The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Medford Water

How Medford got "A Mountain Spring in Every Home." Also see the essential 1925 Henny-Dillard Report.

A Complaint.
    Dr. James Spence called in on Sunday. Doc attended the annual session of the Grand Lodge I.O.O.F., bearing credentials from Kerbyville lodge. From him we learn that during the past year Kerbyville lodge has expended for construction of a lodge-room and other expenditures over $2,600. They have 56 members in good standing. We also learn from Doc that Medford lodge I.O.O.F. were granted a charter by the Grand Lodge.
    Mr. Spence complains, bitterly, that in his travels, whether on the cars or in the hotels, he was unable to obtain a good refreshing drink of cool, pure water only at the saloon bars, and that in going to the bar for a drink of water, a man is expected to buy a stronger drink before he leaves. Said he could not get a good drink on the cars only in the Cow Creek Canyon. This should be remedied. Good drinking water can and should be provided on the trains and at the hotels.
Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, May 28, 1886, page 3

     The proposition to build water works and provide a sewerage system for the city carried by a majority of 7 to 1.
"Medford Items," Oregonian, Portland, June 1, 1888, page 7

    Bids are advertised for up to the 25th inst. for constructing the ditch which is to furnish the new water supply for Medford. Everything is in readiness; the right of way was secured through the Gore place this week for $200, and the work will be pushed to completion. The ditch will take the water out of Bear Creek about the Gore place and will be 2½ miles long. In the western suburbs a reservoir will be built, from which pipes will lead over town.
"Medford Items," Ashland Tidings, September 14, 1888, page 3

E. E. Gore to the town of Medford, right of way for water ditch; $200.
"Real Estate Transactions," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 20, 1888, page 3

    Work is progressing upon the Medford water ditch, and it is expected that ditch will be finished by the last of December.
"Medford Items," Ashland Tidings, October 19, 1888, page 2

    The water ditch is nearly in town.
"Medford Doings," Valley Record, Ashland, March 14, 1889, page 3

    The ditch leading from Bear Creek to [Medford], which will furnish our town with a fine supply of water, is nearly completed. It will prove of much benefit to our town.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 14, 1889, page 3

    Medford rejoices over the flowing of water through its new irrigating canal, which taps Bear Creek about two miles above the town. The water was turned into the ditch last week for the first time.
"Brevities," Ashland Tidings, May 3, 1889, page 3

    The water ditch has been completed, and the water was turned on for the first time Wednesday. This is a valuable improvement for the town and one that will be of great benefit.
"Medford Items," Ashland Tidings, May 24, 1889, page 2

    Medford contemplates bonding the town for a $20,000 water works system. The election will be held next Monday.
"Medford Doings," Valley Record, Ashland, June 27, 1889, page 3

    The citizens of Medford will vote next Monday, July 1st, upon the proposition to bond the city for $20,000, to construct water works.
Ashland Tidings, June 28, 1889, page 3

    MEDFORD'S FIRE PROTECTION.--The town of Medford, in Jackson County, is to have water works. In reply to a circular sent out by an insurance company to each town in the state, asking what facilities they have for extinguishing fires, the agents at Medford says they have none. The town is putting in a system of water works, and as soon as this is completed a fire company will be organized. The plan proposed is to lay 4000 feet of four- and six-inch pipe through the principal streets, with twelve hydrants, to get a duplex pump and boiler, sink a large well, and put up two tanks of 30,000 gallons each, on towers fifty feet high. In case of fire the water in these tanks is to be used, while steam is being got up in the boiler. A hose cart and 500 feet of 1½-inch hose will also be provided.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 5, 1889, page 4

    Messrs. Wood and Whiteside began work on the water tank this week. The pipe line has not yet arrived, but everything is in readiness for going on with the work as soon as it arrives.

"Medford Items," Ashland Tidings, November 1, 1889, page 2

    Work has been suspended on our water system until more favorable weather.
    The ditch has been breaking out of its banks in several places, and considerable work has been done during the past week to repair the breaks.

"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 30, 1890, page 3

Medford Water Tower 1890s--February 27, 1955 Medford Mail Tribune
February 27, 1955 Medford Mail Tribune

    The new system of water works will be finished about the 1st of May. The large tower, fifty feet high, on which the two huge cisterns, calculated to hold 33,000 gallons each, are to rest, is being pushed to completion as rapidly as possible. Until a larger well can be dug, the water will be pumped by steam from a cistern some 500 feet away, which will be supplied with water from the large ditch dug last year, into the two cisterns from which the water will be carried in pipes all over the city for fire and irrigating purposes only, as the water is not fit for domestic purposes. The town is to be congratulated on its providing means by which it can be guarded against fire. Should a fire start now in the center of the town nothing could save it from utter destruction. But with a well-organized fire company and plenty of water, such as the new system will provide, the place will be perfectly safe and insurance will be greatly reduced.
"Medford Improvements," Oregonian, Portland, April 8, 1890, page 12

    The new system of water works will be finished about the 1st of May. The large tower, fifty feet high, on which the two huge cisterns, calculated to hold 33,000 gallons each, are to rest, is being pushed to completion as rapidly as possible. Until a larger well can be dug, the water will be pumped by steam from a cistern some 500 feet away, which will be supplied with water from the large ditch dug last year, into the two cisterns from which the water will be carried in pipes all over the city for fire and irrigating purposes only, as the water is not fit for domestic purposes. The town is to be congratulated on its providing means by which it can be guarded against fire. Should a fire start now in the center of the town nothing could save it from utter destruction. But with a well-organized fire company and plenty of water, such as the new system will provide, the place will be perfectly safe and insurance will be greatly reduced.
"Medford Improvements," Valley Record, Ashland, April 17, 1890, page 1

    The boring of the town well at Goldsmith's corner was found to be a difficult piece of work, owing to the loose gravel formation. The entire well will have to be cased.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 9, 1890, page 3

    Adkins & Webb completed the Medford waterworks this week, and have executed their contract in a satisfactory manner. There is a pressure of over 200 feet, which is sufficient to throw the water a considerable distance over the highest house in town. We may well be proud of this system, as it affords much protection against fire.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 16, 1890, page 2

    The pumps are working finely at the water works, the tanks leak but little, and the system is proven to be an unqualified success. Medford is well equipped now to fight fire and keep down the dust.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, June 6, 1890, page 3

    The new water works give good satisfaction. The streets can be sprinkled down now, and insurance will surely be reduced in consequence.
"Medford Doings," Valley Record, Ashland, June 12, 1890, page 3

    We now have a first-class water system, which is a great protection against fire; hence our citizens feel that the Pacific Insurance Union is not treating them right in not lowering the rates of insurance.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 26, 1890, page 3

    The recorder was instructed to procure 150 feet of rope for the use of the city engineer in painting the water tower.

