The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Jackson County News: 1862

The Crescent City Road.
December 1st, 1861.           
    Permit me through your valuable paper to present some facts in relation to the location and construction of the Crescent City and Illinois Valley Wagon Road. As many of the citizens of Jackson and Josephine counties (in which your paper has a large circulation) have contributed liberally to that enterprise, it is due them, I think, that they should be made acquainted with the facts. It becomes doubly so from the many misrepresentations through the press and otherwise, endeavoring to instill into the public mind that "the present road is a humbug," and consequently those contributors have been badly humbugged; that the route upon which the road is built was selected by a stupid or corrupt surveyor, who had more regard for benefiting certain tavern stands upon the road than placing the road in the right place. The merits of certain trails are exaggerated and an invidious distinction is drawn between that route and the road, in order to substantiate the charge of stupidity or corruption on the locators of the road. The motives that prompt some of the authors of these misrepresentations is probably best known to themselves; to others it is apparent, as will be shown.
    It is evident from the miserly proportion of truth contained in them that the object is not to enlighten the public.
    The simple history of the whole matter is this. In the early settlement of Crescent City, everybody saw that a wagon communication to Jacksonville was a public necessity. As early as 1854, a thorough survey was made (by a practical engineer) on the route in the vicinity of the present trails; but capitalists could not be induced to invest their money to build that road until other routes should be examined, and the fact demonstrated to them that there existed no superior route. This was not attempted until 1857, when a new company was formed to build a road, if possible. Messrs. Crandall, Gordon and myself were appointed commissioners, not to locate a road, for that was prudently received for the board of directors; but to view the several popular routes and report all the material facts of each and all of them.
    We proceeded with our work, making a partial preliminary survey of two of the most popular unsurveyed routes, and collected all the information respecting all other supposed routes that was in our reach. The result of our observations were duly laid before the board. This ended the duties of the commissioners. The board now had before them not only our report of the surveys and observations made, but the accurate and careful survey of 1854 made on the route of the present trails. Without a dissenting vote, the board of directors adopted the one upon which the road was built. T. S. Pomeroy of Jacksonville was a member of that board. For reasons never explained (to my knowledge) the majority of that board, T. S. Pomeroy helping form, and voting with the majority, refused to have any other survey than the rough and partial one made by the commissioners in viewing the route, but gave the contractors a discretionary power to deviate from the line viewed. This was opposed by the minority, unless guarded by the care and direction of a superintendent, which was not acceded to. This privilege the contractors, or rather the subcontractors, did exercise frequently. One instance will suffice: The route viewed entered Illinois Valley near Rough & Ready Creek, being three miles less mountain road, and lessening the distance to Jacksonville about eight miles; it also avoided the extreme high points on the mountain, the only place materially obstruct by snow.
    Now, if the line viewed by the commissioners had "tortuous wanderings" in it to benefit certain localities for houses, this majority, having assumed entire control, could, and ought to have had, the contractors to have exercised their privilege and straightened it, avoiding those localities. It would have been to the contractors' interest, their contract being to build the entire road for a stipulated sum, and not per mile. The truth is, not one of the commissioners who viewed the route had a dollar's interest along the line until after the road was built, and then only by purchase.
    If the road does run over high peaks which is obstructed by snow four or five months in the year (as the charge avers), and is badly constructed generally, and the contributors' money injudiciously expended, the fault is certainly not with the surveyor; the idea would be preposterous, for he was powerless. No sirs! the responsibility must rest where it properly belongs, on those who constituted the majority of the board of directors. The record fixes it there, and the attempt of a member of it to shuffle the responsibility on to others will be a vain one.
    In conclusion, permit me to say for our people, including myself (for I have interests in the advance of Crescent City, which depends upon the growth and prosperity of the interior, far ahead of any interest I have on the road), we will all hail with delight the opening of a better and easier communication with Jacksonville. Whether the recently discovered route upon which the new trail is built is superior to the one over which the road passes, is a question requiring time to determine; from the most reliable information concerning it, the distance from Waldo to Crescent City by it is not lessened.
    One of the considerations in placing the road where it is was to avoid the innumerable mountain streams that swell and rush with such rapidity during the rainy season, that it is almost impossible to keep bridges over them. As evidence of the superiority in this respect of the wagon road, I will here state that the mail carrier has only made one trip up to this date on that trail. G. P. Johnson, with a passenger train, was four days reaching Waldo from Crescent City; he returned [on] the wagon road, which has not been obstructed by snow for animals this season, and only impassable by reason of snow for wagons two or three days.
Very respectfully yours,
    D. C. LEWIS.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 4, 1862, page 3

    THE STAGES.--The stages from the north and the south arrive every other day.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 11, 1862, page 3

    The companies at Salem, Vancouver and the Dalles are steadily filling up and will soon have their complement. At Jacksonville, Col. Maury has mustered two companies already, and will soon have two more. He thinks that if necessary he can raise the fifth--all south of the Calapooia Mountains. The two companies at Jacksonville, Capts. Harris and Truax, and Hardings' at Salem, will be ready for service as soon as they receive their arms, clothing and camp equipage.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, January 11, 1862, page 3

    We have the Jacksonville Sentinel of Dec. 24 which gives accounts of great losses by the flood on the Applegate and Rogue rivers. The Sentinel gives us these meteorological items: Rain commenced on the 9th of November, and during the month 7.37 inches of rain fell. From 1st to 6th, there were 6.37 inches rain and 3 inches snow.

