor that he would not oppose this bill, of another that he would give it his cordial support, of another to help get it through as a matter of importance to the welfare of the Territory.
    To accomplish this, he was in his place an hour in advance of the time for the House to meet. The House met and our Delegate continued his labors--going from member to member while the Journal was being read, and up to the time the Oregon Bill was announced by the Speaker as the first business before the House. On this announcement by the Speaker, in an instant, not less than ten voices shouted, "Mr. Speaker!" The Speaker gave the floor to Mr. Jones of Tennessee, who withdrew the objection which he had previously made to the bill. There were several attempts made to stave off the question, but it was evident that the silent and personal efforts of Gen. Lane had secured a reliable support, and every division and vote showed that he was gaining his point. He was also ready to put in a short speech at the right point--which told, for I noticed when the Chairman announced that the gentleman from Oregon had the floor, that the members laid aside their newspapers to listen--and all appeared not only willing, but anxious to hear all he had to say. I am fully satisfied that the influence of our Delegate is more than that of any man that could be sent--from what I saw in his management of his Land Bill, and the division of the Territory.
    I had, with many others of our citizens, been under the impression that our Delegate was not doing for us as much as we expected of him. In this impression, I am frank to acknowledge, I was very wrong. I believe he is doing all in his power for our Territory--and is doing more in proportion for us than any other Delegate for any other Territory can do. He says but little, but gets the more--and was listened to with more attention than any member I heard speak in the House.
    He tells me positively that he shall start for Oregon by water as early as the 20th of March.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, April 2, 1853, page 2

JACKSONVILLE, March, [1853]
    EDITOR TIMES:--Enclosed please find $20 for subscriptions to the Times and send them all in one package to my address. There have been great calls for your paper here of late--since your bringing out of Gen. Lane for the Democratic nomination--no other Democrat can poll half the vote here that he can, and no Whig can make a respectable show against him. He is an old miner as well as soldier, and has shared the hardships and dangers attendant upon the first attempts to settle this wild and savage section. My word for it, "Old Joe" will sweep the mines like a prairie on fire. Indeed, no one else is much talked of here with the exception of Judge Skinner, whom the Whigs intend to run.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, April 2, 1853, page 3

    Governor Lane with his family arrived at San Francisco on the 5th inst., in the steamer Sierra Nevada, en route for Oregon.
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, May 14, 1853, page 2

    We have received, per Adams & Co., the Oregon papers up to the 14th inst. They are usual very interesting to people not residents of the territory, being filled with discussions of the local politics, and the most bitter personal invectives. The great bone of contention seems to be Gen. Jo. Lane. While one paper would deify the new Governor, another would immolate him. If his friends do not kill him with praise he can probably survive the attacks of his enemies. For our part we could stand the latter much better than the former.

"From Oregon," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, May 20, 1853, page 2

Correspondence of the Oregon Weekly Times.
From The South.
ALTHOUSE, May 1st, 1853.
    FRIEND WATERMAN: In pursuance of a call from the Democratic Central Committee, the Democracy of Althouse met today, for the purpose of listening to a speech from the Hon. John R. Hardin, long connected with the interests and success of the Democratic Party. The meeting was large, and Mr. H. was listened to with a degree of interest and attention seldom exhibited by a public audience. He urged the Democracy to unite in the support of Gen. Lane, the nominee of the Democracy of the Territory. He canvassed the claims of Judge Skinner for the office of Delegate, and after giving a history of his Indian treaties, concluded by saying that if he should display an equal talent in making laws in Washington City, he would certainly make a good Delegate--over the left.
    The Hon. G. R. Cole, being present, was then called out. He made an urgent appeal to the Democracy to rally round the standard of their party and elect Gen. Lane by a triumphant majority. He spoke of Judge Skinner as being a candidate of the "people," and showed conclusively that a "people's party" was always a "Whig party." He warned the Democrats against being caught by that same old trick to which the Whigs have so often resorted. After which he discussed the claims of the two candidates for the Delegateship. He referred to Gen. Lane's course in Mexico--to his position in Congress--to his efforts and success in obtaining the passage of acts for the promotion of the interests of the Territory--and he alluded to the reception Gen. Lane had met with everywhere, on his return to the States.
    Others who were candidates for different county offices followed, and the meeting broke up with much good feeling, and with the determination to make Jackson the banner county of Democracy.
    Messrs. Hardin and Cole are not candidates for any office, but have promised to devote all their time and energies, from this until the election, in canvassing the southern portion of the Territory for Jo Lane.
Yours truly,
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, May 21, 1853, page 1

    Gen. Lane was hourly expected at Portland. His arrival was to be signalized by the firing of a national salute of 13 guns.
"From Oregon," Sacramento Daily Union, May 23, 1853, page 2

    Maj. L. F. Mosher, from Cincinnati, Ohio, arrived last steamer in company with Gen. Lane. The Major, we are happy to say, has stuck his stakes in this city, where he will practice the profession of the law. And it might not be out of place to remark that he ranked high in the profession at Cincinnati, and we predict for him a most brilliant and useful career here--as brilliant as were his services as an officer in the Mexican war, when led by Gen. Lane, the "Marion" of that service.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, May 28, 1853, page 2

    For Delegate to Congress, there are two candidates, Gen. Lane and "Judge" Skinner. Gen. Lane is a Democrat, undisguised; the nominee of the Democratic Party, and runs as the exponent of their principles. He shows no false colors, and attempts no deception. He is a man of affirmative character, of great mental and physical energy--full of life and vigor--Whatever he does, he does "with all his might," and whatever he undertakes, he performs. He knows "no such word as fail." He has a reputation as a spotless Democrat and an honest man, as wide as the extent of our nation. He is the warm personal and confidential friend of the President, and of many if not all the heads of departments. All have unbounded confidence in his political and general integrity. He is the political friend of the ruling party in Congress, and the valued personal friend of many of the individual members. He has had much legislative experience in Indiana, and represented Oregon in the last Congress--has thus become familiar with her wants, and the means of obtaining them. He knows the members of Congress--knows who are the earnest friends of the Territories, who indifferent, and who hostile. In the last Congress he accomplished more for Oregon than did the delegates from all the other Territories for their constituencies. No well-informed man can doubt that he can accomplish far more in the next.
    Opposed to him is A. A. Skinner, a clever
man, in the American sense of the word. A harmless, inoffensive citizen, against whom, as such, nothing can be said; far is it from our wish that anything should be. His is a negative character, so far as he has any, which makes neither warm enemies or friends. Men have little for or against him. His mental capacity is, to say the most, extremely moderate, and his mind, like his body, having for a lifetime remained dormant, has in a great degree become torpid, and to some extent ceased to function. He is an embodiment of idleness, inertness, and inefficiency, and he is as much distinguished for either, as for his proverbial cleverness. He is as destitute of resolution, life, or energy, as men "ever get to be." An effort of mind or body is made with reluctance, made seldom, and not long continued. . . . His own impulses and motives are honest enough, but he has not the courage and firmness to resist the influences which surround him and carry out his convictions of right. Thus he can be and has been made the passive instrument of wrong. When, in times past, he attempted to act the "judge," this defect in the man, we are told, was often remarked. And later, Gaines availed himself of it, and made him the passive participant in the corrupt squandering of $40,000 in the Indian treaty swindle.
"The Interests of Oregon,"
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, May 21, 1853, page 2

    IS GEN. LANE A CITIZEN OF OREGON?--The Sewer has had a good deal to say about "Gen. Lane of Indiana," and grave surmises and hints that he would never bring his family to the Territory have been thrown out. The last steamer brought, we believe, every member of his family, near and remote, numbering twenty-nine. That looks strongly as though the old General intended to make Oregon his permanent residence. His Encarnacion friends, who have been so apprehensive that he would not settle his family here, will doubtless be gratified to learn that the male members, with one exception, are Democrats, "good and true."

Oregon Statesman,
Oregon City, May 21, 1853, page 2

    Gov. Lane, who has resigned the position of Governor of Oregon, to run for Congress on the regular Democratic ticket, and Mr. Skinner, his opponent, running on the "People's Ticket," had a discussion before the people of Jacksonville on the 31st of May.
"From Jacksonville and Yreka," Shasta Courier, Shasta, California, June 11, 1853, page 3

    Gen. Lane and family are on their way to his claim in Umpqua Valley, near Winchester.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, July 2, 1853, page 2

Oregon Correspondence.
SALEM, OREGON, June 25, 1853.
    ED. JOURNAL:--The election of delegate to Congress, which has just closed, has resulted in the choice of Gen. Lane by a majority of about 1,600. As it may not be uninteresting to many of your readers, I will give you a statement of the vote in some of the principal counties:
Marion 709 301
Linn 479 251
Polk 319 184
Yanhill 589 493
Washington 560 566
    Party lines are quite closely drawn. A few of the counties are Whig, but a majority of them are Democratic. Some idea of the growth of Oregon may be formed from the fact that in 1849 the vote for Delegate did not exceed 700; in 1851 it was 2,500; in 1853 it reaches 8,000, notwithstanding the vote of Washington Territory has been taken from it. Such an increase is unexampled in the history of any state or territory except California.
    The people of Oregon are remarkable for their hospitality and general cordiality of manners in their intercourse with each other and with strangers. Strangers! There are no strangers here; none of that cold reserve and distance of manner which marks the intercourse of people in the older states. Nor is there undue familiarity, but a respectful frankness and warmth of manner, quite refreshing to those who have left all old acquaintances behind, and find themselves among persons whose faces they have never seen before. Lonely indeed would be the situation of the emigrant on his arrival, were it not for this welcome extended to him by the Oregonians; but whatever of homesickness he may feel at first soon gives place to entire satisfaction and contentment. No person that I have seen, who has been here a few months, is willing to leave and return to the States.
    The country of the Umpqua which is now attracting some attention I will endeavor to describe. It differs in its external aspect very little from the other parts of Oregon. It is composed for the most part of inconsiderable hills, not connected with any chain of mountains, but which rise in gentle undulations from the generally level surface of the country. The valleys are narrow, but of no great depth; and at their bottoms flow little streams which glide by a gentle descent to the Umpqua River, or to the neighboring ocean. Near the ocean and as we approach the Cascade Range of mountains, the scenery assumes a bolder character. The Umpqua, near its mouth, flows in a deep and rocky bed amid everchanging rocks and woods; but nearer its source the declivities are more gentle, and extensive valleys reward the labors of the cultivator. Some persons prefer this part of Oregon to any other, but most, I believe, prefer the Willamette Valley.
    There are three newspapers published in Oregon; one of them Whig, the other two Democratic. They are now engaged in a triangular fight, all of them having agreed to disagree, and have a shot or two at each other. A reader of their editorials is reminded of the triangular duel described in a novel called "Midshipman Easy" in which Easy fired at Biggs, Biggs at Eastup, and Eastup at Easy. There seems, however, in the last few numbers, a disposition on the part of the Whig paper and one of the Democracy to form an alliance offensive and defensive against the Statesman, the Democratic paper published at Salem, and which is the official paper of the Territory, and the ablest. The weapons used in this controversy are such as are usual in newspaper warfare--argument, abuse, sarcasm, wit, ridicule. Mr. Bush the editor of the Statesman, has great skill in political controversy, nor does he shrink from personalities where personalities are necessary. His assailants are antagonists not to be despised.
Evansville Daily Journal, Evansville, Indiana, August 17, 1853, page 2

Winchester, Aug. 17, 1853.           
    Dear Bush:--At 1 o'clock this morning I received by express per Mr. Ettlinger a letter from Rogue River, confirming the news which recently reached us of war with the Indians in that vicinity, of a more serious character than any heretofore with the tribes of that quarter. Dr. Rose, Jno. R. Hardin and several others have been killed, and a large amount of property destroyed.
    It is believed that the Klamath, Shasta and Rogue River tribes have united, determined to destroy the settlements, Jacksonville and all. They are, it seems, well armed, having purchased many good rifles from the miners; they have also a good supply of ammunition, consequently they are formidable. The whites on the contrary are scarce of arms and ammunition. I shall be off for the scene of troubles in a few minutes.
    In great haste, your ob't. serv't.
        JO LANE.
"Indian War in Rogue River," Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 23, 1853, page 2

Treating with the Southern Indians.
    By the letters which we published last week our readers have learned that the 1st inst. was fixed upon by Gen. Lane to consider a proposition for a treaty of peace made by the Indians, and that Gen. Palmer, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, had been sent for. The time of receiving the dispatch would hardly have enabled him to be there, however.
    The result of that contemplated conference we have not heard, but it is quite probable that it resulted in a postponement, on account of the presumed absence of the Superintendent, or in non-action and a consequent renewal of hostilities.
    As to the policy of treating with these Indians, we are not prepared to express an opinion, removed as we are from the scene of troubles, and, quite likely, misunderstanding to some extent the causes and nature of the difficulties. Our impulses are, if not for extermination, against a treaty until they have been thoroughly chastised and subdued. And such we apprehend is the case with a great majority of the public. But we have, and we believe all have, unbounded confidence in Gen. Lane's judgment in the matter, and no fear that he will advise a treaty against justice or the interests of the whites. He is on the ground; he understands those Indians and the difficulties existing there, and has been familiar with them for the past three years. Indian fighting with him, if the revenge of wrongs or the safety of citizens demand it, is pastime. And if the southern tribes deserve extermination, or the safety of the inhabitants of that quarter demand it, we know that Gen. Lane will be foremost in the fray, and "in at the death" of the last Indian. If such shall be his conclusion, no treaty has been or will be recommended by him. Or if he shall deem a severe chastisement sufficient, and necessary, treaties will not meet his approbation till they have had it to their thorough subdual. With his superior knowledge of the Indian character, of the character of those particular tribes and the history of this and former difficulties with them, and his oft-tested will to visit their crimes with the most ample vengeance, we are more willing to trust his judgment in the matter and manner of a settlement than our own. And such we believe is the sentiment of Oregon.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 13, 1853, page 2

    The wound received by Gen. Lane, in the fight on the 24th, was on the same arm and just above that received in Mexico.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 27, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane was in Rogue River at last dates, endeavoring to effect a treaty with the Taylor Indians, who, in consequence of the bad faith shown them, declined to treat. If he accomplished his object in time, he will pass through this valley to Washington. But if not he purposed proceeding to San Francisco by land.

Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 27, 1853, page 2

Jacksonville, Sept. 13, 1853.       
    Mr. Editor:--The attempt of a few persons who were dissatisfied with Gen. Lane's course in relation to the treaty, to get up an indignation meeting here on last evening, proved an entire failure, consequently some of our valiant men in talk were disappointed in not finding an opportunity to let off steam.
    A drunken loafer who never saw powder burnt rode through our streets yesterday, bawling at the top of his voice, "Ten dollars reward to the ladies of Jacksonville if they will present Jo Lane with a petticoat." All observers pitied the poor creature and regarded him as a hero who had purchased his patriotism for a quarter at the neighborhood doggery.
    The people are becoming satisfied with the treaty and are returning to their homes. There are some suspicions that the Indians have more credit for house burning than they are entitled to. The Indians say that a "Boston" was in their camp a few nights before the battle and furnished them with ammunition and advised them what course to pursue. They refuse to give his name. It will not be healthy for him if he is found out.
    Capt. Alden and others who were wounded are fast recovering. Mining business has been entirely suspended, but is beginning to be resumed.
    Never having seen Gen. Lane, my curiosity prompted me to visit his camp day before yesterday. Having seen generals in the States togged out in epaulets, gold lace, cocked hats and long, shining swords, I expected to find something of the kind at "headquarters." But fancy my surprise on being introduced to a robust, good-looking middle-aged man, with his right arm in a sling, the shirt sleeve slit open and dangling bloody from his shoulder, his nether extremities cased in an old pair of grey breeches that looked as though they were the identical ones worn by Gen. Scott when he was "exposed to the fire in the rear." One end of them was supported by a buckskin strap in the place of a suspender, while one of the legs rested upon the top of the remains of an old boot. His hair so twisted, tangled and matted that it would have frightened the teeth out of a currycomb, and set all tonsorial expectations at defiance, was surmounted by the remains of an old forage cap, which, judging from its appearance, might have been worn at Braddock's defeat. This composed the uniform of the old hero who never surrendered.
    The "quarters" were in keeping with the garb of the occupant, it being a rough log cabin about 16 feet square with a hole in one side, called a door, and destitute of floor or chimney. In one corner lay a pile of sacks filled with provisions for the troops, in another a stack of guns of all sizes, sorts and caliber, from the old French musket down to the fancy silver-mounted sporting rifle, while in the third sat an old camp kettle, a frying pan, a coffee pot minus a spout,
about a dozen old banged-up tin cups, four pack saddles, a dirty shirt, one old shoe, and a moccasin. The fourth corner occupied by a pair of blankets said to be the Genl.'s bed, and on a projecting puncheon just over it lay some articles said to be ammunition for the stomach in the shape of a chunk of raw beef and a wad of dirty dough. In the center of the "quarters" was a space about four feet square for the accommodation of guests. Such being the luxuries of a general's quarters, you may judge something how privates have fared in the war.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, September 27, 1853, page 2

Superintendent Dart--A Lie Nailed.
    The following correspondence will explain itself. The opponent of Gov. Lane was Mr. Skinner, an agent of Supt. Dart, and hence the slander against the latter-named worthy officer. Sat. Clark, during the session of the late legislature in this state, retailed similar slanders against Mr. Dart. Owing to their origin, however, little or no credit was attached to them.
    Mr. Dart, we learn, is about sailing for Europe.

Washington, Sept. 5, 1853.
    Sir--I am informed from what appears to be a reliable source that Gov. Joseph Lane while canvassing for reelection as delegate to Congress stated publicly both at Salem and Albany in Oregon in May last that I was guilty of having used government money for private purposes, and that I was a defaulter to the government for a large amount &c.
    Will you please to inform me whether Gov. Lane derived information from the Indian Office that would warrant the above statement? If not, whether there is any evidence of the truth of such a statement in your office?
    I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obt. servt.
Anson Dart
    Late Supt. of Ind. Affrs. Oregon
The Hon. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Washington.
Department of the Interior,
    Office of Indian Affairs,
        September 12, 1853
    Sir--In reply to your letter of the 5th inst. I have to state that I have no knowledge of the charges which you state were made against you by Gov. Joseph Lane during his recent canvass for election as delegate to Congress from Oregon.
    I am not aware to what extent Gov. Lane obtained information in relation to the state of your accounts with the government before left here for Oregon. He was probably aware of the amount of public money charged to you, for which you had not then accounted, and also of charges which had been made against you of misapplication of public money, and other acts of malfeasance. Information was sought by this office as to the truth of these charges, but that obtained, it is due to you to state, did not sustain them.
    A person in your position cannot properly be called a defaulter until his accounts have been finally settled and he fails to pay over such balance as is found against him. Yours have not yet been finally settled, and I am not yet able to say what will be the result as between you and the government. The balance, however, either way will be but a small one.
    Very respectfully, your obt. servant,
Charles E. Mix,
    Acting Commissioner
Anson Dart, Esq., late Supt. &c.
Watertown Chronicle, Watertown, Wisconsin, September 28, 1853, page 3

    The Statesman has the following:--
    Gens. Lane and Alden--Gentlemen,--The undersigned, on the point of being discharged from the service, cannot permit the occasion to pass without taking this public manner of expressing our warmest thanks and profound obligations, for the sympathy and forbearance that you have manifested towards us on all occasions while under your commands; also for the prompt and efficient aid that you rendered us and the citizens of Rogue River Valley, generally, during our late Indian war. May your wounds, honorably gained in the front of the fight, speedily heal, your health restored, and live long to enjoy the society of your families and numerous friends.
    Most affectionately yours, &c.,
        Capt. J. K. Lamerick
            And Company.
    At a meeting of the "Mounted Rangers," at Jacksonville, Sept. 10th, 1853, a copy of the above letter was unanimously voted should be presented to Gens. Lane and Alden, respectively.
    Gens J. Lane and B. R. Alden--Dear Sirs,--In common with the troops who have so nobly aided us, and the citizens, without exception, permit me to gladly add my hearty concurrence in the above sentiments.
    Respectfully your friend,
        Edward Sheil, M.D.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 1, 1853, page 2

Gen. Joseph Lane.
In the Camp, the Field of Battle--in the State Senate--as Governor--
as Delegate to Congress-as a Citizen in Private Life.

    Gen. Lane, in every place which he has been tried, in every position he has occupied, has given abundant proofs of possessing the qualities of a great man. When in early years he was a clerk in an attorney's office, he learned to write an excellent hand. When a boatman on the Ohio and Mississippi, he was an expert in the business. When a member of the Indiana State Senate, his policy relieved the state of her pecuniary embarrassment, and saved her the opprobrium of repudiation. When commissioned by President Polk as a General of the Army in Mexico, his gallant service gave him the honorable sobriquet of the "Marion of the Mexican War." When sent to Oregon as the first civil Governor, with a new and sparsely inhabited territory, to organize a government out of the various scattered material then here, he proved a most wise and efficient officer.
    When, for political bias, he was removed by President Taylor, he was the same practical, go-ahead man. His mills at Oregon City were kept in operation, notwithstanding the value of lumber had depreciated, while he, with lion heart and muscular arm, found his way to the mines of California, where alone, for months, he plied the pick and shovel for an honest subsistence.
    And when, in the spring of 1851, he returned to Oregon, he was elected by an overwhelming majority as Delegate to Congress, many anxious eyes were turned upon him, and much solicitation was felt as to how he would discharge the new duties confided to him in a sphere where he was to be surrounded, and to combat on the floor of Congress with the ablest of intellect to be found in the Union. In this he proved equally fortunate as upon other occasions, when entering upon new and responsible duties full of intricacy, and requiring thought, tact and sound ability. In proof of this we have only to triumphantly refer to the history of the last two sessions of Congress. The division of the Territory, the confirmation of our laws--thereby saving us from the wildest anarchy and civil war; the amendments to the Land Law in favor of widows and mechanics, as also the extensions of its provisions to 1855--enabling settlers for two years more to take up land. Look, also, at the appropriation of $40,000 for military roads in Oregon, which are now being surveyed by [the] government, as well as other appropriations amounting in all to over $200,000--thrice as much as any other Delegate was able to get for any of their respective Territories. And to illustrate his successful efforts on the floor of Congress, we prefer giving an extract from a letter written to us by an old Oregonian, from Washington, and who was present when the bill for dividing the Territory came up, and one, too, who had previously a strong prejudice against Gen. Lane. The scene is well described:
"WASHINGTON CITY, Feb. 8, 1853.
"Editor of Oregon Times:
    "*    *    *    At 10 o'clock I called upon our Delegate from Oregon, and was politely and most cordially received by him. After the solicitous inquiries respecting old friends and acquaintances in Oregon, Gen. Lane remarked to me that the 'Oregon Land Law' would come up today in the House, and also the proposition to divide the Territory. I at once determined to go to the House and see for myself how we were represented. Our Delegate in the morning manifested a great deal of anxiety, and sent his friend and little son to request, as a special favor, that certain members whom he knew to be friendly to Oregon, and had assisted him thus far in his efforts for Oregon, would not forsake him in the hour of trial. We went at an early hour to the House, and our Delegate was not idle. He besought of one, as a favor, that he would not oppose this bill; of another, that he would give it his cordial support; another, to help get it through as a matter of importance to the welfare of the Territory.
    "To accomplish this, he was in his place an hour in advance of the time for the House to meet. The House met, and our Delegate continued his labors, going from member to member, while the Journal was being read; and up to the time the Oregon Bill was announced by the Speaker, in an instant not less than ten voices shouted, "Mr. Speaker!" The Speaker gave the floor to Mr. Jones, of Tenn., who withdrew the objections which he had previously made to the bill. There were several attempts made to stave off the question, but it was evident that the silent and personal efforts of Gen. Lane had secured a reliable support, and every division and vote showed that he was gaining his point. He was also ready to put in a short speech at the right point--which told, for I noticed when the Chairman announced that the gentleman from Oregon had the floor, that the members laid aside their newspapers to listen--and all appeared not only willing, but anxious to hear all that he had to say. I am fully satisfied that the influence of our Delegate is more than that of any other man that could be sent, from what I saw in his management of his Land Bill, and the Division of the Territory.
    "I had, with many others of our citizens, been under the impression that our Delegate was not doing for us as much as we expected of him. In this impression, I am frank to acknowledge I was very wrong. I believe he is doing all in his power for our Territory--and is doing more in proportion for us than any other Delegate for any other Territory can do. He says but little, but acts the more--and was listened to with more attention than any member I heard speak in the House.    *    *    *    G."
    Gen. Lane's habits of simplicity in the camp, and his daring gallantry on the field of battle, is coeval with the history of the Mexican War, but here is a picture of the citizen-soldier who, on the first alarm of Indian depredations, volunteered his services, as drawn by a correspondent of the Statesman, who writes from Jacksonville, Sept. 13th:
    "Never having seen Gen. Lane, my curiosity prompted me to visit his camp day before yesterday. Having seen generals in the States togged out in epaulets, gold lace, cocked hats and long, shining swords, I expected to find something of the kind at 'headquarters.' But fancy my surprise on being introduced to a robust, good-looking middle-aged man, with his right arm in a sling, the shirt sleeve slit open and dangling bloody from his shoulder, his nether extremities cased in an old pair of grey breeches that looked as though they were the identical ones worn by Gen. Scott when he was 'exposed to the fire in the rear.' One end of them was supported by a buckskin strap in the place of a suspender, while one of the legs rested upon the top of the remains of an old boot. His hair so twisted, tangled and matted that it would have frightened the teeth out of a currycomb, and set all tonsorial expectations at defiance, was surmounted by the remains of an old forage cap, which, judging from its appearance, might have been worn at Braddock's defeat. This composed the uniform of the old hero who never surrendered.
    "The 'quarters' were in keeping with the garb of the occupant, it being a rough log cabin about 16 feet square with a hole in one side, called a door, and destitute of floor or chimney. In one corner lay a pile of sacks filled with provisions for the troops, in another a stack of guns of all sizes, sorts and caliber, from the old French musket down to the fancy silver-mounted sporting rifle, while in the third sat an old camp kettle, a frying pan, a coffee pot minus a spout, about a dozen old banged-up tin cups, four pack saddles, a dirty shirt, one old shoe, and a moccasin. The fourth corner occupied by a pair of blankets said to be the General's bed, and on a projecting puncheon just over it lay some articles said to be ammunition for the stomach in the shape of a chunk of raw beef and a wad of dirty dough. In the center of the 'quarters' was a space about four feet square for the accommodation of guests."
    We have deemed this a fit occasion to make these remarks--for it is a time when all reasonable and order-loving citizens should know him as he is, and judge of his acts in candor. He having had the chief command in this late Indian war, and conquered a peace, proceeded with the Indian Superintendent and Agent to make treaties of peace. These treaties are denounced by an unscrupulous few, who express a wish to exterminate the Indian tribes, but whom report says are not to be found when the real fighting comes on. The great mass of the people in Rogue River Valley are well satisfied with the treaties--and those harebrained outlaws who cry extermination at all hazards ought to be treated with that contempt which their acts deserve.
    To illustrate Gen. Lane's promptitude in performing his public trusts, we instance his determination not to return to his home, but to proceed directly on to Washington by way of California, in order to be at his post there in Congress on the first Monday in December next. To all such in this valley who wished to see him on his way to Washington--and who had anxiously awaited his return to pay him their respects on that occasion--we would suggest that however pleasant to him and his friends this might have been, public duty to his constituents induces him to do otherwise, at a sacrifice of not visiting his own family. If they are not to see him, others have no reason to complain--and under such circumstances, we are willing to trust his judgment in the matter, in preference to anyone's else.
    Those who denounce General Lane--and seize on every opportunity to torture his virtues into vices, and who characterize his energy, patriotism and industry with the epithets of inability, selfishness and inattention--let them howl upon his track.
    His strong right arm--although twice wounded in the service of his country--once at Buena Vista and recently in leading a charge upon the hostile Indians--is yet strong--and guided by a heart that knows no fear, and a will that knows no obstacles, a judgment sound and discreet, which he amply possesses--the citizens of Oregon need have no fears that their rights and interests suffer at his hands in any emergency.
    While Gen. Lane has won the reputation of a brave soldier--and a judicious and successful statesman--in social and private life he is affable, without ostentation, and commands the respect of even his opponents. Such is the Delegate which Oregon sends back to Washington the second time--and one [of] which the citizens of Oregon may well [be] proud.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 1, 1853, page 2

The Indian War.
    The Indian Superintendent, Gen. Palmer, has returned--and in a conversation we had with him recently we learn that the Indian difficulties had been peaceably settled by treaty. Taylor's tribe only remained to be treated with--but owing to the treachery which the whites had shown them, it was doubtful what the result might be with them. Gen. Lane had gone to have a talk with them--he has the confidence of the Indians, and can exert more influence over them than anyone else. This was shown to be the case in making the treaties with the other tribes. A correspondent of the Statesman [on October 27, 1853, page 2] in describing Lane's first interview with the hostile Indians has the following:
    "When he was seen within their breastworks every lip pronounced his name--Jo Lane, Jo Lane--and every swarthy cheek was bathed in tears. The wounded ceased their groaning and the wild Indian of the mountains slunk behind a bush or log in fear and awe. He appeared to them as a savior--in him alone could they confide--only Jo Lane could they trust. Old Joe (tyee) advanced to meet him and tell his story of the war. He said his tribe did not commence the war, on the contrary, when they refused to join the Shastas in their war with the whites, they notified the settlers of their danger; that the murders were commenced by the Shastas; that it was not until the whites had shot or hung 14 of his tribe, many of whom were pet servants of the town, who were guilty of no offense, did he consent to the war."
    The substantial men are satisfied with the treaty--but a few reckless men evince a determination to shoot every Indian, regardless of the treaty. The Indian Department have not yet received any of the appropriations--and consequently the agents cannot act as ineffectually as they otherwise might.
    The Indians did not give up all their guns in the treaty--because they feared unscrupulous whites would butcher them. The following is the treaty for their lands:
Treaty with Rogue River Indians for the Sale of Lands.
    ART. 2.--The Rogue River tribe of Indians do hereby cede and relinquish, for the considerations hereinafter specified, to the U.S.A., all their right, title, interest and claim to all the lands lying in that part of the Territory of Oregon, bounded by lines designated as follows; to wit: Commencing at a point one mile below the mouth of Applegate Creek, on the south side of Rogue River; running thence southerly to the high lands dividing the waters of Applegate and Althouse Creeks, thence along said highlands to the summit of the Siskiyou Range of mountains; thence easterly to Pilot Rock; thence northeasterly to the summit of the Cascade Range of mountains; thence northerly along the said Cascade Range to Pitt's Peak, continuing northeasterly to Rogue River; thence westerly to the headwaters of Jump-off Joe Creek; thence down said creek to the intersection of the same with a line due north from the place of beginning, thence to the place of beginning.
    ART. 2.--It is agreed on the part of the U.S.A., that the aforesaid tribe of Indians shall be allowed to occupy, temporarily, that portion of the above-described tract of territory bounded as follows, to wit: Commencing on the north side of Rogue River at the mouth of Evans Creek, thence up said creek to the upper end of a small prairie, bearing in [a] northwesterly direction from Table Mountain or Upper Table Rock, thence through the gap to the south side of the cliff of said mountain, thence in a line to Rogue River, striking the southern base of Lower Table Rock, thence down said river to [the] place of beginning. It being understood that this last described tract of land shall be deemed and considered an Indian reserve until a suitable selection shall be made by the direction of the President of the U.S. for their permanent residence, buildings erected thereon, and provisions made for their removal.
    ART. 3.--For and in consideration of the cession and relinquishment, contained in Art. 1, the U.S.A. agree to pay to the aforesaid tribe the sum of sixty thousand dollars, fifteen thousand dollars to be retained, according to the stipulations of Art. 4, of a "Treaty of Peace, made and entered into [on] the 8th day of September, between Gen. Joseph Lane, commanding forces of Oregon Territory, and Joe, principal chief of the Rogue River tribe of Indians; Sam, subordinate chief, and Jim, subordinate chief, on the part of the tribes under their jurisdiction,", by the Supt. of Indian Affairs for payment of the property of the whites destroyed by them during the war, the amount of which property destroyed to be estimated by three disinterested commissioners, to be appointed by the Supt. of Indian Affairs. Five thousand dollars to be expended in the purchase of agricultural implements, blankets, clothing and such other goods as may be deemed by the Supt. of Indian Affairs or agent most conducive to the comfort and necessities of said tribe, on or before the first day of September 1854, and for the payment of such permanent improvements as may have been made by land claimants situated on the aforesaid reserve. The remaining forty thousand dollars to be paid in sixteen annual installments of two thousand five hundred dollars each (commencing on or about the 1st day of September 1854), in blankets, clothing, farming utensils, stock and such other articles as may be deemed most conducive to the interests of the said tribe.
    ART. 4.--It is further agreed that there shall be erected, at the expense of the U.S., three dwelling houses, one for each of the three principal chiefs of the aforesaid tribe, the cost of which shall not exceed five hundred dollars each, the said buildings to be erected as soon after the ratification of this treaty as practicable. And when the tribe may be removed to another reserve, buildings and other improvements shall be made upon such reserve, of equal value to those which they shall relinquish. And upon such removal, in addition to the before mentioned sixty thousand dollars, the U.S. agree to pay the further sum of fifteen thousand dollars in five equal annual installments, commencing at the expiration of the before named installments.
[Article 5 omitted.]
    ART. 6.--That the friendship which is now established between the U.S. and the Rogue River tribe of Indians shall not be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, it is hereby agreed that for injuries done by individuals no private revenge or retaliation shall take place, but instead therefor complaint shall be made to the Indian agent by the injured party. And it shall be the duty of the chiefs of the said tribe to deliver up the person or persons against whom the complaint is made, to the end that he or they may be punished agreeably to the laws of the U.S. And in like manner if any violation, robbery or murder shall be committed on any Indian or Indians belonging to said tribe, the person or persons so offending shall be tried, and if found guilty shall be punished according to the laws of the U.S. And it is agreed that the chiefs of said tribe shall to the uttermost of their power exert themselves to recover horses or other property which are or may be stolen or taken from any citizen or citizens of the U.S. by any individual or individuals of said tribe, and the property so recovered shall be forthwith delivered to the Indian agent or other person authorized to receive the same, that it may be restored to the proper owner. And the U.S. hereby guarantee to any Indian or Indians of the said tribe a full indemnification for any horses or other property which may be stolen from them by any citizen of the U.S. Providing that the property stolen or taken cannot be recovered and that sufficient proof is produced that it was actually stolen or taken by a citizen of the U.S. And the chiefs and headmen of the said tribe engage, on the requisition or demand of the President of the U.S., Supt. of Indian Affairs, or Indian agent, to deliver up any white person or persons resident among them.
    ART. 7.--The said tribe of Indians further agree to give safeguard to all persons who may be authorized by the U.S. to pass through their reserve, and to protect in their person and property all agents or other persons sent by the U.S. to reside among them. They further agree not to molest or interrupt any white person passing through their reserve.
ART. 8.--This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contracting parties as soon as the same shall have been sanctioned by the President of the U.S. by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
      In testimony whereof the said Joel Palmer and Samuel H. Culver, on the part of the U.S., and the chiefs and headmen of the Rogue River tribe of Indians aforesaid have hereunto set their hands and seals the day and year aforesaid.
    Signed in the presence of

J. W. Nesmith  )
R. B. Metcalfe )   Interpreters
John                  )
J. D. Mason  )
T. T. Tierney )  Secretaries
Joseph Lane        )
August V. Kautz  )  Witnesses
    Joel Palmer, Supt. Ind. Affrs.
    S. H. Culver, Indian Agent
    Jo Aps er-ka har
    Sam To qua he-ar
    Jim Ana-cha-a-rah
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 1, 1853, page 2

