The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Jackson County News: 1856
See also my pages on the 1855-56 Rogue River Indian war.

From the Crescent City Herald, Jan., 1856.
    The following account of a murder and lynching at Riley's ranch, Illinois Valley, on Dec. 23, 1855, was received: "A sad affair took place today at Riley's ranch. Standing near the campfire, and in the act of lighting his pipe, Mr. Alex. Williamson was stabbed with a knife by a Spaniard, and it is thought that he cannot survive till morning. Mr. Williamson's brother and another man stood by when the deed was committed, but it was done so quick that they could not prevent it. Having given his victim three thrusts of the knife in the abdomen, the Spaniard attempted to escape, but was soon overtaken. The miners and citizens of the valley, upon being called together, were so exasperated that the general cry was, hang him! and in less than half an hour after committing the deed he was hung. Every man said it was a foul and unprovoked murder, and there was no use for a trial. The Spaniard was then asked what he had to say. His answer was, that he had been told Mr. Williamson intended to murder him, which he tried to prevent. He then abused those present and showed much indifference about his own fate." Mr. Williamson was a packer of very kindly and honorable disposition, and was never known to have had any quarrel with this Spaniard. His untimely death is very much regretted in this city where he was well known. He died on Christmas morning, was about 28 years old and came from the state of Indiana.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, June 10, 1893, page 1

    THE JACKSON COUNTY ELECTION.--Contrary to our expectations, Gen. Miller was beaten for the council. John E. Ross, Whig, or K.N., was elected by a vote of 305 to 181 for Miller. We have not heard the particulars, but we think that Gen. Miller was deserted by a portion of the Democrats. Is it not a little singular that in these war times, the patriotic Know Nothings should have brought out a candidate? Oh, hypocrisy! The Know Nothings are opposed to "party" when out of power, or in the minority, but uncompromisingly in favor of it where they are in power, or in the majority.
    The election for representative resulted in the election of Hale, Democrat. He received 307, and T'Vault 132.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 1, 1856, page 2

    STERLING is a pretty little mining town, situate about eight miles from Jacksonville, on one of the tributaries of Applegate River. Sterling gold diggings were discovered about the 1st of June 1854. This village has grown beyond all precedent--containing a population of five or six hundred--amongst whom are some of the most energetic and enterprising spirits in the country, well calculated to build up a town and keep matters and things ahead.--Table Rock Sentinel.

Crescent City Herald, January 9, 1856, page 2

    By this you will see that the work of death continues, and that too within the confines of the town of Jacksonville, and upon every trail and road south. All business has stopped and almost closed, except that on the part of the [federal Military and Indian] Departments. Communication has stopped between different points, except that which is performed on the main road by expressmen, and the army, in short the country generally, has been desolated by the existence and continuance of this war. The army south is without supplies, without clothing, without ammunition, and almost, if not quite entirely without the faintest prospect of receiving for a long time to come, the actual and necessary supplies which the army ought to have at this moment. The office at Jacksonville is without supplies, at Deer Creek it is the same, and almost every office is destitute of the means necessary to carry on the war. Yet what is to be done? Every effort has been made by the officers of the Departments to obtain these things from merchants in this section, and have succeeded well, but this source has now dried up.
"Umpqua Correspondence of the Statesman,"
Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 1, 1856, page 2

    THE WINTER IN THE INTERIOR.--During Christmas week, we are informed, Illinois and Rogue River valleys were covered with 18 inches of snow, which afforded fine sleighing, and was taken advantage of by numerous parties. Ice formed in many places a foot thick in a
single night. At Jacksonville parties were busy to lay in a supply for use in the coming summer. At Vannoy's, Rogue River was for several days frozen over from bank to bank, and travelers crossed it on the ice with their animals.
Crescent City Herald, January 16, 1856, page 2

    NEW YEAR AT JACKSONVILLE.--It is reported that "our neighbors over the mountain" had a grand time of it on New Year's Day. Sixty ladies attended a ball at Badgers' for which 116 tickets had been sold at $10 apiece.

Crescent City Herald, January 16, 1856, page 2

    INDIAN DIFFICULTIES IN THE NORTH.--The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel, of the 5th inst., gives the most heart-rending accounts of Indian murders in that region. Whole settlements of men, women and children are indiscriminately butchered in cold blood, and the efforts of the troops have been altogether unavailing thus far in staying their ravages. We hope that the arrival of Col. Wright, who is daily expected with recruits, will put a stop to this wholesale butchery.
    The early settlement of the Colonies scarcely furnishes a parallel to what is occurring in Oregon.
    The Crescent City papers also record acts of similar kinds perpetrated upon the whites, and it is generally thought that a systematic warfare is being waged, in which all the Indians north of this are fully interested, and that the different tribes act in perfect unison with each other.
    A war of extermination is the only remedy we see, and this must necessarily be tedious, expensive and attended with great loss of life, for in all engagements heretofore had, the "man of the forest" has been fully equal to his more enlightened and cultivated antagonist.
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, January 19, 1856, page 3

    SLEIGHING.--The Crescent City Herald is informed that during Christmas week, Illinois and Rogue River valleys were covered with 18 inches of snow, which afforded fine sleighing, and was taken advantage of by numerous parties. Ice formed in many places a foot thick in a single night. At Jacksonville parties were busy to lay in a supply for use in the coming summer. At Vannoy's, Rogue River was for several days frozen over from bank to bank, and travelers crossed it on the ice with their animals.
Sacramento Daily Union, January 23, 1856, page 2

Warren Lodge, No.
[blank] U.D.
NOTICE is hereby given to all regular Masons that the regular Communications of Warren Lodge, No. ---- F.&A.M., U.D., are held in the Masonic Hall, Jacksonville, on the 2nd and 4th Saturdays in each month.
S. H. TAYLOR, Sec'y.
Yreka Weekly Union, January 26, 1856, page 3

Miner Street, Yreka.

All kinds of

Ladies' Goods,

All kinds of clothing, hats, coats and pants of all qualities, boots, shoes and blankets. All kinds of groceries, such as sugar, coffee, tea &c., and all kinds of merchandise generally found in stores in this part of the country, always on hand and for sale at the lowest market rates.
Superfine Flour,
From our "EAGLE MILLS," in Rogue River Valley, always on hand and for sale at the market price.
A large and well-assorted stock of
of the best brands, for sale, wholesale and retail.                THOMAS, BRO. & CO.
Yreka, Nov. 11, 1854.
Yreka Weekly Union, January 26, 1856, page 3

from the

Always on hand and for sale at the brick store of
Miner St., Yreka.
Yreka Weekly Union, January 26, 1856, page 3

From the Crescent City Herald, Feb., 1856.
    J. R. Hale introduced a bill into the legislative assembly of Oregon to divide Jackson County, and form of the southern portion of it, Josephine County.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, June 17, 1893, page 1

    MAILS.--The Jacksonville Sentinel of the 19th ult. complains again of the irregularity or failure of the mails:
    "As usual, we have had no mails this week. Travelers from different directions say, 'No news--nothing of any consequence occurring--nothing doing,' &c. Were it not for Beekman's Express, we should get no information of less than a month old from beyond our valley--and as it is, get nothing later from Oregon. When the express comes in it brings news from Oregon via San Francisco and Yreka in time to publish it in advance of the mails that come direct. The mail has become of no account whatever to the country, and it is not worth while to inquire into its failures."
Crescent City Herald, February 6, 1856, page 2

    Lately the Yreka Union
has ably urged the subject of a division, and the Jacksonville Sentinel (O.T.), under date of the 19th ult., says:
    "The new State of Shasta will be formed. It will not be long before the question will be put whether the country between the Siskiyous and Calapooyas will remain attached to Oregon, or connect itself with Shasta. That question is already virtually before the people. The action of the California Legislature precipitates upon the country the whole subject in such a form that it must be disposed of. The discussion that has commenced will be continued until the question is fully settled. New boundaries are to be formed, and of this region every locality must have the opportunity to decide for itself and choose its relation on its own view of interest."
Crescent City Herald, February 6, 1856, page 2

    JOSEPHINE COUNTY, O.T.--Mr. J. R. Hale introduced a bill into the Legislative Assembly of Oregon to divide Jackson County and form of the southern [sic] part of it Josephine County.

Crescent City Herald, February 6, 1856, page 2

    IMPORTANT TO PACIFIC CORRESPONDENTS.--The Union states that Postmaster General Campbell has adopted a plan for publishing the names of persons to whom letters have been sent to post offices in California and the territories of Washington and Oregon. By this system a letter can be sent to any post office in the Pacific region for a person whose location is utterly unknown, beyond the mere fact that he is somewhere in California or the territories of Oregon and Washington; yet, incredible as it may seem, the ultimate reception of the letter by the person for whom it is intended is rendered highly probable.
Wheeling Daily Intelligencer,
Wheeling, West Virginia, March 4, 1856, page 2