Weekly Oregonian, Portland, January 11, 1862, page 3

    THE WEATHER.--The storm god seems to have it all his own way this winter. On last Sunday morning there was about eight inches of snow on the ground, and some of our people were disposed to continue the exhilarating amusement of sleigh riding which they had been enjoying for a few preceding days, but before night it began to rain most furiously, and it has been raining, sleeting and snowing, with short intermissions, ever since. The streams were as high on Wednesday and Thursday as they have been this winter, and an immense amount of damage has been done. We understand that the tannery, at Phoenix, has been swept out, and that the fine flouring mill at that place stands toppling over the water. The roads are so impassable over the county that we have received no intelligence of the amount of damage by this flood. Friday morning the sun shone out clear and beautiful, but by noon the sky was again clouded, with indications of more snow, of which there is two or three inches in the valley and plenty of it on the surrounding mountains. Let this kind of weather continue for some two or three months, and beef cattle will be a sight that it will do a man good to look at. Numbers of dead cattle lie rotting on the hills and in the valleys surrounding. Farmers, take care of your stock. It will be worth something in the spring.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 25, 1862, page 3

    NOVEL DIGGINGS.--A few days since, says the Jacksonville (Oregon) Statesman [sic], of Jan. 4th, a party of men, who were ground sluicing at Blackwell, washed out two human skeletons. On the finger of one was found a gold ring, and among other loose treasures were a silver thimble, and an iron pot containing upward of $300 in coin. The spot is though to be part of an old Indian burial ground.
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, January 30, 1862, page 1

    FROM JACKSONVILLE--ANOTHER FLOOD.--By last night's mail we received the Sentinel of Jan. 25th. Another flood has swept the valley, doing immense damage. On the 21st eight inches of snow fell, and it continued to rain and snow all the week. The streams rose as high as they had been this winter. A tannery at Phoenix had been swept away, and a fine flouring [mill] toppled over the winter. The roads were impassable, and the amount of damage done in the valley cannot be ascertained. Cattle had suffered from the severity of the weather. Numbers lie rotting on the hills and valleys surrounding Jacksonville.
    Wm. M. Hand has withdrawn from the Sentinel, and O. Jacobs, Esq., has taken editorial charge. It will continue to be a staunch Union sheet.
    A meeting was held at Jacksonville on the 18th to ascertain the practicability of a wagon road to the Salmon River mines. One man said a pack train could go there in fifteen days. Messrs. McDaniels and Ballard were authorized to organize a company of volunteers to examine the route.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 10, 1862, page 2

    THE STAGES.--The stages now make a trip from Yreka to this place every two days. Much credit is due to the energy and perseverance of the company, and much is due also to the daring and energy of the gentlemen drivers. The stages also make their regular trips from the Cañon to this place. Wall and Adams generally come through, unless Rogue River runs over the mountains, or unless an earthquake opens a yawning gulf between this and the Cañon.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 15, 1862, page 2

    FROM JACKSONVILLE--ANOTHER FLOOD.--By last night's mail we received the Sentinel of Jan. 25th. Another flood has swept the valley, doing immense damage. On the 21st eight inches of snow fell, and it continued to rain and snow all the week. The streams rose as high as they had been this winter. A tannery at Phoenix had been swept away, and a fine flouring [mill] toppled over the water. The roads were impassable, and the amount of damage done in the valley cannot be ascertained. Cattle had suffered from the severity of the weather. Numbers lie rotting on the hills and valleys surrounding Jacksonville.
    Wm. M. Hand has withdrawn from the Sentinel, and O. Jacobs, Esq., has taken editorial charge. It will continue to be a staunch Union sheet.
    A meeting was held at Jacksonville on the 18th to ascertain the practicability of a wagon road to the Salmon River mines. One man said a pack train could go there in fifteen days. Messrs. McDaniels and Ballard were authorized to organize a company of volunteers to examine the route.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, February 15, 1862, page 3

    ON THEIR WAY OVERLAND.--We learn that there are between three and five hundred miners from Southern Oregon now on their way between Jacksonville and this place.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 15, 1862, page 3

    CAMP BAKER.--The publisher of the Sentinel took a flying trip on Monday last to Camp Baker. He thus describes what he saw and heard:
    The Camp is now occupied by two companies, "The Baker Guards" and "The Jackson Rangers." The place is situated about eight miles in an easterly direction from Jacksonville, and one and one-half miles west of Phoenix, on a small mountain stream called Coleman's Creek. The site is a beautiful and admirable one. There is plenty of dry, level surface for drilling and maneuvering, as well as for the buildings required for four full companies. Twenty-five log houses have already been built, and more can be put up at short notice. From the amount of work done, we judge the men have had plenty of extra duty to perform, but as the most of them have been accustomed to work, and will get extra pay for extra service, they prefer to do it. Now that sufficient ground has been prepared, three hours in each day will be devoted to infantry drill. When all become proficient in that, they then will be put through on horseback. The men are contented and orderly, and seem to take everything merrily. Between building houses, grubbing, exercising horses, drilling, attending bugle calls (especially the one calling them to their regular "human be-ans"), pitching quoits, running foot races, jumping, and other gymnastic exercises, they certainly enjoy themselves as well, if not much better, than the rest of mankind. The officers are gentlemanly, hospitable and generous to visitors, and much liked by the men. The intercourse between the officers and privates is gentlemanly and soldier-like. The utmost good feeling prevailed. Success to the Baker Guards and the Jackson Rangers.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, February 22, 1862, page 3

    EXCLUDED FROM THE MAILS.--We have been shown a circular addressed to the postmasters of the different distributing offices informing them that they are expected to exclude from the mails hereafter the Los Angeles Star, the Oregon Democrat, and the Southern Oregon (Jacksonville) Gazette.--The last of these three named papers has been the most violent and dangerous of the number, and has been edited with considerable ability.
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, March 1, 1862, page 2

    NOT A TRAITOROUS SHEET.--When the Southern Oregon Gazette was suppressed its California confreres bemoaned its fate with much vituperative grief, but one of the last issues of that sheet contained Jeff Davis' message to the rebel congress, without a word of comment, and another number had Breckinridge's Address, written after he had fled from his own state and had taken up arms against the Union. That address has this first-rate notice in the Gazette:
    READ AND PRESERVE.--On the first page of this paper we publish the address of the Hon. John C Breckinridge to the people of Kentucky. It is a terse, forcibly written, candid, earnest paper, and like every production of its eminent and pure author, is worthy of perusal and preservation.
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, March 9, 1862, page 2

    THE STAGES now make daily trips from Canyonville to this place; also from Yreka. This stage company has been of incalculable benefit to Southern Oregon. It has placed us in regular communication with California and Northern Oregon and makes us feel not only that we live in an age of light and knowledge, but also that we live in a land of enterprise and energy.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 15, 1862, page 3