    Marshal Nesmith, who commanded the fast b'hoys during the Rogue River war, of whom a correspondent says "were neither cowards nor gentlemen," has returned to the discharge of his civil duty. We have no doubt that Capt. Nesmith and the company under his command would have done good service if Gen. Lane had not agreed upon an armistice with the Indians before their arrival. This company went out to fight, and not to contribute to the political capital of Jo Lane, the "favorite of the Indians." It is therefore not strange that they should become disgusted and return when they saw which way the wind was blowing. Whether the marshal was shot or not we cannot say. If he was, we are quite sure it was neither in the back or the neck.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, October 8, 1853, page 2

Return of Gen. Lane--Matters South.
    Gen. Lane very unexpectedly returned to this place on Tuesday, and on Thursday proceeded down the valley on his way to Washington. He will leave on the first steamer.
    His return through the Willamette was unexpected to himself, expecting to be detained in Rogue River too late to permit him to pass this way, and so advising his friends in the valley. But the arrival of Col. Wright with four companies of U.S. infantry of twenty men each, earlier than was anticipated, induced him to gratify his anxious wish to visit his family and his friends in this part of the Territory. His wound has nearly healed, though he has not yet recovered the use of his arm. In other respects he is in excellent health and spirits.
    Col. Wright is preparing winter quarters for his men, and will remain in the country for the present. These forces will do much towards preventing aggressions, and preserving peace. Three of the companies are from Benicia, in command of Maj. Patton, the poet and soldier; the other is from Fort Reading, the whole under command of Col. Wright, an experienced and efficient officer.
    Gen. Lane had with him, and will take to Washington, a sprightly Indian lad of sixteen or seventeen years, an only son of "Joe," the head chief of the Rogue River tribes. He was given to him by his father as a hostage and a guarantee that his people should observe the treaty. He said "as proof that I have confidence in you, and that I intend to observe the treaty in good faith, I give you my only son, who is dearer to me than life, to take with you to the States, and if I violate the treaty you have permission to hang him." He will be brought back by Gen. Lane when he returns, and restored to his people, and his visit to Washington and return among the Indians must have a great moral effect upon them.
    Before leaving Gen. Lane, accompanied by two men, went into the mountains to have a "talk" with "Tipsey," the chief of the Klamaths, who is supposed to have done much towards inciting the recent hostilities. After much difficulty they found him, among the mountains and in the heart of a dense forest, with forty or fifty warriors of his tribe. They sent a messenger to him, telling him that they had come to hold a "talk" and make peace. He informed them that he would meet them the next day at a place named, and still more strongly guarded against surprise and attack, he fearing that was meditated. After a hard day's ride on the following day they reached the spot designated, and the General and his men approached "Tipsey's" camp. The General asked him if his heart was good, and disposed to peace? He replied that he didn't know, that that depended on their hearts; if their hearts were good, his was good; if theirs were bad, his was bad. The General camped with him during the night, and remained the next day having a talk with him, returning, a day or two after he went back, and a permanent peace was agreed upon. "Tipsey" was very timid, and afraid of being betrayed.
    Everything was quiet when Gen. Lane left; the people were fast returning to their employments, and the country resuming its wonted business appearance.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 11, 1853, page 2

    NOBLE AND DISINTERESTED CONDUCT.--Gen. Lane left his home without a moment's hesitation upon receiving intelligence of the Indian outbreak in Rogue River, was placed in command of the forces employed, fought gallantly at their head receiving a severe wound, assisting in conquering and concluding a peace, and remained till the latest moment upon the ground, endeavoring to secure the observance of its terms; when he resigned his post, charging not a dime for his services. It is fact we learned not from him but from an equally reliable source, that he claimed no pay, and permitted no charge to be made. How unlike the federal officials here, of times past, who clutched at every dollar that came within their grasp, and suffered no opportunity to deplete the public treasury to pass unimproved.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, October 11, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane, contrary to our expectations, came to this city last week and remained several days. He was in the city, however, more than a day before we heard of it, as there was no public demonstration to welcome him on his arrival. We suppose he wished to avoid making a speech. It probably would be better for him to reserve his powder and keep it dry, for there will be a great deal expected of him when he returns to Congress. He has made many pledges.
"Items Local and Personal," Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, October 13, 1853, page 3

Headquarters Camp Alden,
    September 5, 1853.
General Order.
    Capt. Goodall, of the Yreka Volunteers, and Capt. Rhodes, of the Humbug Volunteers, will march their respective commands to Yreka today, where they will muster them out of the service of the United States.
    In taking leave of these troops,the General commanding takes occasion to testify his admiration of their courage and general good conduct while in the service.
    JOS. LANE, Gen. Commanding.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 15, 1853, page 2

Gov. Lane's Reception Speech at Portland.
    In a late number of the Oregonian we observe an article headed "Gen. Lane's Egotism," which goes on to republish the pretended speech of Gov. Lane at his reception in Portland on his return to Oregon last May. To this reiterated false report of his remarks, it attaches the editorial comments of one or two Whig papers in the States.
    We heard Gov. Lane's remarks at the time, and gave the substance of them in the Times of May 21st, and have never yet heard that our report was incorrect. We noticed, the same week, that the Oregonian contained a short paragraph, purporting to be something that Gov. Lane had said in the course of his remarks but, supposing it an electioneering argument of the Oregonian, and having given the substance of the speech correctly at the time, we did not think it worthy the trouble of refutation, nor feel disposed to rob the opposition of Oregon of any crumb of comfort they might fancy having obtained by putting words into Gov. Lane's mouth which he did not say. Nor would we now notice it but for the reason that the Oregonian, after four or five months, re-echoes the same, with the strictures of the Whig papers, and heralding them as the general sentiment of people at home.
    The commencement of the copying this pretended speech from the Oregonian in the States was in this wise: The editor of the Evansville Journal, published at Gov. Lane's place of residence in Indiana--a Whig paper--and its editor, always notorious for his abuse of Gov. Lane, even when fighting gallantly the battles of his country in Mexico, on receiving a copy of the Oregonian of May 21st, eagerly clipped this pretended speech and published it, remarking that it was taken from an Oregon paper which supported Gov. Lane! The friends of Gov. Lane anxiously sought for a copy of the Times, knowing its early and warm support of Gov. Lane, and they there found the true report of his speech on that occasion--but containing not one word about President Pierce's intimations as reported. There was evidently something wrong, but as misrepresentation is always doomed to detection and discomfiture, so it was in this case. The editor of the Journal, after clipping this article from the Oregonian, gave it away, with other exchanges, to be used in a reading room, where it was discovered by Gov. Lane's friends, which solved the mystery to their satisfaction. And when the editor of the Journal was charged by the Democratic paper in the same place with intentionally publishing a downright falsehood by saying that it was from a paper in Gov. Lane's support, he never denied it, and consequently the willful and deliberate lie was fastened directly on him. And now, forsooth, the Dayton Gazette, another Whig print, seeing fit to copy the article from the Evansville Journal, the Oregonian, proud of his bantling, republishes it, with the remarks those editors have seen to make! Such is the true history of this whole farce and parade--and really such subterfuge looks badly when exposed. Gen. Lane's reputation will never suffer if nothing but the truth is reported of him. He stands beyond the reach of the arrows of assault and detraction--and the Oregonian's recent allusion to his "scratch" received in the
Rogue River War is quite uncalled for and ungenerous upon a man who periled life and received the enemy's ball directly through his arm, near the armpit--and who yet is suffering from its effects. Then, too, for his two months services in the war--although commissioned by the Governor of Oregon, as General, he did not receive or charge a dime for his services--but when the war was over resigned his commission into the hands of the Governor of Oregon.
    Those who have been pleased to trifle with his proud title, "The Marion of the Mexican War"--by deriding it as the Mary-ann, and the Gassy-ann, perhaps are not aware the title of "Marion of the Mexican War" was conferred on him in Mexico by General Scott--and that he has been proud to claim the honor of having so conferred it, not many months ago, in the presence of a company of distinguished statesmen--nevertheless such are the facts. Then, how utterly contemptible do such attempts at caricature and detraction appear to all sensible and well-disposed men, and how flat and insipid they fall upon the ear--not even possessing interest enough to tickle a child while reading them over for amusement.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, October 15, 1853, page 2

    An unpublished account of the Rogue River war, and incidents connected therewith, is promised us. The author says there was another person figured in the war. He is known out there by the name of Capt. Alden. He is just the man, he says, for almost any emergency, and has a heart as big as a mountain. He thinks there is not much éclat to be gained in an Indian fight nohow, but if there be never so little it ought not to be wrongfully appropriated. A stranger would think, on reading the accounts already given, that there was no person else there except Gen. Lane. He did all the fighting--he did all the wawa-ing and per consequence he ought to have all the credit. This self-glorification appears cool to us.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, October 20, 1853, page 2

General Lane.
    The person whose name heads this article has been selected by the sovereigns of Oregon to represent them in Congress. It is no part of our purpose to detract from his usefulness, or in any way compromise his influence. He was elected by a decisive majority, and although he was not our choice, we hope he may make a good representative, and attend strictly to the wants of Oregon. There is some reason for his constituents expecting more of him the coming Congress than he performed before. His influence was needed in electing President Pierce. This monopolized a good deal of his time, as well as that of a great many other Congressmen.
    The General stands pledged to many things, we fear, that he has forgotten, and which were not properly weighed by him when they were made. He seemed willing at the time to subscribe to almost anything that was proposed, no matter whether it ever had entered into his thoughts or not. We can assure him that the people expect much at his hands. They think that the President must do without his services this Congress. He draws his pay for looking after Oregon interests and the people have a right to his services, yes, to his most energetic endeavors.
    We shall hold ourself in readiness to uphold him in all that is right, proper and useful for Oregon, and if he fails to redeem his pledges, we shall remind him of them in order that he cannot come off with the excuse that they were overlooked or forgotten by him. It is our duty to watch him, and we will do it with an open eye--to report progress and see that he does his whole duty. He is the servant of the people, and to them is he accountable. His apologizers and defenders, as well as his eulogists, must expect that his acts will be closely scrutinized. If they will not stand the test of criticism, it will be his fault.
    It is not our wish nor purpose to carp at the little things in the conduct of our public officers. It is our wish that they may all be useful. But if the General renders himself ridiculous again, as he did on his return the last time to Portland, he must expect to be handled in a manner as such folly deserves. We court no attack upon any of our officers, but we shall shrink from no responsibility when the course of any of them invite censure. We shall pursue a different course from that of the opposition press, when the Whigs were in power. They, the opposition, went upon the principle that there was no virtue out of the pale of the so-called Democracy. And he that refused to bray out against the Whigs was a soft or an unsound Democrat, and only fit to be anathematized as a traitor and a dishonest man. The opposition has set a very bad example; too mean to be followed, and totally unworthy of a free and enlightened people.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, October 20, 1853, page 2

    In a recent battle with the Rogue River Indians, Gen. Lane was shot through the shoulder. The struggle, being somewhat decisive, induced the savages to sue for peace, which was granted. . . .
    Gen. Lane received the son of "Joe," a head chief of the Rogue River tribe, as a hostage for the observance of treaty stipulations. It is his intention to take the boy to Washington City with him, as per suggestion of the father. The moral influence of the act, it is presumed, will be highly useful in keeping down future difficulties.
"Further News from Oregon," 
Sacramento Daily Union, October 24, 1853, page 3

    Gen. Lane has sold his property in this place--one half the Island Mills--to Messrs. Guthrie and Farrar, of Portland, and the company is now composed of those two gentlemen and Jno. McCracken, the General's son, "Nat," having also sold.
Letter from Oregon City dated October 27, 1853, Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, November 1, 1853, page 2

    Many years ago I interviewed John McCracken, who came from Stockton to Oregon in 1850. He bought an interest in the Island Mills at Oregon City, his partners being General Joseph Lane, Oregon's first territorial governor, and his son. High water wrecked the flour mill. They had in their warehouse a large amount of wheat for which they had paid $5 a bushel, but by the time they had rebuilt the mill, flour had dropped from $40 a barrel to $10 a barrel. McCracken turned over his interest in the mill to pay his debts.
Fred Lockley's Impressions," Oregon Journal, Portland, May 4, 1947, page 16

    GOVERNOR OF OREGON.--The Washington Union, of the 11th, has the official announcement of the appointment of John W. Davis, of Indiana, to be Governor of Oregon, in the place of Joseph Lane, resigned.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 5, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane, we understand, is pledged to a division of Oregon Territory. A new Territory, South, will be asked from the general government, through him, at the coming session of Congress. Our informant states that he committed himself during the last canvass to that effect. He has many promises to redeem, and the one mentioned above has remained in darkness here up to this time.
Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, November 5, 1853, page 2

    The Rogue River Indian war, as you long since have known, has been brought to an end. Capt. Sully's company F, of the 2nd Infantry, are the only troop which return to Benicia to pass the winter. The rest are posted at Forts Jones and Lane, not to protect the hardy, valiant, daredevil, double-fisted, bone and sinew pioneer from the attack of Joe's tribe, but rather to prevent the free and enlightened from butchering in cold blood the red man when he resents the vilest impositions of slavery and debauchery that are forced upon him. The poor politician has a hard row to hoe in our community, and as an example General Lane in his late remarks on these troubles while in San Francisco had to deny himself the right of reprehension in toto and only indulge in eulogy on that portion upon whom it might fall with most grace. Certain it is, that his remarks were anything but a full exhibit of the true state of the case, or of all his feelings, if we are to judge by reports of officers of the regular army on the ground with him.
"Benicia Correspondence," San Diego Herald, November 12, 1853, page 2

    Gen. Lane brought with him from Oregon an Indian boy of sixteen or seventeen years of age, the son of "Joe," the head chief of the Rogue River tribes. He was given to him by his father as a hostage and a guarantee that his people should observe the treaty. Gen. Lane on his return to Oregon will return the boy to his father.
"News Items," Democratic Sentinel, Cadiz, Ohio, December 14, 1853, page 3

    A correspondent of the Commercial, writing from Jacksonville, Sept. 29, says:
    "The war is supposed to be over--a treaty of peace has been made with the Indians, but it is difficult to surmise how long it will last. The Indians, in fair fighting, have had the advantage, and have astonished all by their bravery and skill. The Indians of this valley are cunning and dauntless--a rifle in their hands is a most formidable weapon, and they fear not to use it whenever circumstances require it. Many of the citizens are dissatisfied with Gen. Lane for having made a treaty so soon with the enemy, but the less rowdy and sanguinary portion of the community are highly pleased with it, and are anxious to exert their influence to have all the conditions of it faithfully fulfilled. Gen. Lane has acted a noble part. Like all brave men, his valor is tempered with clemency and moderation, and his name is so respected even among the hostile tribes, that I believe, except in actual fight, he may travel unmolested through their country alone, and without arms."
Indiana Free Democrat, Indianapolis, December 15, 1853, page 3

    On the --th ult., at the residence of Samuel Stevenson, in Douglas County, by Judge Deady, Joseph S. Lane, Esq., to Miss Eleanor Stevenson.
Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1854, page 3

    On my way to this city, after having a little row with the Rogue River Indians, I stopped in Oregon City to see my mills. And here I may say that those mills nearly ruined me.  Their purchase was the worst thing I ever did. I agreed to give near $100,000 for them. I gave the earnings of twenty years of my life, and have now sold out for one-third what they cost me. I am not now the owner of a single mill. 
Joseph Lane, "Congressional,"
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, July 4, 1854, pages 1-2

    We notice with regret the death of Mr. Theodore T. Tierney, a young man of much promise, who left this city about five years ago for California, where he had, up to the period of his decease, met with the most deserved success. After remaining a few months in California, Mr. T. went to Southern Oregon, and had been living in Salem but a short time when he was killed by a fall from his horse. He was a young man of excellent abilities, honorable principles, and was highly esteemed by all who knew him. He had acted in the capacity of private secretary to Gen. Lane during the difficulties with the Rogue River Indians, was employed by the Oregon Statesman as reporter of the legislative assembly, and subsequently filled the office of Territorial Librarian.
New York Herald, July 31, 1854, page 8

    MELANCHOLY ACCIDENT.--Theodore T. Tierney, Esq., of Salem, was thrown from his horse, in town on Wednesday last, striking his head upon the ground, producing a violent concussion of the brain, from which he lay insensible until Sunday noon, when he expired. Mr. Tierney, we believe, came to Southern Oregon from California in 1850. During the difficulties with the Rogue River Indians last fall he acted as private secretary to Gen. Lane, and assisted in drawing up the treaties with those Indians, which have been lately ratified by the Senate. He was reporter for the Statesman during the last session of the legislative assembly, at the close of which he was elected Territorial Librarian. Mr. Tierney was a native of New York City, a young man of talent, a good scholar, an easy writer, and an agreeable and trusty friend. Although he had been in Salem but a few months, his companions were many, and warmly attached; they attended at his bedside during this his last illness like brothers, and his last breath and closing eye of death were witnessed by many solicitous of rendering the ultimate service and tribute to a departing associate. The most skillful medical attendancy which he had could not reconstruct the broken organization of the shattered brain, produced by the fall--so he died. Requiescat in pace.--Oregon Statesman.
Public Ledger, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 5, 1854, page 1  Printed in the Umpqua Weekly Gazette on June 16, 1854, page 2.

The Next Delegate in Congress.
    In this number of the Statesman we place the name of Gen. Joseph Lane at the masthead as a candidate for the next Delegate in Congress from Oregon, subject to the decision of the approaching Democratic convention. We have questioned, and will do, the propriety of this mode of expressing a preference for candidates for nomination, in the abstract, and under ordinary circumstances. But recent occurrences and existing circumstances leave no question as to the present propriety and justifiableness of this step. The Standard, at Portland, has been brought out unreservedly for the nomination of Judge Pratt, one of the candidates whose names will be before the convention. And not only this, but through it is being waged an ungenerous and unjust war upon Gen. Lane, another candidate before the convention, and one who is not here, and cannot be here, to defend himself. That Judge Pratt is privy to this proceeding is undeniable. So apparent is it that ten thousand denials would cause nobody to disbelieve it. These being facts, no liberal-minded man, whoever he may prefer for delegate, will enter a complaint at the raising of the name of any other candidate.
    In '53 our preferences were for the nomination of Judge Deady. Yet we did not deem it proper to raise Judge Deady's name. The canvass was conducted amicably, and with good feeling. So far as we are advised, Judge Deady and the friends of his nomination made no assaults upon Gen. Lane, and the latter gentlemen, and those who preferred him, made, with his privity, none upon Judge Deady. Both were content to leave their claims with their friends, and satisfied that they should support the man of their choice, without traducing and undermining his competitor. Had a system of attack been commenced upon Judge Deady with Gen. Lane's privity and approval, the columns of the Statesman would have done battle for him openly and heartily, and every generous-hearted man, whether preferring Lane or Deady, would have responded "WELL DONE."
    This system of attack by one candidate for the party's favor upon another is disorganizing in the extreme, and wholly destructive of our harmony and our power as a party. The candidate assailed and maligned may be the choice of the Democratic convention, and then will we find the mouths of the federal enemy filled with complaints and objections furnished by a rival Democratic candidate for the nomination, and thrust at us as Democratic arguments. How are they then to be met? How, indeed, are the men who coined and gave currency to them to meet them, in case the decision of the Democratic convention should make it their duty, as members of the Democratic organization, to support the candidate they had, through the public press, blackballed? In what degree would the support they would then give him compensate for the injury their previous detraction would do him, and the party whose standard bearer he shall have been made? Or if, on the other hand, such dishonorable means should prove successful in the nominating convention, would the unsuccessful feel like yielding that hearty, earnest and active support which the Democratic nomination should command from the humblest and highest member of the party? No Democrat has a right to permit his anxiety for official station to lead him [to] such lengths--to lead him to depreciate and attempt to destroy honorable competitors, and all who seek the perpetuity, harmony and success of our organization will frown upon and protest against such unworthy conduct.
    We prefer Gen. Lane's nomination because we believe he can be of more service to Oregon in the next Congress than any man who is likely to supersede him. He has been eminently successful in the past, and has the elements of increased success for the future. He has an extensive personal acquaintance with the leading men of the nation, an unbounded personal popularity with all classes, and an enviable national reputation, advantages which no other man among us enjoys to a like extent, advantages which give him an influence and a power at Washington which he has heretofore used in Oregon's behalf, and which he will continue so to use if he continues to represent us.
    Likewise, we look upon him as possessing greater elements of success at the polls than some others who are competitors for the nomination. We look upon his nomination as equivalent to the success of the Democratic ticket and cause. He is a people's man, of them, like them, and believing in them, and his nomination would receive a hearty response in the cabins of Oregon, and draw from them a warm and conquering support at the ballot box. And this is not an unimportant consideration. He who expects that the next election in Oregon is to be won by the Democracy without an effort, without hard work and hard blows, reads not the signs of the times, or reads them not correctly. With federalism, and its former cooperating isms, we have got to meet its dastardly midnight ally, Know-Nothingism--which skulks and plots and stabs in darkness--and we shall only carry off the victory after a desperate conflict. We have no strength to spare, no votes to throw away, and no labor to dispirit and chill. We want every legislative influence, every vote, and every effort. We want a man who can bring all these out, and we believe Gen. Lane is the man to do it, to save our heretofore triumphant flag from disaster and defeat.
Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, March 6, 1855, page 2

    GEN. LANE.--The worthy old hero came a passenger on the Columbia, and while the steamer was discharging her freight passed on shore and spent a few hours in our midst, where of course he was the observed of all observers. Gen. Lane is a candidate for re-election as Delegate to Congress from the Territory of Oregon, whither he was now returning after a long absence at Washington City. The General has most efficiently promoted the interests of that Territory in the Congress just closed, and the people of Oregon will probably avail themselves of his eminent services for another term.

Crescent City Herald, April 11, 1855, page 2

The Convention, the Nomination, and the Ratification.
    The Territorial Convention nominated JO. LANE on the first ballot, by an almost unanimous vote, six only out of fifty-nine voting for anther person! The proceedings of the body will be found at length in another column. Everything passed off with the utmost harmony and good feeling. Gen. Lane, by invitation, addressed the convention in a pleasing and interesting manner. The convention was largely attended both by delegates and by the people.
    In the evening a ratification meeting was held in the representatives' hall, which was filled to overflowing. Speeches were made by Messrs. Smith, Williams, Nesmith, Waymire, Drew, Jo. Lane, Gibbs, Thayer, King, Mosher, Chadwick, Officer, and others, the speaking continuing until 11 o'clock. The audience was almost wild with enthusiasm and joy, and a determination which makes the Democratic hosts invincible was manifested throughout the evening, and taken home. All resolved to WORK in this crisis, and to bury so deep the corrupt coalition banded against us, so deep that the hand of resurrection will never reach it. Defeat and disgrace to Know-Nothing Whiggery and canting hypocrisy was a decree which went forth from that meeting, and with it went a resolute ardor and stern determination which will only cease its efforts with a brilliant victory on the evening of the first Monday in June. The handwriting is upon the wall, and it reads: "Jo. Lane, a Democratic Legislature, Democratic Prosecutors, and Democratic Everything."
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, April 14, 1855, page 2

    OLD JO IN HS OWN COUNTY.--A friend writing from Douglas County says: "Old Jo will carry everything here, Whigs, Freesoilers, Softs and all. I never saw such enthusiasm in my life--Lane here, Lane there, and Lane everywhere."
    The Democrats of Douglas say they shall give Old Jo the largest majority of any county in the Territory in proportion to the vote cast, and from present indications, we think they are going to do it. They are acquainted there with Gaines' Mrs. Partington exploits in the southern country in the summer of 1851. And they are too well acquainted with him generally to vote for him.
    "Old Jo will probably manage to fall off his horse again, as he did two years ago, when he tumbled from his pony against a tree, hurt his shoulder, and put the arm in a sling and pretended that he had been 'shot!'"--Dryer, at the Corvallis convention.
    When the Rogue River war broke out, Gen. Lane, at a moment's warning, hurried to the scene of action, and was foremost and in the thickest fight. In the savage engagement in which Col. Alden fell, as was supposed, mortally wounded, Gen. Lane received a rifle ball in his right arm, the same that was wounded in Mexico in the act of maintaining his country's honor and his country's flag. And at the Know-Nothing Whig convention which nominated Gaines to oppose him, the above cowardly, base, and low-flung falsehood was received with applause! What think you of this, citizens of the Rogue River Valley, whose hearths and homes Gen. Lane volunteered to defend against savage fury! What think the sturdy men who went with Gen. Lane to battle, and who heard him cheering on his men regardless of his bleeding wound? Will you--a single man of you--endorse this cowardly insinuation and vote for Gaines, the nominee of men who cheer such baseness? What think the hardy pioneers and the people of Oregon? Is there not a universal feeling of disgust, and of pity and contempt, for the craven wretch who could utter it, and for the scarcely less base who could cheer?
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, April 28, 1855, page 2

Democrats Attend.
    JOSEPH LANE, Democratic candidate for Delegate, will address his fellow citizens at the times and places named below:
Pleasant Hill, Lane Co., Thursday, May 10, 1 o'clock p.m.
Eugene City, Friday, May 11, 1 o'clock p.m.
Calapooia, Linn Co., Saturday, May 12, 1 o'clock p.m.
Albany, Monday, May 14, 1 o'clock p.m.
Corvallis, Tuesday, May 15, 1 o'clock p.m.
Santiam City, Marion Co., Wednesday, May 16, 2 p.m.
Franklin Butte, Forks Santiam, Thursday, May 17, 2 p.m.
Salem, Friday, May 18, 2 o'clock p.m.
Parkersville, Saturday, May 19, 10 o'clock a.m.
Champoeg, same day, 5 o'clock p.m.
Dallas, Polk Co., Monday, May 21, 1 o'clock p.m.
Lafayette, Yamhill County, Tuesday, May 22, 1 p.m.
At Smith's blacksmith shop, north fork of Yamhill, Wednesday, May 23, 1 p.m.
Tualatin Academy, Forest Grove, Washington County, Thursday, May 24, 1 p.m.
Hillsborough, Friday, May 25, 1 p.m.
Portland, Saturday, May 26, 1 p.m.
Milton, Columbia Co., Monday, May 28, 1 p.m.
Columbia Slough, at Lewis Love's, Multnomah County, Wednesday, May 30, 1 p.m.
Milwaukie, Thursday, May 31, 1 p.m.
Oregon City, Friday, June 1, 1 p.m.
Harrison Wright's, Molalla, Saturday, June 2, 1 p.m.
    The opposing candidate is invited to be present.
    There are many other places I should like to meet my fellow citizens at, if time would permit, but it will not, and I therefore hope all who can make it convenient will attend at the places named.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, May 5, 1855, page 2

    SANTA ANNA'S SWORD.--During the Mexican War, General Lane attempted to take Santa Anna prisoner. He made a descent upon his quarters, but he had taken alarm, and just before made his escape. In his haste he left all his clothing, his sword, &c. Gen. Lane brought away his sword, and keeps it as a trophy. It is in the possession of his son in this place. It has a solid gold handle, with a sheath plated with the same metal.--Statesman.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, May 19, 1855, page 3

    Gen. Lane visited this place a short time ago and made a speech which was Intended to reconcile his friends, but I think he only partially succeeded. There are a good many "soreheads" among the Democrats, and if Gaines would come down here and promise half that Lane did, he would get a strong vote.
    We are living in hopes of ocean mail service soon. Lane assured me that the steamer might be looked for daily. The excess of his enthusiastic admiration for [Scottsburg] (it was his first visit) probably led him to be more sanguine than he otherwise would have been, and if we see the first steamer by next fall we will be satisfied.
"Southern Prospects," Oregon Argus, Oregon City, May 19, 1855, page 4

From the Statesman extra.
Difficulty Between Gen. Lane and Ex-Gov. Gaines.
Dallas, Polk County, May 21.
    Editor of the Statesman--There came very near being a serious difficulty between Gen. Lane and Gaines here this afternoon, between 4 and 5 o'clock. It arose as follows: Boise, in addressing the people, referred to Gaines' surrender at Encarnacion, and his escape in violation of his parole of honor, and read an extract from C. M. Clay's letter impliedly censuring Gaines for the manner of his escape. Gaines replied in very abusive and aggravating language. Gen. Lane then spoke; he quoted Gen. Worth's report to Major Bliss, in which Worth makes significant mention of the fact that Gaines surrendered without firing a shot, and Gen. Taylor's remark that he "would have fought a little, anyhow." Gaines, in reply, said what Lane had stated was a malicious falsehood. Lane ejaculated, you are a liar, at the same time rising to his feet. Two men instantly grasped him about the arms and chest and held him firmly, while others rushed before him. While Lane was thus held Gaines struck at him without in any manner marking him. All the Know Nothings present instantly gave the distress alarm (the cry given when one of their members is in difficulty) and rushing up hurried Gaines out of harm's way. Gen. Lane told them to leave Gaines there and they would settle the difficulty on the spot. While Gaines was being hauled off (very willingly) from the crowd, on seeing Nesmith, he asked him if the "Democracy of his damned county was going to murder him."
    Gen. Lane behaved with coolness and dignity throughout the affair, and regretted its occurrence. His eyes flashed anger at the conduct of Gaines in striking at him while he was held, and he struggled hard to disengage himself and reach Gaines, and if he had succeeded in doing so, Gaines would have paid dearly for that act. Gaines was very much excited and boisterously profane. He is extremely petulant and ill-natured, and daily gets more so as the canvass progresses.
    There were a large number of Know Nothings here from Yamhill and Marion counties.
    In haste, yours
    [no signature]
Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, June 2, 1855, page 3

Gen. Joseph Lane.
    We place at our masthead today the name of Gen. Joseph Lane, of Oregon, as a candidate for President of the United States, before the Democratic National Convention to be held in Cincinnati next spring. We know that he has many warm friends and supporters for the high position among the leading Democratic statesmen of the nation, who look confidently and cheeringly for his nomination, and we believe the selection of the old war chief would be responded to by the voting millions with an enthusiasm, ardor and devotion equaled only by that which followed Andrew Jackson. Like him, Gen. Lane is invincible, in war or in peace--upon the "tented field," or in the political arena. He never capitulated and never was conquered upon either.
    Jo Lane is the very man for the crisis, just the man to reunite and lead to victory the scattered but now gathering hosts of Democracy. Under his victorious banner the sturdy Democracy of Oregon have, after one of the most excited and hotly contested canvasses the Union ever witnessed, this week routed, with Waterloo slaughter, with a victory as signal and overwhelming as that which carried President Pierce into power, the combined forces of Know-Nothingism, anti-Nebraskaism and Whiggery, and started the list of Democratic triumphs and Fusion defeats which are certain to overtake the "madness which rules the hour." Make Jo Lane the Democratic standard bearer for 1856, and the battle is already half fought and won. Federalism, under whatever or however many disguises, would be borne down by the restless tide of his popularity and the eternal truths of the Democratic faith. The nation is studded all over with his gallant companions in arms on Mexico's fields, who would be wild with enthusiasm at the nomination of the old hero they honor and love, the scarred veteran who, among "the bravest of the brave," won the proud name of the "Marion of the Mexican War" by deeds of daring and duty.
    As a soldier or civilian, America holds not a truer patriot than Jo Lane; as a statesman, she has none of more national, liberal and correct principles, and none truer to the Constitution and the Union; as a man, as "Old Joe," a warmer-hearted, whole-souled, generous gentleman never breathed the breath of life. He is one of nature's noblemen. He is a true specimen of an American, and an American chieftain and statesman. He has come up unaided by wealth or rank, from humble life, through force of native talent, unconquerable energy and an indomitable will. He is emphatically a self-made man, and made not amiss.
    He has proved himself equal to any position he has ever been placed in, and any emergency which has arisen. Whether at the head of an army in Mexico, or a band of frontiersmen in a border Indian war, in the executive chair, or on the floor of Congress, he has shown himself all the post required, and all the occasion called for. And he is equal to an able, firm, wide and patriotic discharge of the high duties of President of a mighty Republic, spanning the continent, and washed by the waves of two vast oceans. He possesses great elements of success, both as a candidate and an officer, and the indications are highly favorable to his nomination and election.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, June 9, 1855, page 2

    REVENUE CUTTER "JOSEPH LANE."--The Norfolk, Va. Argus says that orders have been received by the Collector of that port from the Treasury Department, directing that the name of the splendid revenue cutter "Campbell," which has recently been reconstructed, should be changed, and she is hereafter to be called the "Joseph Lane," in compliment to Gen. Lane, late delegate in Congress from the Territory of Oregon. This determination arose from the fact that there are at present two vessels by the name of Campbell in the revenue service.
    She is intended for the Pacific coast, and active preparations are making for her departure at an early day.

Umpqua Gazette, Scottsburg, June 30, 1855, page 2

    As is usual with the opposition, now congregated under the name of Know Nothings, great hopes were entertained and many predictions made that the indomitable General Lane, of Oregon, would be defeated in his canvass for reelection to Congress; but the result has been his complete and commanding triumph. The Democracy have been victorious throughout the Territory, and the majority of Gen. Lane is about 1,800. The Democrats met all the great issues boldly. They flung their banner to the breeze inscribed with hostility to the whole creed of Know-Nothingism, approved the fearless administration of Franklin Pierce, and endorsed the Nebraska bill and the Baltimore platform. The enemy, led by Major Gaines (who can now boast of having been twice captured--once by the Mexicans, and once by the conquerors of the Mexicans), made a most desperate struggle against General Lane. They spent thousands of dollars, their orators patrolled the Territory, and what with the circus shows and other frolics, and the repetition of the most outrageous slanders against the old hero, they managed to coalesce every ism, fact, and discontent against him. His unflinching courage and undying perseverance were, however, too much for them. He did as he did at Buena Vista, when he was in the van of danger, and may claim to have achieved a victory only next to that of Virginia herself. Well may our correspondent, writing from Oregon, say: "There is no more a living or competent organization in opposition to the true democracy of the country."
    What a hope-cheering prospect is this! The Democracy of the United States speaking the same truths, united upon the same platform, as well in the far-off forests of Oregon as on the coasts of Maine, as well in Texas as in California, as well in the West as in the East. And what a contrast it is to the conflicting and distracted councils of that many-headed opposition, which trembles daily for fear of falling to pieces from its own corrupt divisions!
The Daily Union, Washington, D.C., July 14, 1855, page 2

Residence of General Lane.
    While on a tour through the upper part of this valley, recently, we had the pleasure of visiting the residence and home of our distinguished fellow citizen, Gen. Lane. The General has a beautiful land claim, situated on the main road leading from the Willamette Valley south, about half-way between the villages of Winchester and Deer Creek, in Douglas County. The traveler who has passed through this part of the country could not have failed in arriving at the same conclusion that we have, that this is one of the most beautiful and picturesque spots in the territory. The country is made up of beautiful little prairies surrounded by hills. These prairies are generally covered with the best of grass the whole year (the grasshoppers this season have completely mowed them), while the adjacent hills afford timber of every variety, pine, oak, cedar, fir, &c. This part of the country is the best adapted for farming and stock growing of any we have ever seen in any country, without exception. The valleys are small, and water and timber is abundant, and as convenient as could be wished for. In one of the choicest of these little valleys, Gen. Lane selected a land claim some two years since, for the many natural advantages it possessed for stock growing and agricultural purposes, and we much admire the taste the General has exhibited in his selection. His house is built on an eminence from which a splendid view of the surrounding country is had. Although ever since his location here he has been nearly all the time engaged with public duty, yet his claim bears evidence that he has not been idle in the interim, and that he is a good practical farmer as well as a great general and statesman. A commodious house has been built, and finished in a comfortable and substantial manner. About 30 acres of the claim has been cultivated this year, and we here noticed one of the most promising-looking gardens we have seen this season, which we were pained to see being daily destroyed by the blighting ravages of the grasshoppers.
    We found the General busily engaged in harvesting his small grain, planning operations for more extensive improvements, &c. We were not surprised to see this; we were aware that Gen. Lane was not only theoretically, but practically a Democrat--a man, although possessing an enviable national reputation--who has won renown and imperishable fame by his brilliant achievements and military skill in Mexico--yet who is not afraid to work, to swing the scythe and hold the plow with his own hands--whose happiest moments (as he told us) were spent in tilling the soil, in seeing his labor rewarded with a bountiful harvest, in witnessing his herds fattening on the luxuriant grass, and sweeping over the beautiful valleys. We were forcibly reminded of similar inclinations and disposition of other eminent Americans. The "father of his country," the immortal Washington, was proud to have an opportunity to labor on his farm and to witness the growth of his crops. These are the kind of men that made America free, and these are the kind that will steer her straight through all contending elements. Such men have common sympathy with all classes of people, and particularly the laboring class, who are the legitimate source of the greatness and wealth of all nations, and who should be encouraged as far as practicable by judicious acts of legislation. Such men have been and are yet the true Americans, true republicans, and true democrats, in theory, sentiment and practice, of this great country. Today a humble citizen, mingling with his flocks and herds, laboring with his hands, and earning his "bread by the sweat of his brow," and tomorrow he is in the councils of the nation, discussing great measures for the benefit of the people, and assisting in framing laws for their mutual interests and protection; ready at all times to enter the battle field in defense of the liberties and honor of his country. Such is the character and disposition of Gen. Lane. When we witnessed how comfortable his family were situated--how pleasantly he seemed to enjoy himself surrounded by his children and friends--how it pained him to think of separating himself again from them so soon--we could scarcely think that there was one in our land so lost to all shame, to all sense of honor, to justice, to truth, to attempt to injure Gen. Lane's private character, as was attempted to be done prior to election, by a base, malicious, and false publication by one of the slander-dealing anonymous scribblers of the Oregonian. It was a little lower than it was supposed even Dryer would stoop, and those who witnessed his humiliation at the political meeting at Winchester, when a certain article in his paper was referred to, will really understand to what we refer. The slander recoiled on the perpetrators, and so disgusted many honest Whigs that they renounced Dryer, Gaines & Co., and went to work zealously for General Lane. There is no man in the world who is more sincerely attached to his family--and who takes more pride in indulging in those social qualities which make the family circle a place to be coveted, than JO. LANE.