"City Fathers," Medford Mail, March 10, 1892, page 3

To Persons Using Water from the Medford Water Works.
    You, and each of you, are hereby notified that unless the water rent for the first half year of 1892 (from January 1 to July 1, 1892) is paid on or before Monday, June 6, the water will be turned off by the marshal and kept turned off until said water rent is paid.
J. H. FARIS, Recorder.           
    Medford, Ore., June 1, 1892.
Southern Oregon Mail, June 3, 1892, page 3

Fire at Medford.
    Monday night about 1:30 a.m. the wood pile of A. A. Davis, lying between his flouring mill and the railroad track at Medford, was discovered ablaze. The alarm soon brought Medford's entire population to the scene as well as the hose company. The water supply was so weak that it was of no service and the only water to be had was that pumped from wells, and wet blankets used. The wood, some 220 cords, was consumed by the flares and herculean efforts finally stanched the fire there, after the flames had severely scorched and blistered the flour mill building. It was a miraculous escape, and had the mill once caught fire all the powers of heaven and earth would not have saved the town from complete destruction.
    Mr. Davis thinks the fire was started from a spark from the engine of the northbound freight, which passed just before.
Valley Record, Ashland, August 25, 1892, page 3

    The recent close call Medford had by fire has stirred up the water supply question in that town.  A meeting of citizens was held last week to boom up the artesian well question.
"Pressed Bricks," Valley Record, Ashland, September 1, 1892, page 1

    The city water tank pump is kept running day and night now by engineers E. G. Hurt and H. E. Baker. A dam has been placed in Bear Creek, making a headworks to keep a good flow of water in the city ditch supplying the water tank and thus ensuring a fair pressure in the water works in case of a fire these dry times.

"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, September 8, 1892, page 3

    Regarding the water ditch project; It appears now to be a separate deal from the railroad, but, however, both are promised by the same company. Mr. Leadbetter has given out that we will get the railroad anyway, and the idea which occurs to us is that if we get the ditch we will be asked for a subsidy as talked of last winter.
"It's a Sure Thing," Medford Mail, March 31, 1893, page 2

Medford Water and Power Station, Eighth and Riverside
Medford Water and Power Station, Eighth and Riverside.

Six Were "Not in It."
    At the special election held in Medford last Monday upon the question of issuing $40,000 city bonds to be used as a bonus for the water works and electric power and light enterprises projected by C. H. Leadbetter, the town was almost unanimously in favor of bonding, there being only six votes against it in a town of about 275 or 280.
    Mayor W. I. Vawter, when in Ashland Wednesday, replying to the question when the bonds are to be issued, said he didn't know anything about that. The election only gave the city council authority to bond the city if in its judgment it is the proper thing to do. The council will now proceed to consider such proposition as may be issued by Mr. Leadbetter and will not issue any bonds until satisfied by assurances or guarantee that the projects to be subsidized are upon a solid basis of success.
    It is understood that Mr. Leadbetter proposes to bring to the town a supply of water for drinking and other domestic purposes, as well as for power; that he will supply water for irrigation of lands on both sides of the valley about Medford and Jacksonville, and will establish an electric lighting system in Medford. Water for city purposes is to be supplied free during continuance of his franchise.
Ashland Tidings, April 28, 1893, page 3

    E. G. Hurt, the clever engineer at the water works, has resigned his position and tomorrow will start for his mine in Briggs Valley. It's about this season of the year that the boys at the camp figure on making a "cleanup," and that is the whyforness of Mr. Hurt's visit.

"City Local Whirl," Medford Mail, May 5, 1893, page 3

    Charges for hydrants will hereafter be, for irrigating purposes, $12 per year; street, $6; hotels and barber shops with bathrooms, $10; livery stables and butcher shops, $15.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 12, 1894, page 2

    The well at the corner of Seventh and C streets has quenched the thirst of many Medford people for a number of years, and it is still prepared to perform this same mission, but someone every few days takes it upon himself to steal the drinking cup. This procedure is becoming monotonous, and if persisted in the parties guilty will be exposed. A new cup with chain fastenings has been attached to the pump, and it is probable there will be no occasion for an expose.
"News of the City," Medford Mail, March 16, 1894, page 3

An Artesian Well.
    Medford, March 28.--J. T. Flynn of the Pacific Well Drilling Company of Portland has made a proposition to the city council to drill a 12-inch well, 500 feet deep, for $3,500. The council will meet him again Tuesday, at which time the proposition will most likely be accepted and the contract signed, in which case the work will be commenced by April 15 and completed by July 25. Mr. Flynn is strongly of the opinion that flowing water can be obtained at that depth, as the location of the city is very favorable for artesian water. He says if flowing water is not obtained, a well of this depth will furnish about 300,000 gallons of water per day.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 2, 1894, page 3

    The contract for the boring of the much-talked-of artesian well has been let to L. P. Denny of Gridley, Calif. for $3,000 for the first 500 feet and $7.50 per foot for each foot after that depth. Only one other bid, that of T. F. Corbett, was received. The latter's bid was for $3,500 for the first 500 feet and $8 per foot thereafter, not more than 2,000 feet to be bored at that rate.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 21, 1894, page 2

    There was a noticeable scarcity of water from the city supply last Saturday, occasioned by the dam getting out "whack." The damage has since been made good and the water flows freely again--to the man that pays for it.

"News of the City," Medford Mail, June 22, 1894, page 3

    Bids were asked for last week by the city council for pumping water for the city, including the furnishing of fuel for the engine. Four bids were received--C. D. Kellogg, $1150; W. R. Ridenhour, $1110; Medford Electric Light Company, $1075; E. W. Carder, $800. Mr. Carder also submitted a bid of $1200 for the above work and finishings and keeping the water ditch in repair. His $800 bid was accepted by the council. Later: The city council at their regular meeting, Tuesday night, rejected all bids for pumping, Mr. Carder failing to sign [the] contract, in accordance with bid given.
"News of the City," Medford Mail, July 6, 1894, page 3

    The city council has awarded the contract for the extension of the city water works to J. Beek & Co., the enterprising hardware firm, for $1332.79. They are to furnish the material and complete the work. There will be 1520 feet of 4-inch pipe added to the system.
"Medford Items," Valley Record, Ashland, March 28, 1895, page 4

    The new boiler for the Medford water works arrived in Medford on Thursday morning's freight, and the work of unloading and setting it up was immediately commenced. Wells & Shearer were awarded the contract for placing it on the ground for $10, and engineer Carder will soon have it set up and in readiness for immediate use. This is a great improvement in our water works system, and the work of pumping will now be accomplished with much greater safety and rapidity. The cost of the boiler was $719 complete.
"News of the City," Medford Mail, May 22, 1896, page 5

    The night engineer at the city water works has been laid off, and engineer Carder is now doing the work alone.

"News of the City," Medford Mail, September 11, 1896, page 7

    MEDFORD, Jackson Co. (967) Built in '89 by city. SUPPLY.--Bear Creek, by gravity through canal to pumps, then pumping to tank and direct. PUMP.--Cap., 240,000 gals.; Buffalo dup. Wood used; av. cost, $2.94 per cord. TANK.--Cap., 45,000 gals.; wood, 22x16 ft., on timber trestle 80 ft. high. DISTRIBUTION.--Mains, 7½ miles; cost extensions met by city tax. Taps, 169; made by consumer for $2.50. Services, galv. 1.; paid for by consumer. Meters, 0. City can compel use of meters and any consumer may have one. Hydrants, public, 19. CONSUMPTION.--(Gals.) av., 280,000; max., 400,000; min., 80,000. More water is used for irrigation than for any other purposes. PRESSURE.--Ordinary, 40 lbs.; fire, 150 lbs. FINANCIAL.--Cost, $15,900, at 8%. Expenses, $1,996; Operating, $1,200; int., $796. Revenue, two railways, $360; public buildings, $450. No deficits for last two years; when any occurs it is met by general taxation. MANAGEMENT.--Rept. by Supt. and Pump. Engr. E. W. Carder, Aug. 15, '96. SEWERS.--Has storm sewers only.
The Manual of American Water-Works 1897,
M. N. Baker, ed., page 552

    The city council of Medford struck the key note of popular favor when it decided to put down that well at the water works. Sentiment was with the board when it was decided to save money, fuel and time by putting in that feed ditch from the main ditch, but when it was found by digging a reservoir that a pretty good supply of water could be had from the reservoir, or well, itself there was encouraging words given the board, and their decision on the matter of extending tunnels as feeders to the well was met with general approval. When it can be made possible to get good water for all domestic use from this well the expense of keeping the ditch in repair will be cut off--and the ditch and right of way can be sold to someone at a good figure--the water from it being a valuable article for irrigating.
Medford Mail, April 23, 1897, page 2

    Work on the improvements at the water tank is progressing finely, since the large pump has been hitched to the water in the cistern. The cistern has been curbed, and the ditch leading to it is pretty nearly completed. The contract for putting in a fifty-foot tunnel has been let to Eugene Amann and Bert Brandenburg at eight-five cents per foot, in town warrants. Carpenters are now at work getting out timbers, and work will commence on the tunnel at once. While the water which is now coming into the cistern is not nearly equal to the required amount, it is thought the tunnel will add to the supply to an extent which will meet the requirements for at least six months of the year.