For the Oregonian.   
Letter from Jack Downing, Jr.
Jaxonville [sic], Feb. 20th, 1856.       
    Dear Sir: Mr. Bush has sent me the litle book he has printed about the northern and southern war. It was clever in him, and I spose he sent it with the idee that if he was perty polite I mite rite a kind of puff tu make it sell; but a litary man, I aint to be bamboozled, I'm bound to du my duty and kritisize the book upon its merits.
    Thar seems much inconsistensy betwixt the title and the contents, and I have been at sum loss tu decide whether it was intended tu pas for a histerick romance, or a romantik histery. The name of the book is "Report of the Adjutant General of the Territory of Oregon." Now if it is intended fur a histery it oughtent tu be called a report, fur reports are hardly fit to be put in newspapers let alone histeries. Thar, fur instance, was Wigin's "report of the masacre," and which this same author made a kind of history of, tu make his paper sell, and which turned out to be a hoax, so this cant be a history. Ef it's intended as a pur work of genus or fixin, I don't think he has picked the best man for his hero, and the pilot is jinerally defishent in all of the requisites of beginnin and end. Ef he is tu be konsidered merely as an auther, he ought to be handled purty ruff fur trying to make a hero of Major Billy Martin, when sich men as Kurnel Kelly, Kurnel Ross and me had just cum from the war all kivered with laurels and lice. But I intended tu make a book about all this myself.
    Mr. Bush, unfortunately fur a riter of history, has no fax to comment on which reflect any credit on his politikle frends, and he dont chuse tu menshun his enemies in the same book fur fear of kontrast; fur Mr. Bush is a "loriate," that is he is payed fur riten and prayzen the goverment just as Tenison is in England, and of korse it wodent du fur him tu menshun Kelly, as that would be prayzen him, fur he went aginst the guverment in makin a law haf a yard long, just tu get two or three Whigs out of their places, and as fur Kurnel Ross and me, we were out and out Whigs, and it wodent du no how to print our names in a Democratic book.
    The object of the work as near as I can se is to make a hero of Major Billy Martin. The natrel history of his compane is put in the middle of the book betwixt a list of killed and wounded on wun side, to make it look bloody, just as an Indian paints his face before goin tu battle; and a string of orders on the other tu make it look dignified; just as Lawyer Squirt used to wear a quill behind each ear. Billy Martin drest up this way reminds me of an injun I saw down on Roge River dressed up in a blew broad cloth claw-hammered kote, and a tall crown hat like yu and I used to wear; he was strutten round so pompus that he leaned back, and when he cum up lookin orfully grand, and I codent have helped lafin rite out if Id node hed tomahawked me the next minit; he was dredful rathy, and I codent make him understand no how that a man looked funny even with such a good kote and hat on, providen he hadent no britches. Now a gang of naked injuns would scarsely draw our attenshun, but when sum of them puts on beaver hats, and claw-hammered kotes, we perseve he is naked. Bush when he put his hero betwixt that list of killd and wounded, and that string of ginnaral orders, dident desine we spose to make him the lafin stock like that injun. So much for the way our awther has made his hero look. Now let us see how far he has made his acshuns and words corespond with his figer, fur this is an important pint in considerin the merits of a riter of fixshun; and here we must do the credit to acknowledge that he has made his hero so consistent that we hav almost thawt Billy Marting was a trew karacter, and that the report was his Awtybigraphy edited by Bush. He is very akurate in his list of forces, which we spose was in imitashun of Homers list of ships, which we kriticks tawk so much about. He also is particular about dates. On the hole, the preperations in its minusha wil kumpare favorably with that of the "Iliad" previous to the sege of Troy. And Billy talks like a book about how he marched thru the medows, over mountings and logs, and them brush and bryers, tarin thar hans and klose; in the language of the Major, "determined to push forard tu the pint, notwithstanding the shortness of our supplies, for tu resons: the hope of soon faling in with the injuns, and the surance of our gides that an abundance of gras wood be found thar fur our animals." And we see him pushin on in spite of every difficulty till they cum to the enemy sure enuf; when they held a konsil just like Agamemnon king of the Greex did, and desided all the detales of the fite, hu wuz to be on the rite and hu on the left. After redin all about what the Major wuz goin tu du, and seein the masterly disposition of his 432 men; how Bruce wuz to kros Roge River belo, with Williams' kumpany on his rite, an Kuny on his left, tu turn the injines left flank; an how Capting Judy wuz to bring his kannon to bare on the injines from a pint opposite, whilst the Major himself wuz tu kros under the kiver of the kannun, and turn the rite flank, thus completely hemin them in. After redin all this I say the reders admiration has richt the highest pint, an he is in lew with the hero who has got all his savage foe in his power by his sientifick manuverin, and is goin to end the war by killin the last wun of them insted of letin them go as the Whig Kurnel Ross did the same injines, with his 324 men without any kannon.
    Ef the remainder of the wark was equal to this, it wood be a thrillin book, but here Bush's genus druped her wing, and in kumpany with his hero ritched a "krisis" and sum move wuz to be made, and be made quickly; either tu make another attempt tu dislog the enemy, or retire tu sum pint in retch of supplies. "And besides he now diskivers: 1st, That tha hav but three days grub. 2nd, It looks like rain. 3rd, They had furgot thar tents and kamp ekwipage in thar hurry to git in the fite. 4th, The men were tyred. 5th, They hadent enuf blankets. 6th, Theyd worn out thar shoes." And no dout notwithstandin all this he would have done what he sed he wood, but fur the humane and sojer-like konsideration that tu du it, "under the most favorable sirkumstances, and with the greatest posable suksess that we kood anticipate, wood in any event thro upon our hands from 50 to 75 wounded men. The transport then akrost the mountains wuz imposible."
    I used to no an old maide hu was dredful nice about a little dirt. Wun day she got her finger all nasty, and after reflectin a good deal she konkluded to kut it off, so she lade it on the block and razen the hatchet, and no dout she would have done it, ef she hadent of thawt as she wus goin to strike, how bloody it wood look, and how it wood hurt; the konsequence wuz, a cold chil run over her, and she klapped the nasty finger into her mouth. So with our hero, after marchin four days, and maken all the preparation necessary tu exterminate the injins, he sudenly remembered that sum body might get hurt, and so he marches back home again.
Oregonian, Portland, April 19, 1856, page 1

    TROOPS FOR OREGON.--A reinforcement to the troops in Oregon left on the Columbia for Oregon on Wednesday, which are thus classed by the Evening News:
    Lieut. Col. Buchanan, 4th Infantry--to take command in Southern Oregon.
    Maj. Garnett, 9th Infantry--commanding detachment of recruits.
    Capts. Cram, Topographical Engineers; Ingalls, Assistant Quarter Master; Patterson, Pickett and Woodruff, of the 9th Infantry; and Assistant Surgeon Milhau.
    Lieuts. Bonnycastle and Arnold, Aides-de-Camp; Wendell, Topographical Engineers; and Black, 9th Infantry.
    Capt. Ord and Lieut. Shaw, with seventy men, 3rd Artillery, are to land from the Columbia at Crescent City; and forty-seven recruits on board are for Maj. Reynolds' company at Fort Orford. There are also men, thirty recruits, on board for the companies of the 4th Infantry at Fort Jones and Crescent City--making in all about one hundred and fifty, rank and file.
    In addition to these troops we learn that Maj. Wyse has been ordered with his company, about fifty strong, to Fort Lane. Some seventy of Maj. Garnett's command will remain at the Presidio until the next steamer.
Sacramento Daily Union, March 7, 1856, page 2

    THE NORTHERN MAIL ROUTE.--A few days since Judge [Frank] Tilford, of the [California State] Senate, introduced joint resolutions instructing our Senators &c. to urge upon Congress and the Postmaster General the importance of establishing a daily mail route from Shasta to the capital of Oregon, passing in its route Yreka, in this state, and Jacksonville, Canyonville and Winchester, in Oregon. The San Francisco News gives the following as the distances from point to point on the route:
    "From Shasta City to Yreka is one hundred and ten miles, from Yreka to Jacksonville fifty miles, from thence to Marysville two hundred and fifty miles--making in all four hundred miles."
    The military road, to build which Congress appropriated $50,000, and which, it is reported, has been nearly expended, will prove an important link in the chain, and for fear Congress may not act in the matter, would it not be advisable for the Legislature to do something towards starting the ball for this mail line and stage road? Make a reasonable appropriation, and the public will endorse by their votes the act. A direct stagecoach road from Shasta to the capital of Oregon is a matter of vital interest to the people of North California and Oregon, and we hope Senator Tilford will press its consideration.
Sacramento Daily Union, March 12, 1856, page 2

    THE ROGUE RIVER WAR.--The Herald extracts the following item from the Jacksonville Sentinel, of 15th inst.
    "We are informed that Gen. Lamerick has had scouts scouring the mountains to find the locality of the Indians. A few days since, Capt. James Barnes, with a party of scouts, discovered a large band of Indians at the Big Bend on Cow Creek. It was the general impression that George, Limpy and their warriors had joined the Cow Creek Indians. A detachment from the companies of Captains Latshaw and Kelsay was immediately sent out to attack the Indians. Col. Martin was ordered to the north of the canon to take a part of Captains Buoy's and Sheffield's companies, and proceed to the Big Bend on Cow Creek to the assistance of Capt. Latshaw. It is confidentially believed that, before this, a severe engagement has taken place, as Capt. Latshaw sent in an express for more men, which was promptly attended to by Maj. Bruce ordering out all the available force, only leaving sufficient to guard the road, having, previous to receiving the messenger from Capt. Latshaw, ordered some sixty of the battalion to the assistance of Capt. O'Neil, who was in pursuit of John's Indians in the mountains between Illinois and Applegate."
Sacramento Daily Union, April 2, 1856, page 1

Preamble, Resolutions and Bylaws of the Sterling, Jacksonville and Applegate Water Ditch Company.
    We, the undersigned, hereby agree to form ourselves into a company, to be called "The Sterling, Jacksonville and Applegate Water Ditch Company," for the purpose of conveying the waters of Applegate Creek to Sterling and Jacksonville, for mining and such other purposes as we may think proper. Therefore,
    Resolved, That the name and style of our company shall be the Sterling, Jacksonville and Applegate Water Ditch Company.
    Resolved, That the stock of the company shall consist of twenty shares to be divided equally among twenty subscribers.
    ART. 1. Each and every subscriber shall be a bona fide stockholder, and every stockholder shall represent his own share in the company, provided said stockholder is an able-bodied and good working man, who shall be approved by the Foreman of said company, and if said stockholder shall not be approved by said Foreman, then said stockholder shall furnish a man who shall be approved by said Foreman.
    ART. 2. No stockholder shall hold more than one share of stock; neither shall a stockholder hold stock in the name of another person, and no stock shall be transferred without a vote of a majority of the stockholders.
    ART. 3. A majority shall have power to call a meeting whenever they think proper.
    ART. 4. Every stockholder on joining the company shall furnish himself with two good picks with handles for the use of the company.
    ART. 5. All monies that may be required for carrying on the work of the company shall be raised by equal assessment from the stockholders.
    ART. 6. Each and every stockholder shall conform to the established working hours that may be decided upon by a majority of the stockholders, and should any stockholder neglect or refuse to conform to the established working hours for six consecutive days, said stockholder so offending may be expelled from the company and forfeit his interest in the same.
    ART. 7. Should any stockholder wish to withdraw from the company, he shall give the remaining stockholders the preference to purchase his stock in the name of the company, and should the remaining stockholders not desire to purchase his stock, he may then sell to any other person he pleases, provided the person to whom he sells shall be approved by a majority of the remaining stockholders.
    ART. 8. As soon as the company is ready for work, they shall proceed to select from among themselves a suitable person to act as Foreman, who shall hold his office at the will of the stockholders.
    ART. 9. It shall be the duty of the Foreman to take charge of the work in progress, to keep a correct account of the labor performed and he shall report any neglect on the part of the stockholders to perform their equal share of labor; also, such other matters as he may deem of interest to the company; said Foreman shall not, however, be exempt from labor in consequence of his office.
    ART. 10. No stockholder shall absent himself from the works of the company for more than three consecutive days, without giving satisfactory reasons for such absence; and should any stockholder absent himself for a period of three consecutive days and refuse, or be unable to give satisfactory reasons for such, said stockholder so offending may forfeit his interest in the company and be expelled from said company.
    ART. 11. Should any stockholder be in arrears for labor, occasioned by unavoidable absence or sickness, said stockholder shall furnish a man as soon as possible to make up for such arrears; and should any stockholder refuse to furnish a man when his arrears amount to more than three days, said stockholder may forfeit his interest in the company and shall be expelled from the same.
    ART. 12. No stock shall be purchased by any of the stockholders save in the name of the company, and all stock so purchased shall be held jointly by the remaining stockholders.
    ART. 13. Every stockholder shall have the power of being represented by proxy.
    ART. 14. The company will be bound for such an amount of provisions or other articles as they may give orders for, through their Foreman, and the stock of the company shall be bound for said amount to all persons receiving such orders, until such indebtedness is paid.
    ART. 15. The company will not be responsible for any debts made by the individual members of the company, nor for any debts of the company except such as arise from orders of the Foreman.
    ART. 16. All the company debts will be paid as soon as funds arise from the sale of water after the ditch is completed to Sterling, or sooner if at the option of the company.
F. M. Good, J. S. Tofflemire,
E. B. Ball, Geo. W. Reed,
Dan'l. Riggles, Isaac N. Knight,
Wm. Jones, Jas. Hendricks,
A. T. Johnson.
Sterling, Jackson County, O.T.,
    Feb. 11th 1856.
Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, March 22, 1856, page 1