    CASUALTY.--On Wednesday, a little girl about three years old fell into one of the uncovered mining pits in this town and came very near drowning. Its life was despaired of for a while, but it is recovering. It is a wonder that older children do not get drowned in the uncovered pools that abound in this place. We wish our city fathers would look into this matter, and close up some of these watery roads to the mineral region.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 15, 1862, page 3

    BOGUS DEMOCRAT.--The Red Bluff Beacon, a pretended Democratic paper, exults at the suppression of the Jacksonville (Oregon) Gazette, an uncompromising Democratic paper. The Gazette's crime consists in opposing Republicanism, advocating the principles of Jefferson and Jackson, and exposing the rascality of Cameron, Welles, Morgan & Co. For this it has been suppressed by an arbitrary and unconstitutional and tyrannical order of the Postmaster General, and Beacon gloats over its fall! The editor of the Beacon would show some honesty and manliness and be entitled to some respect, if he would openly join the party he is secretly assisting.
Mountain Democrat, Placerville, California, March 15, 1862, page 2

    JIMMY O'MEARA'S TREASON EXCLUDED FROM THE MAILS.--The postmaster at San Francisco has informed the postmaster at Salem that "Brig. Gen. Wright, commanding United States Army of the Pacific, has issued an order requiring the exclusion from circulating through the United States mails and post offices of the Southern Oregon Gazette, an incendiary and treasonable publication, published at Jacksonville, Oregon."
    The remaining two journals of this character will certainly go the same road, that is, not go at all, if they continue in open advocacy of Jeff. Davis. Jimmy's remarks about that "pure patriot and statesman," Breckinridge, were probably what upset that establishment.--Statesman.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, March 21, 1862, page 2

    ACCIDENT AT CAMP BAKER.--In practicing with the cannon at Camp Baker on the 20th instant, a very serious accident occurred. A cartridge exploded in the act of loading the gun, injuring two men belonging to Company A; John Linnly seriously if not mortally, and ------ Lawler slightly.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 22, 1862, page 3

    A letter from Jacksonville dated March 10th says: "Our postmaster has just received instructions not to transmit the Oregon Gazette through the U.S. Mails."--Oregonian.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, March 22, 1862, page 1

    Perry Kline was recently killed by George Bever, at Willow Springs, Jackson County. Bever shot Kline five times with his revolver, and then, "as is supposed, started for Salmon River."
Morning Oregonian, Portland, March 25, 1862, page 2

    DISGUSTING.--The Jacksonville Gazette, as it winked out, made a last desperate effort to insult loyal citizens by publishing a fabulous rumor of a rebel victory near Charleston. This must be sport to you, ain't it, Jim? to chew a dirty commodity and spit it through your teeth at the good people whom you cannot otherwise insult any more. The [Albany] Register carefully takes the dirty thing from Jim's mouth and puts it forth as if it were really excellent news.

State Republican, Eugene, Oregon, March 29, 1862, page 2

    ARREST OF BEVER, THE MURDERER OF KLINE.--George Bever, who killed Perry Kline at Willow Springs, Jackson County, on the 9th inst., was arrested here, by Marshal Barker, last Monday. He was recognized by Dr. McCully, who knew him in Jacksonville. Justice C. N. Terry issued a warrant for his arrest, and when arraigned Bever pleaded guilty. He was committed to the county jail, to await a requisition from Jackson County.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, March 31, 1862, page 2

    ARREST OF BEVER, THE MURDERER OF KLINE.--George Bever, who killed Perry Kline at Willow Springs, Jackson County, on the 9th inst., was arrested here by Marshal Barker last Monday. He was recognized by Dr. McCully, who knew him in Jacksonville. Justice C. N. Terry issued a warrant for his arrest, and when arraigned Bever pleaded guilty. He was committed to the county jail, to await a requisition from Jackson County.

Oregon Statesman, Salem, March 31, 1862, page 2

    DUST.--There is a very large amount of gold dust on the market, but no coin to purchase the same. Has the business become unprofitable? We want to see some of this dust in the shape of almighty dollars rolling around this burg. Send it out on its inspiring mission, and let it work its magic changes.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 5, 1862, page 3

    HOOK & LADDER CO.--We noticed the Hook & Ladder Company, in full uniform, pass our window last evening. From their speed one would have supposed that a fire was raging; such, however, was not the case; they were on their way to the new building, recently erected by the city fathers for their accommodation.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 26, 1862, page 3

Interdict Against the Gazette.
    After going to press last week we received information from Jacksonville that the Gazette had been prohibited from the use of Lincoln's mails. The editor takes leave of his readers for the present in a humorous article wherein the motives of the abolition government and their tools for this high-handed and unconstitutional proceedings are fully exposed. We have said on former occasions all that we intend to say on this subject of the liberty of the press. Those who have power and authority in their hands now care nothing about constitutional or natural rights. They are reason proof. They have power and are determined to use it. Reason or argument is not for them. "Reason will operate against reason, argument against argument--but it takes the steel and bullet of the soldier to operate against brute force." The Gazette concludes its argument thus:
    "For the present the Gazette is suspended; but we shall not quite yet take farewell of our readers and patrons. We bide our time. Of one thing we are very certain. We shall continue steadfast and undismayed in our political faith. We shall ever remain loyal and true to the Constitution of the United States, no matter how much it may be violated and trampled upon by Presidents, Cabinets or Congress. We shall never seek refuge in the embrace of Lincolnism, or any other shade or form of abolitionism or despotism. We shall stand firmly by our Democratic creed, and continue in the fervent hope that ere long the usurpation and tyrannies and oppressions of abolition rules will have become things of the past, and that we shall again live under a free government like that founded by our Revolutionary fathers and perpetuated by the line of Presidents down to the 2nd of March 1861. But such a form of government is fitted only for a free people and is worthy to be enjoyed only by a people who would be free."
Placer Herald, Rocklin, California, April 26, 1862, page 1

    MORE TRADE.--We understand that the trade of Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, is now transferred to the Sacramento route, the merchants considering the Crescent City route too hazardous and expensive. There are at present several tons here awaiting transportation by teams, which it is expected will be forwarded by the end of next week.
Red Bluff Independent, May 2, 1862, page 2