"A Grist of Local Haps and Mishaps," Medford Mail, April 30, 1897, page 7

    The city council has awarded the contract for operating the water works and also lighting the streets with electricity to R. A. Proudfoot. Part of the members are opposed to the scheme. This proceeding has caused considerable comment, and there is talk of applying to the circuit court for an injunction to restrain its consummation.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, February 7, 1898, page 3

    Medford's water system has been
enlarged--by 600 feet of 6- inch pipe and 3000 feet of 4-inch pipe. This is a necessary improvement.
    Mrs. John
Hickler, whose husband is interested in the dredger being built near Tolo, was thrown from the buggy in which she was riding a few days ago. The team she was driving, formerly owned by Fred. Fredenburg of Central Point, became frightened by the whistle of the water works blowing and ran away. The lady sustained painful injuries, while the vehicle, a new one, was considerably damaged.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 11, 1898, page 3

    A mass meeting was held on the
4th to discuss the proposition of enlarging the water system. On account of the small amount of snow in the mountains last winter there is a scarcity of water for city and fire purposes. A commission was appointed to report on the proposition of building a reservoir on the bank of Bear Creek and a tunnel under the creek, to strike the under strata of water.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 8, 1898, page 3

    A well 20 feet in diameter is being dug on a lot purchased by the city from W. S. Barnum on South A Street. The object is to secure all the water necessary for city purposes, and it is to be hoped that the required depth can be reached. Councilman Woodford is superintending the work.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 29, 1898, page 2

    Medford--The town council last Tuesday bought the pumping plant formerly used at the Tolo mine, and will put it on the bank of Bear Creek to furnish water for city purposes. A large reservoir is being built, and a tunnel will be dug under the creek to get the lower strata of water. Should there prove to be enough good water to supply the city the present pumping and electric plant will probably be moved to the same location.

"Oregon State News,"
Daily Capital Journal, Salem, September 10, 1898, page 2

    When the well, which is being dug by order of the city council just south of where W. S. Barnum's planing mill stood, is completed, it will be operated by the pumping plant formerly used by the Tolo Mining Co.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, September 15, 1898, page 3

    Work on the town well has been suspended for a few days. Operations cannot proceed satisfactorily until the steam pumping outfit has been adjusted, the small hand pump proving inadequate to the demands. As soon as the new order of things is inaugurated the work will be pushed to completion as rapidly as possible.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, September 30, 1898, page 7

    The old boiler, formerly used for pumping water at the city works, has been taken to the new well house and placed in position for use in pumping water from the well which is now being put down. The new pump is in position, and very soon work on the well proper will be resumed. It is the intention of the board, should a sufficient amount of water be secured, either from the well or a tunnel under the river, or both, to lay pipe to the tanks on West Seventh Street, and this pipe to intersect the mains on South C and South G streets, and by this intersection the pump will be pumping directly into the mains at all times when running and when not running the surplus water in the tanks will supply the demands of the mains. There are about twenty feet of water in the well at present, and it is the intention to go eight or ten feet deeper.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, October 14, 1898, page 7

    Work is still progressing on the big well that the city is building to give the town a better supply of water during the summer time.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 27, 1898, page 2

    Work on the city well has been taking a few days' rest this week because of the fact that piping which had been ordered did not arrive. The tunnel has been driven about eight feet, and from it there comes more water than was secured by digging the well. This tunnel is to be extended fifty feet toward the river, and the end of it farthest from the well will be eighteen feet below the bed of the river. Councilman Woodford, who has the work in charge, is confident that when this tunnel is completed the full fifty feet that there will be secured all the water the pump can handle even in the driest seasons. The water now coming in is not from the creek, but it would appear that the vein from which so many of our best wells feed had been struck.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, November 11, 1898, page 7

    The contract for furnishing the water pipe to lead from the new town well to the pumping plant was awarded to Arthur & Co. of Portland for $2,055.75 for 1925 feet. The only other bid was that of Boyden & Nicholson of Medford, for $2,185.50.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, January 5, 1899, page 2

    Medford's water system will be extended across Bear Creek, to supply those who were embraced in the corporation by act of the last legislature. Bids for 2270 feet of 4-inch pipe have been called for.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 10, 1899, page 2

    The eight-inch water pipe is being removed from the city park and will be used for gutters under the street crossings.

"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 24, 1899, page 3

    The city council at its meeting last week let the contract for furnishing
2270 feet of four-inch pipe for East Medford to J. M. Arthur & Co. of Portland for $1074. Only one other bid, that of John Norris for $1965, was offered.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 17, 1899, page 3

    The ditch for the water pipes in
East Medford is completed and the pipe is on the ground, ready for laying. Contractor Lyons expects to have it in position this week.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 15, 1899, page 3

    Medford is, at last, in a fair way to have pure mountain water at a reasonable expense. Williams & Belser, capitalists of San Francisco, have been looking over the ground with a view to bringing the waters of Little Butte Creek to Medford, and have submitted two propositions to the city. They do not ask for a bonus, simply a guarantee of patronage. They will build the canal necessary to bring the water and furnish the citizens of the town with water, provided they will use as much as in 1899, or will furnish the city authorities with so much water, to be disposed of by the citizens. At a mass meeting of the citizens held last week a committee was appointed to investigate matters and lay their findings before the city board.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, March 5, 1900, page 3

The Medford Water Enterprise.
    C. B. Williams and J. H. Belser, of the firm of Williams & Belser, capitalists and contractors of San Francisco, are considering the advisability of constructing a water ditch from the forks of Little Butte Creek to a point three miles east of Medford, for the purpose of furnishing that city and country through which it passes with water and power. If constructed, the ditch will be 24 miles in length, with an average depth of six feet and an average width of ten feet.
    Engineer McRea of San Francisco and four surveyors of Medford left Monday to make a preliminary survey of the route.
Valley Record, Ashland, March 15, 1900, page 1

Water Rates Established.
    At the last session of the city council the following schedule of prices was established for the use of city water. These charges are in addition to those previously established for the use of water for irrigation:
Bath tubs each, per month . . . . $ .25
Steam or hot water heater, per month . . . .  .25
Water closets . . . .  .50
Each bedroom for guests
, per month . . . .  .10
Water closet
, per month . . . . 1.00
Each additional closet
, per month . . . .  .50
, per month . . . .  .50
Window jets
, per month . . . .  .20
Washing dishes, etc. . . . .  .29
Jets for soda fountains . . . .  .20
Water closets
, per month . . . . 1.00
, per month . . . .  .50
Water closets
, per month . . . .  .50
Each additional
, per month . . . .  .25
, per month . . . .  .25
Same as stores.
Base rate . . . . .  .25
Watering one horse
, per month . . . .  .05
Each additional
, per month . . . .  .05
Each cow
, per month . . . .  .05
Washing one buggy
, per month . . . .  .05
Each additional
, per month . . . .  .05
Medford Mail, March 16, 1900, page 6

    The city council has ordered 2180 feet of four-inch water pipe, which is to be laid from Seventh Street north on B to Third, then east to A Street. The council has also ordered 350 feet of the same-sized pipe for an extension on South C Street.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, March 23, 1900, page 7

    The laying of water pipe on North B Street was commenced Monday. The pipe being put down is four-inch--which takes the place of the two-inch put down several years ago, which is now inadequate to supply the demand.