For the Statesman.       
Roseburg, March 18, 1856.       
    Editor Statesman--For want of time and opportunity I have not written to you as often as I desired, but now as a citizen I will commence unfolding a few of the many mysteries which seem to arrest the considerations of political enemies, and I want my enemies to understand, once [and] for all, I hold myself responsible for any assertion found over my signature, and can be found, ready, able and willing to be consulted either at this place or Winchester. It will be remembered that the highest position I have held in the army has been Lt. Col. subservient to a Col. prejudiced and persuaded by a clique of uncompromising Know-Nothings. However, in justice to Col. Williams, I will say, had he discharged his duties unpersuaded, the condition of affairs would have been different. I have obeyed his orders on all occasions, which his reports will show, but for political aggrandizement it appears that G. Greenwood, Jr. has made a public endeavor to saddle me with all deference of military actions.
    I hope the Statesman will pardon me, likewise its numerous readers, for even briefly replying to the Oregonian communicant, headed Douglas County, O.T., Feb. 14, 1856.
    It may appear, and I admit it is unqualified fallacy for me to notice such epithets; still I intend to investigate some things that may not eventually prove conducive to K.N. interests.
    Mr. Greenwood, allow me, sir, to brand you as a liar whose tarnished veracity is only equalled by your cowardice. "Col. Martin is the cause why the Indians were not whipped at the Meadows." Subject to counsel, Capt. Judah of the regular forces presided, and it was agreed to withdraw for want of supplies, from the Meadows, by Majs. Bruce and Martin, Capts. Williams, Buoy, Alcorn, Rice, Wilkinson and Keeney. Still I was the cause why the Indians were not whipped. "I learn that Col. M. has given an order that no man should proceed with their companies who was not under his command." Such is false, as a public exposition of my orders will show in future.
    I, too, was the cause of the Indians not being whipped at the Big Bend of Cow Creek. I was not there myself, but the commands of Capts. Chapman, Bailey and Gordon and Lieut. Noland were, and by counsel the affair terminated as it did.
    "Why it can be proven that he said this was the first time he ever got a chance to bleed Uncle Sam, and he intended to make good use of it." I dare him upon half-way ground, if he is anything in the shape of a gentleman, to prove it, or to make the statement in my presence.
    "Who is Col. Martin? Why, he is a traitor to our country, and he is a man that would build up a few on the ruins of many." My former life, as my present, has been a public one, to some extent. Let my neighbors and my constituents answer.
    "Two-thirds of the people in the south and nearly the whole army are against him, and have sent petitions to the Governor for his removal." If two-thirds are Know-Nothings of the Drewed order, I don't doubt it, nor would I desire it otherwise.
    "It is probable that they will be routed in a short time, as we have a new company in the field commanded by Edward Sheffield, and also several independent companies, ready to start in a few days to give battle to the Indians." There never have been any independent companies numbering over ten fireside fighters who wanted to be supported by the government and stay at home. Capt. Sheffield has a company from Douglas. I hope he may, as a military man, gain for himself laurels that he will never find in K.N. associations.
W. J. MARTIN.       
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 8, 1856, page 1

    THE GRASSHOPPERS AGAIN.--Fears continue to he expressed in the north that the country is likely to be again overrun by these pests. They have, says the Yreka Union of May 3rd, already begun to make their appearance in great numbers in some localities, and unless the late cold rains have the effect of killing them off, they will destroy the larger part of the crops in Rogue River Valley, and prove a serious injury to our farmers in this courtly. It will be recollected that nearly all the crops in the vicinity of Table Rock were destroyed by these unwholesome visitors last year.
Placer Herald, Auburn, California, May 10, 1856, page 3

    On the 12th May, Mr. A. G. Rockfellow to Miss Sarah B. Myers, all of Jackson County, O.T.
New York Herald, May 17, 1856, page 1

Letter from Oregon.
    The following letter from our Oregon correspondent represents the unhappy condition the settlers of that territory are driven to in consequence of Indian hostilities; also refers to the position of the pro-slavery Democrats to make it a slave state:
Cow Creek Valley, Douglas Co.
    Oregon, April 1st, 1856.
Editor Hornellsville Tribune,
    Sir--We are on the eve of an election for or against a convention to form a constitution for a state government, as per act of the Legislative Assembly of Oregon. It is a leading measure of the Democratic pro-slavery party in this Territory, in hopes to make it a slave state before the repeal by Congress of the Kansas and Nebraska act. The reasons urged for a state government are the "dignified position" of a state, a vote in Congress, and the donation of 500,000 acres of land whenever it becomes a state, while the real reason is to hurry it in as a slave state. Tomorrow will tell the tale, so far as the convention is concerned. Many of the best informed think it will become a slave state.
    The war is no nearer a close than six months ago. In five battles in Southern Oregon the Indians have been victorious. The settlement at the mouth of Rogue River is a mass of smoking ruins. Capt. ----- of the regulars was defeated, with a loss of 26 men killed (number of wounded unknown). The command of Capt. Smith of Ft. Lane fared still worse in the Illinois Valley a few days since, and a company of volunteers (south side of Rogue River) a few days since, with the loss of an entire pack train, and 40 of their saddle horses.
    Jacksonville is menaced by 250 warriors. In short, the Indians have it all their own way in the field. Gen. Wool has spent the winter in a state of "masterly inactivity," while the Indians have been killing, burning and plundering. More than 300 of the whites have been killed and wounded, and some few women and children taken captive. Immense quantities of ammunition have fallen into the hands of the Indians, and there is no probability of the Indians being subdued and peace restored, at least for a year to come. The regulars are totally unequal to the task, and a force of 10,000 men are required to give security to the Territory. The agricultural and mining interests of Southern Oregon are suffering immensely. No man dare work in his field unarmed. There is no safety in traveling, even with an armed escort. Cattle and horses are not safe outside of a fort. The war debt already reaches $2,000,000. Cascade City fell into the hands of the enemy, who took large quantities of government stores. Rumor says it has been retaken.
    I am sorry I cannot give dates [i.e., copies of newspapers], but news coming by express riders passes through so many hands it is difficult to obtain them. I fear Gen. Wool's Mexican laurels will degenerate into Oregon willows before the "sere leaf of autumn again denotes a winter's coming reign."
    The prospect is good for millions of grasshoppers this summer. Health of the country is good.
I. A. Flint.
Hornellsville Tribune, Hornellsville, New York, July 3, 1856, page 3

From the Crescent City Herald, May, 1856.
    A few days since a party left Jacksonville and vicinity for the Atlantic States with "piles." The party consisted of twenty-one persons and they took with them the sum of $140,000, being the result of several years industry as miners, merchants, mechanics, etc.
    We understand that Col. Buchanan has ordered Maj. Wise to take the field with all his available forces as soon as possible, and to protect the trail leading from this place to Jacksonville. In the event of Maj. Wise not being at Fort Lane, the commanding officer at that point will dispatch whatever force he may have for the same purpose.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, July 8, 1893, page 1

    Pursuant to call, the delegates from the different precincts of Jackson County met at Jacksonville, on the 1st day of May, 1856, James Kilgore being called to the Chair and T. X. Clark appointed Secretary.
    Committee on Credentials--Capts. T. Smith, J. Newcomb and J. F. Miller.
    A call for a speech from Col. W. G. T'Vault was responded to by a few very pertinent and appropriate remarks.
    On motion, Mr. Young was appointed delegate from Sterling.
    On motion, the convention proceeded to vote by ballot.
    Committee on Nominating Candidates--J. F. Miller, W. Songer, Capt. Newcomb, J. C. Duncan, G. B. Davidson and J. McDonough.
    The following candidates were nominated:
    Capt. Thomas Smith.
    Capt. John S. Miller.
    For Representative, jointly with Josephine--A. M. Berry.
    For Sheriff--Thomas Pyle.
    For County Commissioners--Frederick Heber, G. B. Davidson.
    For Assessor--G. T. Vining.
    For Treasurer--David Linn.
    For Superintendent of Schools--Wm. Hoffman.
    County Commissioner for the Ensuing Year--John F. Miller, James Kilgore, G. B. Davidson, L. Zigler and D. S. Kenyon.
    On motion, it was resolved that the proceedings of this meeting be published in the Sentinel.
    On motion, the meeting adjourned.
    T. X. Clark, Secy.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 20, 1856, page 1

    MINING NEWS.--Mr. Brastow, of the Express, says the Shasta Republican, has favored us with some news items from the north. He left Yreka on Monday morning last.
    More than the usual number of travelers are now upon the northern trail. Many are on their way down for the purpose of visiting the Atlantic States, and an equal number are on their way to the Siskiyou mines and Rogue River Valley. At least one hundred footmen were met between Yreka and this place.
    A few days since a party left Jacksonville and vicinity for the Atlantic States, with "piles." The party consisted of twenty-one persons, and they took with them the sum of $140,000, being the result of several years' industry as miners, merchants, mechanics, etc. They passed through this place on Thursday last.
    A sham duel was fought near Yreka on Sunday last. Of course, one party was killed on the first fire, and greeny was compelled to fly for dear life.
    The great Yreka ditch is now delivering a few sluice heads of water on the Yreka Flats. It will be some time before it will be of any general advantage to the miners of that locality.
    Indian troubles no longer exist in any portion of Siskiyou County or the Rogue River country.
    Business is improving in Yreka, population is on the increase, and the late rains have put a considerable amount of gold dust in circulation.
New Orleans Daily Crescent, May 28, 1856, page 1

    THE GRASSHOPPERS AGAIN.--Fears continue to be expressed in the north that the country is likely to be again overrun by these pests. They have, says the Yreka Union of May 3rd, already begun to make their appearance in great numbers in some localities, and unless the late cold rains have the effect of killing them off, they will destroy the larger part of the crops in Rogue River Valley and prove a serious injury to our farmers in this county. It will be recollected that nearly all the crops in the vicinity of Table Rock were destroyed by these unwelcome visitors last year.
Sacramento Daily Union, May 9, 1856, page 2