Umpqua Weekly Gazette, Scottsburg, August 9, 1855, page 2

    Gen. Lane passed through here on Thursday, on his way to Washington. He intends to go out on the next steamer.
Oregon Statesman, Corvallis, September 22, 1855, page 2

(From the National Democratic Review.)
The West! the West! where is the West?
*    *    *
It follows the declining sun
Along the banks of Oregon,
Nor leaves him where he makes his pillow
On the great Pacific's billow.
    We have watched, with intense interest, the fearful struggle between civilization and humanity on one hand, and savage brutality on the other, which has been maintained during the last few months in the territories of Washington and Oregon. Nothing but an honest doubt in regard to the nature of the difficulties in which Oregon matters are involved has deterred us from calling aloud, on behalf of the settlers on our northwestern borders, for that aid which is necessary to quench the fagot in savage hands and stay the torrent of ruthless murder. After the most deliberate examination of the whole subject, we are satisfied our first opinion was correct, viz: that too small a body of troops was sent to the Pacific Coast, or that the military disposition of those troops did not justify the high expectations indulged in reference to those most prominent in command.
    What is Oregon, that it should be doomed to become a land of skulls? and who are its inhabitants, that they should be plundered, murdered and immolated by the savages? The Territory of Oregon is one of the loveliest in the world; it is a land of promise, where Providence seems to have been most prodigal in the expenditure of its riches. It has the boldest rivers, the most fertile valleys, the proudest forests and the grandest mountains in the world. It has vales delicious as Sempe, groves as delightful as Arcadia, and fields fair as those of Enna,
"Where Proserpine gathering flowers,
Herself a fairy flower, by gloomy Dis
    Was carried off."
Oregon is the last home of the emigrant. Here, wearied by the march of thousands of miles, he determined to rest forever. Here he erected his cabin, planted his garden, sowed his farm, and gathered his little family at night in confident security. In the midst of his repose he was aroused by the cry that his dwelling was in flames, and he awoke only to fall before the deadly rifle, and see his children struck down, and his wife violated in his presence!
    Tell us not that we should first inquire who were originally to blame in this matter! Shame upon the truckling demagogue who can maintain his composure and look coldly on while the fairest daughters of America are murdered and insulted upon the banks of the Columbia! These women, a little while ago, dwelt in New England, the Middle States, in the South, and in the West; they are our mothers, our sisters, and our daughters. Shall we protect them, or shall we suffer them to be butchered and immolated by the miserable savages of Oregon? All Greece engaged in the Trojan War to recover a woman who voluntarily fled her country; all Sparta would have invaded Scandinavia had such an invasion been necessary to rescue a single mother of the iron kingdom; shall we of this proud land prove the only ungallant people of the earth? We have not patience to reason with men who hesitate in a crisis like the present. It is the duty of a commanding officer to execute orders; it is his duty to take the field, conquer the enemy, and put an end to the destruction of human life. He is not the judge of the origin of a war, and he transcends the boundary of his authority when he presumes to call in question the right of a people to defend their own firesides.
    In this connection we may remark--nothing had gratified us more than the bold and manly course pursued by the Delegate from Oregon, Gen. Joseph Lane. The people on our northwestern coast were certainly fortunate in their selection of a man to represent their interests in Washington City. Gen. Lane, the gallant veteran who won the glorious title of "The Marion of the Mexican War," has watched day and night over the people who live on the borders of the Pacific.
    (Here followed some extracts from Gen. Lane's speech on the Oregon war, which having before published in the Statesman, we now omit.)
    Here is a plain and unvarnished statement, which bears the marks of truth. We have no disposition to reflect upon General Wool; on the contrary, we entertain the highest respect for him as a man and as a soldier; if it be true, however, that he attempted, while in the neighborhood of California, to detain the 9th Infantry, then on the way to Oregon--that his influence, at one period, prevented the settlers furnishing powder to the residents on the frontiers--that he did not move boldly against the savages, but instead hesitated, upon the pretext that the whites were guilty of the first offenses; if these things be true, General Wool should be held to account by the American people.
    We entertain no doubt that indiscretions in many instances marked the conduct of the white man in Oregon. There never was a frontier population which could be absolutely restrained; soldiers, though, were not sent to the territories to judge of the causes which precipitated the contest; it was not expected that they would constitute a judicial tribunal of even temporary jurisdiction, and we are proud to bear witness that our gallant army has ever been ready, at the first call of the country, to take the field and march to victory, leaving the consequences to be settled by the civil authorities. General Wool is a brave man--a soldier whose fame is the common property of the nation; if he did not act as promptly in the premises as he was expected to act, we have only to regret, on behalf of the slain of Oregon, his strange unnatural conduct.
    We shall not attempt to present, in our brief outline of the frontier difficulties, anything like a systematic account of the murders, burnings and bloody conflicts which have characterized the war. It is evident that the savages had been preparing for years for the contest in which they are engaged; there was a perfect understanding among numberless chiefs of well-known courage and acknowledged talent, and simultaneous blows were struck along defenseless lines of a thousand miles. At the very time--as General Lane informs us--hostilities commenced in Washington Territory, they occurred in Rogue River Valley; in one night, the Indians traveled several miles and killed every man, woman and child on the road, with a few exceptions; they burned every house except one; they killed every woman except one--Mrs. Harris. The house of this lady was surrounded, her husband killed, and her daughter wounded. She loaded and fired her rifle eighty times, and finally escaped under cover of the darkness. Every man on this route was killed except Wagoner, whose wife and children were murdered, and who himself fell on the 22nd of February last at the mouth of Rogue River. Almost all the cattle in this region have been driven off or shot and left to decay upon the plains.
    Lack of space prevents even the general glance which we had intended at the war on the Pacific. In our next number, we shall present from the most authentic records all the particulars of importance which can be obtained in Washington City. It is sufficient to remark that the beautiful territories of Oregon and Washington are subjected every day and night to the most fearful ravages; that large numbers of volunteers have been raised, and are ready to cooperate with the regular troops of the government; that there has been gross and unpardonable delay on the part of the principal officer in command. "I would never raise my voice," says Gen. Lane, "in behalf of these people, if I believed them capable of such an enormity as that charged upon them by General Wool--the enormity, startling and revolting to every right-minded man, of deliberately making war upon an innocent and unoffending people for the purpose of enriching themselves by robbery of the public treasury. I know that to avoid war they would submit, and have submitted, to many wrongs for the purpose of maintaining peace and saving the lives of their families. This war has brought devastation and destruction to every portion of the two territories, and the last letter from my own home stated that everybody there is terror-stricken, that dismay has taken possession of everybody, and that the settlers are now building blockhouses for the purpose of protecting their families and friends, and that they are determined to fight to the last. And yet General Wool charges, and his letter is read as authority upon this floor, that the people of Oregon are guilty of bringing on this war with the Indians, bringing to their dwellings the torch, and to the hearts and the heads of their wives and their children the tomahawk and scalping knife of the savage, whose soul inflamed with passion and thirsting for revenge, revels with demonic delight in scenes of carnage, and draws the greatest pleasure of which such depraved natures are capable from the agony of his tortured and writhing victim. The Indians are literally breaking up the whole country, and I am not certain but that a large portion of the Territory will fall into their hands. I am in continued dread--though I think I am not easily frightened--but by the very next arrival I shall hear something more terrible than anything which has yet reached me. They have burned our steamboats, they have destroyed numerous farms and dwellings in Oregon, and a beautiful town in the southern part of Washington Territory, on the banks of the Columbia River, and have now access to the valleys, and I have great fear they will dash into the valley of the Willamette, and do much damage."
    It is fortunate for the people on the distant shores of the Pacific that they have such an advocate in Congress as Joseph Lane. Such vigilance we have never witnessed on the part of any other gentleman in the House of Representatives as has been displayed by Gen. Lane in defense of the inhabitants of Washington and Oregon territories. He is a man of whom any constituency may well be proud. Possessing an iron nerve, he dares to take any responsibility; clear and sound in his judgment, he takes no false nor injudicious step; comprehensive in his views of public policy, he seems to discover by intuition the line of justice and honor. He is one of those bold, original characters that nature, in her munificence, never fails to provide for a startling and difficult crisis.
    We always indulge a feeling of pride when, in looking over the gallant Democratic champions of the House of Representatives, our eye rests upon the frank, open countenance of THE HERO OF BUENA VISTA. Thank God, some of the noble Romans still live--live, as monuments of the glorious past, and guarantees of the glorious future of America. The influence, the example, and the illustrious deeds of a few such men as "The Marion of the Mexican War," inspire us with a hope that, though the tempest of faction may rage, and threaten the dismemberment of our republic, we shall be able to weather the storm. We regret, and the people of the Union regret, and the unborn inhabitants of this continent will regret, that to the hands of Gen. Lane was not committed the management of the war on our western borders. We make, however, no incendiary appeal to the disinterested masses of this country, for we know that a verdict would be rendered in favor of our demand which would echo from hill to hill, and from mountain to mountain, and startle a whole empire of politicians. God knows, and hundreds of thousands of men in this country know, that Gen. Joseph Lane was the man for the crisis. The people of Oregon and Washington territories should be thankful, however, that they can claim his services in the Congress of the United States, and that he is toiling with unremitted zeal in their behalf.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 22, 1856, page 1  From the National Democratic Review of May, 1856, pages 433-440.

Delicate Taste.
    The Statesman of this week has dropped the name of Jo Lane as a candidate for the Presidency. The young man tells us that it is not done because he has ceased to love Jo Lane, or appreciate his towering worth, but the name was "omitted as a matter of typographical taste."
    By the same rule of "taste" we suggest another improvement, by your hauling down your own name as "editor," and substituting that of Wiggins or Pat Malone.

The Oregon Argus, Oregon City, February 16, 1856, page 2

    The United States revenue cutter Joseph Lane, Capt. J. S. S. Chaddock, sailed yesterday for Astoria, Oregon, where she will be permanently stationed. Her officers are--Captain, J. S. S. Chaddock; First Lieutenant, John Mason, Jr.; Second Lieutenant, J. Wesley White; Boatswain, James Murphy; Gunner, Peter Person. The Lane was built by Messrs. Page & Allen, at Gosport, Va., and is one of the finest vessels that has ever visited our waters. Her dimensions are: length, 105 feet; beam, 24 feet; depth of hold, 8 feet; draft forward, 8 feet; aft, 10 feet 6 inches. She sailed from Norfolk, Va. in May last, and arrived here early in December, via Rio de Janeiro, Straits of Magellan and Valparaiso. While lying in port she was visited by many of our citizens and much admired for her beauty and neat appearance. Dr. Louis De B. Kuhn, surgeon, who came out in her, has been transferred to the cutter Jefferson Davis, and will proceed with Captain Pease in a few days to Puget Sound.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, March 4, 1856, page 2


    The publication in the Intelligencer of the letters of Major General Wool and Governor Stevens, in reference to the Indian wars in Oregon and Washington and our military operations in those Territories, makes it proper that we should insert the annexed remarks on the subject made in the House of Representatives on the 7th instant.
    Mr. LANE, of Oregon, said: I desire to occupy the floor for a few minutes. I do not want to discuss the deficiency bill. I only want to notice some remarks that have been made in the course of the debate upon it. It is the army part of the bill that I intend to notice, and particularly the remarks of the gentleman from Ohio (Mr. Stanton). The gentleman made a statement which is obviously correct, and that is that either the commander of the American forces upon the Pacific or the governors of the Territories of Oregon and Washington had fallen into a great error. He introduced a letter of Gen. Wool to sustain the charges he himself had made, that the governors of these two Territories had fallen into a great error, and had made an unnecessary war upon the Indians, thereby greatly increasing the army expenses of that department and rendering the appropriations now asked for as a deficiency necessary.
    Mr. Speaker, in what I have to say of General Wool I wish it to be understood that I would not pluck one laurel from his brow. He has done gallant service. I have seen him in trying positions, and it has been my fortune to serve under him. My gallant friend from Kentucky (Mr. H. Marshall) has also served under him, and I can bear testimony that upon great occasions he has borne himself most nobly. But, sir, he writes his letter from San Francisco, bearing date of the 2nd of April. It is published in the columns of the National Intelligencer, and fills nearly two columns and a half of that paper. And, sir, the whole of that letter is a tissue of abuse and invective against the people of Oregon Territory. He charges the Governor of that Territory with making an unnecessary war upon the friendly Indians for the sake of plundering the national treasury.
    Now, sir, how humiliated should I be if I could believe one word of that letter, or if I believed this House could credit the charges there made by that gallant old man against the people of Oregon Territory as having made war upon the Indians for the sake of plunder! I should not now ask the attention of the House to any remarks of mine in reply to the gentleman from Ohio but for the fact that this letter of Gen. Wool will be published with that gentleman's speech, and going to the country in that connection might produce a prejudice in the minds of the people of the country against the Governor and the people of Oregon. Sir, the people of Oregon are an honest, industrious people, and to charge that they could be capable of making war against the Indians for the sake of plunder is a slander upon chivalrous, high-spirited and gallant men who have periled the lives and bared their bosoms to the weapons of a skulking and treacherous foe in protecting the defenseless women and children who have been forced to fly from their beautiful dwellings, which have, in many instances, been fired by the torch of the savage before they were out of sight of their once-peaceful homes.
    Far be it from me to cast any imputation upon the army. We have many gallant spirits in the army, and deeply do I regret that an officer whose career has heretofore been so brilliant, honorable and useful, who has won imperishable laurels upon many a hard-fought field, who now stands before us "full of years and full of honors"--deeply do I regret that such a one, instead of adding new luster to his well-earned fame, should have committed errors in the conduct of the war in Oregon which, to say the least, will throw a cloud--I hope evanescent--around the departure from the theater of his renown of a hero who otherwise would have sunk peacefully to rest, like the setting sun in a serene and cloudless sky. I regret, sir--and I will say that impartial history will decide that it was unfortunate for the reputation of this honored veteran--that the conduct of this Indian war was assigned to him. Trained to arms according to the tactics of West Point, a tactician after the fashion of the military fogeys of Europe, he has become thoroughly imbued with the faults of the old system, so far as its utter inadaptation to Indian warfare is concerned. We are told "it is never too late to learn," and perhaps General Wool might learn, if his life should be spared some years, all the wiles and stratagems of the savage and the other peculiarities of Indian warfare, but to expect him to acquire such knowledge immediately, or to possess it by intuition, is unreasonable to the last degree. Posterity will decide, in charity to the old soldier, whose blunders and mismanagement in Oregon otherwise admit of no palliation or excuse, that it were better for him had he been left to repose upon his laurels already won. Like a good old ship which has braved the storms of ocean, and borne the flag of the country in triumph on every sea, and is then laid up in dock, after being pronounced by the naval inspectors "unseaworthy," he should not now be sent to meet the perils and endure the privations and hardships in conducting a warfare for which he has--and I hope it is no disparagement to say so--no qualifications whatever.
    Now, sir, this letter bears date of the 2nd of April. On the night of the 25th of March--seven days previous--the Indians, by stratagem (showing generalship of a far higher order than has yet been evinced by General Wool in prosecuting the war), fell into the rear of the volunteers and of the regular troops in the field and possessed themselves of the only pass leading from the settlements into the Indian country, and which is the only pass by which our troops can be supplied or reinforced. On that day--the 25th of March--they boarded and took possession of the steamer Mary, which had on board a guard of fifteen men, all of whom, with the entire crew, fell under the tomahawk of the savage, and the steamer was burnt to the water's edge. [The Mary and her crew survived.] Only two steamboats have been placed on the Columbia above the Cascade falls; they have been used for the transportation of troops and supplies, and also for the use of settlers who have located east of the Cascade Mountains. One of them, with all on board, has been destroyed by the Indians. And they did not stop there; they took one of the most beautiful little towns that the eye of man ever rested upon--Cascade City--murdered the people, and burnt every house in the town. [Most of the residents took shelter in Bradford's store, and survived.] Yet, sir, on the 2nd of April, General Wool writes this letter--at a time when the news of these Indian outrages had reached him--and he does not say one word of the taking of the steamer Mary and the murder of her entire crew; he does not mention the burning of that beautiful town, Cascade City; he never mentions the sufferings of the people of Oregon, but he devotes the whole of his letter to denunciation of the people of that Territory.
    The Indians of Oregon are too cunning and vigilant to let General Wool or anybody else attack them where they do not want to fight. Before I take my seat I shall ask, as General Wool's letter has been read, that the Clerk shall read Governor Stevens' answer to a letter of his written some time since. I shall now call the attention of the House to some extracts from a letter which I received a day or two since from a gentleman now in Philadelphia, but who has for several years past lived in Rogue River Valley. I know him well. He is not my political friend, and has never supported me for office. He is an honest man, and he can and does tell the truth. The letter bears date Philadelphia, April 28th. He says:
    "I have just returned from Rogue River, Oregon Territory. I lived there during two years, and have felt as much interest in the welfare and good name of Southern Oregon as any man could feel for his adopted country. I yet hope to be proud of the name of one of its earliest settlers. I was there before the war commenced, when it commenced, and for four months afterwards, and I am familiar with the causes which led to it. And I cannot hide the anguish and feelings of disgust with which I have read the reports in the newspapers which have been sent on by Palmer and Governor Curry. Indeed I would not, I think, be doing justice to myself or my fellow citizens of Southern Oregon if I did not refute these slanders. It may be deemed the height of assumption for a citizen without the cloak of power to wield the pen against them, but when I reflect that I am an American, and that my fellow citizens are unjustly branded with infamy, I know that it is my right and my duty to deny that there is any truth in the charges against that people. Palmer says that 'the war was forced on these people against their will.' He cannot point out a single instance to sustain him in his assertion. The Indians wanted to fight long before the war commenced, but they could not agree among themselves as to the time."
    This, Mr. Speaker, is the language of a citizen of Oregon. He feels deep mortification when he reads Governor Curry's proclamation for maintaining the friendly disposition of the Indians. He censures Governor Curry because he is too humane to the Indians, while Gen. Wool holds him up as a robber and a murderer, and who makes war for the purpose of depleting the treasury.
    It is due to Governor Curry that I should here state, in vindication of his good name both from the aspersions of Gen. Wool and the censures of my correspondent, that when certain Indians were killed by Major Lupton's party the intelligence was brought to him that these Indians were friendly and inoffensive--information which proved afterwards to be incorrect. It was upon the false account given to him of the character and disposition of these Indians that he issued his proclamation exhorting the whites to maintain friendly relations with the Indians, and denouncing the severest punishment against any person who should commit outrages on such as were friendly and inoffensive. Those killed by Major Lupton Governor Curry afterwards ascertained to be murderers, and deserving the fate that befell them. This statement I have deemed necessary and proper to explain what might otherwise seem inconsistency in the conduct of Governor Curry. The agent, Dr. Ambrose, who is also censured, was misled in the same manner as Governor Curry, and is a worthy and humane man.
    "Before the Indian was molested by the whites the Indians killed two white men on Applegate. A few days afterwards they killed two more on Slate Creek. The Indians who committed these murders were pointed out to the agent, Dr. Ambrose. He conducted them to the reserve, and there protected them against the friends of the victim, who could not help [but] feel indignant. The agent refused to arrest the murderers and give them a trial. While the whites were not allowed to go on the reserve the Indians were at liberty to go where they pleased. But a short time after those murders a party of Indians from Rogue River Valley went over to Klamath, killed seventeen white men, plundered their bodies, and then returned to the reserve, claiming the agent's protection. They were seen, tracked back, and known to be the murderers, and yet the sympathetic agent would not allow them to be molested. They next attacked two teams (loaded with flour for Yreka) on the Siskiyou Mountain. Two men and a boy and thirteen oxen were killed. Two men at about the same time were shot at near Wait's mill, in the upper part of the valley. A great deal of stock was also driven from various parts of the valley. All these outrages were committed without the least provocation on the part of the whites. Indians rushed into the dwellings of the whites and behaved in the most insolent and threatening manner to women and children. This and greater cause was given to the whites before an Indian was molested, and it was only after so many murders following thick and fast one on another, and positive proof that they were committed by the Rogue River Indians, that the whites felt themselves forced to the alternative to fight or leave the country. Yet Mr. Palmer says that the Indians were driven to desperation. If so, what were the whites driven to?--death or defense."
    I know that the seventeen men referred to were murdered as stated. I was at home [in Douglas County] at the time. Among them was a young man by the name of Fickas, son of an old and much-esteemed friend, who was bred up near my old plantation in Indiana. This young man assisted in building the house in which I live in Oregon.
    The letter is signed by Oliver J. Evans. It was only when all the outrages enumerated were committed that Major Lupton raised his company. He tracked the Indians and found in their possession property taken from those whose bodies had been found mutilated on the mountains. It was proof positive that they were the murderers. They had tried to get to the reserve, but did not succeed before the Major overtook and attacked them. [The murderers were not present.] He himself was killed and also some fifteen or twenty of the Indians, among them some squaws.
    General Wool has charged that this battle was the origin and cause of all the subsequent hostilities. The squaws that Major Lupton killed were escorted by the warriors who killed the men and boy upon the mountains, from which place he tracked them to Butte Creek, where he attacked them. However, the agent was notified by these Indians that they had nothing to do with the murder--that they were going to the reserve. The Governor was notified, and he issued his proclamation as before stated. Evans certainly had not seen General Wool's letter or he would have turned the war in that direction.
    Now, sir, I do not want to say more about Gen. Wool, and will only say that his letter is full of injustice to the people of Oregon. I would never raise my voice in behalf of these people if I believed them capable of such an enormity as that charged upon them by Gen. Wool--the enormity, startling and revolting to every right-minded man, of deliberately making war upon an innocent and unoffending people for the purpose of enriching themselves by robbery of the public treasury. I know that to avoid war they would submit, and have submitted, to many wrongs for the purpose of maintaining peace and saving the lives of their families. This war has brought devastation and destruction to every portion of the two Territories, and the last letter from my own home stated that everybody there is terror-stricken, that dismay has taken possession of everybody, and that the settlers are now building blockhouses for the purpose of protecting their families and friends, and that they are determined to fight to the last. And yet Gen. Wool charges, and his letter is read as authority upon this floor, that the people of Oregon are guilty of bringing on this war with the Indians, bringing to their dwellings the torch, and to the hearts and the heads of their wives and their children the tomahawk and scalping knife of the savage, whose soul, inflamed with passion and thirsting for revenge, revels with demoniac delight in scenes of carnage, and draws the greatest pleasure of which such depraved natures are capable from the agony of his tortured and writhing victim.
    The Indians are literally breaking up the whole country, and I am not certain but that a large portion of the Territory will fall into their hands. I am in continual dread--though I think I am not easily frightened--lest by the very next arrival I shall hear something more terrible than anything which has yet reached us. They have burnt our steamboats; they have destroyed numerous farms and dwellings in Oregon, and a beautiful town in the southern part of Washington Territory, on the banks of the Columbia River, and have now access to the valleys, and I have great fear that they will dash into the valley of the Willamette and do much damage. In this state of the facts Gen. Wool's letter is introduced upon this floor for the purpose of criminating the people I represent and excusing his blunders.
    Mr. STANTON. I quoted Gen. Wool for the purpose of showing that there was a disagreement amongst the authorities there, and that the President ought to remove one of them.
    Mr. LANE. I say that the cause of this disagreement is so manifest that I have nothing to say upon the subject. Our people are, for their own defense, struggling and risking their lives, and a large portion of Gen. Wool's letter is devoted to denunciation of the volunteers who are operating east of the Cascade Mountains, in which he charges that they are operating in Washington Territory. The General is mistaken in his information. He has not examined the geography of the country. He has been grossly deceived. . . .
National Intelligencer, Washington, D.C., May 13, 1856, page 2

Who Are to Be the Cane Bearers Now?
    It will be recollected that when General Lane returned from Washington, two years ago, he brought a fine gold-headed cane, made from the keel of the ship Constitution, familiarly called "Old Iron Sides." On the gold head was engraved, "Presented to Gen. Joseph Lane, by his friend, Frank Pierce." This cane was carried south, when Lane was canvassing for re-election, by bearers appointed, we suppose, for the purpose; among them was, then plain J. W., now Quartermaster General Drew, Messrs. Chadwick, Martin, Boyd, "Uncle Ben," and others. We heard some amusing anecdotes about the manner in which this cane would get ahead of the procession, and be shown as a sort of herald to announce the General's approach. It is now a question of considerable importance, who are to be the cane bearers in 1857? Drew has grown wonderfully great since he served as bearer, therefore he cannot do it. Martin has received from Lane the appointment of Register of the land office at Winchester--he can't neglect his business; Chadwick has retired from public life; "Uncle Ben" ditto, and Boyd has run away; therefore it is necessary that new bearers should be selected. We nominate John Orvis Waterman, Alonzo Leland, Ass-ahell Bush, and W. G. T'Vault, whose duty it shall be alternately to bear the cane, and such Buchanan medals as the General may bring on with him, as testimonials of his high standing and influence at Washington City.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, April 4, 1857, page 2

Portland Oregon
    April 22, 1857.
Hon. Jacob Thompson
    Secy. of the Interior
            I have just arrived, have met Genl. Nesmith, lately appointed Superintendent [of] Indian Affrs. for Oregon & Washington Territories. He will accept and will forward his bonds by the next steamer. In your instructions you have directed the offices of Superintendent at Oregon City; now you must permit me to say that the office ought to be located at Salem, the present seat of govt. It is much more convenient to the Indians with greater facilities for dispatching business and for communicating with agts. and sub-agts., and in all respects a better location. You will therefore I trust allow him to establish his office at Salem.
    Allow me also to beg you to see that no appointments are made for Oregon or changes made till I can write you. I shall be in Washington in Nov. next.
Your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane
NARA Series M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Reel 610 Oregon Superintendency 1857, frames 363-365.

    The party having the command of the federal administration generally secures at first the control in our territories. The appointments are made, the patronage is distributed by the administration, and men work zealously for pay. Every postmaster, every petty officer, deems it his duty to labor for the party on whom he depends, and a principal part of the governor's business is to shape the politics of his territory. This is why New Mexico, Nebraska, Oregon, and Washington are controlled by the pro-slavery Democracy, and Minnesota, notwithstanding its settlement by free state emigrants, is to so great a degree under its power.
    One measure of counteracting this evil is the circulation of papers advocating the cause of freedom. The Republicans of Oregon, we are glad to see, have come to this conclusion. The conduct of Lane and other Democratic leaders, in boldly advocating the introduction of slavery, has alarmed them, and convinced them of the necessity of more strenuous efforts to resist that mischievous project. We have lately received orders for several clubs of the Era, to be circulated among the people of Oregon. It is, we trust, but the beginning of a more general movement.
    A correspondent in Deer Creek, Oregon Territory, sending us a dozen subscribers, says:
    "I am astonished, on my return after an absence of eighteen months, to find such a turning over to the Republican ranks. For your encouragement, I would say, that the Era and Facts for the People have had much to do in producing the change in this neighborhood. The pro-slavery ground taken by Lane and most of our leading Democrats, just before the election of our constitutional delegate, has operated powerfully to open the eyes of honest Democrats, and there are many of them becoming daily more and more disgusted, who, I think, will soon come over to the Republicans."
    We hope our friends will take care to have such men supplied with the right kind of reading, and they will soon decide upon the course proper to be pursued.
The National Era, Washington, D.C., November 19, 1857, page 2

Gen. Lane's Letter.
    The Standard affects to regard the letter of Gen. Lane we published in our last week's issue as sustaining the position of the disaffectionists. Mr. O'Meara prudently (?) avoids the publication of the entire letter, and contents himself with a pair of quotations--then, very little to his purpose, and asserting a want of space, he proceeds to a line of comment equal on the "space" question to the publication of quite three-fourths of the entire letter. If the Standard had no room for it, will he be good enough to spare the room next week, or week after, or at any time before the election? We are very anxious that the readers of the Standard should have an opportunity of reading that letter--judging for themselves of its contents. In the meanwhile we can assure the editor of the Standard that Gen. Lane is too good an old soldier to sanction mutiny anywhere. The letter in question, however, is before our readers, and it is as full and thorough an endorsement of the position held by the Democracy of Oregon as we desire at his hands, in entire harmony with the status of the Statesman and Times upon the subject in question, and a document withal, the Standard we fear will not find it sufficiently to the interest of his cause to publish for the perusal of its readers. It is reasonable to suppose that if the letter contained sentiments in justification of the Eugene movement, the editor of the Standard would find room for its publication, or know the reason why.
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, April 4, 1858, page 2

Acceptance of Gen. Lane.
    As some studied efforts are being made to misrepresent the position of Gen. Lane in relation to the movements of the disorganizers, we deem it proper to publish the following correspondence which took place less than one year since:
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gen Joseph Lane--Dear Sir: The undersigned, a committee appointed by the Democratic Territorial Convention, held at Salem on the 13th inst., to inform you of your selection by that body as the candidate of the Democratic Party for Delegate to Congress, and to present you with the resolutions adopted by said convention, and request your public acceptance of the same, have the pleasure of discharging that duty by enclosing herewith the proceedings of the Convention. Allow us to add our personal congratulations on again welcoming you as the standard bearer of the Democracy of Oregon.
Respectfully yours,
    Joseph W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    James M. Pyle,
Gen. Joseph Lane.
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gentlemen--Your note of this date, informing me of my nomination for Delegate to Congress by the Democratic Territorial Convention held at Salem on the 13th inst., and enclosing the proceedings and resolutions of that Convention, is before me, and I hasten to reply.
    In my renomination, I recognize again that manifestation of public confidence it has been, as it will continue to be my aim to merit at the hands of my fellow citizens, and for which I tender them my grateful acknowledgments. With a high sense of the honor thus conferred upon me, it is alone in the promotion of the interests of our people and our Territory (now about to assume her sovereignty as one of the states of this confederacy), that I hope to justify this confidence upon the part of the people, and through you I beg to assure them that nothing within the reach of the faithful performance of my duties shall be left undone for the achievement of this great object.
    In accepting the nomination, I cordially endorse the resolutions of the Convention as expressive of the principles and will of the Democracy of Oregon, and while it is to be regretted that either any portion of the press, or individuals claiming to be advocates of the principles, or members of the Democratic Party, should persist in a course inevitably leading to the violation of the "cherished usages of the party," the production of confusion and discord, and overthrow of all party organization indispensable to the maintenance of our political principles and measures, it is both the right and duty of the people, through their delegates in Convention, to condemn and repudiate the same whenever and wherever it may exist.
    Now that we are about taking incipient steps preparatory to our admission as a state, convictions of duty and of patriotism combine with our hopes of future prosperity as a people in prompting our strict and unswerving devotion to the time-honored principles of that party under whose auspices our whole country has progressed and prospered to an extent unparalleled in the history of nations, and by which alone the peace, prosperity and integrity of the Union can ever be maintained.
    Again allow me to express to the people whom you represent my profound gratitude and accept for yourselves assurances of my kindest regard.
Respectfully, your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane.
Messrs. J. W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    Jas. M. Pyle
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 20, 1858, page 2

    Gen. Lane arrived on the Columbia.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 28, 1857, page 2

South Fork Deer Creek, Douglas Co.,
    July 30th, 1857.
    Mr. Bush--This part of the Territory of Oregon has been and is infested by a lawless band of Indians ever since the last war, who go skulking through the mountains and canyons that lie adjacent to the settlements, frequently shooting cattle and horses, and robbing houses whenever a fair opportunity offers. About six weeks ago, Mr. Franklin Wright's house was robbed of a No. 1 rifle, one pound of powder, some percussion caps, two cwt. flour, two or three pairs of blankets &c., and on the 24th of July, Mr. Jas. Gilmore, a neighbor of Mr. Wright's living on the south fork of Deer Creek, about nine miles above Roseburg, unfortunately had one large American mare and two two-year-old and one yearling colt shot. The shooting was done with arrows, as each of the colts were found having one sticking in them. The mare was found dead, the arrow having passed clear through her body. The colts were driven home, and the spikes of bone (which had been sharpened to a point) drawn from two of them, and it is supposed those two will recover.
    How long we are to live in dread of these infernal pests of the country, there is no knowing. However, we know that as long as they are allowed to run at large, our farming community will be the sufferers. There are some five or six men in pursuit, among whom are Gen. Joseph Lane and Col. Wm. Martin. It is hoped that the old General will make some of them squat, or come to terms.
    Yours, respectfully,
        [no signature]
Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 18, 1857, page 2

    A. J. Barlow, formerly a resident of Grants Pass, has left us an addendum that needs to be quoted. Barlow was General Lane's nephew. His letter follows:
    Uncle David Gilmore of Woodville relates an interesting reminiscence of pioneer history. In the June of 1856, soon after the Rogue River Indians were subjugated and were being taken to the Siletz reservation by Indian Agent Robert Metcalfe, about a dozen bucks and three or four squaws, who could not endure the idea of being forced by the hated whites on a reservation not of their own choice, concluded to desert and betake themselves to the mountains, which they did at Myrtle Creek in Douglas County.
    They were unarmed and had but little provisions, just what they stole from the camp on the night before they deserted. They soon managed to make themselves bows and arrows with which to kill game.
    Not many weeks after they went into the mountains, the settlers along the Umpqua River noticed that they commenced to miss provisions and wearing apparel. These little thefts became more and more frequent, so much so, indeed, that the settlers laid all sorts of traps to catch the midnight marauders but to no avail, the redskins being too foxy.
    This business continued uninterruptedly until the summer of 1857, when one hot moonlight July night, the Gilmores were awakened from their slumbers by the stampeding of their horses. When daylight came they went to the pasture to find that the Indians had shot their horses with arrows. Some had been shot through the bowels and afterward died. This so exasperated the settlers that they determined to hunt the red devils down.
    General Lane had just been elected to Congress, and he was consulted in relation to the matter. He at once organized a searching party, consisting of himself, Col. Wm. Martin of Jacksonville [sic], A. J. Burnett, David Gilmore, John Fitzhugh and his younger son, Lafayette, a lad of 15 years, and three friendly Klamath Indians named Sampson, Captain Chief and Joe Snakes.
    The searching party set out in the direction of Camas Valley and the head of Coquille River. After they had been out about three or four days the General divided his forces. He sent Burnett and Gilmore, accompanied by Captain Chief and Joe Snakes in the direction of Camas Valley, with instructions that if they discovered Indian signs to return to a certain place and report.
    Burnett and Gilmore had not proceeded many miles until they found unmistakable signs of the close proximity of Indians. They at once wheeled about and joined Lane's party about sundown of the same day they started. The next day, bright and early, all hands were in their saddles.
    The General cautioned the men not to make any noise, such as shooting at game, which was forbidden. However, about noon the party came suddenly in sight of an unusually large black bear. The temptation was irresistible, and the General sang out, "Let us give it to him, men." In an instant every man in the party sent his leaden missile into bruin's carcass, killing him instantly.
    One of the Indians wanted the itchfoot's hide, and accordingly they skinned him. They were detained at this about an hour, when they proceeded to move along cautiously in pursuit of the Indians. They soon found Indian signs, but by this time the day was drawing to a close. The party concluded to return to the gulch where they had shot the bear, in order to get water.
    When they arrived at the spot they were dumbfounded to find that the Indians had preceded them to the same spot and cut and carried the bear to their own camp, which evidently could not be far away. A guard was kept out all night. The next morning the searching party started down the gulch. Col. Martin discovered smoke on the left-hand side of the gulch.
    The party cautiously crossed over and soon went unobserved into the Indian encampment, which was a genuine surprise. In an instant the Indians were in a fearful commotion. They evidently thought they would all be murdered. Gen. Lane, with characteristic coolness, informed the Indians that his party did not come to kill them, but to capture them and send them to the reservation where they belonged--that they had to submit at once, and that any resistance on their part would cause all of them to be shot.
    The General ordered his men to keep their hands near their pistols and to proceed to gather up the bows and arrows of the Indians. Soon all their traps were gathered and loaded on the horses, and the captors and captives started for the Umpqua Valley. They traveled all day and at night camped at a beautiful stream called Snowberry Creek. A close watch was kept over the Indians during the night.
    In the meantime, however, it should be stated that two young Indians named Jim Burnteye and Bogus had the day before gone on a hunting tour. When they returned to their camp and ascertained that the whites had captured their comrades, their bewilderment and grief can be imagined.
    However, they followed the tracks of the captors into the valley to ascertain what the whites intended to do with their friends. When Jim Burnteye and Bogus found that the whites did not contemplate killing them, they also came in and gave themselves up.
    It turned out that the Indians, when they heard the shooting of the bear, merely supposed it was a hunting party out for game and little dreamed that they, themselves, were the game sought. They were taken to Winchester and there remained until officers from Alsea arrived and removed them unwillingly, as usual, to the reservation, from whence most of them doubtless, long ere this, have passed to the happy hunting ground.