"Additional Local Items," Medford Mail, April 20, 1900, page 6

    It's the same thing over again this summer with regard to the use of city water. There seem always to be several, more or less, users of city water who persist in violating the town ordinance in this matter, but this season the disposition to violate seems more prevalent than ever before. R. B. Lawton, superintendent of the pumping station, has a notice elsewhere in this issue, in which he warns violators to desist at once or suffer the consequences. There seems just grounds for the enforcement of this ordinance, in that during the past week the tanks have been nearly emptied of water during the night. If a fire should occur at a time when the tanks were empty, the result would prove very disastrous to the town.
"City Happenings,"
Medford Mail, May 25, 1900, page 7

    The authorities of the city of Medford have made a contract with Mr. Williams, representing the Southern Oregon Irrigation and Power Co., to furnish the city with water from the Butte Creeks at the rate of four cents per thousand gallons for the first 250,000 gallons, two cents per thousand for the next 350,000 gallons, and 1½ cents per thousand for any amount above those quantities. It is said to be the intention of the company to commence work on the ditch very soon. The enterprise will prove quite important in more ways than one.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, August 16, 1900, page 3

Medford's Proposed New Ditch.
    Medford, Aug. 27.--The Oregon Irrigating & Power Company entered into a contract with the city of Medford to furnish a minimum supply of 250,000 gallons of water per day of a rate of 4 cents per 1000, this rate to be reduced 2 cents per 1000 for an additional 350,000 gallons and a further reduction as the requirements of the city increase to 1½ cents per 1000. Present plans of the company, of whom C. M. Williams of San Francisco is the head, are to begin work upon the ditch Sept. 1. The ditch originates near the junction of the north and south forks of Butte Creek, in Jackson County, and traverses in its course to Medford a large area of land that may be brought to a high state of cultivation by irrigation. It is proposed to irrigate 50,000 acres of such land.
    The present survey represents the ditch to be 45 miles long, with a width of 10 feet at the bottom and 16 feet at the top, and a depth of 5½ feet. It is calculated that a sufficient volume of water will be carried to supply all demands upon it to its ultimate terminus, which is supposed to be on the west side of the valley, plans being to cross near the town of Talent. The undertaking is an important one in the history of this section and is hailed with delight by all classes and has the substantial support of all people interested in the development of Oregon.
Valley Record, Ashland, August 30, 1900, page 3

Medford Water Ditch, August 28, 1900 Oregonian
August 28, 1900 Oregonian

    At a special meeting of the Medford city council, held Tuesday evening, for the purpose of regulating the price of city water, a rate of $40 per month was established for the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, and the term of use at this price was placed at five years. Several years ago a rate of $20 per month for the company was established. This contract expired November 14, 1900. The increase of train service on the line and the additional use of water at the depot was thought to about double the amount of water now used over the amount used when the $20 rate was made.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, December 14, 1900, page 7

    The Southern Pacific Company could not stand the raise in the price of water made by the city council, and a pumping plant has been installed with which water will be supplied by the tank for engine use from a nearby well, which was in use several years ago.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, January 4, 1901, page 7

    The S.P. company's pumping station recently put in at this place for the purpose of pumping water for their engines is said not to be a success. One hour's work is said to be sufficient to exhaust the supply.

"Additional Local," Medford Mail, January 18, 1901, page 6

    The Medford city council is, in strict parlance, "up against the real thing." At the regular session of the board, held on Tuesday evening of this week, some astounding facts were disclosed. Treasurer Strang's report was read, and from it it was learned that the town was about $69,000 in debt, and that during the last two years the town's indebtedness had increased $19,000. This increase was mainly due to the purchase of the electric light plant and the putting in of the sewerage system. The board also found that the electric light plant was $500 in debt; that its operation since the purchase of the plant last April had been $1000 in excess of the income from lights. Five hundred dollars of this deficit had been transferred from the general fund, which leaves the plant, as above stated, $500 in debt. When to this amount is added the six percent interest on the light plant purchase price, it is found that the plant has actually cost the town $1500 during the last ten months. The council also found that the receipts for water rents during the past year had been $1400. The amount paid for wood for the water system during this time was $1800, engineer's salary, $480. Besides these items there are the repairs made and the oil used. The water committee has estimated that the expenditures have been at least $1000 in excess of receipts. Having arrived at the condition of the town's finances the present board of councilmen propose to remedy matters, if this be possible--and it must be made possible if the town hopes to thrive and offer inducements to prospective property purchasers. No definite plans of procedure has been decided upon as yet, nor will they be until the several committees have made a thorough investigation of all detail matters. That the price charged for lights and water will be raised seems inevitable, but the necessary raise has not as yet been decided upon. Both the light plant and the water system must be put upon a basis of self-support or the town will in a few years be irretrievably bankrupt. Since the above was put in type we are informed that over $700 of water rents were collected during the first part of January and after the recorder had closed his books, from which the above report was made. This would bring the water receipts up to very nearly $2200.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, February 8, 1901, page 7

    The big new boiler for our water and light plant, which councilman Wilson purchased in California recently, is being put in position. As a consequence the city is without electricity at present.
"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, May 16, 1901, page 5

To Water Consumers.
    The city council passed an ordinance on the 14th day of May, 1901, increasing the water rate after June 30, 1901, to all consumers of city water, hoping thereby to make the service self-supporting. No water will be furnished after June 30th to irrigate any lawn or garden, except through a meter. If you want water for your lawns or gardens, you will have to buy a meter and have the same attached to your water pipe before the 1st day of July next.
    Water will be furnished for business property if desired, at a flat rate, and on such property a meter will not be required.
    On and after July 1, 1901, the water will be shut off on all residence and suburban property, unless you cause a meter to be attached to your supply pipe before that date.
    If you expect or desire to use city water after June 30th, you should at once buy a meter and have it installed.
    If you wait until July 1st to buy your meter, your water will be shut off before you can get it installed.
    The city recorder will take your order for a meter at any time, and will send for it for you.
    The city will not exact any profit from you for supplying you with a meter, but will supply and install the same at actual cost.
    Meter rates for city water will be only eight cents per 1000 gallons. When you have a meter you can irrigate all day or at any hour you please. You pay for what you get, but no more than you get. You can make it cost yourself [as] much or little as you please.
    The cost of a meter and the installing of it will be $8.75. ORDER YOUR METER AT ONCE so that your water supply will not be stopped on July 1st.
            J. W. LAWTON,
                City Recorder.
Dated May 15, 1901.
Medford Mail, May 17, 1901, page 2

    Family rates for drinking, cooking or washing 25 cents per month, bath tubs 50 cents. (All rates noted are by the month.) For sprinkling sidewalks and washing windows, 25 cents for each 25 feet; stores 50 cents; jets for soda fountains ;50; photograph gallery, minimum rate $1; printing offices, minimum 50; bakeries, $1.25; private stables, one stall for horse or cow, 25, each additional 10; livery stables $5; blacksmith shops 50; hotels and lodging houses, family rate 75, each bedroom 10, bath tub $1, each additional tub 50, water closet $1, additional water closets 50, urinal 50, bar $1; barber shops 50, bath tub $1; restaurant $1.25; saloons bar rate $1, water closets $1; building purposes:--for each 1000 brick laid 15, wetting each barrel of lime 10, wetting each barrel of cement 10, for mortar, laying rock, per perch 05. In most cases above given the council reserve the right to compel the use of meters should it decide so to do.
    The minimum rate per month for meters is 50 cents, and for each 1000 gallons 8 cents.
"Special Meeting City Council," Medford Mail, May 17, 1901, page 2

    A Southern Pacific carpenter crew was in Medford last week for the purpose of installing their meter, as per contract with the city council. The company is now using city water, after an experience of several months in supplying their own water from a well near the water tank--an experiment that proved not altogether successful.