    OREGON TRADE.--The prospect now is that Southern Oregon will hereafter ship their goods via Red Bluff. The difficulty of obtaining goods shipped by way of  Crescent City, especially in the winter and spring season, have induced the merchants of Southern Oregon to try the Red Bluff route, and Hinchman & Bartlett forwarded last week a large consignment of goods for Jacksonville. The Jacksonville Sentinel is noticing the firm of Sachs & Bro., says that they have decidedly the finest store in Southern Oregon, and that L. Sachs has just returned from San Francisco, and that he will next week receive, via Red Bluff, the finest assortment of ladies' dress goods, new styles, ever brought to this market.
Red Bluff Independent, May 9, 1862, page 2

    CRESCENT CITY WAGON ROAD.--Mr. Wall, of the firm of Dugan & Wall, was in our town this week and he informs us that this road will be passable for wagons in a very short time. In fact, some teamsters intend to cross the Crescent City mountain next week. The people of Southern Oregon are suffering, somewhat, from the protracted snow blockade of this road.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 10, 1862, page 3

    INDIANS.--We have been shown a letter from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Oregon, stating that he had given permission to 15 or 20 Rogue River Indians to return to this section, and to spend the summer at their old haunts. The Superintendent recommends them for their friendly disposition and peaceful habits. So don't be alarmed.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 17, 1862, page 3

    The Jacksonville Civilian is the name of the paper issued from the old Gazette material. It's the same old thing throughout. The change of name has not changed the tone.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, May 20, 1862, page 2

Where Are the Secessionists?
JACKSON COUNTY, May 21, 1862.
    ED. SENTINEL: Where are the secessionists that were in this county three months ago? Men whose chivalry so boiled over that both night and day was often made hideous by loud and repeated hurrahs for Jeff. Davis--those who rejoiced over the defeat of the Federals at Bull Run, and who, immediately after the news of this defeat, organized a band of conspirators in Jacksonville, who, to the number of more than sixty persons, met in secret conclave to discuss, not the propriety of going South, but the manner of raising the means necessary to convey them thither, for the purpose of bearing arms in the Southern Confederacy? I repeat the question, Where are they? Thank God! I have yet the sense of seeing left perfect, and that my memory, too, is unimpaired. I see and recognize these very same individuals every day. They are now out, however, in disguise, and I verily believe that, in most instances, they hug the delusion that they are not recognized. There is not a secessionist, or even a Southern sympathizer among them! Oh! no!! They are good Union men, every one of them. They are "Democrats," yes sir, and "Union Democrats" at that! Why, sir, these high-toned, honorable gentlemen (I hope to get forgiveness for the misnomer) affect to be insulted whenever secession is mentioned in their presence. "A secessionist! where is there one?" they ask, with seeming surprise. I am told, on good authority, that probably two-thirds of the rabid and ultra-secessionists in this state, in the days of the reign of "Sam," were Know Nothings. Now, it seems that "Sam" must have been about at the time, or soon after, the secession convention at Corvallis, for since that time it has been noticed that most of them have constantly in the mouth a lie and a curb bit. They seem to have been instructed, also, at that time to steal and wear, if possible, until the evening of the first Monday in June, the guise of Democrats. Many of them chafe under the bit and others sneer horribly at the Democratic garb. Never having been accustomed to wear it, they put it on so awkwardly that, in some instances, it amounts almost to deformity.
    Only a short time previous to the Corvallis convention, many of these same individuals boasted that they were secessionists, and spoke of the United States government as a farce and a humbug, and said the want of means was all that prevented their having been in the Southern army long ago, fighting to get forever clear of the damnable, hated Union, the very name of which had become a stench in their nostrils.
    The scheme spoken of as having been on foot after the reception of the news of the battle of Bull Run only failed for the want of dollars and cents to give it vitality--at least, so many of the participants in that conspiracy here have since publicly boasted. It was even discussed in their treasonable gatherings the plan of going from this county so quietly as not to arouse suspicion, meet at Crescent City, take passage on the steamer Columbia, and, when at sea, rise in mutiny, dispose of the officers as expediency should dictate, and force the crew to work the vessel to Panama. These are facts that can be substantiated at any time, in a manner that would satisfy any court or jury of their correctness.
    Now, these very men, just on the eve of an election, have come out under the name of "Democracy," and claim to be the par excellence "Union" party! Even his honor, Judge Wait, publicly declared at Phoenix, in this county, that he did not know of a secessionist in the state, nor did he believe there were any.
    Judge Wait, the arrant old humbug, has gotten up an impracticable and exploded compromising scheme, which he expects may possibly elect him. From the solemn and sanctimonious countenance that he takes to the rostrum, he no doubt expects credit for sincerity and honesty of purpose; but, in my opinion, Satan has as much sincerity and more honesty (for he is not in disguise) than the man who declares that he believes there are no secessionists in Oregon.
    Union men, whatever your political association may have heretofore been, come to the rescue. They have stolen the name of "Democracy." Let us see to it that they profit nothing by the theft. With all their vaunted "Democracy," there is not one in ten of them that would today hold up his right hand and swear to support the Constitution of the United States. Put this question to those who are boasting of Democratic principles. "Sam" has not drawn his bit tight enough to extort the oath of allegiance from this class of his followers. Why, sir, I would trust a paid hireling of Jeff. Davis just as soon as any man who consents to run on the secession ticket.
    I have been a Democrat from my youth up. I never in my life voted other than the Democratic ticket. I expect to vote for Democratic principles while I live. But do not tell me that traitors and Democrats ever did or ever will vote the same ticket. Democracy and treason allied together? never! never!!
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, May 24, 1862, page 3

    AN IRISHMAN UPON THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY.--The Oregon Sentinel has a long letter from an Irishman who gives his views on the position of the so-called Democracy towards Irishmen as follows:
    "Three times in the last thirty years has this party committed treason against their Irish fellow citizens, by whose aid alone they were hoisted into power, and all those acts in the same city--Charleston, South Carolina. First, in 1832, when they nullified the laws of Congress, by which American industry and manufacturing skill would be developed, and a remunerative labor market opened to the Irish race; next, in 1860, when they rent asunder the great Democratic convention of the United States, and with less than a third of their whole number did, in the city of Richmond, place in nomination John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, and Joseph Lane of Oregon, practically nullifying the time-honored doctrine of the party, that "the majority shall govern."
Weekly Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, May 24, 1862, page 4