Jacksonville, O.T., May 8, 1856.        
    A. Bush, Esq.--Sir: The Statesman says that a large number of the votes cast against [a constitutional] convention by the southern regiment were cast by two companies from California, who had no right to vote. This is the idea, and it is true, but those companies acted probably at the time as they thought proper. How it happened was in this way. The election was progressing, when a fellow by the name of Brenan popped up and began to harangue the volunteers; he stated that the Oregonians were a damned mean set, and didn't deserve a state or anything else &c., and finally satisfied his conscience by stating that all he was in the service for was his four dollars a day as a volunteer, and when that ended Oregon might go to h-ll. He felt quite gracious to the great commander of all the armies because he was not of the Walla Walla nation. At the close of his wild effort, his invaluable talent was turned to the voters. The two companies from Yreka had refused to vote in this Territory, but at the instant that a wag named Brenan, "Lawyer" Brenan, gave his opinion upon the act of the Legislature permitting volunteers to vote in the field, and said that all men in the service were entitled to a vote, no matter where they came from &c.; upon which opinion elaborately and ingeniously set forth those companies came in and gave convention a slap in the face. You know now how it was done, and who it is that is responsible. This chap Brenan is a very innocent and harmless youth wherever he is known, a man in whose declaration none but a stranger would place much confidence. The conduct of volunteers from a neighboring state who came into this Territory and voted against a state organization under the circumstances I will leave to their own consciences, for serious and candid disposal.
    Respectfully Yours,
        C. P.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, May 20, 1856, page 3

    THE CROPS IN SISKIYOU.--As a general thing, says the Yreka Union, the wheat and other crops in this county are suffering from drought. The severe nightly frosts which prevailed here in the month of April have so retarded the growth that the absence of rain we fear will prove, in a majority of instances, disastrous. The grasshoppers, we learn, are getting less plentiful than they were a few weeks since, and many of our farmers appear to apprehend no danger from them this season. Judging from present prospects, flour, which is at present plentiful and cheap, will next winter be scarce and high. The war in Rogue River and the dry weather there, we conceive, will have this effect. Miners will do well to consider the matter.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, May 27, 1856, page 2

Indian Troubles in Oregon.
    We learn from Mr. A. Solomon, of this place, who has just returned from Jacksonville, O.T., that the Indians have been driven from the Meadows (Illinois Valley [sic]) and are now dispersed over the country from the Coast to the Rogue River Valley. About eight days since, as Mr. Solomon, in company with two other men, were crossing the Siskiyou Mountains, between Jacksonville and Yreka, they were overtaken by a party of six or eight men who had started to cross the mountains by a new road that had been recently built, when they were attacked by a party of Indians and obliged to turn back, and take the old trail. Fortunately none of the men were killed or wounded by the savages.
    The farmers in the Rogue River Valley were enjoying high hopes of a bountiful harvest this season, but the recent change in the maneuvering of the Indians has blasted all their bright prospects, and nothing but confusion and consternation pervades their minds. All that is thought of is, how shall they escape the avenging hand of the savage foe. The volunteer forces have been disbanded, and the regular Army in service are inadequate to the subduing of the enemy, and protecting the inhabitants. Governments as well as individuals may be guilty of negligence in the performance of a duty until it will ripen into crime. A force, adequate both in numbers and ability, should be sent immediately to the scene of action, that would effectually relieve and rid that portion of our country from this barbarous foe, and still the cries and shrieks of the defenseless women and children from the land.
    The general government has the means and the power to do it, and why not employ them effectually.
Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, May 31, 1856, page 2

From the Crescent City Herald, June, 1856.
    A short time ago a sixty-four-ounce nugget was taken out of a claim on Althouse Creek. This is, we believe, the largest nugget ever found in Oregon.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, July 15, 1893, page 1

Wagon and Stage Road to Yreka.
    One day last week we published the account of a meeting held at Yreka, to consider the subject of a stage road to that place. The meeting was addressed by Mr. A. Bartol, who had gone through from Red Bluffs to Yreka in a buggy, passing by a route to the eastward of Shasta fifty miles, by the lost camp on the emigrant trail, thence north to the crossing of Pit River, where there is now a ferry, and thence northwest to Yreka. This is, we believe, the route contemplated by Col. Freaner, who was, as is supposed, killed by Indians on Pit River in its reconnaissance. It will be seen that it leaves Shasta some fifty miles to the westward; and we observe that the subject is consequently exciting a good deal of interest in that place. It is conceded that this route, which is denominated the Pit River Route, is in point of expense by far the most practicable. It is estimated that $5,000, and perhaps less, would be sufficient to remove all obstructions interposed by nature--in fact by this route there is almost a natural road from Red Bluffs to Yreka. The great object urged against it is, however, its length--which is estimated by some at not less than two hundred miles, and by others at two hundred and thirty-five miles. Some persons contend that for forty miles of this road there is snow on the ground five months in the year, and that it is about Pit River very swampy. These representations appear, however, to be somewhat prejudiced.
    There are two other routes more traveled--one to the westward from Shasta, known as the Trinity or Scott River trail, the distance by which is estimated at more than one hundred and fifteen miles; and the other from Shasta along the Sacramento River in a nearly direct line to Yreka, which is variously estimated at from ninety-five to one hundred and fifteen miles. By adding the distance from Red Bluffs to Shasta, forty-two miles, the entire distance from the latter place by either of these routes would be in the neighborhood of one hundred and fifty miles--while by the Pit River route it is not less than two hundred miles.
    The practical question then is between the greater distance by the way of Pit River, and the greater expense of opening the direct road by the Sacramento river. The one would cost $5,000, and the other $50,000. The Shasta Courier, which of course advocates the direct road, in its issue of May 31st, says:
    "We are informed that strong hopes are entertained by certain parties in this town, that a good wagon road can be constructed from here to Yreka by the way of Pittsburgh, the estimated distance of which would be about one hundred and ten miles. From here to Pittsburgh there is already a very good wagon road--distance twenty-five miles. From the Upper Soda Springs to Yreka, the distance is estimated at from forty-five to fifty miles, and is as good a natural wagon road as any in the state. This would leave only thirty-five miles to be explored between Pittsburgh and the Soda Springs.
    "We are also informed that a company will shortly be organized here, for the purpose of testing the matter. We hope they may be successful, as we are satisfied that some shorter road must be found than the one now traveled. Were there a good wagon road connecting the Sacramento Valley with Yreka, we have no doubt it would give us the greater portion of the trade now enjoyed by Crescent City in supplying Southern Oregon and a portion of Siskiyou County. This is a matter that should elicit some attention from the business men of Shasta and Red Bluffs."
Sacramento Daily Union, June 3, 1856, page 2

From the South.
JACKSON CO., O.T., June 1.
    Friend Adams--Believing that a few lines from the South would be interesting to many of your valley readers, I will endeavor in as brief a manner as possible to give you a few items of the day.
    Our situation at present in regard to safety from Indian depredations is critical indeed. The volunteers are all, or very nearly all, disbanded, and the country left in a perilous condition. What will become of us, Heaven only knows. Whether the citizens can maintain their foothold in the country is a question which time alone can determine. The Indians, so far from being whipped, are doubly insolent, since the late unsuccessful attack at the Meadows, which was a perfect failure on our part. The report that 30 or 40 Indians were killed and wounded is all bogus, gotten up to gull the "simple-minded."
    No one in this section attributes the failure to the volunteers. Having been censured on former occasions, they seemed determined this time to make clean work; which they no doubt would have done, if Gen. Lamerick had not been there. The volunteers are loud and strong in their denunciations of the course pursued by the General. Such is the feeling at present that it would be impossible to reorganize a volunteer corps under him. There is only a small force yet in the field, who hold the ground at the Meadows, not more perhaps than 100 men. The regulars are yet somewhere on the coast or on their way up Rogue River. In regard to their late movements we are not posted up, but the country generally expects nothing from them in
the way of Indian fighting. We hear of several pack trains in the Illinois valley, loaded with goods, ammunition, &c., unable to get an escort to guard them on to their destination. Old John wants the ammunition in particular, and it is generally feared that he will get his requisition in before anyone else. When the few remaining volunteers shall have been disbanded, which will be the case as soon as their term of service expires, if the regulars do not come up and act promptly, the farming and mining interests, limited as they are, will be suspended, and people will seek safety in bodies sufficiently large to defend themselves, or evacuate the country.
    In regard to the war, it ought to be prosecuted to a successful termination, and the interests of the people should not be sacrificed to gratify political ambition. That the latter has been done is too true, and deeply do we feel it. If politics had been unknown in the management of this war, and had been looked upon as it ought to be (secondary to the interests of the people), ere this the war would have been successfully terminated; but so far from witnessing such glorious results, nothing but gloomy forebodings o'ershadow us, end the prospect of a lasting peace seems farther off than it did six months ago, and the innocent women and children that may yet be butchered will add to the account that already hangs heavy over the heads of tome of the political functionaries who rule with a rod of iron the destinies of this devoted country. There will be a day of reckoning, and a just retribution will in due time he meted out to them.
    I have been familiar with all the short turns they have taken to carry out their nefarious schemes of partisan policy, to the great detriment of the public good, and at no distant day some of the deeds of darkness may come to light; but it becomes us to refrain at the present time, at least until our accounts are audited at Washington, or an appropriation shall be made, to save the country from bankruptcy, to pay the volunteer (in part, at least) for his privation and suffering under all the adverse circumstances that bad management could throw around him, and also the farmers of our valley who have so liberally furnished supplies. Our cause is a noble one--it is a struggle for our homes and our firesides, and not, as has been slanderously reported of us, a disposition to exterminate the Indians. If the latter should be the final result, it will be but the common issue of war.
    Notwithstanding the dangers that threaten us, the political parties have held their conventions and made their nominations, and the election of all the civil officers is to take place. But there is not as much enthusiasm manifested as on other occasions.
    The spring has been unusually wet. Notwithstanding the grasshoppers are very numerous and threaten to do considerable mischief, the crops, though limited, look very promising. If there should be an influx of people into the mining districts this fall and winter, there will be a scarcity of bread, unless it is brought from abroad. But unless the Indian difficulties are suppressed before that time, there will be more people leave the country than will come into it. At present we believe there is an abundant supply of bread to last until harvest. Flour is worth $4 per hundred, and beef 10 cents a pound, on foot 12 and 15, at retail.
    Yours,        A SETTLER.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, June 14, 1856, page 2

    In Jackson County, O.T., June 5th, Mr. J. R. TICE to MISS MARGARET WRIGHT.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 21, 1856, page 2

Later from Oregon.
    THE ELECTION.--We have received the Jacksonville (O.T.) Sentinel, of the 7th June, which contains some news not heretofore published: Jackson and Douglas counties have elected the entire Democratic tickets. In Douglas, Aaron Rose is elected Representative by six majority. In Jackson County there were about 700 votes polled. There were three tickets, and the Democratic majority overall was about 120 votes. The Whig ticket was next, and the Republican candidates for the various offices polled from 17 to 30 votes.
    The following are the principal officers elected: Joint Representative, A. M. Berry; Representatives, John S. Miller, Thos. Smith; Sheriff, T. Pyle; Probate Judge, N. D. Smith; Treasurer, David Linn; Assessor, J. Q. Tabor; Commissioners, F. Heber and G. B. Davidson. Corvallis received a majority for county seat.
    MINING.--Miller & Co., on the left-hand fork of Jackson Creek, with four hands, had taken out $200 a day. A visitor with a pick, one day, accidentally turned up a ten-dollar lump, and in working the spot in fifteen minutes nearly $300 were obtained. At the Sterling mines, Star Gulch, Palmer's Creek and Applegate, the miners are represented to be doing well.
    THE WEATHER.--Previous to the 7th, the weather had been cool, and within two weeks much rain had fallen. The Sentinel remarks:
    "It is thought by some that the wet weather will retard the growth of the grasshopper and cause them to be less destructive. The rains will hasten the oats crops to ripen, and the farmers will be able to harvest them before the grasshoppers are large enough to do any harm."
Sacramento Daily Union, June 21, 1856, page 3