"Additional Local," Medford Mail, June 14, 1901, page 6

City Puts in Water Meters.
    MEDFORD, Or., July 1.--Medford for the past few weeks has been putting in meters over its entire water system. This is done at the expense of about $8.50 per meter, and is required to be paid by each patron. This money will be refunded when the meter is returned. Commencing today patrons of the water system will pay 8 cents per 1000 gallons, so that anyone who is without a meter will be shut off from the supply of water until he has one put in.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 2, 1901, page 4

    Last Monday was the date upon which the meter system for using water for irrigating purposes went into effect. Recorder W. T. York reports that seventy-odd meters were in operation July 1st, and that since that date over forty more have been ordered.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, July 5, 1901, page 7

    Councilman Willeke has asked us to say to water users of the city that when a fire alarm is turned in they should at once stop using city water and see to it that all standpipes are closed. This he asks of them that the fire company may have use of all the water in the mains in their efforts to save endangered property. When a number of pipes are open the force is much less, and ofttimes there is scarcely enough water to effectually play on the flames.
"Medford's Narrow Escape," Medford Mail, July 18, 1902, page 2

    Edwin Russ is putting in a private water supply for his residence on C Street, between Tenth and Eleventh. He has put in a pump which will be operated by a wind wheel and a big tank to be used as a reservoir. He expects to have water enough for household purposes and an ample supply for irrigation of his yard and garden.
"Additional Local," Medford Mail, July 18, 1902, page 6

    At the special meeting of the city council on Tuesday evening steps were taken to put the electric light and water system of the city on a meter basis. Ordinances creating a superintendent of light and water, under the general control of the light and water committee of the city council, reducing the salary of the city recorder, and attaching the reduction to that of the city electrician (who is now superintendent of lights and water), together with duties pertaining to his new office formerly performed by the recorder and providing for the abolishment of the present flat-rate system were passed.
    The new office of light and water superintendent carries with it the care and control of the city's electric light and water plant, the supervision of all employees in that department and responsibility for their acts, also the making out and collection of bills for light and water, and all other duties pertaining to the running of the plant. His salary is fixed at not more than $80 per month, and in addition he receives 10 percent of the net income of the plant at the end of the year. By net income is meant what is left after the running expenses of the plant, including salaries of superintendent, employees, fuel, repairs, light and water furnished the city, etc. As the plant has been barely paying expenses so far, the percentage the superintendent will receive will probably be not large, unless he is able by more efficient management to reduce expenses and increase the income.
    It is expected that the abolishment of the flat rate will stop many leaks in both the electric light and water systems, and by enabling the city to collect for the goods furnished, and giving the consumer what he pays for, will be more satisfactory all around.
    Another new feature will be the all-night light services, which is expected to cause many people to use lights who do not now do so under the midnight system.
    The council expects to be able to change to the new regime within thirty days and expect to by this means place this department on a paying basis.
"Electric Lights and Water," Medford Mail, October 3, 1902, page 2

    The following additional ordinances were introduced and passed:
    Fixing the salary of city recorder at $240 per annum, payable monthly.
    Creating the office of superintendent of light and water, to have jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to same, subject to the light and water committee, and fixing his salary at $80 per month and 10 percent of the net proceeds of the light and water plant at the end of the year.
"City Council Proceedings," Medford Mail, October 3, 1902, page 2

Light and Water Notice.
    After this date, all light and water bills must be paid ON OR BEFORE THE 10TH DAY of each month, AT THE CITY HALL. No bills will be presented or notices given to consumers FOR YOU KNOW THAT YOU OWE THESE BILLS.
    The Superintendent of Light and Water will be found daily at the city hall, from the 1st to the 10th day of each month, to receive payment of your light and water bills. On the 11th day of each month he will commence and turn off all lights and water that have not been paid for. NO EXCEPTIONS WILL BE MADE TO FAVOR ANYBODY.
    If you are shut off for nonpayment, there will be additional charges to pay before you can get any more light or water.
    With the increasing population of the city, it has been found impracticable to present every month a bill to every consumer of light and water. Hence this change had become an imperative necessity.
    DON'T FORGET when to pay, where to pay and whom to pay, every month.
    By order of the city council.
WM. S. CROWELL, Mayor.
October 1, 1902.
Medford Mail, October 3, 1902, page 2

    The damage done by the big slide which took away considerable of the Fish Lake Co.'s ditch not long ago, not far from Brownsboro, has been repaired. A substantial flume, about 250 feet long, replaces it. Work on the main line is progressing nicely.
"Local Notes," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, October 30, 1902, page 1

    The time has come when the people of Medford must begin to figure on ways and means for a water supply for drinking and domestic purposes outside of that furnished by wells, and a system for carrying off surplus water and sewerage other than that afforded by natural drainage. The town now has 2,500 inhabitants or over and is rapidly growing in population. Situated as it is the gradient toward Bear Creek is not sufficient for the water falling during the winter season to drain off readily, nor the character of the soil such as to quickly absorb it. In many places depressions exist which are filled with water by every rain, and this water stands until it disappears by evaporation, a menace to the health of everyone in the vicinity. Nor is this all. The water supply for domestic purposes in this town comes from wells. None of these wells are deep--from twelve to twenty-five feet--and consequently are dependent upon surface water to a great extent for their supply. One can imagine the purity of that water when it reaches those dwelling in the lowest parts of town after having filtered through all the barn yards and other premises above them. The prevalence of typhoid fever this fall in Medford is direct proof that this condition of affairs is something which requires attention. Much of it is due to impure water, and a noticeable fact is that the majority of cases have appeared in the thickly settled portion of town east of the S.P. railroad, while the more thinly settled and elevated portions of the city have been comparatively free.
    In some way these conditions must be remedied. Some means must be found within the next few years to secure an adequate supply of pure water for domestic use for the city.
    The Mail has no suggestion to offer at present as to ways and means of securing this water supply, but is ready and willing to do all in its power to secure the success of a feasible scheme to permanently relieve the situation.
Medford Mail, October 31, 1902, page 2

    E. D. Lewis, the gentleman who has established a steam laundry in Medford, reports that he is doing a fairly good business, notwithstanding the fact that this line of business has made a couple or three failures in the city. Mr. Lewis can see no good reason why a laundry cannot be made to pay here--and he is going at it with a determination to make it pay. The principal trouble experienced by other laundrymen here has been the securing of water suited for washing purposes. They have always used Bear Creek water, but Mr. Lewis thinks he can overcome this trouble by using well water. He has had a great many years' experience in California, and he is very sanguine as to his success here. The quality of work turned out surely indicates that his is a master hand at the business.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, November 7, 1902, page 7

    D. E. Morris, superintendent of the Fish Lake Ditch Co., spent a few days in Medford this week. He is inaugurating operations for the season and wishes to employ some men.