    JACKSONVILLE CIVILIAN.--This is the title of a new weekly Democratic paper published in Jacksonville, Oregon, by S. H. Jenner, formerly a printer in Sacramento.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, May 25, 1862, page 2

    HE GIVES IT UP.--We see it stated in the Jacksonville Civilian of May 31st that the connection of D. Wm. Douthitt as editor of that sheet ceased with that number. A brief and not very brilliant career. We shall soon expect to hear that the paper is also "played out."
Morning Oregonian, Portland, June 5, 1862, page 2

    JACKSON.--An extra of the Oregon Sentinel says:--"The whole Union state and county ticket have undoubtedly triumphed in Jackson County. John F. Miller is behind his ticket at least 200. Jacksonville precinct has given a Union majority of 38. The Dixieites are hunting their holes, and confess themselves beaten in the county by from 50 to 100."
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, June 7, 1862, page 2

    OREGON ELECTION.--By telegram and mail we have the first returns of the Oregon election. The whole Union state and county ticket have undoubtedly triumphed in Jackson County, formerly a chivalry stronghold. Miller, the Democratic nominee for Governor, who did not believe the federal government had a right to preserve the Union by coercion, is behind his ticket at least 200. Jacksonville precinct has given a Union majority of 38. The Dixieites confess themselves beaten in the county by a majority of from 50 to 100. The vote of this county in 1860 was as follows: Breckinridge, 672; Douglas, 399; Lincoln, 377. This year the Douglas Democrats and Republicans united to nominate one ticket, and only by so doing have they saved the county from the disgrace of a secession Democratic triumph. Jackson County having gone for the Union ticket, the state must have given it a large majority, and it seems certain a loyal legislature has been elected which will choose a patriot to succeed the rebel sympathizer Stark in the United States Senate. Will the Douglas Democrats of California learn anything from their brethren in Oregon?
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, June 8, 1862, page 2

    CROPS IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel of June 14th says:
    Owing to the continued severity of last winter and the very early period at which it commenced, but little fall grain was sown. What little was put in, however, looks fine and promises an abundant yield. But this will not be more than sufficient to bread the people of this valley, much less to supply the dependent markets. Our only dependence, then, is on the volunteer crop. Much of this was badly injured by the floods and frosts of last winter. The season so far has been very favorable; warm and growing showers continuing up to the present, and bidding fair to continue through the present month. Notwithstanding these favorable conditions the volunteer crop will not be a favorable one. But a very few oats were sown this spring, and the volunteer crop will not amount to anything. There will be no barley raised in the valley this year worth mentioning.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 20, 1862, page 4

    INDIANS.--By permission of the Indian Agent, about sixteen of the Rogue River Indians are now on Sams Creek, in this county. People in that vicinity report them orderly.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, June 21, 1862, page 3

    The late election squelched out three secession papers in this state--the Corvallis Union, Portland Advertiser, and the Jacksonville Civilian--leaving only one rebel concern in the whole state.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, June 21, 1862, page 2

    POINTING A MORAL.--The Oregon Sentinel says:
    Very few young men of any talent and prominence in Jackson County voted the secession-sympathizer's ticket. This is as it should be. For a young man of any ability, noble aspirations, and the world before him, to have gone upon the record in support of such a ticket would have been equivalent to political suicide. The few young men who did vote the Dixie ticket will regret it to the latest period of their lives. The old political stagers voted the Dixie ticket to a man. This is no more than we expected. Wedded to the dead issues of the past and oblivious of the living present, the only thing that keeps them from voting for General Jackson still, is the absolute refusal of the board to receive votes for dead men.
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, June 22, 1862, page 2

    DEAD AND STINKETH.--Another secesh sheet has given up the ghost in Oregon--the Jacksonville Civilian died on the Saturday before the election. There are several papers in California that stinketh very badly, though not yet dead.
Red Bluff Independent, June 24, 1862, page 2

    THE OREGON TELEGRAPH.--The Portland (Oregon) correspondent of the Bulletin writes: Mr. Strong, formerly of your state, is moving along with the Oregon telegraph between here [and] Yreka. The beginning pole was planted here during the spring, and now he is pegging along through the grass-shires of this valley, some 75 miles to the southward. It is expected that it will be up and in working order to the southern terminus this fall, and then we can shake hands with the Bay City by lightning.
Nevada Democrat, Nevada, California, July 17, 1862, page 2

    GRASSHOPPERS.--A subscriber writing from Jackson County informs us that the grasshoppers are becoming numerous in that vicinity.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 17, 1862, page 5

    THE CAUSE.--It was stated lately that a Spaniard named Eskalone was shot at Jacksonville, Oregon, July 4th, by one Bill Butler, a Kanaka. It appears that the Spaniard stole the other's Indian wife, and Butler went to Eskalone's house and got her back. Upon the latter approaching Butler, he was shot. The Kanaka was put under bonds of $1,500.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, July 19, 1862, page 4

    We understand Col. W. G. T'Vault, of Oregon, is about making all the necessary arrangements to commence the publication of a journal at Jacksonville with the material of the defunct Southern Oregon Gazette.
Oregonian, Portland, August 22, 1862, page 2

    A correspondent of the Sentinel, writing from Josephine, occupies something over a column of that paper in attacks upon the officials of said county and finally winds up his tirade by saying: "And the crowning act of all is the order of the board of commissioners to publish the present exhibit of the county affairs in the Register." If that is the "crowning act," and "head and front of offending," we apprehend the country is safe as far as Josephine is concerned. As Josephine is a Democratic county, and as the Register is more generally circulated through it than any other paper in the state, we think it proper and right that the advertisements of the county should be given to us. Josephine stood by her party and principles in the last election and passed through the fiery ordeal unscratched, while other counties cowered and fell before the threats of the abolition horde that infests the state. She is the Gibraltar of Democracy of Oregon, and if the "crowning act" of her sins is the ordering of the exhibit of the county affairs to be published in a Democratic journal, heaven knows she is far above her neighbors in the scale of morality, right and justice.
    The Sentinel seems very much disturbed about not receiving the county advertisements of Josephine and speaks of the Register as "an obscure paper in the Willamette," while the editor of that paper well knows that the Register has a much larger circulation than the Sentinel and is second in that respect to but one paper in the state. It seems just as impossible for Onager Jacobs to speak respectfully of a Democratic cotemporary as it is for an Abolitionist to get to heaven.
Eugene Democratic Register, August 23, 1862, page 3