Daily Courier, Grants Pass, April 2, 1960, Indians and Mining Section, page 12. Reprinted from an unattributed clipping in the William Fidler Scrapbook MS208, Southern Oregon Historical Society Research Library

    Gen Lane is in town.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, September 8, 1857, page 3

    Gen. Lane left here last week for Washington, in company with J. Ross Brown, special agent of the government. They have visited the Indian reservations in the Willamette Valley and will visit those east of the Cascades before their departure.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 29, 1857, page 2

    I have not written to our representative delegate in Congress (Hon. Joe Lane) in relation to the affair of Mr. Day, from the fact that the Genl. has not in 3 campaigns met with my support, or that of Mr. Day--although I am in politics a Democrat (somewhat, however, of the native-born order). But the Genl. has ever been nursing and caressing and imposing upon us the ---------- set of boobies & asses that ever tormented mankind. Of my identity, however, I will refer you to the Genl.
Courtney M. Walker, letter of November 18, 1857 to J. B. Thompson,
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 611 Oregon Superintendency, 1858-1859, frame 713.

Acceptance of Gen. Lane.
    As some studied efforts are being made to misrepresent the position of Gen. Lane in relation to the movements of the disorganizers, we deem it proper to publish the following correspondence which took place less than one year since:
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gen Joseph Lane--Dear Sir: The undersigned, a committee appointed by the Democratic Territorial Convention, held at Salem on the 13th inst., to inform you of your selection by that body as the candidate of the Democratic Party for Delegate to Congress, and to present you with the resolutions adopted by said convention, and request your public acceptance of the same, have the pleasure of discharging that duty by enclosing herewith the proceedings of the Convention. Allow us to add our personal congratulations on again welcoming you as the standard bearer of the Democracy of Oregon.
Respectfully yours,
    Joseph W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    James M. Pyle,
Gen. Joseph Lane.
Portland, O.T., April 24, 1857.
    Gentlemen--Your note of this date, informing me of my nomination for Delegate to Congress by the Democratic Territorial Convention held at Salem on the 13th inst., and enclosing the proceedings and resolutions of that Convention, is before me, and I hasten to reply.
    In my renomination, I recognize again that manifestation of public confidence it has been, as it will continue to be my aim to merit at the hands of my fellow citizens, and for which I tender them my grateful acknowledgments. With a high sense of the honor thus conferred upon me, it is alone in the promotion of the interests of our people and our Territory (now about to assume her sovereignty as one of the states of this confederacy), that I hope to justify this confidence upon the part of the people, and through you I beg to assure them that nothing within the reach of the faithful performance of my duties shall be left undone for the achievement of this great object.
    In accepting the nomination, I cordially endorse the resolutions of the Convention as expressive of the principles and will of the Democracy of Oregon, and while it is to be regretted that either any portion of the press, or individuals claiming to be advocates of the principles, or members of the Democratic Party, should persist in a course inevitably leading to the violation of the "cherished usages of the party," the production of confusion and discord, and overthrow of all party organization indispensable to the maintenance of our political principles and measures, it is both the right and duty of the people, through their delegates in Convention, to condemn and repudiate the same whenever and wherever it may exist.
    Now that we are about taking incipient steps preparatory to our admission as a state, convictions of duty and of patriotism combine with our hopes of future prosperity as a people in prompting our strict and unswerving devotion to the time-honored principles of that party under whose auspices our whole country has progressed and prospered to an extent unparalleled in the history of nations, and by which alone the peace, prosperity and integrity of the Union can ever be maintained.
    Again allow me to express to the people whom you represent my profound gratitude and accept for yourselves assurances of my kindest regard.
Respectfully, your obt. servt.
    Joseph Lane.
Messrs. J. W. Drew,
    Asahel Bush,
    Jas. M. Pyle
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 20, 1858, page 2

    THREE SENATORS TO BE ELECTED IN OREGON.--It is said, says the Jacksonville Herald, that the first Legislature of the state of Oregon, which is to meet in August next, will have three U.S. Senators to elect--one to serve until 1859; one until 1861; and one to serve a long term, from 1859 until 1865. This supposition is, we presume based upon the fact that the Legislature meets but once in three years, and by the election of three Senators at the first session an extra session will be obviated.
Sacramento Daily Union, February 15, 1858, page 4

Letter from Gen. Lane.
    By the last mail, we received the following letter from Gen. Lane. Its appeal to the Democracy to support the "regular nominees" of the "Democratic" Party, is honest and patriotic. The General has doubtless been imposed upon by misrepresentations as to the strength of the combination of isms which now opposes the "regular Democracy" of Oregon. When he receives the result of the vote on the first Monday in June, he will be satisfied that every "regular Democrat" "has done his duty," to the utter discomfiture of the present mongrel faction which is in the field bidding for a fusion vote:
Washington City, March, 18, 1858.       
    Ed. Statesman--I see, with much regret, that division and discord exists in the ranks of the Democracy of Oregon, threatening in its character, and if persisted in, will result in defeat and overthrow. Fellow Democrats of Oregon, division in the Democratic Party will not do. Permit me, therefore, to address myself to you, and to ask, Shall the opposition carry the election on account of feuds and dissension in our own ranks? Shall Oregon come into the Union under the auspices of a sectional organization, or shall she come in to strengthen the friends of the Constitution and the Union, and cheer the heart of every patriot with renewed confidence that both Constitution and Union shall be perpetual. If ever there was a time for every Democrat to do his duty, his whole duty, it is now. All Democrats should bear in mind that the Democratic Party is the Union. I appeal to the Democracy to bury all private animosities, and sacrifice ill feelings and heart burnings on the altar of the public good, and unite as one man in support of the regular nominees.
    The people of Oregon have honored me with their friendship and confidence, and I hazard nothing in saying that I am as ardently devoted to their interests as any man has ever been in the interests of those who placed their confidence in him, and I would be very glad to be chosen one of the first Senators from our new state, but I shall never desire it at a sacrifice of the harmony, honor and integrity of the party. In the Senate I could be useful to Oregon and the country, but the harmony and integrity of the party is more important to both Oregon and the country, and must be maintained.
    It is vain to talk of success with our strength broken, our majority cut down by unnecessary and suicidal divisions and dissensions. Everybody cannot elect precisely the man he prefers--such a thing never was heard of at any election. Let everyone, then, make all reasonable concessions as to men, adhering to the old motto of our party, "measures, not men." To everyone who has a single Democratic drop of blood in his veins--everyone who feels one throb of patriotism in his breast--I would say, "The country expects every man in Oregon, regardless of self, to do his duty." I have said to all that Oregon would come in a Union-loving state, free from sectionalism, and would stand by the Constitution and the rights of all the states. Have I deceived myself and our friends? The Democracy will join me in exclaiming, No.
    Respectfully yours,
        JOSEPH LANE.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 27, 1858, page 2

Gen. Lane Repudiating the National-Wools, and Denouncing Them.
Albany, May 6th, 1858.
Mr. Bush--I take the liberty of transcribing and forwarding to you for publication in the Statesman, the following extracts from a private letter from Gen. Lane, which I found here on my return from the South, to-wit:
"Washington City, March 18th, 1858.
Hon. Delazon Smith--Dear Sir:
"    *    *    * With these terrible consequences before their eyes, will any considerable portion of our people set up opposition to the regular organization in our state? Such an effort is being made. Let it be met, and met boldly and effectually, and put down at once. Every good Democrat will join in rebuking such as may be engaged in so unholy a cause!"
    "This day I wrote to Mr. Bush a short but strong letter on this subject for publication; and I am sure that you and all other good Democrats will endorse every word there written. I hope he will publish it without delay."
    "I am proud of Oregon. Her people are orderly, law-abiding, patriotic, Union-loving people. We stand high here, and deserve to stand high. Tomorrow morning the committee on Military Affairs will take up my war bill. We have taken much pains in preparing for the meeting. We will go in strong, and I hope will be successful. Everything possible will be done. We have made friends and are much stronger than at the commencement of the session. But we may need the aid of a full representation before we get through. Let us have it as soon as possible."
Your friend and ob't serv't,
    "As the friend of Gen. Lane, I have everywhere done him the justice to say that if he were here he would rebuke and repudiate the 'nationals' who are using his name without authority and for base and selfish purposes. Will King, Avery, Allen, Shuck, Lawson, McIteeny, and other heart-enemies of Gen. Lane, longer slander him by pretending that he approves and sympathizes with their efforts to disorganize the Democratic Party? O'Meara sought to deceive and is now seeking to betray the old hero. It is for the self-governing people to determine whether Oregon Democracy or California trickery is to triumph in the forthcoming election. Unless a majority of our people are blind to both principle and interest, they will administer such a rebuke to home treason and imported impudence, on the first Monday in June next, as will prevent the repetition of like efforts upon their credulity and good nature for many long years to come. The country is now being fairly warned. Who can doubt the correctness of Gen. Lane's position when he says, 'Every good Democrat will join in rebuking such as may be engaged in so unholy a cause,' as that of the 'national' faction in their efforts at disorganization?"
Truly yours,
Oregon Weekly Times, Portland, May 15, 1858, page 3

    A STORY OF HEROISM.--In the course of a recent speech in Congress by the Hon. Joseph Lane, Oregon, he related the following incident which occurred in the Indian war of Oregon:
    "While in Oregon last summer, I took occasion to inquire of the chief who was mainly instrumental in getting up this war, to learn the particulars of the fate of some of our people who disappeared in that war of 1855, and of whom we had been able to learn nothing.
    "When I suggested to the agent, in the council, that I proposed to inquire into the fate of Mrs. Wagoner, Mrs. Haines and others, he was inclined to think it would raise the bitter feelings of the Indians, but said he would make the inquiry. I told him that I had passed through the country where these people had lived, and that their friends were very anxious to learn their fate. We inquired in relation to Mrs. Wagoner, who was a well-educated and handsome woman from New York, who had lived long in the country and spoke the Indian tongue fluently. She kept a public house by the roadside, and the good cheer which she always furnished made it a place where travelers delighted to stop. The Indians informed us that on the morning of the 9th of October they came in sight of the house, where they met some teamsters and packers, a portion of whom they murdered, destroying the wagons and cargoes, as well as the animals, while she was standing in the door.
    "As soon as they had murdered the people outside they came towards the house, which was strongly built of hewn logs and had a heavy door which fastened with crossbars. When she saw them running towards the house she shut the door and dropped the bars to prevent their coming in. They came to the door and ordered her to come out and bring out her little girl. She said, 'No.'
    "Her husband was absent--and, by the way, he was the only man on that road who escaped. They said that if she did not come out they would shoot her. She declined, and after some deliberation they determined to set the house on fire. The house was directly enveloped in flames, and the chief, who watched her through a little window, told us that he saw her go to the glass, arrange her hair, then take her seat in the middle of the room, fold her little girl in her arms, and wait calmly until the roof fell in and they perished in the flames together. And the statement was confirmed by the people who found their remains lying together in the middle of the house."
The Daily Journal, Wilmington, North Carolina, June 15, 1858, page 2

Biography, Character and Capacity of Our Congressman-Elect--
"Jo. Lane"--Smith--Lafayette Grover.

    UMPQUA VALLEY, O.T., October 18, 1858.
    Politicians abroad may be anxious to know something of the antecedents, character and statesmanlike capacity of Oregon's first choice for Senators and Representative in the National Congress, and, as your cabin correspondent has sat under the political ministrations of at least two of "the gentlemen from Oregon," thus having had opportunities of measuring their mental caliber, as well as the peculiar nature of their intellects, moral perceptions and temperaments--he will, with your permission, present the anxious readers of the Union on this score--if any such there be--with the result of his observations.
    Of Gen. Joseph Lane, or "Old Jo. Lane," as he is familiarly known in these parts, we can say but little that is not already known to the public. However, our sketch would be incomplete without a passing glance at some of his distinguished services.
    "The General," as you are probably aware, hails from that poetic region which our friend Tom. Dryer, of the Oregonian, loves to designate as "the burnt district of Indiana," where, we presume, he first saw daylight. Be that as it may, however, it was the old Hoosier State which first put him forward on the road to distinction. He joined the Indiana Regiment of Volunteers in the Mexican War, and for his undoubted gallant services during several campaigns of that war, so prolific of great men, was brevetted; and, at the inauguration of the Pierce Administration, his friend and fellow soldier in arms assigned him the Governorship of the distant province of Oregon, on the referral of "Jimmy Shields" to accept that position. "The General's uniform good fortune," as he loves to phrase it, favored him still more, for, immediately after his arrival in Oregon, the Delegateship became vacant by the death of Thurston, at Acapulco, on his way home from the federal capital, and he was elected to fill the vacancy! He has held that position for the last six years, and is now elected to the United States Senate for six years to come--for I'll be bound his "uniform good fortune" don't desert him now, and that he draws the long term. They have a way of doing such favors for favorites at the national capital. At least so says one of the Minnesota Senators, and his testimony is corroborated by Madam Rumor. He (Lane) has repeatedly promised to decline a renomination for ever so many Congressional terms back, in favor of anxious friends, who are willing, for three thousand a year and about twenty-five hundred per session mileage, to serve their dear country in his stead. But it has never been convenient for him, thus far, to keep his promise in this particular. Hence the anti-Lane [sentiment] brewing, now, in the tubs amongst our aspiring great men. Lane's good qualities as a man and as a soldier no one acquainted with him would be disposed to question, and history will assign him his proper place in these respects. In private life he is one of the most social, unreserved, kindhearted and friendly beings living--just such a man as has a disposition to do everyone needing his assistance good beyond his means. Hence the secret of his popularity among Oregonians. When he is at home, he is sure to be familiar with the inside of every cabin for miles around his own--to drink, and hunt, and smoke with all the old Nimrods, topers and gossips in the wide circle of his acquaintance--and to be generally mixed up with the fun and frolic of the youngsters over half the country.
    Of his qualities as a statesman, I can hardly trust myself to speak. They are upon the files of the Congressional Globe, and I fear will not justify his being classed by the historian among the soldier statesmen of the America Roman school. We might perhaps add that his efforts at speech-making are not bad for his opportunities, but that the world takes no cognizance of opportunities, or the want of them--its criterion and the meed of its applause being success, and nothing else. With less palaver; less "Union saving"; less evident squinting towards reelection; and a little more grasp of thought and display of personal independence in them, his "talk" might be readable; and, if not of the first order, at least quite creditable from the graduate of a Mississippi flatboat! But let us turn from "the General"--leaving his case to impartial history--to his colleague in the Senate.
    Delazon Smith is a native of the Empire State, and has been heard of in the political world before. Shortly alter the advent of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," Delazon made a noise in the world of diplomacy as "John Tyler's Lost Minister." The circumstances which gave rise to the sobriquet are well known to old stagers and need not be repeated here. I use the terms as the most widely known, whereby to introduce my subject to my readers, and not at all in disparagement of Smith. Slander, you know, dear reader, will sometimes be busy with the best and purest of characters, and those of public men are not exceptions to the common lot. If I commit a breach of etiquette in introducing my characters to the public, being a backwoodsman will, I trust, be a sufficient apology for my awkwardness.
    Whether the distinguished subject of our memoir "was born of poor, but respectable parents," to use the common phrase of common biographers, or whether he had any parents at all, we will not attempt to inform the reader. Neither have we learned under what condition of suffering he cut his teeth, or had the measles, or the whooping cough; or how many fisticuffs young Smith used to have at school. Certain it is that by whatever contrivance he was ushered into this cold mundane sphere of ours, he was cut out for a statesman! But, alas! that it should have to be recorded by one of his admirers, too! Nature's handiwork has been almost, if not quite, spoiled in the "making up." The patterns fell into bad hands. At his time of life (he is now about 45) it is much to be feared the corrupt, old fogey atmosphere of the Potomac will not correct the misdirected faculties of his youth. Delazon was organized of fine clay, and gifted with noble and manly impulses, but having fallen early in life into the hands of politicians who used his good qualities, his eloquence and his generous impulses, for their own advancement, and having attained their ends, then kicked him under the table whilst they feasted on the produce of his labor--having been thus used for many years, the original nature of the man is almost entirely changed. I have said almost entirely, but thanks to the vigorous resistance which dame nature always makes to retain her sway, he is not quite ruined yet. We have seen him at moments when the germs of the original "man of independent mind" would, despite of all restraint, peep out through the crystallized crust of the "prudent politician." This trait of character, if we are not mistaken, will occasionally betray him into indiscretions against the tyrannical mandates of party, when there is wrong or oppression attempted to be practiced. Indeed, we are of opinion—though having no positive assurance of the fact--that some of these fits of stubborn "indiscretion" would have prompted him, had  he been in Congress, last session, to oppose the Lecompton and English villainies. It is our belief that the President would have found him quite an intractable subject, and not at all disposed to go for Lecompton, senior or junior. And we will hazard this further assertion (of course founded only on our opinion of the materials of the man), that he will be found voting for the "admission of Kansas with a constitution of her choice," at the next session, should he take his seat, and Kansas apply for admission.
    I am aware that these prophecies are made in the face of the action of our last Democratic state convention, which gave the present Administration a sort of a back-handed general endorsement. But what of that endorsement? Our wonder is, indeed, that the endorsement was not stronger, considering the amount of drippings that fell from the fingers of our old Uncle in the White House into the maw of our menagerie of politicians. Our annual appropriations for war claims, Indian appropriations, Surveyor General and Land Offices, Territorial printing and legislative and judicial expenses, together with the pay of a host of sinecures, such as Surveyors of Forts, Collectors of Customs, Marshals, etc., amount to nearly if not quite half a million. You know it's in human natur', not to speak of the natur' of politicians, to "soft sawder" a little the generous givers of such good gifts. But I find myself again digressing.
    When Smith was a young man he entered that hotbed of Abolitionism, Oberlin College, where he did not remain long enough to procure his degree of A.B. or A.M., as the case might be, in consequence of a misunderstanding between the student and the faculty of that celebrated institution. Had he remained to have completed his academic course, I have no doubt he would have obtained it without poor Dean Swift's "act of special grace."
    The young student, the unfinished scholar, now plunged headlong into the stormy sea of politics--a life which he has, with slight intermissions, led ever since--having been successively reporter and editor in Ohio, stump orator in Iowa, in the latter of which his eloquence contributed largely to the success of the Dodges, who, with the selfishness and treachery so characteristic of political hucksters, always managed to dodge "poor Delazon" out of his just proportion of the spoils. Finding his expectations often disappointed, and his services rewarded only with treachery, Smith came out as an independent candidate for one of the Congressional districts of that state, but was unsuccessful. During that canvass he made one of the best Democratic (I don't mean partisan, but real Democratic) speeches he ever made. It is still in existence, having been presented to the world by some appreciative reporter. In it he attacked and laid bare the senselessness of the jackal cry Democracy, as applied to the party organization, appropriating that title to itself. He contended that there were no questions of real Democracy involved in the struggles between parties for many Administrations back. That every Administration had its particular policy, which did not essentially involve a Democratic issue. And he illustrated this point by directing the attention of his hearers to the fact that the particular mission of Polk's Administration was the acquisition of Texas and Oregon; of Van Buren's and Jackson's, some similar objects which I do not now specifically recollect, as I am only quoting from memory. I have never seen the speech but once, and that is some time since. At any rate, he labored to establish the fact--and to my way of thinking most successfully did establish it--that Democracy is what Democracy does, and that the organization which now appropriates to itself the name of Democracy is far from acting democratically. This speech was reproduced in this Territory some time ago, when Smith (and I think it was one of the weakest things he ever did) wrote a letter to the Statesman, of this Territory, explaining the circumstances of his Iowa apostasy, and complaining of the unfairness of remembering his sins so long, when he had been ever since on the "cutty stool" of repentance, penitentiam agitae (doing penance) for that one political sin. And he added, most pathetically, that he hoped for forgiveness, promising never to stray from the true Democratic fold again, as he had had quite enough experience to convince him that there "was little use in butting one's brains out against their party, for that what reforms one could not effect inside of it, could not be effected on the outside." Well, "the party" here have pronounced him absolutionem pescatorium, and so do 1, and trust he may find no remembrancer of his apostasy, either in his conscience or his colleagues at Washington.
    The ousted collegian--the "Lost Minister"--the infidel (?) editor--the jackal of the Iowa Dodges--the rebellious, but now repentant, forgiven and reinstated Democrat--has at last reached the goal of his ambition, a seat in the United States Senate. Thanks to nature, in the first place, for the full, clear, round voice with which she has gifted our Senator; and in the next place, to a concurrence of circumstances which made it impossible for the Oregon wireworkers to play their old tricks, to treat Delazon Smith as they intended to do, and as his Iowa friends did, without breaking their own political necks. "Good faith in politics! good faith in politics! I go for good faith in politics!" quoth that admirable little compound of selfishness and deceit, the presiding genius of the Oregon Statesman. And well the cute little Yankee fellow might raise such a slogan at such a time. The returns of the last election for State Printer tells the why. Had he and the coterie of foxy little politicians, of which his organ is the soul and center, observed "bad faith in politics" towards Smith in this instance, instead of coming out four hundred ahead at future elections, he might have--I do not say he would--left the majority more largely on the other side. He held in his hand the bell rope that would sound the death knell of Oregon cliquedom, for his influence in the populous county of Linn alone, if arrayed against them, would have sent the Salem clique "a wool gathering." It was this dread hanging over the heads of his "dear friends" which made them cry out, in their strong agony, for fair play and "good faith in politics," and not either political honesty of purpose or gratitude. It was a cherished, long meditated course, with some of their number, at least, to throw Smith and Lane both into a corner, and give the election to nearer and dearer personal friends. But this time trickery was not able to cope with the logic of events. So, after many years of buffeting with unpropitious fortune (I speak politically), Smith's star is in the ascendant. His gratitude to his friends (?) is, no doubt, unbounded. Well, be it so. I would not damp his exuberant spirits or take one feeling from the grateful emotions of humanity, for God knows such virtues are rare enough in our day, but I would have him keep his friends; they will be his friends just so long as he can keep them in proper subjection, as fire so restrained is the servant of man. But they will strive for the mastery; their motto is, "The cunning hand uppermost." They are not unlike the wren, which is said to have flown higher than the eagle, by fastening itself in the plumage of the bird of the sun until the latter became too much jaded to ascend higher, when his wrenship rushed out of his hiding place, soared a few flights higher, and called upon the wondering multitude of birds below to behold their king.
    It is ever so with the school of political wrens who have governed in Oregon. They get on the back of any great man who is ascending, whether he is Douglas, Judge Pratt, Col. Kelly, Gen. Adair, Governor Curry, Gen. Lane, or someone else, who bears them up for a time, but as soon as they feel his strength beginning to fail and his power to culminate, then they come the wren game over him. Senator Smith is the eagle for the present--may he profit by the fate of those who have gone before him. My business, however, is with the Senator, and not with the circumstances, men and things by which he is surrounded; though I feel that without an etching of those latter my sketch would be incomplete. Had Smith improved properly upon Nature's foundation for a great orator, had he stocked his mind with classic, legal and political lore at the time he quarreled with the faculty of Oberlin, and had he been thus returned to Congress at an earlier period in life, few men would have made a deeper mark in the history of their time than he would have done. What he is, he has made himself, in spite of obstacles which would have kept men of ordinary minds in obscurity forever.
    To a superficial observer there is little remarkable in his personal appearance. He is a small, smart man, with light-colored hair, which he wears long, according to the fashion of the times. His round, full eye, and coarse, strong mouth (resembling, in some respects, that of Henry Clay), are his most striking features to a physiognomist. Indeed, few can look into that eye, in his moments of animation, without feeling something of the
"Darker sin that's hid within
The wit's wild glow--"
But it is only when he is excited that what's in comes out. His conversation is animated and full of pleasantry when amongst a lot of jovial companions. He is always, in such cases, heard before he is seen. Few men can tell an anecdote or relate a piece of drollery, or mimic the conversation and manner of his friend, his brother, or his next of kin, with such an air of freedom and power of truthfulness to nature, us well as he. His performances, in this particular, are surprising, and never fail to set big audiences in a roar, at the expense of the unfortunate subject. As may be expected, his favorite subjects on whom to exercise in his ironical and mimic moods are usually his political opponents--particularly parsons, deacons and pious politicians of the Republican school, pretending to superior politico-religious morality. Don't understand by this that he has any set hatred to religionists, as such, for he claims to be himself a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was, for a short time during his eventful life, a preacher of that persuasion. If he was, he was certainly noisy enough for that, or any other sect. Many very funny anecdotes are told of his conversion--which I believe was effected under the Rev. Mr. Dean, of Iowa, who was Chaplain to the United States Senate the Congress before the present--and of his zeal in the new faith, but I cannot take space to relate them.
    His first legislative experience was gained in this Territory. In 1854 lie was returned to the Legislature of 1854-5 by the county of Linn, when his eloquence immediately attracted the attention of the politicians and the country. He served in the subsequent Legislature of 1855-6 in the capacity of Speaker of the House of Representatives, in which position, I must say, he was out of his place, for he is not a parliamentarian. His place is on the floor. He was also a member of the same House in 1856-7, and in the latter year was an active member of the Convention which framed the State Constitution.
    When he rises to make a speech (and he nearly always speaks on the spur of the moment, and without preparation), for the first few minutes his manner is painfully hesitating, as if he were at a loss for ideas, or for suitable words to convey them in. He has also a very awkward habit during this period of commencing his sentences with "and-a" (the "a" pronounced as "e" in men), as a sort of "start note," as musicians would call it. But as he waxes warm and more especially if he is taunted or interrupted by a cut from an opponent "in his seat," both the "and-a" and the hesitating manner disappear, and you listen only to the fervid orator pouring forth bursts of eloquence that electrify his hearers. The little man swells to twice his natural dimensions, even in personal appearance. His whole soul appears in his face, which is in an agony of sweat; the great veins on his neck and face swell out as thick as willows, and he tosses his head, setting his boyish tow-hair on end in a peculiar manner, reminding one of the angry shrug of the king of beasts, which action has won for Smith the not inapt sobriquet of "the Lion of Linn."
    In this excited manner he usually continues until he commences his peroration, which is uttered in a most calm tone, and with emphasis, but entirely free from the hesitancy inseparable from his preface. Conscious of his power, he is frequently on his feet, ever ready to defend his "party" or his personal and political antecedents. At Washington he is not likely to be a silent member, but is sure to make his share of work for the reporters.
    As to the characteristics of his speeches, like most men of his school of oratory, they are more eloquent than argumentative. They appeal to the passions rather than the judgment. In the days of Pitt or Castlereagh, and before the art of verbatim reporting was reduced to a science, when the effects of a speech were confined inside the four walls of a legislative hall, our friend Smith would have been an effective orator. Now, however, when the audience of a public man is not only a nation but the civilized world, grasp of thought is more effective than rhetorical figures. And herein I fear Smith will cut a shabby figure by the side of such minds as Seward or Crittenden or merry Jack Hale possess. In this respect he no doubt will improve rapidly with experience, but he will miss the foundation that ought to have been laid when he quarreled with old Professor Mahan, of Oberlin College.
    Those who listen to Smith's speeches delivered cannot fail to go away full of admiration of the orator's powers, but on reading them are always astonished at their poverty of ideas. These and those effects are clearly traceable--the first to the natural gifts of the orator, his organ-like voice, that always, in its lowest tones, fills a hall of any dimensions, and on its highest keys is heard distinctly twenty, fifty and even a hundred rods outside the building--and the last, the poverty of his reported speeches--to the fact that Smith is no student. Indeed, it is evident that he cultivates his voice, to the exclusion of his head, with assiduous care. A favorite practice with him is to read Shakespeare aloud to himself for hours at a time. In this way he once told us he had done most to improve his enunciation, which is, indeed, distinct and accurate to a remarkable decree.
    But whatever may be said of his other gifts, certainly the most remarkable of them is his intuitive power of arrangement. His style, if often low, is yet clear and comprehensive. He always uses the right word in the right place, and his command of language, his power of translating his thoughts (such as they are) into words, is only excelled by the harmony of all the parts of his "talk." It is done, too, without apparent effort. Like a skillful mechanic, who constructs each of the various parts of a machine with mathematical precision, which when they are completed fit into one another with the utmost nicety, making one harmonious whole, even so do the various parts of his speeches drop into their proper places. His greatest fault in this respect is perhaps the diffusiveness of his introductory and closing remarks. Some of his friends (?) say in regard to his speeches, that "a brick out of the wall shows the materials out of which the whole house is constructed," thereby intimating that he sings the one song all the time. The remark is perhaps a mixture of truth and political professional jealousy. That his matter is not very varied in his speeches eulogistic of "our party, the great Democratic Party," is measurably true, as well as that he uses too many worn-out, set phrases and figures of speech on such occasions. It is true, also, that one loses something of the interest felt on first hearing him, in subsequent audiences. But this is natural. Few speakers have the faculty of being always varied, always original, and always entertaining, especially those who, like Smith, talk frequently and without preparation. Whatever defects are to be observed in his matter, this much may be said: his manner is fervid and faultless; he possesses the secret of real eloquence in that he feels as he speaks. A very different style of man our Representative to the lower house of Congress.
    Lafayette Grover is a native of the state of Maine, but his family went to reside, while he was yet young, in Oxford County, Pennsylvania. He is a young man (a lawyer by profession), not over thirty, and is very popular in this country. His popularity is, though, more of a negative than a positive character. He is one of those persons whom we sometimes see in life who "haven't an enemy in the world," as the result of a studied effort to please everybody, with an eye single to a certain object. When such men get the "Democratic nomination" they are sure to run well. Such has been the case with Grover--he ran ahead of his ticket largely last June, distancing the editor of the Statesman (who thought, until then, that he was the most popular man in the Territory) over twelve hundred votes.
    It would be difficult to find a school of orators or statesmen in this country or England in which to assign Grover a position, although his class presents the anomaly of being the most numerous of late years in the British Parliament, if not in Congress. He is a talker, though nothing approaching an orator; and what is worse, never will be. What is better, perhaps, is that he always talks good sense. But his manner! His manner, cold and passionless as a stone, without a rising or a falling inflection in his periods; without a change in his countenance, or a visible emotion to relieve the monotony of his sentences, and ceaseless array of facts and figures, is perfectly chilling to his auditors. There is nothing about him of the divine delirium that sometimes inspires contending statesmen. Yet his speeches read very well--perhaps better than our friend Senator Smith. His forte is statistics. His is a perfect Tom Gradgrind, or Josiah Bounderby, of Coketown, at statistics; and as destitute of sentiment as Dickens describes our two worthy materialists, just named, to be. Indeed, they are the representatives of the only class where Grover would not be out of place. With him and them there is only one real good in the world--success--and they are always calculating towards it. Sentiment! and emotions! and feelings of wonder that drive in the bosoms of foolish people! What business have people to have such things? They don't do anything towards enriching the statistician's world; they don't do anything towards building a railroad or a factory, or an ocean steamer; nor will they get silk, lace and tea for my Loo Bounderby!
    In view of our immense war debt, the people of Oregon, who have an eye to practical profits, as well as the Bounderbys and Gradgrinds, made, we think, a wise action in Grover. Aside from his calculating qualities, he has had experience as one of the members of the commission appointed by Congress to audit our last war expenses, and, taken for all in all, it he doesn't make such a great noise in Congress as others we wot of, our interests at least won't suffer in his hands. Besides, as he is one of the "prudent politicians" who "thick twice before they speak once," there is no fear of his committing any indiscretions calculated to compromise "our party." "Whoever'll be miller he'll be d--g" sure to be on the strong side, with head erect, looking out for number one. For him we prophesy a successful career, if not a brilliant one, for success (alas! that it should be so) usually attends such materials.
A CELT.  [Patrick J. Malone]
Sacramento Daily Union, December 8, 1858, page 1

    The news of the defeat of the Buchananites in Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania, received by last mail, has produced secret joy amongst the ruling politicians of the clique school here, but they dare not let it appear in the organ published in this place. It simply gives the returns without comment, but, as I told you in my last, with Douglas' brightening prospects, it lets in a little more for him, in the shape of giving place to opinions expressed in his favor by Senator Brown, of Mississippi, and by the St. Louis Republican. The hatred of the clique politicians towards their quondam friend, Jo Lane, grows every day more intense. "The General" had the imprudence, as well as the impudence, to encourage, aid and comfort two rival shops (that of the Portland Times and Standard) of the organ--the Statesman--published here, thus ensuring the mortal enmity of the presiding genius of the latter, who is the ruling spirit of the triumphant "clique."
    Henceforth our delegation at Washington (when we become a state), like Gwin and Broderick, will war to please their adherents at home in the matter of Oregon's share of the drippings from the fingers of the pure old man who dispenses the nation's revenues. The clique swear that Grover and Smith must work for and procure the removal of Lane's favorites, beginning with Gen. Adair, the Collector of Customs at Astoria; and Lane's supporters maintain that Lane being au old fogey like "the venerable President," he is possessed of sufficient influence at Court to more than equipoise that of the "clique" Senator and Representative. We will have a delightful time of it when our Opposition Rotators at Washington get fully under way.
P. J. Malone, "Letter from Oregon," Sacramento Daily Union, December 22, 1858, page 1