"Medford Squibs," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, April 1, 1903, page 3

A Water Famine.
    Wednesday evening the pump which supplies the boilers with water at the electric light plant broke down, and the town was without lights during the night and without water until noon Thursday. After the first breakage another pump was secured, but it refused absolutely to operate, by that time the water had become so low in the boilers that it was necessary to fill them by the slow process of carrying water and pouring it into them. This took until nearly noon, and caused considerable inconvenience. The Iowa Lumber & Box Co., which depends upon the city for water to supply its boilers, was compelled to shut down, and the hotels, saloons, etc., were without running water. Immediately after Supt. Loder found that he couldn't run the plant the supply of water in the tank was cut off, to be used in case of fire.
Medford Mail, July 8, 1904, page 1

    By this time next week the steam engines and boilers at the pumping station will likely be out of commission, and the plant will be operated by electricity. After a long delay the big transformers, that have been "on the way" for several months, are in position, and this week the new pump is being connected with the water mains and the motor. Several days will likely be required to do this work, but it is expected to have everything in readiness by the first of next week.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, March 31, 1905, page 5

    A Citizen:--"I wish The Mail would call the attention of the city councilmen to the condition of the old water ditch. There is standing water in it in many places, and as warm weather approaches there is danger of disease germs lurking therein."
"Street Echoes," Medford Mail, June 16, 1905, page 1

A Project Now Being Promoted Which Will Supply Medford
an Abundance of Big Butte Creek Water
    A. W. Shearer has located a water right on Big Butte Creek, at a point where that stream passes through the south half of the southwest quarter of section fourteen, in township thirty-four south, of range one east. This right gives Mr. Shearer the privilege of taking 15,000 miner's inches of water from Big Butte Creek, or practically all the water that flows in the stream at this season of the year, but even though all the water is taken out no person will be injured, as there are no riparian rights between that point and where the stream empties into Rogue River.
    The above bit of news would not, under ordinary circumstances, create any particular or especial interest among Medford people, but when we say further that it is the intention of certain Medford persons, and others not of Medford, to bring that Big Butte Creek water to Medford in a pipe, laid underground, we at once get interested.
    In a nutshell the proposition is this: A. W. Shearer, John F. White and B. J. Trowbridge and a couple or more parties, who live in Portland, have organized themselves into a company, the sole purpose of which will be to supply Medford, Central Point and Phoenix with pure mountain water, and so sanguine are they of the success of the project that they have said this:--"You may say to your readers that this is no hot air proposition. It is based upon good, sound business calculations of the demands of a now densely populated community, and the still greater demands which are sure to follow. It is barely possible that we may not able to carry out the plans in every detail, but so feasible is the project that it will not be a difficult matter to secure aid when it is needed."
    The distance from Medford to the point where the water right has been filed is twenty-seven miles, two and one-half miles up Big Butte Creek from its confluence with Rogue River. The elevation at this point is 325 feet above Medford, but as the water does not flow swiftly right at this place, it is proposed to build an open ditch for a distance of six or seven miles along a mountainside, where a drop of 200 feet may be had, thus giving a velocity to the water that otherwise could not be given it. Here a bulkhead will be put in and the water will enter a five-foot pipe. This pipe will be laid underground, and the water will travel all the distance to Medford through this buried pipe, thus avoiding the danger of frosts in winter, the unpleasantness of warm water in the summer and the nuisance such a pipe would be if laid above ground.
    It is proposed to run two lateral pipes from the main line, one each to Central Point and Phoenix. The water will reach Medford with 150-foot pressure. This pipeline complete will cost approximately $1,000,000. From a point five miles above Eagle Point the pipe will be laid in an air line to Medford. About ten miles of the distance traversed by the pipe will be over an arid tract of land, and it is not thought that a right-of-way over this orchard land will be difficult to secure. While it is true that for a few miles this water will run in an open ditch, it is the intention of the company to fence the ditch and before the water enters the pipe it will be put through a filter.
    The need of better water for use in Medford has always been a subject of much comment, and this season the need of more water, such as it is, has been apparent. Bear Creek, our only source of supply, is nearly dry, while the well from which water is pumped for city use has been emptied a number of times this season, and the pumps have been compelled to shut down until it filled again. The especially good feature of this pipeline is that we get water absolutely pure and direct from the mountains--such as every person could and would want to use for domestic purposes.
Medford Mail, August 4, 1905, page 1

    Owing to the dry season the water has fallen so low in Bear Creek that the supply has been considerably curtailed. In former years the pumping plant has been able to furnish an adequate supply of water for irrigating and other domestic purposes, but with the growth of the city and the increased use of water from Bear Creek above Medford, the supply grows more and more inadequate each year. The city has grown to such a size that the water supply for drinking purposes must be drawn from some other source than wells--either open or closed. Of course at present this mode of securing water is entirely adequate. The well water in Medford is generally pure and cool, but the city is growing. Time will come when other means must be found for a water supply. It is always best to take "time by the forelock," and not wait until necessity compels us to act. A number of plans have been advocated of late tending toward supplying the city with pure, mountain water. They all appear all right in theory, but have not been demonstrated in practice as yet. However, we believe that the solution of the matter of a good gravity water system will be found by the time the growth of the city demands it and that it will not be very long. Any gravity system, coming from either east or west, will cost in the neighborhood of $500,000; one system, now being surveyed, is estimated by its projectors to cost $1,000,000, but, when once established, it will be worth all the money.
Excerpt, Medford Mail, August 25, 1905, page 1

Where Will We Get Water?
    Right at the present time there is nothing more important to the well-being of the city of Medford than its water supply. The Commercial Club of this city has decided to take this matter up and ascertain if it be possible to devise means for securing a supply of good, pure mountain water for the city's use. When the Commercial Club acts as a unit upon any improvement or enterprise it always accomplishes its end. Knowing this to be true and desiring an expression of all the club members and the citizens generally, President Hutchison and Secretary Purdin have asked the Mail to call a meeting of club members and citizens for Tuesday evening, August 29th, at 8 o'clock, at the club rooms. Aside from the matters above referred to there will be other questions discussed.
Medford Mail, August 25, 1905, page 4

    J. S. Howard:--"The failure of the city water supply has given occasion for a considerable amount of discussion on both sides of the question, and some are disposed to lay the blame upon the city councils of previous years. While mistakes may have been made--we are all of us human and prone to err--I am inclined to believe that each of those bodies has acted to the best of its knowledge and ability. The problem of securing an adequate water supply can be solved I believe at a comparatively small expense and in such a way that the city can be sure of an ample supply for many years to come, or until some of the numerous projects for piping water mountain here crystallize into the real thing. J. S. Barnett, near Central Point, has a well in the creek bottom from which he is pumping water to irrigate about forty acres of land, and the supply seems inexhaustible. The same kind of a well could be sunk on the east side of the creek here, and the same result secured, as there is a strong flow of water at a reasonable depth there. Then again water could be secured west and south of town by a series of wells and tunnels. From this season's experience it is evident that some steps must be taken to remedy the evil."
"Street Echoes," Medford Mail, August 25, 1905, page 1