    A RUNAWAY MATCH.--The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel of Sept. 13th affords the following very pleasant reading, all about true love, an enraged "parient," flight of young couple, pursuit of the paternal relative over hill and dale, and final happiness of the bridegroom and bride:
    On last Monday morning, between the hours of one and two o'clock, the denizens of our town were suddenly aroused from sound sleep by the clattering hoofs of galloping horses and the alarming cries of "Help! help!" "Whoopee!" "Stop 'em! stop 'em!" "Clear the road!" etc. As we bounded from our bed, we surmised the Indians were upon us in full force; others thought the town was on fire; others still, that a horrid murder was being perpetrated--all expected the next moment would disclose something dreadful. The man in attendance at Clugage & Drum's livery stable, though half asleep, and not knowing what was to happen, by force of habit quickly threw open the doors of the stable, into which the horses rushed. Soon a number of persons, in night dress, were at the stable, prepared to learn the worst. One of these, in "Georgia undress" (a pair of spurs and a shirt collar), came with uplifted club and "vengeance in his heart," to punish the riotous Siwashes who had dared to disturb his sweet dreams. "Phancy his phelinks" as a fair young woman quickly fled from before him. Ah! it was understood now--a runaway match, with the "enraged parient'' in pursuit, calling loudly for his daughter. The City Marshal and Sheriff were promptly on hand, and proceeded to arrest the whole party. The old man "still harped upon his daughter"--all he wanted was his daughter and he would depart in peace. A marriage certificate was here produced, and the sorrowing parent informed that his request could not be granted, as his daughter had chosen for herself a legal protector. He then submitted with as good a grace as possible, and bride and bridegroom were allowed to retire to the United States Hotel. Our citizens, on hearing the denouement, returned to their beds, laughingly wishing the young couple a happy time of it after their exciting ride of fifteen or twenty miles by moonlight. It appears that the old folks had been very much opposed to the match. The lovers had for some time been plotting an elopement, but previous to Sunday night found no opportunity to effect their object. On Sabbath the parents were visiting a neighbor, and the young lady was left at home to get supper and put the children to bed. This she did; put on a bonnet and shawl, walked out to where a young man (a friend of her lover) was awaiting her with horses. Once on the horses, the lover soon joined them; a minister was found, and the knot tied. They then started for Jacksonville, riding along leisurely until within the precincts of the town, and congratulating themselves that they had effectually eluded the vigilance of the old folks, when the "enraged parient" rode down upon them with a "whoop-pee" that frightened the horses beyond all management, and aroused, not only the people, but the slumbering echoes in the surrounding hills.
    As a matter of interest in this connection we cut from the list of marriages in the Sentinel the following:
    On Sunday night, Sept. 7th, at the residence of Q. N. Anderson, near Phoenix, by Rev. L. T. Hawkins, J. F. Oyler of Williamsburg to Miss Sarah Jane Matney of Logtown.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 19, 1862, page 6

    SANITARY FUND IN JACKSON COUNTY.--Up to Sept. 25th the citizens of Jackson County had contributed $843.75 to the Sanitary Fund.
Oregonian, Portland, September 30, 1862, page 2

    INDIAN TROUBLES.--Mr. J. S. Daggett informs us that Mr. Brown, who resides at the mouth of Big Butte, while herding horses within four miles of his house, between Trail and Elk creeks, on Friday evening last received information from a friendly Indian that if he did not go away from there the Indians would kill him that night. He thereupon started for the settlements on foot. The Indians were soon in hot pursuit, and Mr. Brown quickly found it necessary to throw away his shoes and coat, that he might escape. The race was kept up for about twenty miles, when Mr. Brown arrived at the home of Mr. Thomas Rainey, on Rogue River, with his feet very severely lacerated and frostbitten.
    Mr. Brown has the reputation of a truthful man, and one not easily frightened, and full confidence is placed in his statements.
    While we have troops in this valley, it is not thought that we will have any serious trouble with the Indians. It is well known, however, that Lalake, chief of the Klamaths, is in no very amiable mood at present, on account of his not being allowed to come into the settlements at pleasure. With all of our Indians, "good" or "bad," it is perfectly natural for them to murder and steal, if opportunity offers, and they therefore need close watching.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 5, 1862, page 2

CAMP LINCOLN, November 8th, 1862.
Military Matters.
    EDITORS ALTA: Circumstances beyond my control prevented me from writing you per last steamer, as when she sailed we had but just returned from an expedition up the Jacksonville road, about which I shall tell you more by and by. About the 10th of last month, we received a visit from Col. Lippitt, who reviewed the two companies here, and seemed well pleased with their general appearance. This is the first opportunity the members of Company G had of seeing the Colonel since they left the Presidio, nearly a year ago.
Deserters and Secession Sympathizers.
    On the 18th, a corporal, who had been dispatched in pursuit of some deserters, returned to camp with information that he had overhauled the party near Sailors Diggings, and that they, after returning with him to a public house several miles this side, again broke away from him and fled, being encouraged to do so by teamsters and others, there at the house. It was also reported that at Sailors Diggings, Kerbyville and many other places along the Jacksonville road, secession principles seemed to predominate over Union sentiments, and many were quite too free in boasting of it. On receiving the above intelligence, Major Curtis immediately sent away fifty men, under Capt. O'Brien, and followed the next day with twenty-eight more men, from the intention, it would seem, of teaching traitors a wholesome lesson, wherever they might be found.
    The first detachment had not reached Sailors Diggings, which is about fifty-four miles from this camp, when they learned that four out of five of the deserters had been arrested by Captain Stuart and Sergeant McCloud, who had gone in pursuit of these two or three days before the expedition started, and were on their way back. They had required a large number of citizens to swear allegiance to the government, and on learning of the approach of the troops many others fled to safer quarters. So after waiting a couple of days and finding nobody ready to fight, we were ordered back to camp, having been absent six days.
    The country over which we passed is mountainous in the extreme. The road, which is a splendid one considering the rough nature of the country, literally skips from hilltop to hilltop, giving the traveler a splendid view of the surrounding country: the great ocean on the west, and the towering snow-capped mountains on the north and east. Very little timber is to be seen after leaving Smith's River, and the land is entirely worthless for agricultural purposes except for grazing in some few places. Game, however, is quite abundant: we killed several as fine fat deer as I ever saw. For the last four weeks the weather has been very fine, and our winter quarters are now nearly completed.
The Indians.
    It being reported that more Indians had left the Reservation. Major Curtis sent a scouting party in pursuit, but failed to obtain any traces of them. The Indians on the Reservation are said to be badly fed, and almost destitute of clothing and blankets. They cannot be much blamed for running away.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, November 25, 1862, page 1