We were shown a letter the other day from Mr. Cohen, written to his partner, Mr. Simonsfeld, of this city, from Althouse Creek, O.T., in which he states that a sixty-four-ounce nugget was taken out of a claim opposite their store, on that creek, a few days since. This is, we believe, the largest nugget ever found in Oregon. The company also took some four or five oz. out of their claim on the same day, beside the lump. As that section of country is now secure from Indian depredations, we may expect to hear of some other handsome strikes being made this summer.
Placer Herald, Auburn, California, June 21, 1856, page 3

Miss Oatman.
    Mr. H. B. Oatman, of Rogue River Valley, O.T., arrived here by the steamer of the 3rd inst., to visit his cousin, Miss Olive Oatman, the young lady who had been so long in captivity with the Mohave Indians. He spent his time at the Monte, with Col. Thompson, in whose family the young lady has been residing. Mr. Oatman left on the steamer for San Francisco, accompanied by his cousins, Olive and her brother Lorenzo. They will proceed to Rogue River, where Mr. H. B. Oatman has his family residing. Some hesitation was displayed by Col. Thompson to permit the departure of Miss Oatman, suspicions having arisen that an attempt was being made to entrap his ward; but the suspicion was altogether groundless, Mr. Oatman having old family documents in his possession which fully proved his relationship to the young lady. He had expended a large sum of money in traveling a great distance to promote his cousin's welfare; and there could be no speculation in the matter on his part, as he was aware, before he left home, that the appropriation by the Legislature for the young lady had been vetoed by the Governor. Mr. Oatman being her only relative in the country, he considered himself bound to make any sacrifice of time and money on her behalf. The report and suspicions alluded to were very embarrassing to him, as he was anxious to maintain abroad the reputation for candor and integrity which he has hitherto enjoyed among his neighbors.
    Miss Oatman is in good health, and fast acquiring a knowledge of her native customs and habits. She speaks the English language fluently; any imperfection in her speech at first arising simply from embarrassment.
    We have received a letter from Mr. J. J. Kellogg, Postmaster at Kellogg's, Umpqua County, O.T., making inquiry concerning the young lady. It is unnecessary for us to say anything in reply, as she is to reside in that vicinity, at Phoenix Mills, Jackson County, Rogue River Valley, O.T., where her friends will have an opportunity of informing themselves of all particulars of her capture, rescue, etc.
    Mr. Oatman desires to express his acknowledgments to the numerous friends who have evinced their sympathy for him during his stay in this neighborhood.
Los Angeles Star, June 21, 1856, page 2

    MR. EDITOR OF THE LOS ANGELES STAR.--Sir: In your paper of the 21st inst, suggesting that some hesitation was displayed by me to permit the departure of Miss Oatman, that assertion is not correct and without foundation. You insinuate that I had some speculative motive in keeping Miss Oatman here; that is also incorrect. You state that the suspicions were altogether groundless. I say they were not altogether groundless, and I heard no suspicions of his relationship until I saw it in your paper. You state that H. B. Oatman has expended a large sum of money to promote his cousins' welfare, and he being her relative feels himself bound to make any sacrifice of time and money on her behalf. I ask where has been his great affection for his cousins for the last three years? Mr. Oatman told me that he first heard of the destruction of his uncle's family in the summer of 1853, and heard Lorenzo was in California, and that he was too young and small to support himself, and said that he was surprised to find him large enough to take care of himself when he got to Los Angeles. Did he ever spend an hour's time or one dime to advertise for information in regard to his young cousin that he had all reason to suppose was supported at the expense of the county somewhere in this state? He said no. Now I would ask what has of late caused such an abundant supply of sympathy to come upon the Rogue River gentleman as to entice him to spend much time and money to come to the Monte and slander those that have freely spent their time and money to make his cousins comfortable and happy? Will some of his sympathetic friends that he expresses his acknowledgments to. inform us?
    We insert the above communication with pleasure, although our friend Col. Thompson has misconceived our remarks on the subject. We certainly did not make any statement or insinuation impugning the purity of his motives. We think he has acted very generously throughout the whole affair. We have received another letter on this subject, but as it is without a signature, we must pass it over without further notice.
Los Angeles Star, June 28, 1856, page 3

    John S. Miller, Dem. 442
    A. M. Berry, Dem. 436
    Thomas Smith 322
    Chauncey Nye 293
    P. P. Prim 268
    T. Pyle, Dem. 347
    J. T. Glenn 344
"Election Returns," Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 24, 1856, page 2

    OLIVE OATMAN.--This young lady, with her brother and cousin, passed through Shasta on Thursday last, on their way to the cousin's ranch on Rogue River, the future home of Olive.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 30, 1856, page 2

    MISS OLIVE OATMAN.--This young lady and her brother, under the care of a cousin, arrived on the Senator, en route to Rogue River. The Los Angeles Star says she is fast acquiring a knowledge of her native customs and habits--she speaks the English language fluently, any imperfection in her speech at first arising simply from embarrassment.

Placer Herald, Auburn, California, July 5, 1856, page 3

Salem Eugene Corvallis Portland
    Marion 964   24   10   34
Jackson   32 198 328
Douglas   25 388 111     3
Polk 126   24 420     6
Linn 394 653   75     5
Lane     1 748 131
Clatsop   77   14     7
Columbia   17     2   60     3
Yamhill 104   19 327   66
Washington   61   11 151 235
Multnomah   17     2   20 471
Latshaw's co. vols.     1   26     8
Benton     3   17 576
Clackamas 142   55   38 297
Wasco   20     7     1     2
Latshaw's command near
Big bend, Rogue River
  15 127   27     3
Umpqua     8 193   29     3
Curry   68     4   11
Coos     29       15         8       17  
2404   2527   2327   1153  
    We republish the above, with a few corrections.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 8, 1856, page 2

    Below we give the substance of the extra [of the Yreka Union] of July 8th:
    "We have just been informed by the Rev. Mr. Stratton, who last night arrived from Jacksonville, that an intense excitement prevailed in Rogue River Valley on Sunday, in consequence of word having arrived that a packer had been shot that morning near the summit of Siskiyou Mountain, by the Indians. It appears that Messrs. Taylor & McDermit, in company with a hired man, started to cross Siskiyou Mountain for Jacksonville with their pack train of twenty-five mules, and upon arriving at the point some forty rods beyond the summit, the scene of the 'ox team tragedy,' they were fired upon by a party of Indians concealed in the brush at the side of the road. One ball took effect upon the hired man, killing him instantly--the ball entering underneath the right arm and coming out under the left. Taylor & McDermit then fled down the mountain.
    "A party of about twenty men, from the upper part of Rogue River Valley, started immediately in pursuit. Upon returning to the scene of the murder, they found the body of the deceased, which had been dragged about sixty rods down the mountain by the feet, the effect of which was to render it a most hideous sight to behold. They also found three mules that had been killed. Thirteen were driven off and nine recovered. Mr. Stratton has also shown us a couple of arrows which were extracted from the dead animals; they are Tule Lake arrows and are such as are used by the Modoc tribe. This circumstance, connected with the fact that the Indians fled towards Klamath Lake, would seem to settle the question as to what tribe did the deed.
    "The pursuing party, while following on the trail of the murderers, found a newly shod gray horse, saddled and bridled. The inference is that these same Indians have murdered the rider.
    "Thus it seems that as the war closes in Oregon it commences in our own immediate vicinity.
    "The Modoc tribe, which has, heretofore, during the war in Oregon, maintained, as is supposed, neutral grounds, are now, without a doubt, in arms against us, and there is no telling after this successful result of their first effort what they may next contemplate doing. We deem our citizens in Shasta Valley in imminent peril. Generals Cosby and Colton, can no steps be taken, can no effort be made to chastise these treacherous devils?
    "Nothing has been heard as yet from the party in pursuit; it is composed, however, of sterling men, and it is confidently believed that they will give a good account of themselves when they return."
Sacramento Daily Union, July 14, 1856, page 3

Rogue River Correspondence of the Statesman.
Jacksonville, July 7, 1856.
    News of rather an exciting nature reached this place yesterday from Yreka.
    It appears that during the day of the 4th of July many of the parties participating in the festivities of the day had imbibed rather too freely of the ardent, and were rather noisy and otherwise disturbed the peace and quiet of the city, some of whom deputy sheriff White thought proper to arrest. In attempting to do this resistance was made and a general row ensued, which terminated in the death of one man and the wounding of two others by White. It is thought the end is not yet.
    News has just reached town that the Indians have again commenced hostilities up on the Siskiyou Mountain. A pack train comprising two men and fifteen mules was attacked sometime yesterday. One of the men named Ogle was killed and the entire train taken by the Indians. They are supposed to have been the Modocs.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 15, 1856, page 2

    FROM SOUTHERN OREGON.--We have received the Jacksonville (O.T.) Sentinel, of July 12th. In addition to the murder committed on Siskiyou Mountain, we learn from it that several Indians entered the house of Jacob Mendenhall, in Illinois Valley, while the men were in the field harvesting, and carried off five guns, without committing any other depredations.
    The Chinese are flocking into Southern Oregon in great numbers, and are working those mines which the Americans will not. The Sentinel expresses the hope that the next Legislature will impose upon them a tax, but thinks it should not be so heavy as the California tax. It would greatly aid in relieving that country from the existing heavy debt. Altogether it is thought the Chinese will be an advantage to the country.
    The accounts from the mines are said to be quite cheering--miners having done better than they did during the past spring. Since the conclusion of peace with the Indians, miners have gone in great numbers down Rogue River to the Meadows, where rich prospects were discovered last winter. It is thought that in a few months some thousands will be at work, and that before a year a town larger than Jacksonville will spring up.
    A number of the volunteers were taken sick at the Meadows, and had been removed to Roseburg and Grave Creek House for medical treatment.
    A flouring mill has been erected on Butte Creek, near Jacksonville, and it is expected it will be in operation by the first of September.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 23, 1856, page 2