Small Blaze in the West End
Dwelling House Burned--No Water on Hand--
City Waits for Big Fire Before Getting Water Supply

    A small residence on C Street belonging to the Rev. W. E. Goode of the Free Methodist Church caught fire at about 10:30 this morning and was entirely consumed. It was unoccupied [at] the time. The Medford Fire Department responded promptly at the first alarm, but when they arrived at the scene [they] could only watch the building burn, the nearest source of obtaining water being at a neighboring pump. By hard work a nearby cottage occupied by F. F. Anderson was saved. Fortunately no wind was blowing at the time or this, as well as several more, would have been in grave danger.
    The most thrilling incident of the fire occurred when one of the hose carts was fastened to the tailboard of a delivery wagon and the driver urged the team to full speed. That is, he tried to, but one of the horses objected to the load and instead of hiking out for where the fire fiend was getting in his best licks, the animal stopped and kicked. As a high kicker that horse was a success. He kicked himself free from the vehicle and then deliberately backed up to the side of the wagon and proceeded to get busy.
    Now, the hose cart men had piled into that wagon, and were just commencing to draw long breaths and indulge in a vision of an easy run for the balance of the way. Awakened from their pipe dream by the menacing hoofs of the enraged brute, they stumbled over the opposite side with some degree of alacrity. One or two were not quite quick enough and were assisted to terra firma by the horse. The firemen then attached themselves to the hauling rope and made the balance of the way by hand.
    There being no water mains in that vicinity, the conclusion reached is that the hose carts were taken along as evidence of good faith only.
    Someday when the wind is in the right direction a fire will break out and the city of Medford will be burned.
    Then and probably not till some such catastrophe has happened will the people of Medford make some provision towards securing an adequate water supply.
Medford Daily Tribune, July 31, 1906, page 1

    Medford is suffering for the want of water, and its newspapers and citizens are indulging in heated conversation as to the reasons why. The water supply used from Bear Creek is uncertain and inadequate as well as unfit for use. Well water is used for domestic wants. The city council does not feel that the municipality is prepared to reach out and secure water from a great distance at great expense of finance and responsibility of securing the supply and carrying on and constructing the enterprise. A number of prominent citizens advocate that the city quit its feeble efforts in attempting to serve the city without an adequate source of supply and induce some big corporation to take a franchise and bring water by pipe line from a great distance.
"Personal," Valley Record, Ashland, August 29, 1906, page 2

    A special meeting of the city council was held on Saturday evening of last week with view to taking preliminary action in the matter of providing a more adequate water supply for the city of Medford. An ordinance was passed providing for the services of competent engineers to examine into and report upon the source and plans for obtaining the necessary supply of pure water. Col. Willard Young and Frank C. Kelsey, two expert engineers of Portland, were engaged to do the work as prescribed by ordinance and report within twenty days. These gentlemen come well recommended and will no doubt render good service.
"Additional Local," Medford Mail, February 1, 1907, page 4

    Foreman T. W. Green has started up his work in drilling the [municipal] artesian well, the trouble in procuring fuel having been obviated by H. C. Garnett, who guarantees to provide plenty of coal from the nearby mines for carrying on the important operations. Much credit is due Mr. Garnett for taking such magnanimous action, for those in a position to know are positive that the daily hauling of the five tons of coal in itself costs more than the fuel is worth. But it will enable the good work to go on, and an anxious public will be greatly interested in the outcome.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, April 19, 1907, page 5

City Plans Improvement Costing $200,000--Reddy Made Mayor [sic].
    MEDFORD, Or., June 4.--(Special.)--The charter election held today under the referendum law, extending the powers of the city council to enable them to issue $200,000 bonds for a water system, and providing for the improvement of streets, carried by a safe majority. The municipal lighting plant, operated at a loss for years, will be sold to the Condor Power Company for $20,000, and light furnished to consumers at a rate far lower than that now exacted. The success of the election means a newer and a greater Medford, and the triumph of the progressive element, which elected Mayor Reddy and the present city council.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, June 5, 1907, page 6

Pure Water at Less than Present City Rates
(By Shorty Garnett)
    To the Public--I have a well 18 feet deep, nine feet across at the bottom, making a basin to hold about 700 gallons of water. In the attic of my house 23 feet from the ground, I have a 400-gallon galvanized tank. I have a double-acting Maud S. force pump connected to a one-fourth horsepower electric motor, the motor connected to city wires, the same that light my dwelling. This outfit cost, outside of the well, less than $100. By keeping tab on the cost of running I fill my 400-gallon tank in 20 minutes, or I get 1925 gallons of water for 10 cents worth of electricity and get pure water. My range, tank, sink lavatories and bath are connected with the 400-gallon tank, which is much cheaper than city water. Call and see Shorty Garnett, he has it.
Medford Mail, June 28, 1907, page 2

    Last week the Mail published an article on watering places for horses, which we wish to call attention to again, as something of that kind would not be out of place here. There used to be one at the corner of A and 7th streets, but it has been removed, and the only place a farmer can water his team now in the city is at the creek. It would not be much expense to establish watering troughs at convenient places and would be of inestimable benefit to thirsty animals, which, after a drive of several miles through the dust to the city must stand in the sun for several hours and then make the return trip without water.

"City Happenings," Medford Mail, July 19, 1907, page 5

    Two weeks ago the Mail called attention to the need of watering troughs in the city--and now we have them, four of them. Whether this action was due to this paper calling attention to the matter, or whether it was contemplated before, the fact that the troughs are there is sufficient. The troughs are located in different parts of town, one at the corner of C and 8th, another at the corner of 7th and A, another on D and 6th, and the fourth on Seventh and G. These troughs will be a great convenience to the traveling public and will no doubt be duly appreciated by their animals.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, August 9, 1907, page 5

    T. H. Farrar, superintendent of Medford's water and light plant, is having put in a cutoff that will furnish an ample supply of water for city use and afford protection against fire. Bear Creek will furnish a sufficiency of water if it is properly utilized, and when properly filtered will be perfectly pure.

Medford Daily Tribune, October 25, 1907, page 1

    At a recent meeting of the city council the following new water rates were made. These are the minimum rates per month:
    Barber shops--One chair, $1, more than one chair, first chair, $1, each additional chair 50¢, bath tubs, $1.25.
    Restaurants, coffee and chop houses--$3.
    Lodging houses--12½¢ for each bed, in addition to family rates.
    Boarding houses--15
¢ per head for each boarder, in addition to family rates.
    Saloons--$3.50, including one toilet.
    Horse and carriage 50
¢, each additional horse 25¢.
    Livery stables--$5, including carriage washing.
    Feed yards and stables--$2.50.
    Soda fountains--50
¢, each jet $1, each tumbler washer 50¢.
    Persons slacking lime, mortar or cement--20
¢ per barrel, wetting brick, 20¢ per thousand.
    Bottling works, breweries, etc.--$1.50 per month.
    Dental rooms--$1.50.
    Photograph galleries--$2.50.
    Dwellings, tenements, flats and other apartments, occupied by more than one family, $1.
    All other consumers not herein or thereinafter especially provided for, including business houses, offices, etc., $1.
    All consumers are required to use meters, at the discretion of the council, and when the meter readings are in excess of the minimum rate these readings shall be the basis for computing cost. The water rate was raised from 10 to 15 cents per 1000 gallons.
Medford Mail, January 3, 1908, page 1