    NEW PAPER.--We have received the first number of the Oregon Intelligencer, published at Jacksonville, by W. G. T'Vault, editor and proprietor. So it seems that our old friend T'Vault "still lives." His first sheet looks well and reads well, and if he sticks up to the policy announced in his salutatory, we wish him success.
Oregonian, Portland, November 27, 1862, page 2

    TURK IS DEAD.--This faithful old dog, known to nearly every person in Southern Oregon by his many canine virtues, gave his last kick and uttered his last unavailing whine amid the frosty stillness of Friday night. He came to this valley in '51 in company with his master, who shortly afterwards perished in his cabin, with no watchers save his faithful dog. Before his remains could be prepared for interment, so determined was the resistance of his faithful "Turk" that the dog had to be lassoed and confined. Turk passed through all the Indian wars in Southern Oregon, and done excellent service as a sentinel. Many an arrow and many a bullet directed by the keen eye of savage furies has old Turk escaped. When Turk's various masters followed packing, he always stayed with the mules at night--herded them, prevented their straying off, and always gave timely alarm when danger approached. Many a thousand dollars' worth of property has his watchfulness saved. Admired by all for his many good qualities and for his valuable services, all were his friends. But he has gone to his long home, and no doubt has passed to dog heaven. Turk being dead, the Hon. James Clugage is now the oldest inhabitant of the town.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 29, 1862, page 2

    THE OREGON INTELLIGENCER.--This is the name of a new candidate for public favor, started at Jacksonville, Oregon, under the control of W. G. T'Vault. The typographical appearance is exceedingly neat, while its columns are well filled with news, local and foreign. The editor in his salutatory says:
    "The Constitution of the United States shall be our political platform; it has been and still is the great charter of our Union and liberties; by it we have lived; by it the Union has prospered, and under its wise and liberal provisions the citizens of the United States have enjoyed the greatest of human blessings in the form of government."
    The Intelligencer has our best wishes for a liberal support and long life.
Eugene Democratic Register, November 29, 1862, page 2

    NEWS.--"The Lalake Indians are creating some disturbance in Butte Creek Valley, California. Major Drew has sent a force there to keep them in check."--Statesman.
    We publish the above for the benefit of the people of Southern Oregon. We would also gently hint to our cotemporary that Butte Creek Valley is in Jackson County, Oregon. We are not certain but that we shall, on some future occasion, write a learned mathematical and geographical essay, demonstrating conclusively where the southern boundary of Oregon is. We will only say, at the present time, that Jackson, Josephine, Coos, Curry and Douglas counties are all in Oregon. The Siskiyou Mountains is the southern boundary, and not the Calapooia, as some ignorantly suppose. There is said to be, at the distance of twenty-five or thirty miles east of this valley, a large basin of fertile land. Travelers who have ventured into that unknown region have given it the name of the Klamath Lake country. They say that there are two very large lakes there, and many rich and extensive valleys. The Indians are represented as hostile. Any information our northern cotemporaries can give us as to their manners, customs, habits and dispositions will be thankfully received and duly appreciated here. We will only add that the force sent by Major Drew over into California to check the Indians accomplished their mission in fine style. They not only "checked" the Indians, but they "croppered" them!
Oregon Sentinel,
Jacksonville, December 15, 1862, page 2

    FATAL STABBING AFFRAY.--A man by the name of William Riley fatally stabbed A. C. Humphreys, on Saturday evening last, at Kanaka Flat, some two miles from this town. The deed was perpetrated in a drinking and gambling saloon. Humphreys died about three o'clock on Monday morning. The blade of the knife was near six inches long. It struck on the right side of the abdomen, between the lower ribs and the groin, and penetrated through the intestines and entirely severed what the physicians call the "internal iliac vein." The circumstances of the case, as narrated to us, are briefly these: There was a heterogeneous gathering of Kanakas, negroes, white men and squaws, at the saloon, and gambling, dancing and drinking were the furor of the hour. Riley came in a little before ten o'clock, and in passing around through the crowd towards the fire, passed by where Humphreys was sitting on a bench, and intentionally or accidentally stepped on his foot. Humphreys accused Riley of doing it intentionally. Riley told him he might think as he pleased about it. A quarrel ensued; Humphrey struck Riley in the face with his fist, and Riley stabbed him as above. Riley has been committed to jail for trial. He is of medium height, thick set and rather forbidding in his personal appearance. It is said that Riley has served a term in the institution at Portland which, in punning language, is called a States Prison. The deceased has been about this place since 1858.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 15, 1862, page 3
  Riley was pardoned in 1867.