    THE OVERLAND TRIP.--Delazon Smith, United States Senator from Oregon, writes to the Jacksonville (O.T.) Sentinel, from Washington, that General Lane contemplates piloting an emigrating party across the plains in the spring, in which event, Delazon says, he will accompany another party, going together as far as Salt Lake--Lane proceeding to Roseburg by the way of Jacksonville, and Smith to the Dalles of the Columbia. He also says there will be a large emigration to Oregon in the spring.
Sacramento Daily Union, January 28, 1859, page 3

    Gen. Lane writes to the Jacksonville Sentinel--"I am opposed to the principle of double or constructive mileage." In view of the fact that Gen. Lane has drawn from the Treasury over twenty thousand dollars, for "constructive mileage," his "opposition to the principle" must certainly belong to that class easily overcome. "Constructive mileage" is mileage for constructive travel, or travel never performed. For the several years of 1852, 1854, 1856 and 1858, Gen. Lane drew mileage, amounting to a little over $5,000 for each of those years, for travel from Oregon to Washington. In neither of those years did Gen. Lane perform such travel. Thus, he has drawn over $20,000 "constructive mileage," in spite of his "opposition to the principle." We attach no censure to Gen. Lane, for drawing constructive mileage, as above. It was proper enough, and what any other man would have done under the same circumstances. And it is doubtless what every Oregon member of Congress will continue to do. But, after doing it, it is not necessary to write to the public press, expressing "opposition to the principle."
    Gen. Lane also says "some persons in Oregon who claim to be Democrats have charged that the failure of action upon the bill for the admission of Oregon was owing to my neglect," &c. This "who claim to be Democrats" is decidedly cool, when we consider the fact that Gen. Lane has never voted for a Democrat in Oregon, unless, perchance, he did so in 1849. Since that time we think he has never voted.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 1, 1859, page 2

    The Democratic Standard makes a sort of "Miss Nancy" defense of General Lane, who has been recently attacked in the rear by the Statesman. The Times has filed another answer in chancery, or a sort of codicil to the will. We only wait now for the Jacksonville Sentinel. Then will be witnessed a specimen of special pleading in defense of the old General which will eclipse all efforts heretofore put forth in political jurisprudence.
    Why don't some of the friends of Gen. Lane come out manfully, boldly and valiantly in his defense? Are they all afraid of Bush and the Salem clique, or are they coquetting? It would appear that it is about six of one and a half dozen of the other. Out upon such defense, either be a "man or a mouse"!
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, February 12, 1859, page 2

    The address written for Gen. Lane styles the Statesman "a paper hitherto regarded as one of the most prominent, influential and orthodox in the Territory." In speaking of its orthodoxy, he might have added to "hitherto has been," "now is, and ever will be."
Oregon Statesman, Salem, March 15, 1859, page 3

Gen. Joseph Lane.
    This individual, we notice, has been spoken of in some quarters as the probable Democratic candidate for the Presidency in 1860. He is at present a Senator from Oregon, and was formerly from Indiana. Outside of Oregon, and beyond the limits of Indiana, we much doubt whether he is known by reputation to one individual in ten thousand. He is, perhaps, a man of ordinary intellect--though we have our doubts about that. He has never distinguished himself in any position which he has occupied.
    And yet, the St. Joseph Gazette goes into ecstasies over the suggestion of his name for the Presidency. It says that "no better nomination could.be. made by the Charleston Convention"--and declares--
    "The name of Gen. Jo. Lane is familiar at every fireside in the country, and carries with it associations of purity, patriotism and excellence. The father, in his enumeration of the good and great men of the country, pronounces it with emphasis, and the whole circle of wife and children reiterate it with pride and gratification. Gen. Jo. Lane! It is a household word--a name universally known and universally beloved. Who that remembers him as the brave, whole-souled, generous pioneer; the dauntless and magnanimous soldier; the sound, sedate and dignified statesman; the warm, sincere and constant friend, and the cheerful, affable and instructive companion, that does not feel his heart swell with pleasure at the mention of his name."
    We happen to know several firesides in the land to which Gen. Jo. Lane is an utter stranger; and a number of fathers who would fail to mention him in their "enumeration of the good and great men of the country." We don't remember Jo. Lane as the man represented by the Gazette, and consequently our heart doesn't swell, to any extent, at the mention of his name!
    Jo. Lane is, however, good enough timber for the Democratic Party. He would, no doubt, do as well as either Pierce or Buchanan. It's a consolation to know that he couldn't do any worse--unless he stretched matters just as far as his conscience would possibly allow him, and then doubled on it.
    Such eulogies, upon such men, are, to say the least, rather nauseating. It is disgusting enough to listen to the high-colored eulogiums that the Douglasites shower upon their god, but this is slightly worse.
Quincy Weekly Whig and Republican, Quincy, Illinois, April 6, 1859, page 1

    We copy the following from the Jacksonville Sentinel. We have been impatiently waiting for our Democratic cotemporaries to echo the faint praises of their United States Senators, as described below. We have become alarmed lest the people of Oregon will not generally know what sort of men we have in the Congress of these United States, and therefore copy:
    "General Lane's life was a part of his country's history. His deeds are the nation's treasures. Modest, retiring, and in his demeanor simple as a child, he 'loved his enemies,' provided they were high-minded, honorable men. All wrong or obloquy might be heaped upon himself, and he would remain unmoved as adamant. But wrong the country he loved, strike one of the humblest of his friends, and his rage seemed something more than the outburst of human passion; he was terrible. Men of common mold, and everyday (Sundays included) strength of passion, shrank at every word he uttered, and strong men, great men, felt that they would as soon play with the untamed lion. His eye was mild and deep as the azure eye of woman, but rouse him, cast but a breath of dishonor upon his friend, and it gleamed like that of the famished tiger. Rarely is there seen a man in whom the sense of honor was so high, and the purity and nobleness of purpose so great as in him.
    "General Lane's constant friend, and companion in arms, Delazon Smith, was one of those great men whom nature fashions in times of trouble. His complexion was originally very fair, but exposure had bronzed it. His eye was deep and dark, but not piercing--one of those cold, gray eyes, which seemed to read you through at one long first and last look, for at first sight he knew you, and never troubled himself to eye you again. His forehead, high and intellectual, told you plainly that when he had once formed a purpose, he lacked not the intellect, the will, or the purpose to execute it. He wore a broad-brimmed, old-fashioned hat, drawn low over his forehead, and coat cut quite behind the mode, yet every movement he made, everything he did and said, showed you in a moment that his personal appearance, 'the cut of his jib,' was not the result of eccentricity or neglect of appearance, but that he had something else to do besides study or follow the fashion. He moved as unconcernedly about as if he had been a carpet knight all his days."
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, April 9, 1859, page 2

    SAILED FOR CALIFORNIA.--The United States mail steamer Moses Taylor left New York Saturday for Aspinwall with a large number of passengers, among whom were Hon. Joseph Lane, United States Senator from Oregon, Hon. Wm. A Grover, Hon. Jas. M. Crane, Lieut. Mullan, U.S.A.; Gen. Mandeville, surveyor general of California, and several other gentlemen.
Richmond Dispatch, Virginia, April 12, 1859, page 1

    The convention met in pursuance of a call of the central committee, at Roseburg, on the 9th of April, 1859, and was organized by electing Solomon Fitzhugh chairman and A. J. Burnett secretary.
    The following persons were elected delegates to the state convention: James B. Weaver, Wm. J. Martin, Jesse Barker and J. C. Floed.
    The committee on resolutions reported the following, which were adopted:
    Resolved, That with the cause of Democracy the interest of our whole country is identified. We desire oblivion of all differences growing out of now past and obsolete ideas and call on all members of the Democratic family to unite heartily and earnestly in support of the nominees of the Salem Convention.
    Resolved, That the Hon. Joseph Lane, by his unwavering fidelity to every trust heretofore reposed in him by the Democracy of Oregon, by his diligent and watchful performance of duty as our representative, and by his manly and eloquent defense of our rights on the House of Representatives, richly merits the plaudit, "Well done, thou good and faithful servant."
    Resolved, That we regard the course of Mr. Bush, State Printer, in publishing in his paper false and slanderous charges against the political character of Gen. Lane and other tried and faithful Democrats, as unjust and anti-Democratic, and believing that such a course can only result in injury to the party; our delegates are instructed to express our decided disapprobation of it.
    The convention then proceeded to make the following county nominations:
    Superintendent of common schools--S. Hamilton.
    Assessor--Philip M. Rhodes.
    On motion the chairman appointed a central committee for the county, with power to fill vacancies in the county ticket.
    Central committee--W. J. Martin, R. M. Hutchinson, W. R. Singleton, S. Hamilton, A. J. Burnett.
    On motion, the proceedings of the convention were ordered to be printed in the Democratic papers of the state.
S. Fitzhugh, Chairman
    A. J. Burnett, Secretary.
    Of course! The land office "disapproves." It was so incensed that it "stopped" its paper, though it has not stopped reading it. If it didn't disapprove and do aught else necessary to sustain the personal party, it would be very ungrateful. If it did not "disapprove" we should feel certain that the Statesman had not been doing its duty towards the Democratic Party in resisting its attempt to degrade it into a contemptible man party. The Statesman does not care a straw for your petty and spiteful censure, or whether you approve or disapprove. It is one paper that can't be laid under contribution, and will maintain its identity and its independence.
    We have no official copy of the above proceedings, but take them from a slip printed at the Black Republican office at Eugene, and expressed here by Mr. Mosher. By due course of mail we shall probably learn how it was "did," and who did it. We think it will be found that the opposition have been largely drawn upon for aid.
    The land office has passed its resolutions. We will pass one now:
    Resolved, That the appointment of sadly incompetent persons to important offices, and the devotion of most of the time of said officers, competent and incompetent, to electioneering for Lane, and a Lane party, "can only result in injury to the Democratic Party" and the country, and we express the people's decided disapprobation thereof.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 19, 1859, page 2  From this point on, the Statesman can no longer be relied on as an objective observer of Lane's career.

Yamhill Co., Ogn., March 24, 1859.
    Friend Bush--Gen. Lane's letter to the people of Oregon has been carefully read by me; I for one cannot exonerate the Gen. for his unfaithfulness at the last session, on the admission of Oregon. Gen. Lane, in the town of Lafayette, told the people that they had a right to make a slave or free constitution, and when their convention met and formed a constitution for Oregon, and that constitution was confirmed by a majority vote of the people of Oregon, let it be slave or free, when forwarded to Washington he would use every effort in his power to have Oregon admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states. Now the question comes up, did Gen. Lane do as he promised? I for one think he did not: my reasons for thinking so are these: After the admission bill passed the Senate and went to the House, Gen. Lane and his friends have failed to show from the Journals of the House that he ever made any effort to get the bill to pass that body, or have it considered there. Now if he made no effort in the House when he was a Delegate to get the bill through that body, the Journals of Congress and Gen. Lane's own letters stand as witness against him.
    In a court of justice, when a man is a witness for himself and his own evidence convicts him, a juror has but little trouble in making up his verdict. So I think it will be with the Democratic jurors of Oregon. The words of the great statesman Gen. Jackson were "measures and not men." We profess to be Democrats of the same school, and I think we are. It strikes me that my old friend Gen. Lane preferred men, or man, before measures, and that man himself. The admission of Oregon was a great measure and one that had been sanctioned by more than a two-thirds vote of the people of Oregon, so that measure went to Gen. Lane, at Washington, with more than a two-thirds majority vote of the people of Oregon; still, with that great majority, and the measure one of importance, and he pledged to the people in his public speeches, before his election as Delegate, to use every effort in his power to carry that measure, and then sat silently in the House where he was a Delegate, and let it be packed off by his personal and political friend to the Committee on Territories, and he know nothing of it, is a thing which I cannot believe. I think that Gen. Lane feared he would not be one of the Senators of the state of Oregon.
    Some Democrats say down with Bush, that Lane may live, and be honored with a renomination to Congress, or elected again to the Senate. I say down with no man at the expense of truth and justice, but I do say let the fatal blow fall upon the guilty head, if it be no less illustrious personage than Gen. Joseph Lane. If you never do anything worse than tell the truth on Gen. Lane, or any other person holding office by election, or appointment, you will be respected and honored by Democrats of integrity and firmness. The Democrats of Yamhill prefer measures to men, but I fear there are some in other parties of the state who prefer men to measures, but I think they will be a small minority.
    Last year we had to contend against Nationalism and Republicanism, united as one man to defeat the Democratic Party. This year we may expect something to transpire. The Democracy are ready for any contingency if they only use the weapons which have ever brought victory to their standard, that is, truth and justice, and take the advice of the lamented Jackson and go for "measures and not men."
F. B. Martin.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 19, 1859, pages 2-3

    If anyone has doubted the existence of a deep-laid plan on the part of Gen. Lane and his friends to build up and sustain a personal party within the Democratic organization in Oregon, and to retain all official power, honors and emoluments in the hands of a coterie devoted solely to Lane's interests, the events of the past week must remove the last doubt as to the real state of the case. No one, who is not willingly and interestedly blind, can fail to see, in the course pursued by the friends and supporters of Gen. Lane, both previous to and in the state convention, a determination to make their one-man hobby the paramount issue in the convention, and, even at the peril of the interests of the country, and the risk of destroying the Democratic organization, to visit their condemnation upon all who refused to aid their darling scheme of perpetuating Gen. Lane in Congress, and thereby perpetuating their own power and influence. For several years past, by all the means in their power--by liberal promises, by the judicious distribution of offices and official patronage, and by convenient bargaining with the opposition--they have been adding strength to this personal party, and riveting the chain which should bind Gen. Lane like a millstone upon the neck of Oregon. For some time past, whenever they have considered themselves strong enough to make the attempt, they have endeavored to proscribe all who would not succumb to the one-man power, and, regardless of principle or self-respect, substitute fealty to the man for fealty to the principles of the Democratic Party. This proscriptive feeling was carried into the election last year, and in more than one county in the state the Lane influence (we do not speak of Lane's immediate individual influence, but of that of his personal friends and supporters) was lent to the defeat of regularly nominated Democratic candidates, for the sole reason that they were known or suspected to prefer someone else to Gen. Lane for official position. This influence was used secretly, of course (although Hibben indiscreetly avowed that he would support no candidate for the legislature who was not for Lane for the Senate). But last winter, in the Territorial Legislature, the Lane party, emboldened by the circumstance that no opposition had been offered to the election of Gen. Lane to the U.S. Senate, and confident in their supposed strength, evinced a spirit of intolerance and even of truculence towards anti-Lane Democrats, which was both unjustifiable and unseemly, and which was at length carried to such an extent as to excite expressions of surprise and disapprobation from the opposition members. In that legislature, the Lane Democrats fairly outdid the bitterest of the opposition in their attacks upon and persecution of anti-Lane Democrats, and in one instance, where some of the Lane party opposed a measure of public importance, they did not hesitate to avow, as the reason of their opposition, that one of the parties interested in the measure was believed to be unfriendly to Gen. Lane. In short, the whole conduct of the Lane party in the last Territorial Legislature was tyrannous and intolerant to the last degree, and such as, it was believed, would be heartily condemned by the intelligence and good sense of the masses of the Democratic Party.
    But this spirit of intolerance and proscription reached its climax last week, when, regardless alike of the first and dearest interests of the state, and of the known wishes of a large majority of the Democratic Party, a minority of the state convention, by means which we need not detail here, procured the sacrifice of Mr. Grover to this unholy personal alliance. It is undeniable that Mr. Grover was the first, last and only choice of the Democracy of Oregon for Representative to Congress; a majority of the delegates came to the convention fully intending to support him, and to urge his nomination, but it had been decreed by the Lane party that Mr. Grover must be defeated. It was not charged that he had been derelict in his duty; it was not even attempted to be denied that he had been energetic, faithful and persevering in the discharge of his trust; it was acknowledged that he had rendered most efficient aid to our interests during the short time he was permitted to act as our Representative; he was not accused of any act or word of hostility to Gen. Lane. His offense (one of great enormity in the eyes of the Lane men) was that he had refused to become a mere echo and pliant tool of Gen. Lane, that he had dared to maintain his self-respect and independence in spite of the efforts which were made to draw him to the support of the personal party, and that he had chosen to devote his time and influence at Washington to the interests of his constituents and of the country, rather than to the perpetuation of Gen. Lane in office. This was the crime, and the only crime, for which Mr. Grove was ostracized. There was no other pretext for the conduct of the Lane party, but that Mr. Grover had not committed himself unconditionally to Lane and his interests. Gen. Lane's relatives and retainers (in office and expecting to be) were in the convention, when they could get in, and about it when they could not, zealously conspiring for Grover's defeat. That the gist of the matter was Lane-ism, and nothing else, is manifest from the refusal of the Lane caucus to keep their promise with the Linn delegation. After promising that that delegation might name the candidate, they refused to accept Judge Williams, when they had named him, averring that he was not for Lane. He no more than Grover would consent to sink his identity, become a mere echo of Gen. Lane, and devote himself to his praise. It is by no means certain that the order for this deed has not come from Washington City! Mr. Mosher was one of the candidates for Congress voted for in the Lane caucus.
    Mr. Grover and his friends had every reason to believe and to expect that he would be returned to the position which he had filled with honor to himself and with faithfulness to his constituents. He had, by his untiring industry, laid the foundation for future usefulness in that position; he had prepared a large amount of work involving the vital interests of Oregon, to be completed at the next Congress, in which he had shown himself peculiarly qualified to serve our interests as our Representative. His defeat at his time, and under existing circumstances, will be construed into a disapproval of the measures he has urged in our behalf; it will be considered as a virtual acknowledgment of the truth of the charge that our war debt is founded upon fraud and speculation, that the ablest and most earnest advocate of the justice of our claims upon the government has always been virtually condemned and stricken down, without even the form of an accusation, and in the face of a most able and eloquent effort for the payment of those claims. Mr. Grover is not the party most injured by this transaction. Although he cannot but experience regret and mortification at the ingratitude and treachery by which he has been betrayed, he can point with pride to his stainless record, and defy the puny malice of his enemies. He now, more than ever, occupies a position in the esteem and affection of the people of Oregon, from which no fraud or trick can remove him. To him, personally, this defeat is not important. He has been wronged by unfair means, but the people will right him in their own good time. The Democratic Party is the sufferer by this wrong. The country is the sufferer, and every individual citizen of the state of Oregon will have cause to regret the spirit of personal partisanship which sacrificed the harmony of the Democratic Party, and the best interests of the state, to the gratification of private and personal revenge. And bitterly will Gen. Lane and his friends regret the day when they offered the Hon. L. F. Grover as a victim upon the altar of their one-man party.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 26, 1859, page 2

    For nearly a half score of years it has been persistently and incessantly charged that there existed a political organization in Oregon known as the "Salem Clique," and that the influence of that mythical body, which none saw, governed Oregon. This song has been "dinned" into the public ear, until, finally, it has borne its natural fruit of suspicion and prejudice. It is impossible that it should be otherwise; "the constant dropping of water will wear a stone"; and the constant dropping of falsehood, year in and year out, will mislead right-intentioned persons.
    That there has been such a body as the "Salem Clique," as charged, is an error; the Democratic Party has been the only "clique" we have known of, and of its deeds it need not be ashamed. It has governed Oregon during its whole Territorial existence, with justice, with judgment, with prudence; in short, wisely and well. It points to a state starting upon its career without debt, and with credit unimpaired. It points to a record without stain, and as free from errors of judgment as human fallibility often leaves. If this is the work of a mysterious "clique," then the people of Oregon, secure in the enjoyment of every right, lightly taxed and free from public debt, will not complain.
    It is boastfully said that what are called "Lane men" were in the majority of the late Democratic convention, and they are contradistinguished from other Democrats by that name. This is a mistake; and those who adopt that conclusion deceive themselves. We will not comment with bitterness, or in a spirit of crimination, upon the distracted and boisterous proceedings of the late convention. But it is due the Democracy and the public that facts should be neither perverted nor smothered. A calm, temperate statement of them can do neither parties nor candidates harm.
    The peculiar adherents of Gen. Lane were far from being in a majority in the late convention. Indeed, they did not comprise, at the utmost, more than one-third of that body, and generally represented opposition counties. Let us see. We will enumerate as follows: five from Jackson, four from Douglas, five from Lane (three present), two from Benton, five from Clackamas, five from Multnomah, and one from Chicago. Of these twenty-seven, one from Clackamas has not been a Lane man, two from Multnomah profess not to be, one from Benton and one from Lane are not very much so, and one, at least, elected from Lane, but not present, was a decided anti-Lane man. The Lane County convention adopted a resolution endorsing the congressional delegation, by the casting vote of the chairman, and then reconsidered and laid it on the table. These are all the distinctive "Lane men" in the convention, and they are to be taken subject to the above qualifications. That there were others in the convention who were not anti-Lane, and who do not oppose that gentleman, is true. But they were far from being "Lane men" in the understood sense. Thus, we say those who conclude from the complexion of the late convention the domination of Lane-ism in the Democratic Party, deceive themselves. There were in that convention more declared anti-personal party delegates than there were Lane party men. There were not less than thirty members who voted against the mildest form of a resolution applauding Gen. Lane, and they, almost without exception, represented strongly Democratic counties. Leaving out the question of the senatorial succession, and the united Democracy of Linn would cordially sympathize and heartily cooperate with those thirty. Does anyone doubt this? Does anyone doubt, that, if there had been no senatorial election, or if Mr. Smith's reelection had been supported by the Democracy of Marion, that Marion and Linn would both have supported Mr. Grover, and have stood shoulder to shoulder in the late convention? We presume not a man. There is now no difference of sentiment in the two counties in regard to Gen. Lane, and, present obstacles removed, the two counties will act, in this matter of a personal party, as they think, alike. Ninety-five of every hundred Democrats in Linn know this; and if Winchester hopes otherwise, its hopes are destined to be blasted. Mr. Grover was formerly tendered the support of Linn County upon condition that Marion would support their candidate for the U.S. Senate. Had Marion acceded to that proposition, what the Winchester interest terms the "Salem Clique" would have had a positive majority in the convention. Did this ever occur to them? And did it ever occur to them that it would have better accorded with the feelings and sentiments of the Linn delegates (the senatorial question not in the way) to have supported Mr. Grover and sustained their old friends?
    We think that in the defeat of Mr. Grover, the will of not only the Democracy but that of the people of Oregon has been thwarted. We think the opponents of the "Salem Clique" cannot point to an instance where they ever thus disregarded and did violence to the public will, and trifled with the public interests in a nomination. It may be asked how was this brought about? IMMEDIATELY, by tactics imported from a neighboring state! A member of Gen. Lane's family, though holding an appointment, has spent the most of the past two months away from his office, visiting the extremes of the Territory. Grover had attended to his duties as Congressman, and left fulsome adulation of Gen. Lane to Hibben and others. This made his defeat desirable in rabid Lane circles. While the public heard no name but Grover's talked of for the Democratic nomination, a faction was secretly and zealously at work to defeat him. When the delegates came together, the north and the south were, in the main, induced to act in concert. Mr. Smith's friends in the Linn delegation were told that the "Salem Clique" was opposed to his return to the Senate, and that his only chance lay with the adherents of Gen. Lane; he was threatened with their opposition if Linn County did not defeat Grover; he was promised their support if it did; men instructed for Grover, and men intending to support him, were, by one device and one representation and another, induced to go into a caucus convened expressly to defeat him, and thus taken against him in the convention, where the nomination ought
to have been, but was not made. The body of the Linn delegation, mistakingly, as we believe, by acting with them. And thus Mr. Grover was sacrificed, and the country surprised and disappointed.
    So far from the late convention indicating that Gen. Lane has the support of the Democratic masses of Oregon, it indicates exactly the reverse to us. Considering the active efforts of his retainers, their bringing in outsiders of every hue, it is a matter of surprise that they succeeded so poorly, and got into the convention so small a minority of acknowledged "Lane men." And it proves conclusively that Gen. Lane has not the support of the Democratic masses of Oregon.
    In view of our great local interest--the war debt--and the position in which the events of the last session of Congress have placed it, this election was possessed of unusual interest to Oregon; we thought Mr. Grover the best man in Oregon to look after and support that interest.
    In one respect, this is an unusually important election, viewed in its political aspect; twice in the history of our government the election of President has gone to the House of Representatives, the electoral college failing to choose. In case there should be no choice in 1860, an event not likely to occur, however, the present House of Congress, of which Oregon is about to choose her member, will decide it--Oregon having there an equal voice with the other states, each state being entitled to one vote, and one only. In consideration of this possibly more than usual party importance, it behooved the convention, or rather side caucus, to have so conducted its proceedings, as to have united instead of distracting the Democratic Party. It behooved members of that convention to have made its nominations and transacted its business in sessions where all the members were admitted, and in the councils of which all were permitted a voice and a vote. It was a time when not only the unmistakable will of the party and the people should have been heeded in the selection of candidates, but a time when the mode of their selection should have permitted no question of its purity, regularity and fairness.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 3, 1859, page 2

Portland, April 18, 1859.
    Mr. Editor--I observe that the ebony-hued Hibben is out in the last Times in a characteristic, lying, laudatory letter of his master Jo. Lane. His efforts ought to pass as disinterested when it is remembered that on his arrival in Oregon his first salutation to a stranger was, "I am General Lane's dog; whose dog are you!" The disreputable occupation he followed before Lane made him his body servant is only equaled by his petty larceny instincts, which protrude like a livery stable sign from his Ethiopian countenance. [Hibben's photograph gives no evidence of his being black.] Of course he worships his benefactor--it is that, or starve--and would do it for any man who would feed him when that gaunt owl starvation stares him in the face at a short distance.
    The fulsome, sickening adulations which he heaped upon Lane were so mixed up in his editorial columns with praises of Arrigony's eleemosynary grub, and Wasserman cigars, that it was at one time doubtful which of his trio of benefactors would receive his support for the U.S. Senate. We, of Portland, recollect him as he used to sit perched like a big baboon upon his editorial tripod, reading anti-Lane men out of the Democratic Party, in his peculiar nasal twang, with free nigger gesticulations. Poor Hibben! He has been transplanted from Oregon to the more congenial sphere of Washington life, where "thrift may follow fawning." The next Black Republican candidate for the Presidency should buy him for the purpose of illustrating the peculiar capacity of the happy mixture of the negro, baboon and--dog.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 3, 1859, page 2

    SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES.--Gen. Lane, of Oregon, thus expresses himself upon this question: In regard to the perplexing question of slavery, I hold that Congress has no power to legislate on the subject; that Congress can neither establish nor prohibit slavery in the territories; that the territories are the common property of the states of the Union, and while in a territorial condition, the people of all the states have equal rights in the enjoyment of such property as they may bring to the territories--otherwise there could be no equality of states; and further, I hold that the Legislative Assembly of a territory have no right, by non-action or hostile legislation, to exclude slavery from a territory, or, in other words, Congress cannot authorize a Legislative Assembly to do that they could not do themselves; and, that the Assembly can do nothing that Congress itself could not do. But I hold, also, that when the people of a territory come to form a state government, they then have the right to establish or prohibit slavery; and whatever their decision at that time may be on that question, Congress should admit the state into the Union regardless of that decision.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, May 7, 1859, page 2

General Lane.
    General Joseph Lane, United States Senator from Oregon, paid our town a visit on Saturday last. He was honored with a salute, both on landing and on re-embarking.
    We look upon Gen. Lane as one of the soundest, most active, and most influential men at Washington. Ever alive to the interest of his constituents, he misses no opportunity of effecting something for their benefit. A sound National Democrat, his voice is even heard in opposition to sectionalism, come from what quarter it may. Bush and his kindred puppies may denounce and vilify him because he cannot be used for their personal benefit, but if we mistake not the people of Oregon, he will have their support over the ruins of a thousand Salem cliques.
    From all we could gather below last week, a yet higher destiny than that so far achieved awaits Gen. Lane. All accounts agree that at present he has the advantage over any other named man for the nomination for the Presidency by the Charleston Convention. Should he receive it, his election is certain. He is emphatically a man of the people, alike to all, be they rich or poor, ignorant or educated, high or low. Before him the dark clouds of Black Republicanism would vanish like the frost before the rising sun. We should be glad to see him in the position we have indicated. 
Crescent City Herald, November 29, 1854, page 3

From the Crescent City Herald, May, 1859.
    General Joseph Lane, United States Senator from Oregon, paid our town a visit on the 7th, while on his way up the coast. He was honored with a salute, both on landing and on re-embarking.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, February 17, 1894, page 1

    At the special session of the Senate, Mr. Lane of Oregon offered the following resolutions:
    Resolved, That the Secretary of War be directed to communicate to the Senate, at the commencement of the next Congress, the cost of moving to, maintaining in and withdrawing from Oregon the rifle regiment, with a detailed list of property of all description abandoned, lost and condemned as unfit for service, with the cost, in detail and in the aggregate, which such as were offered for sale brought.
    Resolved, That the Secretary of War be directed to communicate to the Senate a detailed statement of provisions and clothing issued to distressed families, whether emigrants or others, and to Indians, from the Army supplies, from 1849 down to the present time, and also the cost of supplies and of transportation of supplies for troops while on duty at Fort Lane, in Southern Oregon, and of the cost of transportation of supplies for regular troops while operating against the Indians in the southern portion of Oregon, or while in the field in other portions of Oregon, or operating in the field in Washington, and the price of men, horses, mules and oxen, in the service of the quartermasters.
    Resolved, That the Secretary of War be directed to communicate to the Senate the following information in relation to the expenses of the late Indian war in Oregon and Washington:
    1. A statement of all subsistence and clothing purchased for each Territory, with the amount of each article and the prices, both in detail and in the aggregate, as per awards by the commission appointed under the act of Congress approved August 18, 1856, to ascertain and report the expenses necessarily incurred in suppressing Indian hostilities in the late Indian war in Oregon and Washington, by the territorial governments of said Territories.
    2. A statement of the amount and cost, as per awards of said commission, of subsistence and clothing sold during and at the close of the war, with the amount brought at sale.
    3. The amount and cost, as per awards of the said commission, of subsistence and clothing issued to volunteers, quartermasters, employees, distressed families, Indians and others, as well as the amount and cost of subsistence and clothing lost or abandoned in service.
    4. The amount in detail and the cost, as per awards of said commission, of animals, wagons and all other means of transportation, with the amount and value in detail of all sales.
    5. The average amount and value, as per awards of commission, of clothing issued to each man in service.
    6. The amount and value, as per awards of the commission, of the rations issued to each man, and quartermaster's employee, and the amount and value of the same issued to distressed families and to Indians.
    The resolutions were adopted.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 17, 1859, page 1

    A Kerbyville correspondent says: "Smith and Lane spoke here on Sunday evening, June 26th, to a small audience. They doubtless injured the Democratic ticket in this county. Neither of them mentioned the slavery question." Of course not. The only question they cared about was the Lane question. They did not even oppose Logan upon the stump, but only made use of Stout's nomination as a justification and approval of themselves. Their speeches throughout the state were devoted to their own praises, and to the denunciation and abuse of all prominent Democrats who refused to support Lane's personal party, and to approve of the treachery and trickery of the Lane grocery caucus. Lane has caused more injury to the Democratic Party than any other man in the state, but the result of the late election has curtailed his power for evil.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 19, 1859, page 2

    Hundreds who have heard General Lane's harangues over the state have left mortified at the disgusting exhibition of self-praise and egotism. One of his own reporters makes him say, at Portland (and he said it, in substance, almost everywhere), the following:
    "Gen. Lane made a very effective speech. He detailed his sacrifices in the public services since he entered public life, in 1832, in the legislature of Indiana, in the war with Mexico, in the wilds of Oregon, both in the camp and in the executive chair--his bringing to condign punishment the Indian murderers of Whitman--his conquest over the Rogue River Indians, and his other many acts of duty and generosity to the people of Oregon, as a people, and as individuals."
    Lane was always a vain man, but he formerly had the good sense to avoid offensive exhibitions of it. But, surrounded as he is at Washington by a swarm of flatterers, idlers who earn their living by tickling the willing ear of a vain old man with adulation, it is inevitable that his vanity and egotism should increase in rapid ratio. And this will explain to many how Gen. Lane could talk for hours about himself and his services, a hundredfold magnified. The Hibbens and the Garrets, who feed by flattering him, tell him almost every hour of his life that he is a very extraordinary man, a marvelous patriot and wonderful statesman, and it is not strange that he has conceived the idea himself, and become inordinately egotistical.
    This reporter proceeds with Lane's speech:
    "His services in Congress were also referred to. He was now an old man, and a poor man to boot."
    This has been another leading feature of Lane's demagogical appeals. "He was a poor man, and didn't care for money." Gen. Lane does not care for money except for present uses; that is his reputation among the people, and knowing that, he has made the most of that material--has rung the changes upon it, with all the art and industry of which he is possessed. He has trumped up a man of straw, and then knocked it over; he assumed that he was accused of keeping the state out for the purpose of getting double constructive mileage, and then asserted that he "was a poor man, and didn't care for wealth," and appealed to the audience to know if that was not his character. We have always disclaimed that the mileage was the motive in keeping out the state--asserted that we didn't believe it--but that personal ambition was.
    But, we don't think the case will bear as much dwelling upon as Gen. Lane has bestowed. It is true that he cares not for money of itself, but he needs a vast deal. His Washington system cannot be kept up without it, and there have been men who didn't care for money, but yet who needed and used a great deal, and who would resort to questionable means to obtain it. Aaron Burr was perhaps more lavish and careless of money than any man who ever lived; at the same time, he used more and always wanted it!
    And the talk about being "a poor man" is a piece of demagogism in bad taste, to say the least. If it were true (and, strictly, it is not), it is certainly no fault of the people of Oregon, and no merit of his own. [Lane returned to Oregon poor, and died poor.] Gen. Lane has, since his nominal residence in Oregon, drawn from the public treasury near one hundred thousand dollars, for which he has rendered next to no service, except to enjoy a most luxurious life at Washington City. That he has seen fit to expend the most of his munificent salary for his gratification, or bestow it upon a band of harpies who were thereby purchased to praise him, and as he supposes, minister to the furtherance of his ambitious aspirations, which have become an all-absorbing passion with him, has conferred no benefit upon Oregon, and is not a matter with which he ought to go before the state, making a merit of, and claiming future support for. Politics in Oregon have cost him very little, if anything, except what he has bestowed upon such creatures as Hibben--imported and paid to serve Jo Lane alone, and not the Democratic Party. With such exceptions as that, whatever of his bountiful pay he has expended in politics has been done at Washington, and expressly for Jo Lane.
    Lane assumes, what is not the fact, that he has been charged with keeping out the state to get the double mileage. Our "Metropolis" correspondence said that one of the consequences of the failure was to entitle Lane to double mileage. So it was, but the correspondent did not say that was the motive with him. We said that we did not think it was, but that we thought the motive was ambition. If he had been beaten for Senator, it would have destroyed what he, Hibben, Garrett, the junior Yulee &c. understand to be his chances for the Presidency!
    But, again we ask, has not Lane overdone this "virtuous indignation" on the score of constructive mileage? He says, in his harangues, "I am an honest man. God knows I am, I know I am, and you, fellow citizens, know I am." But, notwithstanding this, he has Hibben appointed from Oregon, with the knowledge that he will, and the intention that he shall draw mileage from and to Oregon; at the same time Lane not only knows that Hibben will not perform a mile of that travel, but he knows that Hibben is not a resident of Oregon, and never expects to be. Will some Lane casuist inform us of the moral distinction between Lane's drawing that--both constructive and fraudulent--mileage himself, and thus enabling Hibben to do it? Hibben, whom he feeds, and whom he would have to feed from his own pocket, if it was not done from the treasury?
    We assert, that in the fact of Lane's unseemly praise of his honesty, he has ever practiced more chicanery and trickery than all the rest of the men engaged in politics in Oregon. And confidently appeal to any who have acted with him for the affirmation of the statement.
    He has, for his own personal ends, defied the public sentiment and disregarded the public weal, in a score of ways no other man would have dared to have done. He has appointed ignorant and intemperate men to important offices, to the sad detriment of the public interests. He has recently conferred an appointment upon a personal adherent, whose bad character is a household word in Oregon; who has been tried in our courts for one of the highest crimes in the calendar; to whom common fame attributes prison-breaking in one of the states to escape arraignment upon charge of a still higher. He has removed faithful and competent public officers to make place for his creatures; he has kept back appropriations; through him the state loses the value of its 500,000 acres of land; he has once voted against the homestead bill, and once dodged it; he has left the war debt (like the state bill at the first session) to sleep undisturbed. All these, and many more things he has done for ends personal to himself. And yet he has the hardihood to prate of his disinterested purity, and assail and denounce honest men and Democrats, who would not serve him. Free men of Oregon! ARE NOT THESE THINGS SO?
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 19, 1859, page 2  Actually, no, these things are not so. Compare Bush's assertions with Lane's private correspondence.