    FROM JACKSONVILLE.--We are indebted to Beekman's Express, Jacksonville, for files of Yreka and Jacksonville papers. We take the following from the latter:
    MINING.--Cheering accounts reach us from all the surrounding mining localities. Miners have never done better than during the past spring. Many good "strikes" have been made. The mines in this and Josephine counties have scarcely been prospected yet. If we can have a permanent peace, we may expect soon to see the "good time coming." "Hard times" already begins to relax his tyrant grasp.
    NEW DIGGINGS.--Miners are going in considerable numbers down Rogue River to the Meadows, where very rich prospects were discovered during the last winter, when the volunteer army was there to attack the Indians. Many persons have been waiting until peace should be concluded, and as soon as it is known that John and Enos have surrendered there will be a great rush for that locality. We have conversed with a number of men who were there and prospected, or seen others prospect, and all say that these mines are certainly very rich. And it is thought that very soon there will be some thousands of men at work there. And we have heard some express the opinion that within a year a town will spring up there larger than Jacksonville.
    On Tuesday last, J. G. Wood and six others started from this place to the new El Dorado; they expected to join others at Vannoy's. Success attend them.
    A NEW FLOURING MILL.--We learn that a flouring mill is being erected on Butte Creek, some twenty miles from this place, by Mr. J. Hoffman. He expects to have it ready to go into operation about the first of September. There are already three excellent flouring mills in this valley.
    We learn that a great many of the volunteers that are at the Meadows are sick, and that they are being removed to Roseburg and the Grave Creek House, for medical attention.
Crescent City Herald, July 30, 1856, page 2

Shocking Murder at Siskiyou Mountain.
    The Yreka Union of Thursday, July 31, gives the following particulars of a revolting murder, in which the wife of the murdered man participated, and the facts of which were singularly elicited by the confession of the murderer:
    "A most foul and unnatural murder was committed at the foot of the Siskiyou Mountain on Thursday last, the 24th July. The victim is Mr. [Joel] Perkins, who has been, so far as we can learn, an estimable and respected man. The murderer is one John Malone. On the morning of the day when the foul deed was committed, Perkins started from his house before breakfast to hunt up his horses. About fifteen minutes after he left, Malone took his rifle and started out after him in the same direction. Perkins found his horses, and after discovering them, started out to kill a deer. He had not been long gone when Malone also reached the horses, and finding that Perkins had gone, and suspecting that he had gone after deer, started to overtake him--taking a cutoff in the direction where he supposed he would meet him. Malone, after going a short distance, met Perkins on the public road, at the foot of the mountain. When Malone, who was in the employ, or living in the family, of Perkins, met him, Perkins asked him why he did not drive the horses farther down, saying that it was dangerous to come so far up the mountain, because of the Indians. Malone said in reply, "G-d d--n you, I don't want you to say anything more about the horses." Malone had his rifle on his shoulder cocked, and without saying anything farther, drew up and fired at Perkins, the ball striking him in the breast in the region of the right nipple. When Perkins received the shot, he threw up his rifle and fired at Malone, but missed him. After he had shot, he said to Malone, "John, don't kill me, it is all about the woman, I know." The parties then came together, and had a short struggle, in which Perkins received several severe blows on the head, and one on the neck, supposed, from the appearance of them after death to have been inflicted by Malone with the barrel of his rifle. Perkins fell dead from his wounds, and Malone, placing his handkerchief over his face, left him. He took a direction along the foot of the mountain, and went towards the upper Mountain House, kept by Mr. Samuel Hughes, and from thence proceeded to the house of Perkins. When he arrived there, a boy who had been raised by Mr. and Mrs. Perkins observed Mrs. Perkins meet him, throw her arms about his neck, kiss him and ask whether it was all right, to which Malone replied, "It is all right."
    Shortly after this time Mr. Thomas Ireland called at Perkins' house to see him upon business, but Perkins not returning he started to go away, when the boy before mentioned went to him and asked him not to leave. Ireland asked why he wished him to stay. The boy replied that he thought Malone had killed Perkins. The suspicions of the boy were communicated to some persons living nearest about, and when Perkins did not arrive at home as was usual with him it was determined that the matter should be ferreted out. Accordingly a number of men were sent for, who came and after consultation determined to take Malone into custody. They told him their suspicions, and asked him to point out the direction which Perkins had taken when he went to look for his horses; he did so, but the company believing him to be guilty, and that be would mislead them, took exactly the opposite direction. During the first part of the hunt for Perkins, he displayed a great deal of indifference and bravado. After some time, during which they had passed within fifty yards of where the body of Perkins was lying, the company came to the conclusion that they would try the force of hemp. They told Malone if he did not make a clear breast of the matter, they would hang him and that if he did, they would see that he had a fair trial by the law; that Mrs. Perkins had told them that he had shot Perkins. But Malone remained obstinate. They put him on horseback, rode him under the limb of a tree, put the rope around his neck and gave him several elevations. Malone, thinking that he had been betrayed by Mrs. Perkins, and that it would not be well for his soul if he should go off without absolution, determined to confess. As soon as he was let down, and could speak, he said: " Be Jasus give my respects to Mrs. Perkins and tell her that she told me to do it." After confessing to the murder he pointed out the place where the body of Perkins lay, and detailed to his captors the minutiae of the murder. They took up the corpse, carried it home, and afterwards buried it. They charged a participation in the murder upon Mrs. Perkins, but she stoutly denied it. Malone was carried to Jacksonville and there given to the legal authorities of Oregon Territory.
    The murdered man kept a ferry on Rogue River in 1852. He was from Yamhill County, Oregon Territory, and generally esteemed.
    P.S.--Since writing the above we have been informed that Malone committed suicide by hanging himself, shortly after his incarceration in the Jacksonville jail.
Sacramento Daily Union, August 4, 1856, page 1

    THE SISKIYOU MURDER.--We gather from the Chronicle the following additional particulars of the above tragedy:
    The wife of Perkins, it appears, had been in criminal intimacy with Malone, and aided and encouraged the latter in killing her husband. When they passed Cottonwood Creek, Malone procured a supply of liquor to stimulate him to the deed, and when they arrived at the mountain he induced Perkins to go out with him hunting, and shot him dead. Perkins had been seen in company with Malone, and when the latter arrived in the valley with the wife of the murdered man, this fact, with other suspicious circumstances which came to light, gave rise to the belief that Perkins had been murdered. The suspected murderer had been caught by a number of men, and hung by spells to the limb of a tree until he finally confessed his guilt, stating that he had been urged to the deed by the wife of Perkins. He led the way to where Perkins' body was concealed, and both he and the woman are now in the hands of the sheriff of Jackson County, Oregon. It has since been announced that Malone committed suicide in prison, by hanging himself. Having fastened one of his chains to a beam in the building, and then around his neck, he got upon his bed and jumped off, and was found hanging in that position by the authorities shortly after. Mr. Pyle, the sheriff, was absent from the jail only about fifteen minutes when the affair took place.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, August 8, 1856, page 2

    MURDER.--From the Yreka Union we have an account of a most foul murder committed at Siskiyou Mountain, on the 24th ult. The victim was one [Joel] Perkins and the murderer John Malone. Malone being suspected, was subjected to a lynch examination, whereupon he confessed that he shot Perkins, but said that Perkins' wife urged him to do the deed. Malone, who was turned over to the authorities, has since committed suicide. Perkins and his wife were but recently from Oregon Territory.
Sonoma County Journal, Petaluma, August 9, 1856, page 2

    THE MURDER AND SUICIDE IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--About a week since we published, from the Yreka Union, an account of the murder of Joel Perkins by John Malone, in Southern Oregon, and the suicide of the latter after his arrest. The Table Rock Sentinel of August 2nd, printed at Jacksonville, in reference to the suicide, says:
    "The Sheriff passed out of the jail for about twenty minutes, during which time Malone succeeded in loosening the chain from the ring in the floor to which he had been fastened, and slipping the chain over a joist, fastened it, then slipped the chain at the other end through the ring, making a noose; then, putting the noose over his head, jumped off the bedstead, having a fall of about three feet, which broke his neck. The Sheriff arrived while he was yet swinging and his heart had not ceased beating, but the deed was done. Thus ended the life of a young man created for nobler and better purposes."
    It was supposed that the wife of Perkins had been accessory to his murder, and in another article the same paper says:
    "Laura Perkins, the widow of Joel Perkins, who was murdered on the 24th ult., on the southern slope of the Siskiyou Mountain, by John Malone, was arrested as an accessory to the murder of her husband, and was discharged yesterday, as there was no testimony against her but the confession of Malone. The examining court ruling that the confession of the principal, after committing the act, could not be offered as evidence against an accessory, and the prosecuting attorney having no further testimony, she was discharged."

Sacramento Daily Union,
August 13, 1856, page 2

    Mrs. Perkins, the wife of Joel Perkins, was acquitted, at Jacksonville, of the charge of being accessory to the murder of her husband.
    Malone murdered Perkins by first shooting him, and then beating in his skull.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 19, 1856, page 2

    We are indebted to the Pacific Express for a copy of the Table Rock Sentinel, printed at Jacksonville, of the 16th August, from which we extract the following:
    INDIANS WHO HAVE REFUSED TO TREAT AND ARE STILL HOSTILE.--We are informed that there are on the Pistol and Chetco rivers about one hundred warriors who refuse to treat, that the whites have sent word to them to come in and treat and go upon the reserve or they will have to fight. The Indians in return send back that they will not go upon the reserve, that they are ready for a fight, and for the whites to come in and they will give them battle.
    It appears that Old John, when he came in to treat, was induced to do so on account of presents given him and his warriors, that all his best rifles and all his six-shooters were cached in the mountains, and that a part of his band, of about twelve or fifteen warriors, are still on Illinois River with their squaws and children, committing depredations, robbing houses, killing stock and watching their cached guns. There is but little doubt of a telegraphic line being established between the Indians on the reserve and those hostile Indians in the mountains.
    We are informed that a company of whites are organizing near the mouth of Rogue River, and were obtaining supplies from Crescent City for the purpose of attacking those Indians on Pistol and Chetco rivers.
    MILITARY MOVEMENTS.--On yesterday Capt. A. J. Smith, commanding Fort Lane, left with Company C, First Dragoons, for Yamhill reservation, at which place we are informed, it is the intention of the government to erect a fort. Capt. Underwood remains at Fort Lane with one company of infantry. In all probability Fort Lane will be vacated during the present season.
    NATURAL RESOURCES.--The farmers of this country have finished harvesting and are now busily engaged in threshing. Many who are running threshing machines labor under quite a disadvantage, as when certain parts of the machine break or give way, there is no supplying the defect without sending to San Francisco. Cannot this delay and expense be avoided? We have iron ore in abundance; why not apply some of the energy and capital of the south to the erection of machinery that will manufacture such articles as are required by the agriculturalist?
    THE CHINESE IN THE MINES.--We are informed that from one to two thousand Chinamen are mining on a small creek on the Table Rock Reservation, some two or three miles from the Big Bar on Rogue River. Our informant says they are doing well, washing with the cradle in many places from eight to ten dollars a day to the hand.
    There is good diggings on the creek or in the neighborhood. Several miners done well there as early as 1852, since which time little or nothing has been done at mining on the reserve.
"Later from Southern Oregon," Sacramento Daily Union, August 23, 1856, page 2