    DISAPPEARANCE.--The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel has received a letter from a correspondent at Browntown, Josephine County, from which it makes the following extract concerning the disappearance of an expressman well known in Southern Oregon and Northern California:
    "George M. Cornwall, an old expressman, well known as 'Portland George,' has mysteriously disappeared. The last that was seen of him was upon Althouse Creek, in the afternoon of November 21st, near the claim of Trimby & Co. He is supposed to have attempted to cross the mountain to Waldo, and, being lost, perished during the cold nights of that period. A fruitless search has been made for him. Any information of him would be thankfully received here. Mr. Cornwall was from Portland, Maine, and had been a expressman here ever since 1852."
"Oregon Items," Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, December 19, 1862, page 2

    JACKSONVILLE, Dec. 17th--Wm. Riley fatally stabbed A. C. Humphreys at Kanaka Flat, two miles from this town. The deed was perpetrated in a gambling saloon. Riley has been committed to jail. Rich quartz has been struck again in Gold Hill, near the old lead, the extent of which is not yet ascertained.
"Oregon Items," Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, December 19, 1862, page 3

    ARREST OF A SECESHER.--A man by the name of Dunlap was arrested by Sergeant Moreton, of Co. C, at Phoenix, in this county, on Christmas, for hurrahing for Jeff. Davis, drinking to the arch-traitor's health, and denouncing the government. He was taken to Camp Baker and asked to take the oath of allegiance. Refusing to comply with the request, he was, we are informed, put into the guardhouse. Served him right. Quite an excitement was the consequence of this little episode.

Oregon Sentinel,
Jacksonville, December 27, 1862, page 3

    A MAN named William Riley stabbed A. C. Humphreys on the 11th inst. in a drinking saloon at Kanaka Flat, about two miles from Jacksonville. The Sentinel says Humphreys died on the 13th, and Riley was committed to jail.

State Republican, Eugene, Oregon, December 27, 1862, page 2

By Fred Lockley
    "When we lived on Bear Creek, in the early '60s," said Mrs. Flora Katherine Watt when I interviewed her at her home in Salem recently, "the school teacher, Miss Amarantha Burt, boarded at our home. Father took up a place on Bear Creek in the fall of 1854. Jacksonville was our nearest post office. Today a suburb of Medford occupies our old farm. I think I am probably one of the oldest students of any Medford school, for I started to school when I was 5 years old. Miss Amarantha Burt was my teacher. She later married a man named Nye.
    "From our farm on Bear Creek we moved to a place near Gold Hill. I was married to James W. Watt at Jacksonville on May 21, 1878. T. B. Kent, justice of the peace, performed the marriage ceremony. My husband was born at Salem, Or., on April 26, 1854, and was the son of Joseph Watt. My husband was a farmer and stock raiser. For the first nine years of our married life we lived on Howell Prairie. Our first child, Sarah Inez, was born on December 30, 1879. Elbert Parker, the next child, was born on December 12, 1883; Genevieve on August 5, 1888; Alma on March 18, 1890, and Gladys Oneta on March 19, 1892. All of my children are dead except my daughter Alma. She married Glen Chessman. They live in Los Angeles.
    "It is curious how names will go down in a family. My father's name was James Patch Parker. My grandfather's name was Timothy Parker. Timothy Parker, my grandfather, married Sophia Patch on February 19, 18[illegible]. My father was the fifth of their nine children. My brother Curtis was named Curtis Patch Parker. In the families of almost all of the descendants of my grandfather, Timothy Parker, you will find at least one child whose middle name is Patch. My grandfather was descended from Thomas Parker, who sailed from England on March 11, 1635, in a colony organized by Sir Richard Saltonstall, whose son, Richard, had come to New England in 1630. This colony came to America on the ships Susan and Ellen.
    "When I was a little tot, 4 years old, I went into John Love's hardware store in Jacksonville. This was in 1862. He said, 'Sis, what would you like?' I pointed to a tin biscuit cutter, but he laughed and said, 'I'll get you something better than that,' and he went into the back room and brought out for me a little tin bucket that he had made. When I started to school, at the age of 5, Mother let me carry my lunch in this little tin bucket. I was so proud of it that Mother warned me about sinful pride in one's possessions. I still have that little bucket. Here it is. John Love married the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George W. Harris. My parents lived not far from the Harris ranch.
    "In the fall of 1855 the Indians went on the warpath. David Harris, who was about 10 years old, was out in the field. The Indians captured him and killed T. A. Reed, who was working on the Harris ranch. Mr. Harris saw the Indians and started for the house, but as he reached the door he was shot through the body. Mrs. Harris, who, with her little girl, 12 years old, was in the house, dragged him inside the house and closed the door. Mary, her 12-year-old daughter, was wounded in the arm. Mr. Harris, with a rifle and a double-barreled shotgun, kept the Indians at bay. Her husband died about an hour after he had been wounded. Whenever the Indians came close to the house Mrs. Harris fired at them. That night she took her daughter, Mary, and they hid in the brush. The volunteers from Jacksonville rescued them the next day.
    "There were plenty of tragedies in those days. Mrs. Harris never learned what became of her son, David. Mother told me of another neighbor of hers in Southern Oregon who was married in the '50s, and who after she had been married about a year and a half was doing the washing one day. She had a baby girl. The baby was fretful. The mother had to quit her work several times to care for the baby. Finally she said, rather impatiently, 'I wish I didn't have a baby. You make a lot of work for me.' She finished her washing, put it out on the line, and when she came back to the house the baby was gone. She saw the tracks of an Indian's moccasins, leading away from the house. She grieved so over the loss of her baby, and over what she had said, that I suppose her mind gave way. In any event, she killed herself.
    "One day a man named Davidson went to the justice of the peace in that district and said, 'Squire, I want a warrant for the arrest of Mr. Meacham, here, for assault and battery.' The justice of the peace was just leaving the house. He said, 'Come tomorrow.' 'I can't,' said Davidson, 'I'm going to a house-raising.' Turning to Meacham, the justice of the peace said, 'Did you hit Davidson?' Meacham answered, 'Yes.' Turning to Davidson the squire said, 'Did you hit Meacham first?' Davidson said, 'No.' Turning to Meacham, the squire said, 'Would you rather work for Davidson three days for nothing, or go to jail for three days?' "I'd rather for for three days,' said Meacham.' 'All right; that's my decision,' said the squire. 'I'm on my way down to the clearing, where my dog has treed a bear and its cubs. Be on your way. Court's adjourned.'"
Oregon Journal, Portland, June 2, 1934, page 4

Last revised December 3, 2023