Our Political Cauldron--"Jo. Lane" and the Salem Clique--The Strife for the Mastery--
Disposition of the Forces--Senator Smith's Successor Not to Be Elected Until 1860--
Miscellaneous News Items, etc.

SALEM, Oregon, May 19, 1859.
    EDITORS UNION: Our political cauldron, as Dickens would say, is "a' a muddle." The State Legislature met here on the 16th inst., according to the proclamation of the Governor--the chief business before it being the election of a United States Senator to succeed Delazon Smith. The position of personal parties in the Legislature with reference to the election promises anything but harmony. The readers of the Union may recollect that as long ago as October, 1857, and in several of my communications since, I predicted the present condition of political affairs in this region--"the War of the Roses," as between Gen. Lane and what is known as "the Salem Clique,'' whose organ is the Statesman. That war has been upon us for several weeks. The Statesman faction pitches into the old General with a fury scarcely equaled by the charge of the old Napoleonic guard at Waterloo, and its fate is likely to be the same--annihilation. Lane's cohorts stand firm.
    Now, an outsider may naturally ask why this war among--I would say Democrats, only the name and the practice of the parties using it are such a mockery of each other. I will simply answer that the cause of it is personal ambition.
    The mine which all had felt for months was being engineered, exploded in the midst of the anti-Lane camp, killing, wounding and maiming the Bushites fearfully. Deepest beneath the heaps of slain lay the prostrate form of Grover, late Congressman from "the virgin state of Oregon." Grover is now their candidate for United [States] Senator in place of Delazon Smith, whom they designate as "the basest of impostors." It was the clique interest which elected Smith last year. They sent him to Washington "to lie for the benefit of party," as Machiavelli's diplomats were sent abroad to lie for the benefit of their governments. They accused Gen. Lane of preventing the admission of Oregon at the session before the last for sinister purposes; and they hoped Smith would furnish them with evidence of his treachery from Washington, whether it was in existence or not, to be used against him in the Oregon Statesman. Because he did not choose to be a dog, they are moving heaven and earth to procure his defeat. The Lane men support Smith. At the present writing he and Grover are the candidates for United States Senator. There are nine Republicans in the present Legislature, and they hold the balance of power as between these two candidates. It is believed--indeed I am certain--they will go for Grover, and thereby resuscitate the old clique, which has stood on their necks for years, and will make them much more trouble than Laneism could do. The latter, with its violent assumptions of a congressional slave code for the territories, is not adapted for this high Northern latitude, and would soon kill itself by its own violence. While the former, possessing all the meanness and none of the magnanimity of Laneism, with its public noncommitalism and its private facileness and doughfacedness, to go wherever the powers that be point, whether that be for a congressional slave code for the territories, or the reopening of the African slave trade, and with its adeptness in mystifying and honeyfuggling the people, and covering up its iniquities, will make a much more formidable opponent, and its effects be more difficult to eradicate from the country. Here, however, like elsewhere, the impracticability of Republicans sticks out. If they vote for Grover they will certainly stand in the way of the ultimate advancement of Republican principles. But that's their lookout, not ours.
    Between the Bush party and the Lane party the contest is simply a strife for the mastery. But "the die is cast;" the Democracy of Oregon, like that of the States and California, is divided, and can never be united again. The forces of the contending factions are disposed for battle, and such is their determination that one or the other must be annihilated.
    It is quite probable that the Legislature will not be able to elect Smith's successor before September, 1860. The Bush party at present are the weaker, and refuse to go into caucus, as they say the "Lane men" would vote them down. Their only hope of success is a fusion with the Republicans. That failing--and the Republicans will not coalesce without a valuable consideration--namely, that Grover shall sign a pledge to vote and act against the enactment of a slave code for the territories, and he and his friends assist to elect Logan, the Republican candidate for Congressman, neither party can elect; consequently the election will go over until the next regular session after the choice of a new Legislature, which will not be until next year.
    There is little to report in the way of news items. A good many people are departing for Fraser River via the Dalles and Colville country.
    We had a very late spring, and the crops look backward. I have ridden nearly two hundred miles to this place, and the wheat, what there is sown of it, looks miserable. I should not at all wonder if we had to draw upon California for some of our supply for next year. The promise for an abundant apple crop looks fine.
    I will write again as soon as the Senatorial election comes off.    M.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 1, 1859, page 1

Oregon Politics.
    The combined efforts of Gen. Lane and Delazon Smith have failed to induce the Oregon Legislature to reelect the latter to the Senate. Both have lost their power over the Democracy of the new State. The prospects now are that next year's Legislature will be so constituted as to elect an Anti-Lecompton Democrat and a Republican (Lane's term expiring in 1861). An Oregon correspondent says that "by that time Buchanan and the crowd around him, who hailed the admission of Oregon only because it was a reliable Democratic State, will learn that this State does not belong to Lane, though he has exercised acts of ownership for the last eight years." The election for representative in Congress was to take place on the 27th of June. The writer just quoted speaks of the chances of David Logan, the Republican candidate, as favorable. There is much division and personal bickering among the Democracy there--perhaps rather more than elsewhere.
Press and Tribune, Chicago, Illinois, July 13, 1859, page 1

Ashland Mills, Rogue River Valley,
    Oregon, July 27, 1859.
To the Editor of the National Era:
    We have just emerged from a warm and exciting political campaign. The candidates were David Logan, of Portland, the Republican nominee, and Lansing Stout, of the same place, the Democratic nominee. The latest news we have, and which claims to be official, gives Stout the bare majority of nine. The result is far beyond the expectations of the most sanguine. We had heavy odds against us, all the prestige of the Democratic Party, a majority of some 2,000 to overcome, and all the influence of the federal officers in the state.
    There were several causes united to produce this effect, and prominent among them was the great disaffection in the Democratic Party in Oregon. There has been a bitter war between the leaders of the party in Oregon, which are known as the Lane and Anti-Lane parties, and the breach has become so wide that it will never be healed. There is also a growing disposition on the part of the people to doubt the willingness of the Administration to do justice to us in relation to the adjustment of our war claims. This in fact is the paramount question in Oregon, and the party that does her justice--for that is all her people ask--will be supported, and none others need ask.
    The election will perhaps be contested on the part of Mr. Logan, as I understand, that at Walla Walla precinct, that gave Stout twenty-four majority, the judges of election were sworn in by officers from Washington Territory. And in another precinct that gave him a majority, the poll books were not certified to. The mail waits.
J.M.M. [probably J. M. McCall]
The National Era, Washington, D.C., September 1, 1859, page 139

Probable Election of Lansing Stout by a Bare Majority--The San Francisco Press at Fault on Oregon Politics--Cause of the Inharmony of the "Harmonious" Democracy of Oregon not Lecomptonism.

    July 10, 1859.
    Situated as I am midway between the Columbia and the California line, I have facilities for gathering current election returns from both ends of this state which the journalists at either extreme do not possess.
    It is almost certain that Lansing Stout is elected by a small majority, say sixteen. This is a wonderful falling off from the usual Democratic majority of two thousand which the Territory of Oregon, on former occasions, used to roll up for "Old Jo. Lane and the Democratic ticket." Of the causes which led to this result, as well as the defeat of Delazon Smith for United States Senator at the late extraordinary session of our Legislature, I will speak hereafter. The total vote polled is very small--hundreds of Democrats refusing to go to the polls on account of their disaffection towards Stout. The Republicans turned out in their full strength.
    This has been the closest election ever held in Oregon since party lines have been drawn here. The Democrats usually carried their territorial ticket for Congressman by from fifteen hundred to two thousand majority. Of the causes which led to this terrible falling off in the number of Democratic votes I will say a few words. Your San Francisco cotemporaries--usually very poorly informed upon Oregon matters--may attribute it to our growing antipathy to the Lecomptonism of the present Administration, and to Smith and Lane's endorsation of that Administration. I see they have fallen into the same mistake--intentional on their part, I suppose--in endeavoring to account for the failure of the late Legislature to reelect D. Smith to the United States Senate. Scarcely anything, however, could be further from the truth. I would like to comfort myself with the same assurance they seem to take solace in--namely, that the result of our recent Congressional election, and of our attempt at a United States Senatorial election, won a repudiation of the unfairness of the Lecomptonism of Buchanan's Administration--if it were so. But it is not, and I cannot shut my eyes to the truth of history, or attempt to delude your readers with a falsehood, however comfortable it might be to myself or others to do so.
    A large majority of the people of Oregon, having settled the eternal "nigger question" for themselves, are undoubtedly in favor of allowing the same privilege to others, but further than this they care nothing about it. You may depend they will always rebuke "congressional" or "executive," or "judicial" "intervention" to force slavery into a territory, or to keep it out, despite the wishes of the people thereof, whenever that question comes fairly before them for adjudication. Like the rest of the people of this Union who are not blinded by prejudice, self-interest and intemperate zeal, they love justice and fair play in the settlement of the territories, as well as in other matters. From whoever, or whatever party the opposite of this comes, they will be sure to rebuke it. Constitution, or no Constitution, Supreme Court, or no Supreme Court, they will insist on "equal and exact justice" for all men, and from all sections of the Union in the common domain of the whole country. They will neither go with Seward in his forays upon the institutions of the South, nor with Buchanan in his forays for the institutions of the South. If the power to legislate upon the subject of slavery in the territories is in Congress, they are in favor of keeping it in abeyance now and for all time to come--not until the North has gathered sufficient Congressional strength to use it against slavery, as the Republicans intimate they would do, nor yet until the South had such a Congress as Mississippi Brown would feel assured in coming before and demanding of them a "congressional slave code" for the territories. You may depend that Oregon will take the broad, tenable, and only national ground of absolute and entire nonintervention by any of the departments of the federal government with the subject of slavery in the territories when they are called on to pass upon that question. That, however, has not been at the recent election.
    Such an issue, if at all in sight during the late canvass, was but dimly visible, and but very vaguely considered by the people of Oregon. Our election was rather a strife for the mastery of the Democratic Party than a contest for principle of any sort. Perhaps I should except the Republican element proper, which undoubtedly in the election of Logan kept the fundamental principles of their party in view. This party, however, never heretofore counted more than one-third of the voters of Oregon in it. That the Republican Party came this year so near electing its congressional nominee is due mainly to the spirit of "rule or ruin" which has characterized the course of the leading spirit of the Oregon Statesman, heretofore the most prominent Democratic paper in the state. Established in the early infancy of the territory (in 1850) as the special organ of the Democratic Party, deriving a large federal support from the publication of the laws of the United States and the territorial public printing, it had for years a practical monopoly of Democratic journalism in this territory. This patronage and recognized party leadership gave it a circulation and consequent influence much beyond its deserts. General Lane himself, whom it now wars upon, contributed largely to this result--for while it openly supported him, yet secretly thirsted for his blood, and was plotting his downfall, he, unconscious of its secret designs, was pampering its editor with federal patronage, and filling the federal offices of the country at the editor's suggestion with his (Lane's) own secret enemies. Few, or none, were appointed to office who were not recommended by the "Salem Clique Cabinet." This cabinet had the Democratic organization of the country in their own hands. One of the persons of the Clique Trinity was chairman of the state central committee, and at the same time held the office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs; in which latter position he wielded a federal patronage of half a million, annually. Other members of it held other lucrative and influential positions. In fact, as I said before, all the offices of the country, from the highest to the lowest, were in their hands, and every dollar by them or their subordinates expended was dispensed with an eye single to the manufacture of a secret public sentiment that could be exploded at any moment they choose to ignite it against the man who procured them this patronage--against General Lane. They dared not apply the match while our territorial condition remained--while the people elected their delegate--for they knew General Lane's influence with the people would involve them in utter defeat and discomfiture. But the moment we shook off the habiliments of territorial vassalage, and that General Lane sought to be United States Senator, and had to seek it from the Legislature, a body of men less honest than the people and more liable to be operated upon by wireworkers, that moment was seized upon to explode the mine which had been for years engineered under General Lane's feet. A half-suppressed effort was made to do this at the July session of 1858, which elected Lane and Smith, but was prematurely abandoned, from two considerations: The first, that Lane was in too great force in that Legislature to be attacked then; and the second, that the classification of United States Senators would, at all events (no matter which straw he drew), render his first term a short one, not to exceed two years at the utmost limit; and his enemies by the expiration of that time would be better prepared to render their efforts against him more effective. In the meantime something might turn up that would assist them to undermine his acknowledged popularity with the people. That something was made to turn up after the most approved fashion.
    The failure of the Oregon Admission Bill to pass at the session of 18578-0 was seized upon by Lane's enemies here as a pretext for commencing the long-meditated attack upon him. The opportune moment was believed to have at last come round. Immediately after the adjournment of the first session of the last Congress, Bush, of the Oregon Statesman, wrote at Salem, in this state, a letter dated at Washington City accusing Gen. Lane of privately intriguing to keep Oregon out of the Union until he should have been assured of his (Lane's) election to the United States Senate by the Oregon Legislature, which did not meet until the July following the adjournment of Congress. This letter was the signal for a grand rush, so to speak, of bogus correspondence from different portions of this state to the columns of the Statesman, expressive of dissatisfaction with and distrust in the course of Gen. Lane, especially his supposed course in relation to the Admission Bill. Now, the whole kennel of Bush's hungry retainers, whom he had the confiding old man (Lane) appoint to places of  trust and profit in Oregon, burst forth upon his track, and like the Jewish rabble of old cried "Away with him! Crucify him!" There was but this difference between "the swinish multitude" who thronged Pilate's hall and the swinish crowd who thronged the federal offices in Oregon, that while the former "knew not what they did," the latter have not that poor excuse to make for their treachery and ingratitude--they not only knew what they were doing, but had long lain in wait, and had been in training to do it.
    All this time Gen. Lane was in Washington attending to his duties as the representative of Oregon--attending to his duties, I have no doubt, with all his might and main. He came home to Oregon only once in every two years. He was in Washington when he was elected to the United States Senate in 1888. He remained there until the close of the session just past.
    In the fall of last year (1858) Smith and Grover went to Washington, both, or the former at least, with instructions from the Salem Clique Cabinet to procure, by hook or by crook, whether it existed or not--if it didn't exist, manufacture it, as the "Metropolis" letter was made--"d--n the odds"--evidence to convict Gen. Lane of having kept Oregon out of the Union. Smith admits on the stump since his return that this was the import of what the Clique Cabinet instructed him to do. Grover, with his usual caution, doesn't say "nothing to nobody."
    When Smith reached Washington he could find nothing to convict Lane of the charges preferred against him in the bogus correspondence, but found much to commend Lane for in connection with the admission question, as well as all others where Oregon was concerned. He so wrote home to the press of Oregon.
    The Statesman then commenced to attack him. And this was the cause of the late extraordinary proceeding in our Legislature by which Smith was not reelected, and not because of his or Lane's Lecomptonism. The men who opposed him would eat Lecomptonism or any other "ism," and cram down the opening of the slave trade "atop of it," if they were only greased with sufficient drippings from the federal treasury. The leaders in the movement are a demoralized set of demagogues--renegades from all the political parties in the states--who, finding here an element which they could make serviceable to the promotion of their own selfish ends, clubbed together around the leading spirit of the Oregon Statesman, as their ringleader, to use "the d--d Pikes," as they privately denominate the people of Oregon. They have used them and abused them, too. So long as they made silver shrines for the Goddess of the Oregonians, they continued to shout, with the force of brazen lungs, "Great is Democracy of the Oregonians!" But the moment their trade was taken from them they rush to set fire to her temple, as did the head Ephesian (I forget his name and haven't time to look for it) who flung the brand into the Temple of Diana. This accounts, in part, for  the late falling off in our usual Democratic majority. Marion County, as will be observed--the seat of the Salem Clique Cabinet, containing Salem, the publication place of their organ, the Statesman--which usually gave six or seven hundred majority for the Democratic ticket, this year gives nearly eight hundred majority the other way--for the Republicans.
    But to return to the causes of "the defection" in the Democratic ranks.
    I have said that Grover, our late Congressman, wouldn't publicly commit himself to either Bush or Lane. But secretly he was known to play the spy upon the movements of Lane and Smith at Washington, and to keep the Salem Clique Cabinet advised of all their actions while at the federal city. His silence, too, was interpreted to mean that he could, it he chose, corroborate the charges against Lane preferred by the Statesman, but that he was desirous of maintaining amicable relations with his colleague in the Upper House, and for the present did not choose to do it. But the public were given to understand, through the innuendo of the Statesman, that it was not because soon evidence did not exist at Washington that Grover didn't produce it, but because he didn't desire to. This was the impression left upon the public mind by the organ.
    Meanwhile the period for the holding of our State Convention to nominate a Congressman in place of Grover was creeping on apace. Th« Central Committee, in the hands of Lane's enemies, tried to precipitate it before the General would have time to reach Oregon from Washington. They failed in fixing it as early as they desired, but succeeded in putting it on the 20th of April last. Neither Lane, Smith or Grover had then arrived from Washington. The Convention met. Lane's friends were largely in the ascendant, and, as Grover's renomination would be a virtual endorsement of the charges against General Lane which Grover was known to make privately, he was slaughtered and Lansing Stout, your California Know Nothing, nominated. A more unfortunate selection could not be found in the state. That General Lane has not been buried, deep, deep, beneath the weight of this nomination is an evidence of his impregnable strength with the masses here. Had an Oregonian been nominated, and one whose hands were free from the stain of "Sam's" grips, Lane would have had no trouble in carrying him through against the combined forces of the Statesman influence and the Republican organization. Our people have an absurd prejudice against "California politicians," at best. The condition of your state finances, not to say your political morals, give them a very bad prestige here. But when you add to this the (in our eyes) damning crime of Know Nothingism--oh, horrible! Well, these two considerations in connection with Stout, together with the fact of Grover's supposed acquaintance with the war debt, were made the most of. The Statesman harped upon them continually. It was nothing but "California Know Nothing Stout." "California politicians--ruined state credit--ruinous taxation--farmers have to sell everything to pay the high taxes we are going to have put on by these California politicians in Oregon. Poor Grover! The war debt! Nobody but Grover knows anything about the war debt! The war debt! oh, the war debt's lost!"
    And this was the sort of support which a Democratic (?) journal, pampered and fed by Democratic patronage for years, gave to the first Democratic nominee who was not of its choice. In addition to this, the secret agents of the Clique Cabinet were rummaging every hole and corner of the state, fomenting dissatisfaction with and distrust of the Democratic nominee, and inciting the people to vote for Logan, the Republican nominee.
    And the object of all this was---not the success of principles of any sort, good, bad, or indifferent--not the success of free state or of slave state principles--not the success of Republican or of Democratic principles--it was neither for the Administration nor against it in favor of Lecompton or opposed to--neither was it for the promotion of or the putting down of the principles of popular sovereignty--but it was for the purpose of gaining a temporary triumph over General Lane, that they might, if per possibility, destroy his prestige at Washington! They wished to destroy his prospect for the Charleston nomination; first, by making a show that he could not carry his own state, and, secondly, to destroy his influence with the Administration and with the next Congress, lest he should succeed in getting our war debt paid. They hope to defeat him for United States Senator next year upon the strength of his failing to procure the payment of the war debt, while they throw all the obstacles possible in the way of his getting it paid.
    Just hear the malignant glee with which the Statesman contemplates its supposed triumph over the old soldier. It gloats over his contemplated ruin with the savage fury of a hyena and the fierce appetite of a cannibal about to feast upon a carcass:
    "Indeed, his (Lane's) downfall here at once destroys his prestige at Washington; for he has kept up his humbug 'popularity' by his representation that he had a state at his back, that he owned Oregon, had it in his breeches pocket, and could give it to, or withhold it from, anybody he chose; they are courtiers at Washington, and they never worship a setting sun! A live ass is better than a dead lion, with them! Lane knows this! and he knows his sun has set at Washington as well as in Oregon! Beaten at home, he is nobody at Washington. And he has been long enough about Washington to understand this! and he does understand it."
    And to produce this result, and that alone, was the Statesman's object in using all the power it was master of to help elect the Republican candidate!
    But even had the combination succeeded in defeating the election of Stout, would it have produced the desired result--the ruin of General Lane in Oregon and the destruction of his prestige at Washington? Not a particle of it--and for the best of all reasons, because Lansing Stout is not Jo. Lane. General Lane possesses elements of popularity which Lansing Stout not only lacked, but he had counter elements of unpopularity calculated to damn anyone politically in Oregon who possessed them--namely, a Know Nothing record and his being a California politician--most ruinous of all records in the present condition of public sentiment here! This may appear, and no doubt does appear, very absurd to outsiders. But it is nevertheless so; and because they think it absurd will not change the fact.
    Had General Lane himself been before the people in Stout's place, the returns would foot up differently. No amount of lying could have injured his Democratic record with the people of Oregon. The elections next June, when he is before the country for reelection to the United States Senate, will bear out this assertion    M.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 27, 1859, page 1

    MOVEMENTS OF THE PACIFIC PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE.--A gentleman recently from Douglas County, Oregon, informs us, says the Jacksonville Sentinel (Southern Oregon), of 1st October, that Gen. Lane will leave for San Francisco and Washington by next steamer from Umpqua. The painful condition of the General's hand, adds the Sentinel, obliges him to forgo a contemplated journey through Rogue River Valley. The Hon. M. P. Deady was to accompany the Oregon Senator to Washington.
San Francisco Bulletin, October 12, 1859, page 2

    The recent meeting of the "State Central Democratic Committee," convened at Eugene City on Saturday, 24th day of September, resulted in another Democratic flare-up. The several Democratic organs are now discussing the causes of the difficulties existing, and devising ways and means by which the Democracy of Oregon can become again a unit. It seems to be particularly necessary at this time, in order to secure the election of Jo. Lane to the Presidency of the United States, that all bickering and animosities in the Democratic ranks of the state of Oregon shall be at once "dried up." Therefore, we appeal to Bush, Slater, Russell, O'Meara, McCormick, Taylor, Pengra, Adams and the Dalles Journal to take Stout's vote as the only correct basis upon which the "harmonious" can define or find the strength of the Democratic Party in Oregon. Unless some compromise can be effected between the belligerents, we fear our candidate for President of the U.S., General Joseph Lane, will never occupy the White House, and Oregon will not soon have the credit of furnishing a model President, whom the people "delight to honor," and who "WOULD SAVE THE UNION."
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, October 15, 1859, page 2

    PERSONAL.--Gen. Scott has gone, but we have with us another illustrious General, namely, the Senator from Oregon, Gen. Jo. Lane. He is stopping at the Metropolitan till the departure of the steamer of the 20th. He is one of the old style of patriots--a modern Cincinnatus. He, whose right arm has lost its strength in her service, deserves well of the country. This veteran hero of the war with Mexico received two ball wounds in that service: the muscles of his once-powerful right arm were cut away to the bone, half way from the elbow to the shoulder, by an ounce ball, at the battle of Buena Vista. From the effects of this, his arm has never recovered. The ball entered in front. Gen. Lane has been in as many battles as any man in America and would take the field against an enemy of the country with as much pleasure as he will his seat in the U.S. Senate. Many years yet to the gallant Lane.--S.F. Call, Oct. 19th.
Placer Herald, Auburn, California, October 29, 1859, page 4

    The Jacksonville Sentinel has a long editorial article under the above head, advocating the policy of scrip holders surrendering their scrip into the hands of an agent of Duncan, Sherman & Co., New York brokers and bankers, now visiting Oregon for that purpose as the best means to secure its future payment &c. We cannot see the propriety of the method proposed, or how its adoption will facilitate or secure to the scrip holder a more certain way of obtaining their money at an earlier period than if they keep it in their own possession. We cannot understand why it is that Duncan, Sherman & Co. can exercise more influence in the Congress of the United States than that claimed for Gen. Lane and Lansing Stout, our representatives. We cannot understand why it is that in case the war scrip passes out of the original holders into that of foreign brokers and speculators, that therefore its payment will be secured more readily or surely.
    If Gen. Lane and Lansing Stout, whom the Democracy of Oregon have delegated to represent the people in the councils of the nation, have not sufficient influence to obtain justice from a Democratic Administration and a Democratic Senate without the aid of Duncan, Sherman & Co., they had better be recalled at once. If Duncan, Sherman & Co. can, as they propose to do, secure the early payment of the war scrip at ten percent when General Lane and Stout cannot do it, the people of Oregon had better elect Duncan, Sherman & Co. their representatives in place of such men as have heretofore represented us.
    The proposition to surrender the scrip to these foreign capitalists upon the terms proposed--ten percent discount, provided it is paid--is a singular way of financiering for the benefit of original scrip holders in Oregon. If these bankers can afford to hold the scrip in their possession until Congress makes an appropriation to pay it, for ten percent discount, we think the holders can do the same.
    The question for the people of Oregon, who are all more or less interested in the payment of the war scrip, to decide is whether Congress will be influenced by the fact that New York banking houses are the custodians of our war scrip to the amount of two or more millions of dollars at ten percent discount to make an appropriation to pay it more readily or surely than they would if the scrip was in the hands of those who furnished the supplies and done the fighting against the Indians.
    It will not be forgotten that the late Indian war was made a Democratic war; that the Democracy had the entire management and control of it; that they made the debt; they examined and certified to a Democratic Congress and a Democratic Administration as to its justice; that Democrats only have been in position to urge the payment of our just dues, and that if there has been any injustice done to the scrip holders, the Democracy are to blame. They have kept Lane in Congress year after year; they have now elected Mr. Stout, and now they ask the people to discount ten percent as a fee to secure the payment of our war debt which if done will facilitate and secure it. It may be that Messrs. Duncan, Sherman & Co. have more influence in Congress than Lane and Stout, or it may be that the partners in this speculation with Duncan, Sherman & Co. are Lane and Stout.
    The amount of the war debt is about six millions; the ten percent claimed would amount to six hundred thousand dollars, or one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars each to four partners. If the majority of the present Congress are composed of such men as Lane and Stout, and if Duncan, Sherman & Co. could afford the same influence to that majority that they could to our representatives, their influence would be potent.
    Several of the newspapers in Oregon have received information recently of an encouraging character--that a portion of our war debt will be paid this winter. We have received no information upon the subject, except the proposition of Duncan & Sherman, as advocated by the Sentinel, which is the exclusive organ of Stout and a co-organ of Lane. If the Democratic newspapers in Oregon are encouraged by recent information received of a prospect of the early payment of our war debt, that information must come from Lane and Stout, and may be intended to prepare the way for Col. Stevens, the agent of Duncan, Sherman & Co., whom the Sentinel says is now in Oregon to receive and receipt for the war scrip.
    This is a strange proceeding, to say the least of it. Therefore we advise our scrip holders to keep their scrip in their own possession, as our forefathers did the Continental money. It is as safe there as in the hands of Duncan, Sherman & Co. If the present Administration and the present Congress will not do us justice and pay our war debt, let us try another Administration and another Congress, with another set of agents; perhaps we may by that means save the ten percent now asked by Duncan, Sherman & Co. to secure the payment of our war debt.
    Again, suppose, as has been intimated, the general government should only pay one and a half million dollars on the six million indebtedness, the scrip holders would realize, by adding the ten percent, about fifteen cents on the dollar. This would be a poor and most beggarly remuneration for stock and supplies furnished and services rendered to carry on the late Indian war. Better for the people of Oregon to retain their scrip than to run an additional risk of ten percent discount to secure the personal influence of Duncan, Sherman & Co. towards its payment.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, December 24, 1859, page 2

    GEN. JO. LANE.--An Oregon correspondent of the New York Herald don't seem very much in love with Gen. Jo. Lane. Hear how he talks about our old Vanderburgh County fellow citizen:
    There is an unfortunate split in the Democratic Party in Oregon, which, unless healed, will certainly ruin the party there and give the state this year, with two Senators and a Representative, to the opposition. The factions are designated as the Bush wing and the Lane wing. Lane has, up to this date, managed Oregon as though he held it politically as his own property. A body of sturdy Democrats like the Oregonians cannot be managed like a plantation of Southern laborers; hence the difficulty with Lane. They were willing to keep him in office, but when he required them to fill all the other offices with his tools and minions they rebelled. They could endure for a few months in the Senate Delazon Smith, formerly a respectable county court lawyer from the western part of New York state, but when ordered to return him to the Senate for six years, they said they had in the party other abler and better men. They sent Grover to Washington as their first Representative by a majority of 1,600.
    Without his indefatigable winter's work at Washington in 1859 Oregon could not have been admitted. His constituents were satisfied with his success and wished him to return to this Congress. Lane found him too strong, frank and outspoken a man to be made a tool of; and in his absence packed a convention against him and had Stout nominated in his stead. The Democracy of the new state felt cheated and insulted, and, though Grover supported the regular nominee, Stout gets a contested seat by barely nine votes, instead of a clear majority of 1,600. A word from Grover would have ensured an opposition victory. Grover was offered, in the first instance, the Senatorship, but being a young man, only thirty-five, he declined it in favor of Smith. The Democracy, on being cheated out of his service as Representative by Lane, decided to return him to the Senate; and though he had against him the combined influence of Lane and his two tools, Smith and Stout, he lacked but one vote of  nomination. The opposition, knowing his merits as a man and a rising statesman of the West, offered him votes enough to secure his election to the Senate, if he would permit his friends to start him before the Legislature as a candidate, but he felt that his duty to his party required him to decline the proffered aid; hence the vacancy of one seat from that state.
    His law arguments before the federal courts of Oregon show him to be of sound judgment and great discrimination and strength of mind. If such men are slandered by the employees of Lane, and counted out by his packed conventions, the Democratic Party in Oregon is doomed; it has sent its last Senator and last Representative to Washington.
Evansville Daily Journal, Evansville, Indiana, April 13, 1860, page 1

    "Ye who have tears, prepare to shed them now!"
    Never, since the illustrious Hibben threw down his pen, kicked over the editorial tripod, and left our shores in wrath and disgust, leaving the country in deep affliction for his irreparable loss, has Oregon been made the victim of such a sad calamity as has just befallen it. The whole country is plunged in gloom and distress. We do not observe that any of our citizens have donned crepe hatbands, or enveloped their door knockers in sable dry goods, but we meet many countenances which wear a somber hue, and whose preternatural elongation evinces the deepest sorrow. Two of our brightest political stars have gone down in darkness! A pair of Oregon's "eminent statesmen" have succumbed together to cruel fate! Ancient Joseph and the Rev. Delusion have been consigned together to the "tomb of the Capulets"! Oh Oregonians, "beloved" of the one, and "dear" (almost) to the other, even as Congressional salary and mileage, are yet not ready to "weep, and rend your hair for those who never will return" to the U.S. Senate? Will not the very lachrymose nature of your grief materially elevate the commercial value of cambric and bandanna in your immediate neighborhood? Will you not be utterly inconsolable in your extreme woe--"mourning even as those who have no hope"? For Joseph and Delusion are dead--politically dead--dead as a mackerel, or a herring, or any other native of the vasty deep which has been caught, and scaled, and salted, and smoked, and barreled up, sold and delivered. Their "corpuses" may still show some feeble signs of life, but it is a mere galvanized vitality, which cannot be prolonged beyond the next session of the state legislature. They are gone! "They were lovely in their lives, and in death they are not divided."
    Never more shall we have the esteemed privilege of grasping the ever-proffered hand, and receiving the hearty "God bless you" of Ancient Joseph. No more shall he seize us warmly by the hand, and say: "God bless you, my dear sir, I thought of you frequently at Washington. I'm sure to be the next President, and if you ever come to Washington you must come and see me. I'll have a room fitted up in the White House expressly for you." Alas! for the vanity of human expectations! Never more shall we listen with astonishment and delight to his modest narration of his own proud achievements on the tented field and in legislative halls. No more shall we swallow, with open-mouthed credulity, his expressions of ardent and devoted affection for his "dear people," and his promises of future labors and successes in their behalf. "Nary 'nother time" shall we gaze, with irrepressible wonder and admiration, upon the dilapidated tile which was wont to protect that venerable pow from sun and storm, or the modest, old-fashioned, shad-bellied coat, with rusty brass buttons, wherewith he adorned his stalwart frame on electioneering occasions, or the antiquated waistcoats, or the inexpressibles posteriorly patched with buckskin, or the short black pipe, or the gold-headed cane, "presented by the President," or the other paraphernalia of demagogism wherewith he so long and so successfully astonished and deluded his "beloved Oregonians." Never again shall we open our ears and hold our breath, while in his peculiarly modest language and manner he tells us how Frank Pierce slapped him on the shoulder and asked him to take a seat in his Cabinet; how he dined and supped and slept with Old Buck; how Steve Douglas wished him nominated at Charleston for the Presidency, and promised to stump thirteen states for him; how ladies visited his rooms and drank champagne with him; how the sweet creatures begged for his daguerreotype, and wrote verses to him--we take a melancholy pleasure in remembering all these interesting particulars--never more shall we hear them again from the truth- and wisdom-speaking lips of Ancient Joseph.
    And Delusion--"dear Delusion"--we will miss his Stentorian voice, his Demosthenean thunder and his Delazonian eloquence. The roar of the Lion is silenced. Never more shall we hear his persuasive tones, urging his fellow citizens to the support of the "Democr-r-r-atic P-a-r-t-y!" or dispensing the gospel of Truth to poor sinners. Wounded in the house of his friends, vanquished and insulted in his "own bailiwick," forced to accept the poisoned chalice from the hands of those whom he had been accustomed to command, and to whom he fondly hoped his word was yet law, he fell, while his puling lips still breathed defiance. It is said that he had committed some grave errors and offenses, which caused his former friends to plot his destruction. But let us defend, rather than seek to tarnish, his memory, now that he has passed away. It is true he had faults, but other great men have had them too. Was not Nero a profligate and a debauchee? Did not Judas Iscariot and Benedict Arnold betray their friends? Was not Julian an apostate from God and religion? Was not Ananias a consummate liar? and Alexander an irretrievable drunkard? and Falstaff a cowardly boaster? And did not Commodus disgrace himself and degrade the authority and dignity with which he had been clothed, by openly consorting with shameless wantons and the infamous of both sexes? Admit that Delusion has been rather vicious and depraved, it can be shown that there have been men at various periods of the world's history, almost, if not quite, as bad as he. And take into consideration, too, the good which he probably effected whilst he was a minister of the Gospel. That ought to counterbalance at least a portion of his delinquencies since his fall from grace. Peace then to his ashes, and oblivion to his errors, or if ye will remember them, remember also that if his own morals and those of his associates were the reverse of correct, he insisted upon the strictest parity of conduct in all others; that if he was notorious for acts of perfidy and baseness, he could not endure treacherous conduct on the part of anyone else; that although habitually mendacious, he sternly reproved falsehood wherever he detected it, and very often when he didn't; that although he invariably deserted his friends or his party in an emergency, he as invariably denounced as a traitor and as ingrate anyone who deserted him; that although he edited an obscene and libelous paper, up to the very date of his political decease, yet he grieved much over the "licentiousness of the press," and earnestly besought that it might be corrected, and finally, and though a poltroon, he was (according to his own account) "descended from fighting stock." You see, here is for every view a corresponding inclination to virtue. We trust that whoever furnishes the few remaining particulars of Delusion's checkered life for the pages of the magazine published at Washington by the eminent Mr. Swackhamer (terms $3 per annum--for the magazine, we mean--Swackhamer is not to be had, individually, for that sum), will not omit to mention these highly important particulars, in order that justice may be done to the departed subject.
    It is not probable that we shall again have an opportunity of looking upon such another pair. And, although they need "no lofty dome nor monumental spire, whose towering height shall pierce the stormy clouds, to tell posterity their fame," yet we would respectfully advise that a suitable monument be erected, to commemorate their acts in the service of Oregon. For this purpose, we suggest that the following materials, which will cost nothing except for transportation, be collected, to wit:
    The vouchers issued on account of services and supplies during the Indian hostilities of 1855 and 1856;
    The petitions addressed to Ancient Joseph for reforms and improvements in our mail service (of which petitions for removal of the Astoria post office, to such place as the citizens could get to, will form a formidable pile) and disregarded by that individual;
    "God-bless-you" letters, written by Joseph;
    Buncombe speeches made by Joseph;
    The official appointments and commissions procured by Joseph, for venal and incapable persons;
    Joseph's "chances" for the Presidency;
    The votes of Joseph and Delusion on the Homestead Bill;
    Delusion's drunken speech in the Senate;
    Delusion's letters abusing Joseph;
    Delusion's letters praising Joseph;
    Delusion's last dying speech and confession, as published in the Delazonian of
June 5th, 1860;
    Joseph's dying speech, &c., &c., &c.
    Will those Oregonians who revere the memory of the dear departed consider the proposition?
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 12, 1860, page 2