    John Malone, the murderer of Joel Perkins, of Yamhill County, committed suicide in the jail at Jacksonville on Sunday, the 27th ult., by hanging himself with the chain with which he was fastened to the floor. A few moments before he ended his existence, he made the following statement to the sheriff in relation to the murder of Perkins: That he murdered Joel Perkins, who had been for the last two years past his best friend; that he had been prompted to do the deed by the wife of Perkins; that from the time of his forming her acquaintance, something near two years since, she not only urged him to murder her husband, but on one occasion attempted herself to poison him by putting arsenic in his coffee, which by some means he failed to drink.
    Perkins with his wife and two children, accompanied by Malone, were en route from his ranch, near Los Angeles, Cal., to his former residence at Lafayette, Yamhill County, O.T. Malone stated that his connection and illicit intercourse with the woman placed him under her control almost entirely; that she was continually urging him to murder her husband; that he had attempted or laid in wait several times, but his heart failed him up to the morning of the 24th of July last. While he was in company with Perkins hunting horses, being prompted by the devil, as well as the woman, and stimulated with liquor, he committed the murder by shooting Perkins through the body and beating him over the head with a gun. He expressed his willingness to die; said he was guilty.
Oregonian, August 23, 1856, page 2

    In Jacksonville, O.T., Aug. 8th, WILLIAM THOMPSON, aged 40 years.
    In Jackson County, O.T., Aug. 13th, THOS. W. WHITE.
    In Jackson County, O.T., Aug. 11th, ADDISON P. GASKILL.
Sacramento Daily Union, August 23, 1856, page 2

    Sept. 1st 1856: The stage started today to run between here and Yreka. It is to run every other day. We can now go to San Francisco in 4½ days. I think times will be better now. The dark pall that has hung over Oregon is now rising and we can see a small streak above which betokens better times for this country, and in future years the autumn of '55 and spring of '56 will be looked back to as the dark days of this beautiful valley.
Diary of Welborn Beeson, Talent News, June 1, 1893, page 3

From the Crescent City Herald, Sept., 1856.
    The Yreka Union says: We have been informed that two hundred head of cattle have been driven off by the Indians, near Willow Springs. The savages were tracked some distance by the owners of the stock and the settlers in the locality, but no trace of the robbers was discovered.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, August 5, 1893, page 1  This may be a different Willow Springs than the one in Jackson County.

    MALONE THE MURDERER AND SUICIDE.--From the Oregonian we derive the following further particulars in relation to this miserable creature, who, it will be remembered, killed his benefactor, Perkins, while crossing the Siskiyou Mountains, and subsequently hung himself in the jail at Jacksonville, with the chain that fastened him to the floor. It appears that Perkins, with his wife and two children, had been residing on his ranch, near Los Angeles, and when killed was on his way to Yamhill, Oregon. Malone, who was a very inferior man, had for the last two years been in his employ. The wife of Perkins having, by some strange infatuation, become enamored of this fellow, frequently prompted him to take her husband's life, which, he not having the courage to do, she undertook on one occasion to accomplish herself, by putting poison in his coffee. This, through accident, he failed to drink, and thus saved his life. Malone says he several times laid in wait to kill Perkins, but his heart always failed him until the fatal morning, when, being excited by liquor, and prompted by this infamous woman, he stole upon him while they were out hunting horses, and having first shot, afterwards beat him over the head with his gun until life was extinct. The wretch continued the illicit intimacy which had for some time been going on with the unworthy wife, after the death of the husband and father, until he fell into the hands of avenging justice. The woman was also arrested, and held for a time, but as there was no evidence of her guilt other than the confessions of Malone, she was afterwards discharged. We should like to know what sort of a time she will have with her conscience for the remnant of her miserable existence.
Daily Alta California,
San Francisco, September 1, 1856, page 1

    At Corvallis, O.T., August 6th, by the Rev. Mr. Hannah, JOHN ANDERSON, of Jacksonville, to Miss LIZZIE HARGROVE, of Corvallis.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 6, 1856, page 2

    SALE OF GOVERNMENT PROPERTY.--On Wednesday, the 27th of August, there was a sale of United States government property at Jacksonville, O.T. The Sentinel says a number of gentlemen from California and different parts of Oregon were in attendance, and that the prices paid for horses and mules was high. The first seventy which were sold averaged $125 apiece, cash.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 8, 1856, page 2

    A sale of government stock took place at Jacksonville, O.T., lately, which was largely attended by buyers from Yreka, Scott and Shasta valleys, and brought good prices.
"Brief Glances," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 9, 1856, page 2

    THE JACKSONVILLE LINE.--The California Stage Company started their first coach to Jacksonville, O.T., on Monday last. They propose to run through in twelve hours, and to make triweekly trips, leaving Yreka on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and Jacksonville on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays of each week. Their coaches are of the first-rate order, and are drawn by four horses. They have twelve changes of horses on the road, and make the trip through with ease in twelve hours. The line is under the superintendence of Mr. D. Nye, Jr., the popular agent of the company. The citizens of Yreka and Jacksonville will be much benefited by the establishment of a regular line of stages over a road so much traveled. We understand that some parties in Jacksonville will run from that place to Sailors' Diggings, with only one day from the coast, at Crescent City, in connection with the present arrangement.--Yreka Union.
Oroville Daily Butte Record,
Oroville, California, September 11, 1856, page 2

    FOR OREGON.--The Chinese are traveling towards Jacksonville and the adjacent mining regions. The reason of this emigration is that they are not oppressed by the revenue laws of that territory. The privilege of working the mines there is granted alike to all nations.
Oroville Daily Butte Record, Oroville, California, September 16, 1856, page 2

    A MAMMOTH NEW HOTEL.--Messrs. Kenyon and Kennedy, of Jacksonville, O.T., are about to erect a mammoth new hotel in this city. The site of the proposed building is on Lane Street, near the Plaza. Mr. L. H. Barber, the popular and hospitable proprietor of the U.S. Hotel, has already leased the hotel, when erected, for two years. The building will be frame, and will front eighty feet on Lane Street, and run back on the Plaza one hundred feet. It will be two stories high. It will contain two parlors on the lower floor, and one on the second story, a bath room, smoking room, barber shop, a dining hall seventy-five feet long by thirty wide, a dancing hall of the same dimensions, and will afford accommodations for one hundred and fifty persons. It will also be furnished with extensive stabling. The building will be commenced during the latter part of the present week, and will be finished the 1st of December. It will be furnished throughout with the most costly and substantial furniture which can be procured in San Francisco. It will cost, exclusive of furniture, about $10,000. Such a hotel has long been a desideratum in Yreka. It will unquestionably be a splendid edifice and will be an ornament to the town. It will be capable of accommodating the patronage of the whole country, and must unquestionably receive a most liberal share of it. The citizens of Yreka will be under great obligations to Messrs. Kenyon and Kennedy for their liberal and enterprising spirit in building the hotel, and also to Mr. Barber for the splendid manner in which he proposes to furnish it. Let them have all success.
Crescent City Herald, September 17, 1856, page 2

    DARING ROBBERY IN OREGON.--On Monday, Sept. 8th, the house of a Mr. Holman, near Jacksonville, O.T., was entered, and from $1,500 to $2,000, belonging to David Haynes, stolen.

Sacramento Daily Union, September 19, 1856, page 2

    JACKSONVILLE.--This town, in Southern Oregon, has recently been greatly improved in buildings.

Sacramento Daily Union, September 19, 1856, page 1

    SHOT AT.--One day last week a man was fired upon by Indians at Evans' Creek, in Southern Oregon, but managed to escape. Several balls passed through his clothing.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 19, 1856, page 2

    STAGES TO JACKSONVILLE.--On Monday, Sept. 1st, the California Stage Company started their first stage from Yreka to Jacksonville, in Oregon Territory. They propose to make the trip in twelve hours, running tri-weekly.
Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, September 20, 1856, page 5

    HORRIBLE MURDER.--The Oregon Statesman says:
    "Joel Perkins, proprietor of the town of Lafayette, Oregon, was murdered in the southern part of the Territory, near the California line, on the 24th ult., by a man named John Malone. Malone was arrested and confined in the Jacksonville jail, where he hung himself with the chain with which he was secured. Perkins' wife was charged with being accessory to the murder, and had been taken into custody, and was undergoing an examination when our informant left. The report is that Malone murdered Perkins for his wife."
Washington Union, Washington, D.C., September 30, 1856, page 3

From the Crescent City Herald, Oct., 1856.
    From the Yreka papers we learn the following: The war against the Modoc Indians in the Pit River country is still going on. One or two brushes have been had with the Indians and some of them killed. The troops have fitted up boats and are operating against the savages on Tule Lake. Some of the chiefs of the tribes had come in and made a treaty with the troops, by which they bound themselves to assist them against the Modocs.
    R. Humphreys, writing from Ferry Point, Klamath River, under date of Sept. 19, says: Mr. Barnes left here with the train to go to Oregon, and took with him an Indian boy, aged about 7 years, to ride the bell-horse. He camped at the crossing on Rogue River, formerly known as "Long's Ferry," and there saw Mr. Vannoy, a former partner of his, who appeared very friendly and invited him to breakfast in the morning. After breakfast he told him to take some to the boy. Vannoy then went on the road to Grave Creek and hid in the brush, and the train arriving at the spot, about six miles from Rogue River, fired at the boy, killing him instantly, Mr. Barnes being sufficiently close at the time to lay his hand upon the horse the boy was riding. Such are the facts of cold-blooded and brutal murder of an inoffensive child.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, August 12, 1893, page 1

Correspondence of the Crescent City Herald.
    September 24, 1856.
    EDS. HERALD:--Seeing no correspondent from this part of the country for some time, I drop you a few lines. Miners are generally doing well where they have their claims well opened on Althouse, Sucker Creek and Illinois River. On Althouse there are many claims being worked that were abandoned in '53, and are generally paying good wages. All places that have been left along the stream are being worked, and I believe the creek is paying better than at any former time in proportion to the number of men working on it.
    This country has been but partially prospected, and if the Indians are kept out of here there will be hundreds of men prospecting these mountains and streams, and in less than one year there will be new diggings found that will bring thousands of miners in here. Then is when the want of a wagon road from Crescent City to Illinois Valley will be felt, but it will be too late, for there is already a road from Scottsburg to Jacksonville, and wagons running [there] that should be running between Crescent City and Jacksonville. It is time the people of Crescent City were beginning to act and do something besides talk, for if they do not look to their own interest, the people of Scottsburg will not do it for them.
    If there was a wagon road from Crescent City to Illinois Valley, our part of the country would soon be filled up with farmers, and I know of no place so desirable for a permanent location in Oregon Territory as Illinois Valley. We have good grazing land, tillable land, and water privileges, and last though not least is the society; no sensible person can help appreciating this. There are but few families here, comparatively speaking, yet some of them are as good as can be found in any country.
Crescent City Herald, October 8, 1856, page 2