    THE SECEDERS [from the Democratic convention that nominated Stephen A. Douglas] met in another part of the city. A committee appointed to report permanent offices reported CALEB CUSHING for President [of the convention], who spoke as follows on taking the chair:
    Gentlemen: We are assembled here as delegates to the National Democratic Convention, duly accredited from more than twenty states, for the purpose of enunciating the principles of the party, and for the purpose of continuing and reestablishing the principles of the party, and upholding the Constitution and the Union. (Loud cheering.)
    The roll was called and the following states responded: Vermont, 1 delegate; New York, 16 responded; Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, 24 delegates; North Carolina, 19½; Georgia, 28. Florida said that all the delegates from that state are not here, but all will be soon; Alabama, 29; Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, 14; Arkansas, Missouri, 2; Tennessee, 19; Kentucky, 10. Iowa was responded to by Mr. Heath, of that state; Minnesota responded; California responded her whole electoral vote; Oregon.
    The time for nominations having arrived, Mr. Loring of Massachusetts said:
    Massachusetts has determined to stand by the South in her struggle for Constitutional rights. They desired to present the name of a man for the Presidency who had no friends to reward or enemies to punish. They claimed the right to present the name of the gallant son of Kentucky--John C. Breckinridge.
    (Loud, enthusiastic cheering followed this nomination.)
    Mr. Ward, of Ala., nominated R. T. M. Hunter, of Virginia. (Loud applause.)
    Mr. Ewing, of Tenn., with appropriate remarks, nominated Daniel S. Dickinson, of New York, lauding him for his long devotion to the principles of the platform adopted here today, and sympathy to the South. He pledged Tennessee to stand by that platform.
    An attempt was now made to nominate by acclamation but failed.
    The convention proceeded to ballot with the following result: Breckinridge, 81; Dickinson 25. Whole number of votes 105.
    The states which had cast their votes for Dickinson now withdrew them and gave them to Breckinridge.
    The President [of the convention] announced the result, declaring Breckinridge unanimously nominated, when the Convention arose in a body, giving round after round of applause.
    When quietness was restored, Mr. Green, of N.C., nominated Joe Lane, of Oregon, for Vice President:
    Mr. Scott, of Cal., seconded the nomination with appropriate remarks.
    Mr. Adkins, of  Tenn., moved that Mr. Lane be nominated by acclamation. (Cries of "No, no.")
    The roll was called. On the first ballot the whole 105 votes were cast for Joe Lane, and he was declared nominated for Vice President amidst deafening applause.
"The Baltimore Convention," Glasgow Weekly Times, Glasgow, Missouri, June 28, 1860, page 3

Washington, June 30, 1860.
Hon. Caleb Cushing, President of the Democratic National Convention:
    Sir--I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the communication you make in behalf of the Democratic National Convention, in which you inform me that, on the 23rd inst., I was unanimously nominated by that party for the office of Vice-President of the United States, with the request that I shall accept the nomination.
    The platform adopted, and of which you enclose me a copy, meets with my hearty approval, as it embodies what I have been contending for as the only means of stopping sectional agitation, by securing to all equality and constitutional rights, the denial of which has led to the present unhappy condition of public affairs.
    Compromises of constitutional principles are ever dangerous, and I am rejoiced that the true Democracy has seen fit to plant a firm foot on the rock of truth, and to give the people an opportunity to vindicate their love of justice and fraternal regard for each other's rights.
    Nonintervention on the subject of slavery, I may emphatically say, is that cardinal maxim of the Democracy--nonintervention by Congress and nonintervention by territorial legislatures, as is fully stated in the first resolution of the adopted platform.
    In vain should we declare the former without insisting upon the latter; because, to permit territorial legislatures to prohibit or establish slavery, or by unfriendly legislation to invalidate property, would be granting powers to the creature or agent, which, it is admitted, do not appertain to the principal, or the power that creates; besides which, it would be fostering an element of agitation in the territory that must necessarily extend to Congress and the people of all the states.
    If the Constitution establishes the right of every citizen to enter the common territory with whatever property he legally possesses, it necessarily devolves on the federal government the duty to protect this right of the citizen whenever and wherever assailed or infringed. The Democratic Party honestly meets this agitating question, which is threatening to sever and destroy this brotherhood of states. It does not propose to legislate for the extension of slavery, nor for its restriction, but to give to each state and to every citizen all that our forefathers proposed to give--namely, perfect equality of rights, and then to commit to the people, to climate, and to soil, the determination as to the kind of institution best fitted to their requirements in their constitutional limits, and declaring as a fundamental maxim, that the people of a territory can only establish or prohibit slavery when they come to form a constitution, preparatory to their admission as a state into the Union.
    If, happily, our principles shall prevail, an era of peace and harmony will be restored to our distracted country, and no more shall we be troubled with the agitation of this dangerous question, because it will be removed as well from the territorial legislatures as from the halls of Congress--when we shall be free to turn our attention to more useful issues, promotive of our growth in national greatness.
    Our Union must be preserved! But this can only be done by maintaining the Constitution inviolate in all its provisions and guarantees. The judicial authority, as provided by the Constitution, must be maintained, and its decisions implicitly obeyed, as well in regard to the rights of property in the territories as in all other matters.
    Hoping for success, and trusting in the truth and justice of the principles of our party, and in that Divine Providence that has watched over us and made us one of the great nations of the earth, and that we may continue to merit divine protection, I cheerfully accept the nomination so unanimously conferred on me, and cordially endorse the platform adopted by the Convention.
I have the honor to be, sir, with much respect,
    Your friend and obedient servant,
        Joseph Lane.
Horace Greeley and John F. Cleveland, A Political Text-Book for 1860, New York, page 212

Breckinridge and Lane Demonstration in Philadelphia.
    An enthusiastic Breckinridge and Lane demonstration was made in Philadelphia on the night of the 2nd instant, which was a perfect success, whether considered in point of numbers or the character of the actors who participated in it. An impartial eyewitness (the Philadelphia Inquirer, July 3) says of it:
    "The Breckinridge meeting last night in Independence Square was a very large and successful demonstration. Between it and the Douglas meeting on Saturday night there was a broad contrast, very much to the advantage of the Breckinridge meeting in every particular. Although there were three stands at the Douglas assemblage, and but one last night, a practiced eye could easily determine that the single Breckinridge meeting was much larger than the three others combined. There was another point upon which the contrast was still more marked. The Douglas meeting was largely composed of 'the boys,' and was excited and inclined to be demonstrative in its show of enthusiasm, while the Breckinridge meeting was made up almost exclusively of quiet, orderly and attentive listeners, who indulged in applause only when the speakers made 'palpable hits,' and then the outburst was genuine and not simulated. If these two meetings are fair indications of the relative strength of the two branches of the Democratic Party, our preconceived opinions on the subject have been wrong, for the Breckinridge party is much stronger than we supposed."
    Among the speakers were Hon. Charles J. Ingersoll, Senator Bright of Indiana, Gen. Lane of Oregon, Hon. Humphrey Marshall of Kentucky, and Hon. Josiah Randall of Philadelphia. The Journal of Commerce contains an abstract of Gen. Lane's speech as follows:
    "Gen. Lane was here introduced to the meeting, and was received with tremendous cheering. He said that it was not his intention to make speeches during the campaign, and that it was by mere accident that he was here. He could not forbear to express the gratification he felt at beholding such an immense gathering. (At this point the disturbers of the meeting became so riotous that the Breckinridge men resolved to put them out, but Mr. Lane forbid it, telling them to 'stand firm'--that it was only a squatter sovereignty fight.) A comparative quiet being secured, Mr. Lane continued, highly extolling the character of Mr. Breckinridge. No man knows more of his country than he does, and no man would do more for it. He (Lane) did not come here to beg anybody to vote for him. It was his pride to be a humble follower in the ranks of the Democracy. He had spent his lifetime in office, but he wanted that true patriot, statesman and soldier, John C. Breckinridge, placed in the Presidential chair. As to 'popular sovereignty,' he contended that a Territory was the common property of the United States, belonging as much to Pennsylvania, by equal right, as it did to any other state. Every man from every state has an equal right to go into the Territories with his property. Popular sovereignty as taught by some is a heresy. It should never have been introduced. If we intend to maintain this Union, we must maintain the Constitution and the equality of all its citizens. Mr. Lane then spoke of Mr. Lincoln's votes in Congress during the Mexican War. He (Lane) had followed almost every business. At one time he was a California miner, and while prospecting there he met a German who asked him about Joe Lane, and he told him he was a fine fellow, and had come very near catching Santa Anna. (Loud laughter.) That was all he (Lane) had to say of himself. In conclusion he would say that he would support Mr. Breckinridge with all his heart and soul, and that he did not believe that the Democracy would defeat a man whose heart was as big as the Union. He then earnestly implored all good Democrats to divest themselves of the bitterness resulting from the proceedings at Baltimore. Mr. Lane was frequently interrupted in his remarks by the disturbers of the meeting, but retired amid deafening applause."
    This successful demonstration in Philadelphia shows the weakness of Douglas in the old Keystone [State]. Breckinridge and Lane, standing on the clearest and most unequivocal Southern platform that has ever been promulgated by any party, are received with enthusiasm by the "solid men" of Pennsylvania, while Douglas and Johnson, the champions of squatter sovereignty, are met by the noisy welcome of the mob. If these men had the patriotism to withdraw, there can be no doubt that Breckinridge and Lane would carry Pennsylvania and other northern states like a flash. There would be no resisting the popular current in their favor. We speak in sober earnest. There is that about them to stir the hearts of the people. The noble platform on which they have planted themselves--the purity of their lives--their broad nationality and commanding services in the counsels of the nation and on the battlefields of Mexico and Oregon, while all their competitors were enjoying the luxurious ease of a quiet life at home, or were defaming their country by encouraging the enemy, these incidents in their lives are just such as to arouse the popular heart. Give these candidates a clear field, and Black Republicanism would be scattered to the four winds, never more to rear its head.
The Floridian and Journal, Tallahassee, July 14, 1860, page 2

    GEN. LANE'S MOVEMENTS.--We find the following communication in the Petersburg Daily Express, of the 23rd inst., and it gives us pleasure to see that the "old General" meets with such a warm reception. May he meet with a like reception at every point he may visit in his native state:
Shocco Springs, Warren Co.,
    N.C., July 20, 1860.
    General Joseph Lane, one of the Democratic candidates for the Presidency, was received today at Shocco Springs by a large concourse of people and the military of Warren and the surrounding country. After reviewing the troops, and responding to an address from the attorney general of the state, a salute of artillery was fired.
    A grand entertainment in honor of the General was given by the citizens. His presence in his native state creates the greatest enthusiasm. He leaves for Kittrill's Springs and Raleigh tomorrow.
The Weekly Courier, Fayetteville, North Carolina, July 28, 1860, page 1

    THE JACKSONVILLE SENTINEL.--This paper, published in Oregon, as we mentioned yesterday, has put up the names of Breckinridge and Lane, whereupon U. B. Freaner, one of the editors and proprietors, issued the following:
    "By the publication of the above article, and a difference of opinion entertained between Mr. O'Meara and myself, I regret to announce to the friends and patrons of the Sentinel that my connection with it ceases from and after today. Believing that Mr. Douglas fairly and legitimately received the nomination at the late National Democratic Convention, and moreover believing that he is the choice of the Democratic masses of Oregon, I considered that it was the duty of the Sentinel to sustain him as the regular Democratic nominee; hence my reason for withdrawing from the concern."
Sacramento Daily Union, July 28, 1860, page 3

    The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel has hoisted the Breckinridge and Lane flag. Mr. U. B. Freaner withdraws from the firm in consequence.

"Yreka, July 26," Los Angeles Star, August 11, 1860, page 1

Letter from Oregon.
PORTLAND, Sept. 24th, 1860.
    EDITOR STAR:--The matters of most public importance here just now are of a political character. And although, from pressing circumstances, I have not been able to be around a great deal, I hear enough, and judging from my own somewhat limited experience I believe it to be true, to convince me that Breckinridge and Lane will carry this state with a very respectable majority. The split in the good old Democratic Party is much to be regretted, but I do not think the Douglas faction will carry off votes enough to ensure the election of Lincoln. As between the two parties, no one will assert that Oregon is Republican, although from local causes, the men of that party seem to be in the ascendancy. Yet, if the question were fairly put to the people, the Democratic Party would carry everything before it.
    In regard to Mr. Lane's unpopularity, about which doubtless you have heard a great deal, I must say the reports are greatly exaggerated. I candidly admit he is not so personally popular as he has been--why, I have never found out. But I believe it is wholly owing to the split in the party, and to the firm, manly, and decided part he took on that occasion. "Old Joe" is not a man to do things by halves; when he means no, he is perfectly well understood, for he says no. And this straightforward, bold, uncompromising spirit has made enemies of all those who desire, about this time, to carry water on both shoulders. They have turned against him, not for any fault of his, but that they may claim to be on the "winning" side, should it so happen, as these same prophets foretell, that the state should go for Lincoln. They prophesy, and then go to work to make their vaticinations true.
    Among those who are now opposed to Gen. Lane, and of course in hot pursuit of the supposed "rising star" of the Democracy--that contemptible, dirty, wriggling, slimy, little demagogue, S. A. Douglas--is the editor of the Statesman, Bush. This man Bush, it is well known to everyone, owes everything he possesses to the continued kindness of Gen. Lane. He lifted him from obscurity, almost want, and placed him in wealth and influential position; and now, Forney-like, he turns round and basely deserts his early friend. Notwithstanding all he can do, and many others like him, equally faithless and ungrateful, I have not the least doubt but that Oregon will very creditably sustain Mr. Lane.
    In conversation the other day with a neighbor, and a very influential Black, he acknowledged that his party in reality did not claim a majority in Oregon or California--he said that he was confident that both these states would go for Breck and Lane, with the entire South.
    The harvest throughout the state has been unprecedentedly good. There has never been so much grain produced in Oregon before in a single year--and it is believed not in two. There is scarcely any demand for wheat or oats, and at present prices they will not quit cost. Wheat is being delivered in market at 60¢ per bushel--from which deduct 15 to 20 cents per bushel for transportation, and it will leave the farmer about 40 to 45 cents for his wheat. Oats in market is only 30 cents. Potatoes about 25 cents per bushel.
    The fruit crop will be good, but hardly equal to that of last year, owing to the last frosts. Good winter apples will bring a fair price. Thanks to a kind Providence, we will have plenty to eat.-- Come up and share it with us.
    Yours, &c.,     IKE.
Los Angeles Star, October 6, 1860, page 2

    I have to note a little incident in connection with Ancient Joseph and the Presidency. Joseph's portrait has long graced a daguerrean gallery in this city, to the infinite delight, it appears, of his son-in-law, Thelby [Aaron D. Shelby]. The enterprising proprietors lately procured a large photograph of "Old Abe," as handsome, of course, as a map of his homely visage could be made, and hung it up in the same collection of notables with Joseph. Thelby considered it an indignity to "pa," and made it the occasion of having a flareup of the most outrageous kind with the unintentionally offending practitioners of the art preservative of personal beauty.
"Letter from Portland," Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 22, 1861, page 3

    GEN. LANE.--The distinguished ex-Senator arrived at San Francisco, April 24th, in the steamer Golden Age, and on the afternoon of the 25th took the steamer Cortes for Portland. He is doubtless already on his way overland to his home near Winchester. From the S.F. papers, we learn that a squad of ruffianly blackguards attempted to get up a demonstration against the ex-Senator on his arrival at that city, by calling him "secessionist," "traitor," and "disunionist" from the wharf, as he stood upon the steamer's deck. The base effort failed. For such hounds to apply the name of traitor to Gen. Lane is about equivalent to calling themselves patriots or decent citizens.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 4, 1861, page 2

Union Demonstration at Dallas--Lane Hanged in Effigy.
    The following letter from Polk County, which we are compelled to abridge somewhat for want of space, shows the odor in which treason is held in that locality, and the union feeling evoked by the presence of a traitor:
Dallas, May 5th, 1861.       
    Ed. Statesman--Yesterday afternoon Gen. Jo Lane, of South Carolina, and son, arrived in a two-horse wagon at the Eagle Hotel in this quiet village. The word flew through town; a crowd collected, and enthusiastically permitted the great man to remove his own boxes, big and little, baggage and bundles, into the hotel, himself, while they flew to the liberty pole and hoisted the national flag, shouting for "The Union"--"The flag of our Union." As the colors unfurled to the breeze, the General was heard to exclaim, in a tone of deprecatory astonishment, "Umph! Why, they are hoisting the stars and stripes!"
    Then we brought out the flying artillery, consisting of one gun--inch and a half bore--manufactured by drilling out an anvil; Capt. Theodore Thompson commanding, with plenty of powder, and a bushel of the General's ablest speeches on secession, marked, "free Jo. Lane," [i.e., letters franked with his signature] for wadding, and fired a national salute of thirty-four guns. Lane stood in front of the hotel, admiring the zeal of his friends in firing the cannon on his arrival, until four or five rounds had been fired, when one of the boys came up the street with an armful of wadding, and shouted, "Cram 'em in; we've got lots of em--they don't cost nothin'; they're all "free Jo. Lane." Upon this, the General "dissoluted" and dodged through the door. (The same mistake he made at San Francisco.)
    The thirty-third gun was hammered full to the muzzle with a sledgehammer and a bolt of iron and went off with a "Hurrah! for Oregon and the Union!" When the thirty-fourth gun was fired, Collins sprang upon the steps of the courthouse, waved his hat, and with a voice that would have deafened Stentor, shouted: "Three cheers for the Union and the Constitution, as our fathers made it and as we will preserve it, or die!" and the deafening cheers went up to Heaven from every gushing heart. Then all quietly retired, leaving the proud flag of the whole nation streaming at the masthead, and Joseph, whom no one had yet taken by the hand, to his reflections.
    This morning, when the General rose from the pleasant dreams of the night, the first thing that met his view was an effigy, with a black cockade in the cap, suspended by a rope from a tree in front of the hotel, marked, in unmistakable characters, "JO LANE, THE TRAITOR." Consequently, the General's wagon drew up to the back door, through which he made his exit, I presume reflecting with pleasure upon the enthusiastic manner in which he had been received and entertained. The effigy is still hanging, and I do not know the man who will cut it down. The General's journey through the land is certainly an ovation.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 6, 1861, page 2

    JOSEPH SLIGHTLY MISTAKEN.--The S.F. Times states that General Joseph Lane, ex-United States Senator from Oregon, evidently believed the guns fired in honor of Latham, as the mail steamer was coming in yesterday, were in honor of himself, and he showed himself on deck; but when the steamer reached the wharf, he was hissed, and retired to the cabin amid shouts of "Secessionist!" "Traitor!" "They have good hemp in store for you when you get to Oregon!"
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 6, 1861, page 3

    LOCKED UP--The Union men of Albany locked up their cannon to prevent the secession traitors from firing a salute for their bellwether, Gen. Lane.
Oregonian, Portland, May 11, 1861, page 2

Gen. Lane.
    The enemies of this gentleman in Oregon attempt by every means to cast odium upon his name and acts. Misrepresentation of the vilest character, and falsehoods that would shame an ordinary slanderer to utter, are resorted to in the foul work of debasing him. They may have effect upon those who do not know Gen. Lane or who know very little of the character of his maligners, but persons acquainted with either him or them will not be misled by anything spoken or published by the knavish band. They denounce him as a traitor. If to take up arms in defense of his country, to fight his country's battles, to support the Constitution and the laws, to favor equal and exact justice to every section and every state of the Union, to denounce fanaticism on the one hand and rebellion on the other, to serve his country, his state, his constituency, to be true to his friends and open in his hostility to his enemies--if to be this is to be a traitor, then is Gen. Lane a traitor; and for one, we glory in his style of treason. But who are those who now call him traitor? As well in Oregon as elsewhere, we find them to be the men who have for years violated and bid defiance to plain, unmistakable provisions of the Constitution they now so frothingly profess to revere, and to the laws as well; they have joined in the hue and cry against one section of the Union, and hating the people of that section, have taught and learned their children to grow up in hatred of them also, so that the fanatical war upon that people should never cease until the knell of the Union had sounded, or the South, robbed, laid waste by servile insurrection, prostrate and powerless, should accede or be forced to yield all that their merciless and malevolent foes should demand; they are of the class that have driven nine states from the bond of Union by their violation of written law and their denial of conceded rights and that would now wage a war of extermination against slaveholders sooner than maintain a peace upon a fair and honorable compromise of the difficulties which have sprung immediately from their own disregard and violation of the Constitution that held in firm and sacred bond for eighty years the states of the Republic. And now, when their madness, malevolence, persecutions and oppressions have forced the Union asunder, they would fill the air with their own clamors of love for the Union and cry down those who by a just course towards all the states, to the North and to the South alike, have proved their devotion in the past and evince their fealty at the present trying time to the government, even whilst administered by men who have materially aided in destroying it, as traitors?
    Gen. Lane can well afford to rest his case, so far as his love, honor, duty and service to the Union that was, or the government that is, is concerned, despite the ravings and malicious denunciations of enemies at home or abroad. His record is his country's. He has fought for her, he has served her long and honestly, and if he has not displayed the highest order of statesmanship, he has shown a devotion and a fealty to the whole country to the full measures of his abilities, with a sincerity and honesty it would be well for the ablest of his enemies to imitate. He has closed his political career, and left no blemish upon it. He has returned to Oregon, to pass the remainder of his days in peaceful retirement, and to prove by his course as a private citizen his obedience to the Constitution and laws of his country and his state. Ordinary instincts of charity would dictate to his enemies that he should no longer serve as a target for their shafts of spleen, malice and revenge. None but fiendish spirits would attack the retired brave soldier and faithful public servant, and we find those engaged in the disgraceful work to be of this class. In former years, they cringed before and fawned around him, accepting with well-feigned thanks the patronage, influence and position he gave to them. Grown vigorous under the kindness he manifested towards them, and rich from the bounties he extended to them, like serpents warmed to life they turned and used their venom upon their benefactor. As they could not use him in their evil designs they resolved to drag him from the high place he occupied. It was a cowardly, sneaking ruffian's work, and fitly each performed it. During his absence from the state, while in the performance of his duties at the federal capital, with his back turned, and as it were powerless, they concocted and carried out their base designs against him. The task required treachery, ingratitude and falsehood. The conspirators were amply armed with these prerequisites. Where all else failed, bribery was resorted to, and another state supplied the gold to purchase men whose sons were already bought, but whose palms were still prurient. By these means Gen. Lane was in his own state overcome.
    Since his retirement and especially since his return home, his enemies have struck at him more religiously than ever. He is now called "traitor"! We ask the fair-minded, the just of all parties, to read his last speech in the U.S. Senate. All true Union men will applaud it. It is an able, strong, patriotic speech. Not a disunion nor disloyal sentiment lurks in it. It is the speech [omission?]; it utters the sentiments of a just, good Union-loyal man. Further, if readers wish to learn Gen. Lane's position now that the Union is torn and sundered, since one section is arrayed in hostile arms against the other, we ask them to read the following from the Corvallis Union, which gives briefly but plainly his views upon the present condition of our country's troubles. It must convince all good men that Gen. Lane is far, very far, from being a "traitor," but that he is as he has ever been, true to his country and to the laws:
    "Gen. Joseph Lane arrived, unexpectedly, in our city on Sunday evening, by the way of Dallas; his son, Lafayette, and two nieces accompanied him. Immediately after midnight the cannon was taken out and a salute fired in honor of his arrival. During the morning of Monday, many of our citizens of all parties called upon him and bade him welcome and tendered their congratulations for his safe return. A formal reception was had at the courthouse in the afternoon. Hon. I. N. Smith received him in an appropriate and feeling address. He was then introduced to the audience by Col. Kinney, who was chairman of the meeting, and responded to the reception address in a short speech, reviewing his labors in Congress very briefly, and dwelling for a short time on our national troubles. The house was well filled, all parties being well represented, and by the prompt and loud cheering evinced their good will towards Gen. Lane and his views. Many were surprised to find that, instead of being a disunionist and secessionist, Gen. Lane was a strong Union man, and unequivocally opposed to any move towards the separate independence of the Pacific.
    "In the evening the General was serenaded at the residence of his son, Nath. H. Lane. There again the good will of all parties was displayed by their participating in the affair.
    "Gen. Lane in his speech and private conversation counseled against excitement, and argued a peace policy, particularly for this coast, and the effect has been most favorable on our community.  He left here on Wednesday morning for his home in Southern Oregon, bearing with him the good wishes of our entire community."
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1861, page 2

    A RUFFIAN MOB.--A small band of low ruffians at Dallas, in Polk County, hung Gen. Lane in effigy as he passed through that place on his way homeward recently. The citizens of Dallas did not countenance the disgraceful act. When the citizens of Roseburg threatened to hang Senator Nesmith of Polk County last fall, for his treachery to party and perfidy to principles, he appealed to the relatives and devoted friends of Gen. Lane to intercede in his behalf and prevent the execution of the threat. They did intercede with the incensed multitude, and saved Nesmith from the mortification and disgrace about to be inflicted. An appeal from any other source would have been fruitless. The mob at Dallas have added ingratitude to infamy. But that is neither strange nor unexpected.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1861, page 3

    DREADFUL ACCIDENT.--The stage of Wednesday from the north brought sad intelligence concerning Gen. Lane. From a passenger we learned that the distinguished gentleman was in the act of getting out of his wagon when about four miles above his own residence on the road, and a pistol he had about him, catching by the hammer, accidentally discharged. The ball entered the lower part of the right breast and came out near the top of the shoulder. The wound was not considered mortal. Word of the terrible accident was instantly conveyed to Gen. Lane's family, who were hastening to the spot when our informant passed in the stage.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 18, 1861, page 3

    WILL HE DIE?--Gen. Lane is seriously wounded by the accidental discharge of his pistol; but we trust his life will be spared for a higher end.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, May 20, 1861, page 2

    ACCIDENTALLY SHOT.--A report was received by the stage on Wednesday to the effect that Gen. Lane while crossing the Calapooia Mountains came to a bad place in the road and got out of the wagon when his pistol fell and exploded, and lodged the ball in his shoulder. It is also stated seriously that an Irishman along with him, expecting him to die, desired Lane to give him a certificate before death that he had not murdered him. The Irishman evidently feared the curse pronounced against the slayer of Cain might rest on him.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, May 20, 1861, page 2

    The Jacksonville Sentinel says that Gen. Lane was accidentally shot with his own pistol, while getting out of a wagon when about four miles from his own residence. The ball entered the lower part of the breast and came out of the shoulder. The wound is not considered mortal.
"From Oregon," Red Bluff Independent, May 21, 1861, page 3

    Gen. Lane is so far recovered as to be able to walk about with the help of a cane. It is supposed his son is among the rebel forces now infesting Washington.
"City," Morning Oregonian, Portland, May 29, 1861, page 3

    CAUSE FOR SECESSION.--We are assured that John Lane would have been seceded from West Point, for want of proficiency, at the present examination, and that is the occasion of his joining the traitor army. The old one "dissoluted" because he could not be President, and the young one because he could not be a lieutenant.

Oregon Statesman,
Salem, June 17, 1861, page 2

    GOSEF LANE.--This noted individual did not meet with a very flattering reception on his return to Oregon, after affiliating with the Southern rebels. A Portland (Oregon) correspondent of the New York Commercial gives the annexed account:
    "Gen Joseph Lane met with a very cool reception in Oregon. The drayman refused to haul his luggage to the hotel. At Dayton, as the General crossed the river, he said to the ferryman that 'he supposed he was the worst abused man in Oregon.' 'I don't believe that,' said the ferryman, who did not know Mr. Lane, 'unless you are Jo Lane himself.' At Dallas, farther up the valley, he was hung in effigy right before his hotel door."
Pennsylvania Daily Telegraph, Harrisburg, July 3, 1861, page 2

    John Lane, son of "our Joseph," who did not get to be President, seceded from West Point, took a lieutenant's commission under Jeff. Davis, served some time at Savannah, Ga., and was, at last accounts, at Manassas Junction, as fully determined to get into the White House as his "pa" ever was.
"Oregonians in Dixie's Land," Oregon Statesman, Oregon City September 16, 1861, page 2

    AN IRISHMAN UPON THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY.--The Oregon Sentinel has a long letter from an Irishman who gives his views on the position of the so-called Democracy towards Irishmen as follows:
    "Three times in the last thirty years has this party committed treason against their Irish fellow citizens, by whose aid alone they were hoisted into power, and all those acts in the same city--Charleston, South Carolina. First, in 1832, when they nullified the laws of Congress, by which American industry and manufacturing skill would be developed, and a remunerative labor market opened to the Irish race; next, in 1860, when they rent asunder the great Democratic convention of the United States, and with less than a third of their whole number did, in the city of Richmond, place in nomination John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, and Joseph Lane of Oregon, practically nullifying the time-honored doctrine of the party, that "the majority shall govern."
Weekly Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, May 24, 1862, page 4

    GEN. LANE, since his return from the Capital, has kept entirely at home in the Umpqua Valley, attending strictly to the pursuits of a farmer. He, with the assistance of one of his grandsons, has just finished cutting and putting up near forty acres of grain, the venerable ex-Senator making a full hand in the field during the entire harvest.
"Coast and Local Items,"
Eugene Democratic Register, August 23, 1862, page 4

    A correspondent from Umpqua County says:--"Joe Lane has sold out his black mud farm, and it is thought he is bound for the land of Dixie. He says 'he will not be drafted--he will volunteer first.'"
    Probably going to lay down his "dead body" somewhere in Dixie, for our soldiers to walk over.
"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, October 6, 1862, page 3

    ON THE WING.--Joseph Lane has sold out his mud patch in Umpqua, and it may be he is "flying from his far-off Pacific home to lend all the powers of his arm and his head in defense of"--somebody. It's of no use to try, Yozef; that "arm" and that "head" are played out.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 11, 1862, page 3

    The great "konkerin' hero," Jo Lane, at a Copperhead meeting lately held in Roseburg, officiated as bottle-holder to the "Pygmy Chief of Oregon Copperheads," James O'Meara, while the latter spread himself through three mortal hours of space in denunciation of Abolitionists, etc. The "Democracy of Douglas County" (twenty persons) were there, in mass meeting assembled. By resolutions adopted and endorsed by "Josef," it is evident that he thinks the "rights" of the South have been "invaded," her "citizens oppressed," and, in conformity with the promise made in his North Carolina banquet speech, probably designs to "fly to their relief from his far-off Pacific home, to lend all the power of his arm and head (oh!) in their defense--in defense of the rights of the South." The breezes from the north are too bracing to be pleasant to foul birds inured to the foetid atmosphere of slavery. They should migrate.
Oregon Sentinel, November 28, 1863, page 2

    JOE LANE.--The great "Konkerin Hero," after two or three years' silence, is again making speeches in favor of the Southern Confederacy.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 12, 1864, page 2

    We had hoped that we were done with this old traitor. When he returned from Washington, in 1861, to the state he had so shamefully misrepresented, and the constituency whose sentiments he had outraged, he slunk with dread of arrest and punishment for his infamous treason to the retirement of his patch of black mud in the Umpqua hills, and there loathed by the loyal masses, and gnawed with remorse of conscience and defeated ambition, avoiding the gaze of honest men, he remained, until the people were about to forget, in eagerness to crush more dangerous because more active traitors, that so vile an one as old Jo. Lane had ever existed. But it appears that emboldened by the forbearance which has been shown him, and mistaking contempt for indifference, he has lately crawled out to spew his venomous treason upon the public. In three or four speeches he has made lately, he shows that repentance has been no part of his work in his retirement. An open and avowed sympathizer with Jeff. Davis and the Confederacy from the first, he is so lost to shame that he does not hesitate to avow that sympathy now.
    He reaffirms, upon every occasion, his infamous speech of March 2, 1861--the doctrine that a state cannot be coerced--and is for "peace on any terms," provided these terms do not involve the punishment or humiliation of the rebellious states. That our readers may not forget the declarations which this chief of the copperhead party was permitted to make upon the floor of the Senate on 2nd of March, 1861, forty days after Jeff Davis had left the Senate to assume the head of the rebel government, we make a few extracts from this speech. After quoting--as do the Oregon secessionists in this campaign--the Kentucky resolutions of 1798-99, and applauding their sentiment, he says:
    "Here Mr. Jefferson asserts that a state aggrieved shall judge not only of the mode but the measure of redress. Is this treason? If the measure of redress extends to secession, how can the Senator from Tennessee [Andy Johnson] do less than denounce the great apostle of liberty--as Mr. Jefferson has been called--a traitor?"
    We commend this paragraph to the consideration of those Democratic orators and newspapers which boldly assert that these resolutions do not teach secession. Their great light and leader is fearfully wrong if they do not. But again he says:
    "I think, for the sake of consistency with all my past professions as a Democrat, I am bound to respect the declared will of the sovereign states which for reasons satisfactory to themselves have seceded from the Union, and established a separate and independent government. Whatever the causes may have been which compelled them to a separation from the other states, I am bound to respect the expression of their sovereign will, and I heartily reprobate the policy of attempting to thwart that will under the pretense of 'punishing treason' and 'enforcing the laws.'"
    He then quotes Madison and Hamilton, Jefferson and Webster, in defense of the right of secession, and attempts to show that, although Jackson once held to the doctrine that "coercion" might be tolerated in case of an attempt to destroy the government, "his opinions afterwards underwent a radical change," and he "would never have struck a blow," he never "would have fired a gun."
    The Democrat and Review are continually quoting these eminent statements to show there is no secession in the resolutions of 1798-99. What can they say to these positions of their acknowledged leader?
    Referring to the arch-traitor who was then at the head of the rebellion, he says:
    "Yet upon this floor there are some base enough to allude to him as a traitor. Mr. President, I have not words to express my contempt for any man that can apply such a term to such a man as Jefferson Davis. Jefferson Davis a traitor! Treason applied to him! He, the purest and bravest of patriots! He fought for his flag and country when the cowards and poltroons that now dare vilify him were supine at home. He will live glorious in history when they are earth and forgotten."
    Every voter in Oregon ought to read the whole of this speech before election day. It may be found in the Congressional Globe for 1861, Part 2, page 1342. It is full of justification for the seceding states, full of denial of the right of the government to do anything to prevent secession and disruption, full of laudations of southern traitors, but has never a word of condemnation for the traitor, nor even an expression of regret that the government to which he, of all other men, owed so much was about to be destroyed. It seethes with treason--rank, vile, outspoken treason--from [one] end of it to the other, and it is a most remarkable instance of the over-liberality of our form of government, that such a speech, from one largely a recipient of its bounty, was tolerated, and the offender allowed to go unpunished.
    Fellow citizens! this man is the acknowledged leader of the copperheads, and is now stumping the state in support of Col. Kelly and the Democratic Party! He is puffed and lauded by the Democratic press of the state! Can we, then, believe that their professions of desire to maintain the Union, to put down the rebellion, or to punish traitors, are anything more than sheer gammon--transparent gull traps to catch credulous voters! Out upon such hypocrisy!
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 30, 1864, page 2

    I am an old resident of Oregon, and was for many years a constituent of General Joe L---, at one time Oregon's greatest politician. I propose telling the curious reader one of his electioneering dodges, and how nicely he got caught at it. Uncle Joe was about to make a speech to the unterrified of Long Tom, and stopped at Tom Brown's for dinner. He knew Tom to be a little shaky--in fact, quite inclined to be anti-L---, and Uncle Joe determined to bring him over. As soon as he entered the house he commenced his usual tactics: "Well, God bless you, Mrs. Brown! how do you do, and how are all the little ones?" After kissing the dirty brood all around, he asks for Mother's pipe. "If there is anything I do like, it is to smoke Mother's pipe; it's got some strength into it, and does a fellow some good. By the by, Mrs. Brown, they say Tom is going to vote agin me. I hope he won't. He and I have fit Indians together upon Rogue River, and camped out in the mountains, and been good friends and Dimocrats ever since we came to Oregon."
    Presently dinner is ready, and they have pork and beans, of course. Mr. Brown is sorry they have nothing better. But, says Uncle Joe, "You could not have anything better; bless your soul, we don't have anything half as good in Washington. Why, my friend, the President, would give half his salary to get such beans as these. Have you got a pint you could spare? I would so like to take them to him for seed."
    "We've got bushels of them," says Mrs. Brown.
    "Well, now, how lucky! If you will, do put up a pint of them. I will put them in my saddlebags and take them on to Mr. Buchanan, and I would not be surprised if it were the means of Tom getting one of the best offices in the state."
    So the beans were put up and stowed away in Uncle Joe's saddlebags, and Tom's vote and influence were all made sure.
    In about a week Tom and his wife go up to Eugene to visit Tom's sister, Mrs. Smith. Uncle Joe had been there, and made a first-rate impression. Mrs. Smith tells Mrs. Brown, "What a nice gentleman Squire L--- is--so kind and sociablelike, and then he thinks so much of Smith! Would you believe it, he brought us a pint of beans all the way from Washington, the very kind the President has on his table."
    At this Mrs. Brown begins to smell a very big mice. Says she:
    "Mrs. Smith, what kind of beans is them he brought you from Washington?"
    "Oh, they are nice beans--twice as large as our white ones, with a pinkish eye."
    "I thought so, says Mrs. Brown. "May I see those beans?"
    "Certainly," says Mrs. Smith. "I have them in the bag with the garden seeds."
    The beans were produced, still tied up in a piece of Jane Brown's calico dress. This produced an explosion. Brown and Smith at once became anti-L---, and worked hard to defeat him. Messrs. Brown and Smith were a host in themselves. They canvassed Long Tom and Eugene so thoroughly that Uncle Joe had not the ghost of a chance in those precincts.
Coshocton Democrat, Coshocton, Ohio, September 19, 1865, page 3

    In Jacksonville, at the United States Hotel, on the 15th instant, by U. S. Hayden, J.P., Mr. EDWARD H. WHITE to Miss WINNIFRED LANE.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 17, 1866, page 2

    RETURNED.--John Lane, Lieutenant Colonel of the late Confederate States, son of Hon. Joseph Lane, returned to Portland on the 27th of last month.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 10, 1866, page 2

    1. Resolved, That we reaffirm, as the creed of our political faith and practice, our steadfast devotion to the following principles, viz: Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state, party or sect; the support of the state governments in all their rights, and of the federal government in all its vigor; a jealous care of the elective franchise; the supremacy of the civil over the military authority; opposition to the centralization of power; economy in all public expenditures; the general diffusion of education; the encouragement of morality and the highest civilization; the right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience; freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of the person under the protection of the habeas corpus.
    2. Resolved, That the action of the majority in Congress, in refusing to admit the Representatives of eleven states, is an unwarranted assumption of power on the part of Congress, revolutionary in its tendency and dangerous to the liberties of the people; that we do and will sustain President Johnson in his determination and efforts for the complete restoration of all the constitutional rights of all the states, and we unreservedly approve his veto of the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights bills, and all his constitutional efforts to prevent the fanatical majority in Congress from changing or destroying our cherished form of government.
    3. Resolved, That the position assumed by President Johnson, that the Representatives from the Southern states ought to be at once admitted to seats in Congress, and that legislation affecting such states while they are unrepresented is unconstitutional, meets with our hearty approval.
    4. Resolved, That the assumptions of the opposition that the Democratic Party is in favor of repudiating the public debt, and that it is in favor of nullification and secession, are slanderous and false.
    5. Resolved, That we endorse the sentiment of Senator Douglas, that this government was made on a white basis for the benefit of the white man, and we are opposed to extending the right of suffrage to any other than white men.
    6. Resolved, That the exemption of United States bonds from taxation is substantially the exemption of rich men from taxation because they are rich, and the taxation of poor men because they are poor, and we are in favor of taxing those bonds for county, state, and municipal purposes.
    7. Resolved, That strict and impartial justice demands that the expenses of the general government, as well as of the state governments, should be borne by the people according to their ability and not according to their necessities; and hence that we condemn now, as in the past, a protective tariff that tends necessarily to oppress the masses for the benefit of the rich.
    8. Resolved, That in a democratic government the real sovereignty rests in the people, and all efforts tending to wrest power from the people is a war upon them, revolutionary and dangerous; and that the existence of national banks, after the experience we have had with and without them, especially in times of peace, is a subject of just alarm.
    9. Resolved, That the unlawful and shameful squandering of the people's money by our present state officials meets with our emphatic condemnation.
    10. Resolved, That we will ever hold in grateful memory those through whose patriotic, not mercenary or partisan, services the dignity of the Republic and the integrity of the Union were preserved; and we denounce as a base insult to the gallant living and heroic dead, the present efforts of the radicals to convert the nation's victory into a partisan triumph--seeking to make the late war one of conquest instead of the suppression of the rebellion--for subjugation instead of restoring the Union--for the negro instead of the white man.
    11. Resolved, That the miners should be encouraged and protected in the free use of the mines.
    12. Resolved, That we adhere to the great American Monroe Doctrine of nonintervention by our transatlantic neighbors with the governments of this continent, as a cherished Democratic doctrine.
Oregon Herald, Portland, May 24, 1866, page 4

   October 27, 1867, we the undersigned have received, in the Chapel of St. Stephen of Roseburg, before the Mass, the abjuration of Protestantism and profession of faith to the Catholic Church of the Hon. Lafayette Lane, son of 25 years of age of Hon. General Lane and of [blank]. In the presence of Rev. Father Odilon Vandergreen and in the presence of many witnesses.
F. N. Blanchet, Archbishop of O.C.
   October 27, 1867, we the undersigned have received, on a Sunday before Mass, and [in] the Church or Chapel of St. Stephen of Roseburg, have solemnly baptized without condition Hon. Paul Lafayette Lane, son aged 25 years, born of the lawful marriage of Hon. General Lane and Mrs. Lane, of the Douglas County, Oregon; the Godfather was Rev.
F. N. Blanchet, Archbishop of O.C.
    October 27, 1867, the Hon. Paul Lafayette Lane, having heard the Mass and received Holy Communion, was confirmed at the end of the Mass before the whole congregation.
Alph. Glorieux, p.m.
    October 21, 1867, at Mount Lane, Douglas County, Oregon, we the undersigned have received at his domicile the abjuration of Protestantism of Hon. General Lane and his profession of faith in the Holy Catholic Church. In the presence of Simon Lane, his son, of Mrs. Mosher, his daughter, Mrs. Lane, his wife, Hon. Pl. Lafayette Lane, his son.
Alph. Glorieux, p.m.
    October 31, 1867, at Mount Lane, his residence ten miles from Roseburg, before a low Mass, we the undersigned have solemnly baptized, under condition, Hon. General Joseph Lane, 66 years of age, in the presence of his two sons, Simon Lane and Hon. Pl. Lane, Mrs. Mosher. The Godfather was the undersigned.
Alph. Glorieux, p.m.
    October 31, 1867, at Mount Lane, Douglas County, at his domicile, Hon. General Joseph Lane, having received Holy Communion at Mass, was confirmed at the end of the Mass in the presence of the above-named persons.
Alph. Glorieux, p.m.
Register of St. Stephen's Church, Roseburg, from Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest:Roseburg Register and Missions, Binford & Mort 1986, pages 12-13.

    "There is an episode," resumed E.L.A., "that, notwithstanding it occurred some ten or eleven years after, logically is related to the Rogue River War of 1853.
    The Democracy of Eugene invited Jo Lane to speak for them, and it was almost an open secret that the conduct of the Modoc War should be so treated as to throw ridicule upon the administration. [If the event took place ten or eleven years after 1853 it occurred during the Civil War. The Modoc War took place in 1873.] A long list of Republicans, to offset the matter, requested me to come over and bear a hand. I was then living in Mohawk, Lane County, and when I came to Eugene, Judge Fitch, the chairman of the Democratic central committee, came to know if I would be abusive or sarcastic upon the General. I replied, 'Tell him that I'll never allow any man to escape the severest criticism that undertakes to disparage the patriotic motives and methods by which a government endeavors honorably to suppress rebellion or mutiny; and as for anything else I can discuss it with complacency.' I hoped the General would conduct himself in such wise that I should not feel obliged to wound his self-esteem.
    The occasion was a marked occurrence which called out an immense audience; and for him it was intended as the one crowning opportunity of his life!
    He began by criticizing the policy of the United States in the prosecution of the Modoc War where it was deemed the better way not to deal harshly with the Indians, but to let them realize that we were only patiently leading them back to their senses and duty: for those natives could not at any time have imagined that the government forces feared them!! This parental procedure he stigmatized, in a sneering manner, as the 'Peace Policy,' and added almost unlimited satire.
    When my turn arrived I said, 'Gentlemen and Ladies, Fellow Citizens: This is a good time and an excellent opportunity to ventilate and vindicate the various features and motives of Oregon history.' I recollected well the points and tried to reproduce his own eloquent words after the presentation of the 'Extermination.--Black Flag--Colors on the banks of Rogue River prior to the Battle of Table Rock and coming of Nesmith's battalion.
    'Now, fellow citizens,' said I, 'we have the General's own advice and precedent for the "Peace Policy"; a true paternal and God-like method which all sensible Oregonians commended then and approve now. Gentlemen: You ought to have observed and seen him on that eventful day--a badly wounded hero--his grey locks floating with the breeze--supported by two gallant Oregonians--reminding the scholar of the poet's sublime words:
"As some tall cliff
    that lifts its awful form,
Swells from the vale
    and midway leaves a storm,
Though round its breast
    the rolling clouds are spread,
Eternal sunshine
    settles on its head." '
    At this point the old General was visibly affected with a moist eye; but I went on, 'Gentlemen, you have heard it said that "a genuine Democrat will vote for a yellow dog if nominated? Hence an unreflecting locofoco is called a "yellow dog" Democrat! Now, General, if a yellow dog character were on your ticket what would be your course?' Then I stepped back and waited--when he arose and proceeded to explain: 'In answer to General Applegate's question I do not hesitate to say that on finding my ticket so beclouded I would use my divine right of conscience, scratch off the kinks and crookedness and so be enabled to vote the only true straight ticket.' He was applauded by every man on the ground and all felt that the political atmosphere was purified by the words!
    General Lane had been a trusted leader before the war and was candidate for Vice President on the Breckinridge ticket in 1860.
    Some in the crowd had said to me, 'Now is your time, General--skin him and hang it on the fence,' but what I said was enough, as the sequel will show.
    After the speaking was done he called me and said, 'I am proud that my efforts at Table Rock were so fully appreciated; and you were right in your quotations; so much so that I have made little for my party. The Republicans are loyal and the union is preserved. I shall go to my grave thankful that the star-spangled banner waves from the Lakes to the Gulf and from ocean to ocean.'
    This was the last political effort of his life. General Jo Lane was kind at heart and as a man I loved him like I would one of the patriarchs."
Elisha Lindsay Applegate, quoted in Reese P. Kendall, Pacific Trail Camp-Fires, Chicago 1901, pages 240-243

    JOINED THE CHURCH.--Bishop Blanchet, of the Roman Catholic Church, in conversation with one of our citizens, stated some weeks ago, that when on his journey south last fall he baptized into the Church two old and distinguished citizens of Oregon, Gen. Lane and W. G. T'Vault.
Salem Daily Record, February 13, 1868, page 2

    Col. T'Vault and General Joseph Lane have both professed religion and joined the Catholic Church. The old sinners have deceived the people and been obedient servants of the devil all their lives, but now in their dotage they are both trying to cheat the devil out of his just rights. Gen. Lane has been so strongly impressed with Catholicism that he has been remarried to his wife. Col. T'Vault ought to follow suit. It is meet for such worthies to float together, and there should be no bastards in the royal families.

Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 3, 1868, page 2

    September 11, 1869, we the undersigned have baptized at Mount Lane, Douglas Co., Oregon, Simon R. B. Lane, born on the 24th of November, 1866, a son of Simon Robert and Catherine A. Lane. Godfather, Hon. Paul. Laf. Lane.
F. N. Blanchet, Archb O.C.
    September 11, 1869, we the undersigned have baptized at Mount Lane, Douglas Co., Oregon, Joseph Chs. Lane, born on the 14th day of September, 1868, a son of Simon Robert and Catherine A. Lane. Godfather, Hon. Paul. Lane.
F. N. Blanchet, Archb O.C.
    September 11, 1869, we the undersigned have administered private baptism, under condition, in danger of death, on account of an apoplexy, at Mount Lane, Douglas Co., Oregon, Mrs. Mary Lane, aged 67 years, wife of Hon. General Joseph Lane, in presence of her husband and her son, Hon. Paul Laf. Lane, and some others.
F. N. Blanchet, Archb O.C.
    September 12, 1869, we the undersigned have baptized in Roseburg, Douglas Co., Oregon, Paul Albert Mosher, aged 2 months, a son of Hon. Laf. Mosher. Sponsors, Mr. and Mrs. Adolphe Champagne.
F. N. Blanchet, Archb O.C.
Register of St. Stephen's Church, Roseburg, from Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest:Roseburg Register and Missions, Binford & Mort 1986, pages 21-22

    Last Sunday I had the pleasure of visiting General Lane at his country home; age has laid his finger on the old man's brow, and silvered his head with gray. He has retired to his country seat and private life among the hills of Umpqua.
"Correspondence," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 13, 1869, page 1

    Mary, wife of Gen. Joseph Lane, died at Roseburg on the night of the 16th inst. She was about 70 years of age.
"State News," State Rights Democrat, Albany, Oregon, August 26, 1870, page 2

        DEAD.--The Herald
learns that the wife of Gen. Lane died at her residence in Douglas County, a few days since.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 27, 1870, page 2

    October 5, 1870, we the undersigned have baptized in St. Stephen's Church, Peter Waldo, born on the 1st of July, 1862, of a Negro mother. Sponsor: General J. Lane.
L. H. Wenenger, Pt.
    October 5, 1870, we the undersigned have received the Profession of Faith and baptized under condition Mary E. Floed, a daughter of John C. Floed and Sarah Lane. She was born on the 28th of August, 1854. Godmother, Mrs. L. F. Lane.
L. H. Wenenger, Pt.
    October 5, 1870, we the undersigned have received the Profession of Faith and baptized under condition Mary Floed, a daughter of John C. Floed and Sarah Lane. She was born on the [blank]. Godfather, Hon. L. F. Lane, Godmother Mrs. Ad. Champagne.

L. H. Wenenger, Pt.
    October 5, 1870, we the undersigned have baptized Henry Young, a son of [blank] Young and Nancy Bradley. He was born on the 26th of May, 1852. Godfather, Hon. L. F. Lane.
L. H. Wenenger, Pt.
Register of St. Stephen's Church, Roseburg, from Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest:Roseburg Register and Missions, Binford & Mort 1986, pages 25-26.

    August 29, 1871, we the undersigned have baptized Agnes Lavinia Floed, a daughter of John Floed and Sarah Emily Lane; she was born on the 12th of December, 1861. Godfather, Mr. Paul Lafayette Lane; Godmother, Mrs. Paul L. Lane.
J. DeCraene, p.m.
    September 2, 1871, we the undersigned have baptized Creed Philip, a son of Simon Lane and Catherine Drain; he was born on the 30th of July, 1871. Godfather, Hon. Paul Lafayette Lane; Godmother, Emily Floed.
J. DeCraene, p.m.
    September 2, 1871, we the undersigned have baptized John Thomas, a son of John Lang and Maratha Gray. He was born on the 15th of May, 1871. Godfather, Thomas Sheridan; Godmother, Emma Floed.
J. DeCraene, p.m.
Register of St. Stephen's Church, Roseburg, from Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest:Roseburg Register and Missions, Binford & Mort 1986, page 26.

    October 11, 1872, we the undersigned have baptized Clement Arthur, born on the 9th of August, 1872, of the lawful marriage of Hon. L. F. Lane and Margaret Amanda Mann. Godfather, Thomas Sheridan, son; Godmother, Miss Emma Floed.
F. N. Blanchet, Archbp. of Oregon City
Register of St. Stephen's Church, Roseburg, from Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest:Roseburg Register and Missions, Binford & Mort 1986, page 32.

    Roseburg is the home of the Lanes--once the political power of the state--and up this creek, that comes pitching down between the great oak-topped hills, three miles in an easterly direction, and four miles perpendicular, as his son has it, lives General Joseph Lane--soldier, Governor, Senator, and at last candidate for the Vice Presidency. Very old is the General now, and quite retired, but the same as of old. His quiet, unpretending fireside and frugal meal are shared by the hermit the same now as when he was not poor, but strong and well-to-do, a great politician, and a power in the land.
Joaquin Miller, "A Ride Through Oregon," Overland Monthly, April 1872, page 305

    Any old Salemite who attended the statehouse ball in 1872 will tell you what a hit General Joseph Lane made when he came down from Roseburg dressed in his best bib and tucker, including buckskin gloves with gauntlets, and how he kissed all the pretty girls who were presented to him.
Al B. Crosman, quoted by Fred Lockley, "Impressions and Observations of the Journal Man,"
Oregon Journal, Portland, August 16, 1935, page 10

    GENERAL JO. LANE.--A correspondent of the Salem Statesman says old Jo Lane is now living very quietly in a beautiful little valley about fifteen miles from Roseburg, in Oregon. He is keeping "bachelor's hall," his sons and daughters being all well married, and notwithstanding he is seventy-odd years old he can still use his favorite weapon of exercise--the ax--and and force daylight through a log in as lively style as ever. The correspondent of the above-named paper remarks that the old man's indomitable soul and stalwart form refuse to bow under the heavy burden of years, and he strides about the foothills of the Cascades like a gigantic and imperishable Genius of the Border. He is probably the only man of his renown and station in the world who cooks dinner for his friendly visitors.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 21, 1875, page 1

Old Jo Lane.
    An Indianapolis correspondent of the Cincinnati Enquirer writes a long letter, embracing among other matters an interview between the writer and Mr. Matt Brown, one of the Oregon delegates to the St. Louis convention, in which a once-prominent public man of the United States is mentioned:
    "But the most notable object of interest we have out in our western regions," continued Brown, of Oregon, his eyes gleaming with devotional fire, "is old Gen. Joe Lane. I suppose there are thousands of people in this country familiar with his name and record who would swear he was dead, and the young politicians of the present generation manage to get along without mentioning him at all, which is very remarkable, I sometimes think, considering what a conspicuous figure he was in American politics twenty years ago. Indiana idolized him. No man ever received such an ovation for services in the field as Joe Lane when he returned from Mexico at the close of the war and gave the state a chance to carry him on its shoulders for his gallantry at Buena Vista. He came west in [1849], was appointed provisional governor of Oregon by Fillmore [sic--it was President Polk], then was in the Senate, and had just finished his term when the Charleston Convention recognized his radical pro-slavery opinions [sic--it was his electability that placed him on the ticket] by placing him on the ticket with Breckinridge. After that defeat he came back to us in disgust, and the hot political places that once knew him will know him no more forever. He bought a farm back of Roseburg, running up from the Valley of the Willamette, and built him a small frame house high up on a picturesque spur of
where he has lived ever since in the most perfect seclusion. Two years ago he lost his wife, whom he always called 'the madam,' and loved devotedly. Since then his desolation has been relieved only by a negro boy, who cooks and keeps house for him. Infirm! You ought to see him. He's eighty-three now, straight as an arrow, six feet two in height, and he can pick up his gun and bring home a deer, or follow down a trout stream over the rocks about as well as the next man. And then he reads a great deal. One room in his cabin is sacred to his books, and his library is one of the most valuable on the Pacific Slope. Strange how the old man hangs on the skirts of the past! Old thoughts, old questions, old scenes, old statesmen, which have nearly faded out of our remembrance, and given place to the issues and plans of the present, are meat, drink and lodging to him. The new thoughts of an ever-busy and progressive race he cares very little about, comparatively, and seems to have made up his mind that the country is retrograding. He talks about ancient notions of political honor and integrity, and any comparison with the present turns him sick at the stomach. Only once lately we got him worked up to the point of coming down from his garret in the clouds and making a speech. It was on the 4th of June, at Roseburg, just as we were getting ready to leave for St. Louis. We circulated it in every direction, and people came over the mountains to hear him, taking three and four days for the journey. There were at least five thousand there, and when
the auditors stretched their necks as if some revelation was coming, and every word was to be precious. Only a few could hear him, for his voice was drifted into the childish treble, but curiosity kept them spellbound till he closed. He reminded one, with his majestic presence and flowing white hair and beard, of some John the Baptist in the wilderness, crying unto the people "Repent!" And when he came down from the platform he took us delegates to one side and begged us, with faltering voice and tears in his eyes, to give the country a pure ticket, and help bring back the honesty and decency which politics had lost and the country wanted to see restored. 'The boys,' for that's the name he calls us by, look up to him with great veneration, and think there is still more eloquence in those weak, trembling tones than in all modern orators combined. The old man had only one wish left--to vote for Tilden and Hendricks. If the ticket wins he wants to depart in peace, like Simeon, for he will have lived to see the country's salvation."
Galveston Daily News, August 8, 1876, page 2

    Gen. Joe Lane is living in a small frame house on a spur of Rogue River mountain, in Oregon. He is 83 years old.
Quad City Times, Davenport, Iowa, August 15, 1876, page 2

"Bert" Hibben Drops Dead in the Prime of Life--
Vigorous and Strong One Minute, the Next a Corpse.

    This morning about 7 o'clock Mr. Ethelbert C. Hibben, so well known in politics and by virtue of his position as one of the deputies of the county clerk, died suddenly and unexpectedly at his residence, either from congestion of the stomach, or from rupture of blood vessels of the heart. The exact cause can only be determined by a postmortem. For several weeks Mr. Hibben has been suffering at intervals with neuralgic or congestive attacks of the stomach, and yesterday noon, while in the superior court, was the sufferer for several minutes from one of considerable severity. However, he attended to his duties as usual, and during the afternoon was unusually cheerful and pleasant-voiced, rattling off political bon mots with more than customary bonhomie, and being unusually facetious to the sallies from the laughing yet listening crowd. The evening he spent at home, and this morning arose at his customary hour and built a fire in the grate of the bedchamber. His wife and mother-in-law were out in the dining room preparing breakfast, and upon hearing him call answered the summons and found that he had lain down again upon the bed and seemed to have a difficulty in breathing. He so stated. Mr. James M. Myers, a near neighbor and an intimate friend, was summoned to his bedside, so also Drs. Hasty and Barbour, but nothing could be done in relief, for he died without a struggle and within five minutes after the first apprehension of danger. Coming so suddenly, and so entirely unexpected, the blow was a terrible one to his family. When the News reporter called the house was filled with mourning, and the scene was harrowing even to those attracted by mere curiosity, and who knew Mr. Hibben simply as a passing acquaintance. The remains will be shipped to Rushville at 10 a.m. tomorrow for burial.
    By interview with Mr. Claib Donaldson and others some history of the deceased was learned. He was born in Wilmington, Ohio, in 1824, his father Thomas Hibben being a leading merchant in that section. In the interval between 1839 and 1840, Ethelbert, or Bert as he was known to all, clerked for his brother George in Rushville, this state. Afterwards he came to this city and studied law under Governor Whitcomb, and was admitted to practice in 1845. In 1857, or thereabouts, he accompanied Senator Lane to Oregon, and for two years was editor of the organ which the party established at Portland [the Weekly Times]. In 1859 he returned and in 1860 was married to Miss Gertrude, daughter of John L. Robinson, of Rushville, a lady with whom he lived happily, and who survives him. The issue of this marriage was one child, a girl, at present eleven years of age.
    Two brothers survive the deceased, George Hibben, of Chicago, and James S. Hibben, of the firm of Hibben, Pattison & Co., this city. A sister, Mrs. Lida Mauzy, is now living at Rushville.
    Although prominent in politics, and a man, despite his apparently roughness of manner, wielding large influence, Mr. Hibben never held office. He had an unpleasant habit of plainly speaking the truth in not the choicest term, which made him unpopular with politicians, and this they remembered when his friends pushed him forward for position. In 1864, however, he was made a candidate for clerk of the supreme court, but notwithstanding party, work and personal sacrifice were of little avail at that time, even to the most popular man of the party.
    In 1857, as stated, he accompanied Senator Lane to Oregon, and when Jesse D. Bright was Senator from this state occupied a confidential position at Washington with him. Of later years he embarked in several enterprises, and finally brought up as deputy clerk, a position to which he was appointed by Austin H. Brown. In later life he was mainly conspicuous by the use of his trenchant pen, which he yielded in season and out of season, and at times cared little what politician's hide was pricked. Some years ago he contributed largely to the Rushville Jacksonian; he also wrote for the Sentinel, and more recently has used the People for the dissemination of pungent paragraphs and open thrusts. His expose in The Daily News
of the corruption of the Democratic supreme bench led to a change of the ticket after the nominations had been made in the state convention, and in various other directions has the power of his pen been felt.
    In character Mr. Hibben was a man of great force and determination. He was a bitter opponent and an uncompromising antagonist. Indeed, his violence often modified, if it did not neutralize, the effect of his efforts. He was not popular. He was a talkative man, and that made him pass for less than he was really worth, and his enemies were always ready to use that as an argument against him. His love of fair play and stern honesty were conspicuous. He knew no party when he saw wrong or fraud, and was as ready to denounce a political associate as a party opponent if he was guilty of corruption. In his aspirations to restore the ancient purity of his party and make it the servant of the people, he was ready to strike down anyone who stood in the way, friend or foe, and he believed most sincerely that the prosperity of the country depended upon the restoration to power of a purified Democracy. His faith in the people was so great that he was confident it only required the knowledge of official rascality spread abroad to create a revolution and purify that party. In support of his views he was always ready to work, and he knew how to take a blow as well as to give it. He was courageous, strong, self-willed, positive, trenchant--a man of marked characteristics, who with more self-control and with different associations would have made a conspicuous figure in politics.
    Upon hearing of his death this morning the following minute was ordered spread upon the record in room 3, superior court:
    "The court, having been informed of the death of Ethelbert C. Hibben, a deputy clerk of this court and clerk of this room, and who was but yesterday at the hour of adjournment in the active discharge of his duties, hereby testifies to his faithfulness and honesty in the performance of all the duties of his position, and directs this order to be entered of record. And the court hereby tenders to his family and friends the deepest sympathy in their sad bereavement, and in respect to the memory of the deceased it is now ordered that this court adjourn until tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock."
    The deputy clerks of the county office held an informal meeting today at noon and resolved to attend the funeral tomorrow in a body. No bar meeting had been called up to 2 p.m.
Indianapolis News, September 15, 1876, page 4

    The San Marcos [Texas] Free Press says of the now-venerable Gen. Jo. Lane, of Oregon, candidate for the vice presidency on Breckinridge's ticket in 1860, that he was a member of the Indiana Legislature which met at Corydon in 1822. As the clerk called the roll, and came to the counties of Vanderburg and Warrick, Mr. Smith says: "I saw advancing a slender, freckle-faced boy, in appearance eighteen or twenty years of age. I marked his step as he came up to my side, and have often noticed his air since. It was Gen. Joseph Lane, of Mexican and Oregon fame in after years."
Austin Weekly Statesman, Texas, December 28, 1876, page 2

    At the decoration of the Confederate graves at Fayetteville, Joseph Lane of Oregon sent flowers from that far-off state to decorate the grave of his old comrade Colonel Yell, who fell in the Mexican War.
"Personal and General," Des Moines Register, June 11, 1878, page 4


    To estimate the character of a man who has been so prominently before the American people as Gen. Lane requires some knowledge of his private life. This cannot be derived from the record of his public career. It must be obtained from acquaintance, conversation, and other association. We may observe that a man who is truly great in a public capacity will also display his eminent qualities in his private life. Gen. Lane was preeminently a great man in all public relations. In his private life he has known that he possesses in a great degree the material out of which great men are made. Without even a knowledge of the common branches of an English education, at the early age of 8 [sic] years he entered the active scenes of life. He did not possess a brilliant mind, but one of strength and comprehension. When he represented the state of Oregon in the Senate of the United States, unlike a large proportion of Senators, while he guarded well and faithfully the interests of the state which he represented, he labored for the entire Union. His mind was broad enough and deep enough to comprehend the whole Union; he believed he represented Maine as well as his own state.
    Through the grit in his nature, Gen. Lane acquired a thorough knowledge of men and things, and when he came into contact with the nation's representatives, in the stormy arena of debate, he was fully prepared to sustain the character of Senator. Today Gen. Lane is a private citizen of Roseburg, Ore. In his treatment of all those who come in contact with him he displays the spirit of true chivalry. No one can listen to the old man as he converses upon the topics of the day, or relates some incident in the nation's history in which he had a prominent part, without being impressed deeply with the fact of his greatness. Although the General is now 78 years of age, he possesses all the powers of his mind, and his eye will flash with enthusiasm and his cheeks glow with excitement when upon a favorite theme. His physical preservation is wonderful, and few men of his age can boast of his health or vigor. To pass an hour or so with him in listening (for you must listen), one is carried over the scenes of American history with a feeling as if excited by the reality. On his table will be found the latest publications of the day, and the old hero is as much of a student of American history today as he was twenty or thirty years ago. No man in the state of Oregon who knows the General but loves and admires him--loves him for his noble nature and admires him for the exalted grandeur of his character. He has studied men on the plains of the "Great West"; he has studied men at the camp-fire; he has studied men on the battle-field, and in the halls of Congress. Although 78 years old, Gen. Lane is not an "old fogey"; he is as progressive as most men are in the dawn of manhood. In a recent speech he said, "I rarely forget that little which I have learned. I remember--I retain it. My brain has never been injured. My memory is good and my brain is clear, and never was burned out by intoxicating drinks."
    It was under the care of Gen. Lane, as Governor, that Oregon cradled its infancy. In that capacity, when the state was beset with hostile Indians, he displayed the same energy and decision of character he after showed when he became Senator. He has made life a grand success; he is truly a self-made man--a living model after which men should shape and fashion their lives. His grey old head, crowned with the glories of 78 years, is now beyond the reach of envy, and even those who were his political enemies speak of him with a reverence approaching veneration. When he shall have passed away, his monument will be--the affection of the American heart.
    Roseburg, Oregon.

Osage City Free Press, Osage City, Kansas, February 21, 1879, page 8

    General Lane gave a lecture in Roseburg on Sunday evening, on the battle of Buena Vista, which was well received.

"News Items," The New Northwest, Portland, February 27, 1879, page 4

The Last of the Generals.
    The death of Gen. James Shields leaves that gallant old veteran, Gen. Joe Lane, now living at Roseburg, the only surviving general of the Mexican War--one that added so much glory, wealth and territory to this country. Gen. Lane, though near eighty years of age, is still hale and hearty, and bids fair to witness the recurrence of several anniversaries of the bloody battle at Buena Vista, in which he gained glorious distinction that has ever made him famous. He has recently returned from a trip to Puget Sound that proved a perfect ovation. The people have not forgotten their old-time Governor, Senator and friend, nor are they slow to show the appreciation they always felt for him, though long years have intervened since he served them in official capacity. Private life has its charms, and he has preferred the quiet of his mountain home to the public honors always in store for him.
Oregon Sentinel, July 25, 1879, page 2

    In a recent number of the Army and Navy Journal there appeared an article, above the signature of "Army Officer," that reflects unfavorably on the hardy pioneers of Oregon. The statements made by this Bohemian are not in accordance with history, and do injustice to Gen. Lane, and all those concerned in the organization of the Territorial Government. At this time, when we enjoy the fruits of the labors of those noble men and women we cannot allow their names to be covered with calumny. The "Army Officer," so called, cannot make history from imagination. Before the appointment of Gen. Lane as first Governor of Oregon, the Provisional Government was weak and insufficient to render justice and protect the people. It was Polk's desire that the Territorial Government should be organized with an efficient head, during his administration, and to accomplish this purpose he appointed Gen. Lane Governor on the 27th of August, 1848, with instructions to proceed at once to Oregon. He reached Oregon City (then capital) in 1849, and organized a Territorial Government the 3rd day of March. In order to understand the true situation we must here refer back to the massacre of the "Whitman family, and others, which occurred in 1847, November, at Waiilatpu Mission, by the Cayuse Indians. The massacre of Waiilatpu was the most atrocious recorded in the history of border life. Fourteen persons, including Dr. Whitman and his noble wife, were shot down and then mutilated with the tomahawk. The attendant horrors of the tragedy, if related in detail, would fill a volume of horrors. The only excuse given for the massacre was that at the time of the occurrence the measles was prevalent among the Indians, and they supposed that its presence was owing to Dr. Whitman's evil influence, and the doctor intended to kill them all and then take possession of their lands. But this was no excuse for the horrible torture perpetrated upon the female survivors and the innocent children. Following this event was a general rupture with the Cayuse and other Indians, with no decisive result. Before Gen. Lane arrived in Oregon he had been apprised of the late massacre, and being a man of strong and resolute mind, determined that those concerned in the affair should receive justice. He made known his plans to no one, and when he had effected the organization of the Territorial Government he set about punishment of the criminals. It was necessary to secure possession of those who were chief in the murders and their incitement. The General communicated with the chiefs and warriors engaged in the murder, and told them that war would be waged against them unless the murderers were given up. Receiving no definite answer, Gen. Lane met the chiefs and warriors at the Dalles, about midway between Oregon City and the Waiilatpu Mission, where the Whitman massacre took place. Here five Indian chiefs, not three, were surrendered, as stated by the "Army Officer" in the Army and Navy Journal--a discrepancy of considerable importance. The names of these Indian chiefs were: Te-lou-i-kite, Tam-a-has, Klok-a-mas, Ki-am-a-pump-kin and Q-sa-i-a-cha-lakis. These Indians were taken to Oregon City, where they were tried in court before a jury and convicted. The "Army Officer" would have it understood that these Indians did not have a fair trial, and that they were foredoomed. This is not true. They were defended by able counsel, who were well paid for their services in behalf of the. Indian chiefs. It is also untrue that these Indians were mistreated, as Gen. Lane informs me they were under his especial care, and that they were treated kindly and well provided for. The writer would have it further understood that the execution of these savages was a judicial murder, and those who were concerned in bringing them to trial have long since been consigned to oblivion. Facts do not justify such [a] conclusion. Not only does correct history show that the murderers of Whitman had a fair trial, but also that those who were instrumental in their convi