    TRI-WEEKLY STAGES.--The California Stage Company have commenced running a tri-weekly line of stages between this place and Yreka. This is one of the enterprises that will pay the proprietors well. It opens communication with the south--brings us San Francisco dates [i.e., newspapers] in five and Sacramento in four days. The stage arrives here on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; leaving on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.
    If this enterprising company will put on a tri-weekly line from Yreka to Portland next spring, they will find it will pay as well as any line on the Pacific Coast.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, October 4, 1856, page 1

    Rumors which reach us from the north raise a possibility that the Indian disturbances in Southern Oregon, so recently terminated, may again be shortly renewed. They are to the effect that the Indians who were removed from the Rogue River Valley to the reservation, having become dissatisfied, had left in a body for their old haunts. If this information be confirmed, it is altogether likely many weeks will not pass before we have information of another general outbreak. The winter is approaching and, destitute of the necessaries of life, these savages will be driven to pillage and other depredations calculated to excite the ire of their white neighbors. Even were they not prompted to such acts by hunger, it is highly probable they would be impelled to the commission of every species of crime by the oppression of their neighbors. Such has been but too frequently the history of the manner in which Indian disturbances commence. On this side of the Oregon line, we perceive that the work of exterminating the natives of the soil progresses. In a couple of engagements recently fought at Clear Like between them and the volunteers, several of the savages were killed, including one woman. She, however, is reported to have been killed by accident. It is, however, somewhat remarkable that females fall in nearly every engagement with the savages--thus materially aiding the work of extermination.
"News of the Morning," Sacramento Daily Union, October 8, 1856, page 2

    On the 22nd inst., by Rev. J. Flinn, Mr. ALBERT BETHEL to Mrs. SARAH C. KEENY, both of Jackson County.
Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, October 25, 1856, page 2

    In lower Oregon (Rogue River Valley) flour is worth four cents per pound; eggs, 75 cents per dozen; wheat $1 per bushel.
"Brief Glances," Daily Alta California, San Francisco, October 31, 1856, page 4

From the Crescent City Herald, Nov., 1856.
    As incredible as it may seem, it is nevertheless true, that a train load of sixteen mules, well-laden, departed for the interior a few days since from this city, and of the assorted cargo there was not a single pound of tobacco, or a pint of liquor. Our first impression was that the election being just over the "sovereigns" were not very dry and were quite satisfied with this apparent solution of the mystery, until a gentleman at our elbow better posted stated that whiskey and tobacco being considered two of the most important essentials, a full supply for winter was laid in first to make sure, then came pork and beans, sugar and coffee and other minor luxuries.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, August 19, 1893, page 1

    FROM JACKSONVILLE.--Through the kindness of Mr. Hillman, we have received the Table Rock Sentinel of the 1st inst. They seem determined to have some of the fun of the election in Oregon, if their votes don't count. A poll was to be opened at Jacksonville for an informal vote on the Presidential election, and gentlemen selected from each of the political parties to inspect it.
Crescent City Herald, November 12, 1856, page 2

    EXTENSION OF THE TELEGRAPH.--In the Butte Record, of Friday last, we notice the first telegraphic dispatch from Marysville. From this it will be perceived that the new line is now open. We also learn from the Shasta papers, of Saturday, 22nd November, that J. E. Strong was in that place, on a tour of observation, having in view the extension of the telegraph to Shasta, and thence to Weaverville, Yreka and Jacksonville, O.T. Mr. Strong has been for years permanently connected with the telegraph lines of this state, and we believe has never undertaken one which he did not get through. It is to be hoped he will be successful in this instance.
Sacramento Daily Union, November 24, 1856, page 2

    PERSONAL.--J. E. Strong, Esq., of Sacramento, was in town during the early part of the week. Mr. Strong has been president of the Alta Telegraph Co. for some years, and is a gentleman distinguished for his intelligence and businesslike capacity. We had the pleasure of an interview with Mr. Strong, and learned that the object of his visit north is to ascertain whether a sufficient amount of stock can be disposed of to construct a telegraph line from Marysville to Shasta, Weaverville, Yreka and Jacksonville, O.T. Mr. S. left for Yreka on Thursday morning. We wish him every success.
Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, November 29, 1856, page 3

    In Table Rock, Oregon, on the 15th ult., George W., son of B. F. and D. Myer, aged five years and four months.
Daily Gate City and Constitution-Democrat, Keokuk, Iowa, December 18, 1856, page 3

The Oregon Press
    A few days since, happening to be in the room of an acquaintance, we picked up a neglected-looking paper, and commenced reading without noticing the title. In reading exactly fourteen lines, consisting of extracts from two papers, and comments thereon by a third, the following chaste and complimentary words and expressions occurred--the most of them being emphasized in capitals: "nincompoop," "insane," "fool," "liar," "ass," "baseness," "arrogance," "duplicity," "traitor," "weeping and wailing and gnashing of teeth," "hangman's noose." Of course, such an exuberance of miserable, vulgar slang could emanate from no other source save the Oregon press. Anyone who has unfortunately been in the habit of perusing the columns of those interesting specimens of Pacific literature would recognize the paternity of such expressions as readily as he would know a dog by his bark. They seem for a long time past to have lost all respect for themselves as well as their readers, and converted their columns into licentious tools for the purpose of giving expression to low and vulgar personalities, without wit enough to entertain or amuse their readers, and just dirty enough to disgust every man of common decency who has a proper appreciation of the duties of an editor and the modesty of a gentleman. We have no disposition to enter into this quarrel of our neighbors, nor would we dare dispute the charges made by each against the other, or attempt to deny the fitness of the above complimentary language in its application to those for whom it was intended. We presume that living near each other for some length of time has given them a mutual acquaintance with each other's affairs, and conferred opportunities of forming a correct estimate of character.
    They seem very industriously to have availed themselves of those opportunities, and quite well prepared to lay the results before their readers. They, doubtless, tell the truth--at least, strangers must presume they do, and we do not care to deny it. As far as their fight is concerned, they seem to have spunk enough, and we hope they will carry it to the same extent as did the Kilkenny cats--fight till there's nothing left but the tail. Let them then, what's left of them, wash off, and assume the editorial chair, and if their new issue is not more worthy of the patronage of the public than their present productions nominally created by their brains, then we'll confess that the cranium of an Oregon editor is superior to a black cat's tail--for some purposes.
    Now, these pinks of politeness should remember one thing, that however interesting it may be to them to sit down and pen their scurrilous, witless personalities, and however triumphant they may feel in the supposed destruction of a neighbor's character, yet these things are neither agreeable nor instructive to their readers.
    Judging from the tone of their papers, one would conclude that they employed their whole time in watching their neighbors, and in hunting up facts to prove they were "nincompoops and knaves," the truth of which they have convinced their readers long ago. You have long ago consigned each other to the highest eminence of "nincompoopdom," and then we are content that you should remain to illumine your patrons with the steady blaze of the fires of tartar eloquence, and the flashing scintillations of Cayuse wit.
Crescent City Herald, November 19, 1856, page 2

    FROM JACKSONVILLE AND YREKA.--We are under obligations to H. L. Preston, Esq., for copies of the Jacksonville Sentinel and [Yreka] Union: The Sentinel says:
    On Tuesday last, the day appointed for holding the election for President and Vice President throughout the United States, a portion of the citizens of Jackson County opened polls--Messrs. J. G. Wood, A. G. Hedden and T. X. Clark acting as judges--directly for President, running Buchanan, Fillmore and Fremont.
    There were 141 votes cast. The vote stood: For Buchanan, 100; for Fillmore, 36; for Fremont, 5. Buchanan's majority over Fillmore, 64; over both, 59.
Crescent City Herald, November 19, 1856, page 2

    Mr. J. W. Strong is on a tour in the northern counties of the state for the purpose of obtaining information as to the probability of getting enough stock subscribed to warrant the construction of a telegraphic line from Marysville to Jacksonville, O.T., via Shasta, Weaverville and Yreka.
Nevada Journal, Nevada City, California, November 28, 1856, page 3

John Chinaman.
    Thousands of Chinamen are mining in Southern Oregon, extracting from the mines immense quantities of gold--in fact, literally skimming the mining districts of their wealth that would otherwise furnish employment and a reward for labor for many years. Is this right, that a foreign people shall be permitted to drain our country of its wealth, and that, too, by a race of beings that are incapable of becoming citizens, or of exercising the functions of our government?
    The state of California has imposed a tax on "John," which is one of the causes that drives them to this district of country, as they are often heard to say "Taxes no good for John." It then becomes the duty of the representatives of the people from Southern Oregon to use their efforts to obtain the passage of such laws as will best protect the interests of the country.
    A law authorizing the county courts to levy and collect a monthly tax from "John" would create a revenue that would in part repay for the large amount of gold they obtain from our mines, and that, too, without contributing one cent to the government.
    The Legislature of Oregon is now in session, and it is proper that they should set upon the subject. We make the foregoing suggestion because duty and the best interests of the country require it.
Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 6, 1856, page 2

The California Stage Company will hereafter run Coaches three times a week from Yreka, Cal., to Jacksonville, O.T., leaving Yreka on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, arriving at Jacksonville same days. Leave Jacksonville on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, arrive at Yreka same days, making the run in eleven or twelve hours.
    OFFICES--At the "Yreka Hotel," Yreka, and "Union House," Jacksonville.
Table Rock Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 6, 1856, page 3

    Between Columbia River and Fort Lane, in Rogue River Valley, the Calapooya Mountains, the Umpqua Mountains, and the Grave Creek Hills are the chief obstruction to the construction of a railroad. An excellent pass through the first, and a difficult but practicable pass through the second, were surveyed. The Grave Creek Hills, it is thought, can be turned.
    Information respecting a pass from Rogue River Valley to the plateau east of the Cascade Mountains makes it probable that an easy connection with the first route examined may be made, and they will be especially important should the obstacles encountered between Fort Lane and Fort Reading be shown by further examination to be insurmountable.
    The pass examined through the Siskiyou Mountains, which separate Rogue River and Shasta valleys, was very unfavorable to the construction of a railroad.

"Annual Report of the Secretary of War," Daily Union, Washington, D.C., December 10, 1856, page 2

    From reliable sources we learn that the mines in the southern portion of the Territory are paying all this winter. In Jacksonville, Sterlingville, Illinois Valley, and throughout the entire mining region, there is being more gold taken out than at any time since the winter of '50. New diggings are being discovered on and in the vicinity of the Indian reservation that "pan out" rich, and as there are no Diggers in the mountains, miners do not run the risk, as they used to, when out prospecting, of having their scalps taken. The golden resources of a large scope of country on Rogue River and its tributaries will now be fully developed.
"Later from Oregon," Sacramento Daily Union, December 30, 1856, page 3

    In Jacksonville, O.T., Nov. 25th, ADELINE, consort of Dr. G. W. Greer, aged 51 years.
Sacramento Daily Union, December 31, 1856, page 2
Last revised June 7, 2023