    Messrs. Merrick, Wortman, Osgood and Eifert, a committee of Medford citizens, stopped here on Monday of last week on their way to the headwaters of the Butte creeks looking for a supply of water that could be piped to Medford so that the citizens of that thriving city could have an abundant of supply of pure water for domestic use, and the reader can be assured that if they succeed in procuring a supply from that source or from Rogue River they will have an abundant supply of as good water as there is to be found in the state.
A. C. Howlett, "Eagle Point Eaglets,"
Medford Mail, February 21, 1908, page 3

    The work of laying the water mains on Seventh Street is soon to be started, according to a discussion by members of the city council held on Monday afternoon. The water committee will start the work as soon as more pipe reaches Medford. Three carloads of pipe were shipped on Monday, Recorder Collins being notified to that effect by telegraph.
    The work of putting down the pipe on this street is to be hurried, so as to be out of the way of the bitulithic contractors, in order to have the street paved, as is essential before the rainy season of next year opens.
    One matter regarding the laying of the pipe is bothering the council, and that is the fact that after the pipe is laid the ground must be thoroughly packed by hand before paving starts. If this is not done the filled places will settle, and the city will experience the same difficulty as Seattle is having at present. In the latter place the pavement has sunk in many places, making it necessary for the pavement to be torn up and relaid. Every 25 feet on Seventh Street a branch line must be put in, and if the dirt covering the pipe is not thoroughly tamped by hand the pavement will not be much smoother than the street is at present.
    The councilmen were all of the opinion that the work must be rushed in order to get the pavement in by fall.
    Considerable of the pipe which has arrived for the city is defective and is to be sent back to the firm furnishing it. Considerably delay will be experienced in this regard, but the city is determined to have what it ordered.
Medford Mail, March 13, 1908, page 1

    At the request of a number of prominent citizens, Professor Doma has made the following exhaustive tests of the superior quality of Medford's new water supply. Being a very practical man, as I have said before, the professor's tests were somewhat out of the ordinary analysis, but prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Wasson Springs water is pure.
    A 22⅛-gallon tin vessel was punctured at the bottom right-hand corner with a 3/32-inch hole and allowed to stand tightly covered in a dry room for 24 hours. At the end of that time the cover was removed and the water was found to have all leaked out, which proves that it is a liquid and very thin and free from solid matter.
    Second test: An inebriated toper with an iron constitution was closely confined in an alfalfa barn, 22x32½ feet, without food or drink, except 10 gallons of Wasson Spring water. At the end of the allotted time he was examined. Results: Water all gone; constitution unrusted, 20 pounds of alfalfa missing; man thoroughly sober. This proves that the water is appetizing and free from adulteration or contamination by fermented leaves, roots or grains.
    Third test: An ordinary hat was fitted as well as possible to a thoughtless person's head and Professor Doma threw five wash basins of Wasson Spring water out of a barrel from the second-story window down upon him. Results: The hat was ruined; his long hair was "soaked" (and as he afterward confided to Toggery Bill, he himself was, too, when he had paid $5.00 for it).
    Conclusion: The water is wet.
    The fourth test was an accident and befell one of the judges of the fairness of the tests. He was a gentleman of refined appearance and noted for his taste in dress. The professor was leaning out of the window noting the effect of the water on the careless man's hat when, by mistake, he tipped the whole barrel, water and all, down on the judge's head. Results: The gentleman was very angry, and while he was uninjured he remarked "that the professor of physics was a blithering cone-headed blunderer." The hat, which was a "No Name," quickly resumed its original "snappy" shape and the dampness failed to penetrate its superior felt, which proves conclusively that the water is, in this one particular only, no better than ordinary rainwater, as neither can soak through a "No Name." Result: Many wise people who wish to look their best go to The Toggery and buy "No Names." They are of the "first water." The hat is admittedly the best hat in America today for the price, $3, $4, $5.
Medford Daily Tribune, April 6, 1908, page 4

    And the work of constructing "Greater Medford" has been undertaken. On Tuesday last, ground was broken and the work of laying the new water distributing system was actually undertaken. The work is to be rushed now until it is finished, as the contract states that the system must be completed by the first day of August. The machinery for the digging of the trenches has been shipped from Portland and is expected any day, and in the meantime workmen are busily engaged in laying the pipe under the tracks of the Southern Pacific Company, where the excavating machine cannot be used.
    The engineers are ready to take the field and map out the line for the gravity water supply from Wasson Canyon. The city recorder has been authorized to call for bids for the paving of Seventh Street.
Medford Mail, May 15, 1908, page 1

Jacobsen & Bade's Buckeye Ditcher
Jacobsen & Bade's Buckeye Ditcher

    The machinery for the digging of the trenches in which the water mains of the city are to be laid arrived on Sunday morning.
    Engineer Cummings has taken the field and is engaged in plotting the route for the line of the gravity water system to Wasson Canyon. He expects to be engaged on the work of finding the correct route, together with estimating the work, about three months in all.
"City Happenings," Medford Mail, May 22, 1908, page 5

Considerable Pipe Laid.
    The ditcher at work on Riverside Avenue is proving to be a great success and is disproving the statements made by a number of persons that it could not cut through the hardpan on the north end of the avenue. When the ditches were dug in that section of the city for the sewerage system the contractors were forced to blast out a part of the ditch, but the immense ditcher is cutting its way down the roadway at the rate of four feet a minute. At one time a number of stones were encountered and the machine was forced to cut its speed to two feet a minute. However, the machine has dug a good bit over a quarter of a mile since it started up on Tuesday afternoon. As yet the adjustments have not all been made.
    On Riverside Avenue men were put at work, following up the machine with the work of laying the pipe, and between 9 o'clock yesterday morning and 5 o'clock last evening over 1200 feet of pipe was laid, cemented together and was ready to be tested. At this rate it will not be long before work will be completed.
    Whenever the pipe has been tested the contractors will start refilling the trenches. This will be done with teams and graders, as it will be much faster than if the work is done by shovels.
    Manager Bade of the company, in charge of the work, stated yesterday that he had decided to put the machine on Seventh Street on the west side of the Southern Pacific tracks. He looked over the street Tuesday evening and decided that it would pay him to put the machine on that thoroughfare.
    Each street in the city will be torn up to some extent, as the system is designed to be most complete, affording each and every part of the city an adequate water supply.
    Street Commissioner Damon has just finished laying 1900 feet of six-inch water pipe on Oakdale Avenue, which will be connected with the water supply that is being put in by contract. The main is on the west side of the street, and the property owners on that street are to ask for the privilege of putting down a sewer main on the east side of the avenue will be petitioned for [sic]. Those public-spirited citizens are also to have the avenue macadamized in the near future.
Medford Mail, May 29, 1908, page 4

NOTICE TO CONTRACTORS--Medford, Or., July 24th, 1908. The City of Medford, Oregon, will receive bids at the office of  Benj. M. Collins, City Recorder, until 6 p.m. Thursday, August 6th, 1908, for all materials and labor necessary to construct a twenty (20) mile gravity pipe line, diversion works, reservoir, etc. A certified check for $10,000 payable to the Recorder of the City of Medford will be required as a guarantee of good faith. Approximate quantities: 1,200,000 ft., board measure, staves; 1,000,000 lbs. steel bands, 40,000 cu. yds. excavation, 800 barrels cement.
BENJ. M. COLLINS, City Recorder.
W. J. ROBERTS, Consulting Engineer.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 27, 1908, page 11

    The Jacobsen & Bade Company of Portland has finished the work of laying all the water mains throughout the city, seven miles in all. The work was begun May 21, and although it was done quickly, it was well done. The same firm intends to bid on the work of laying the pipes to bring the water to the city, and will not ship their steam digger [back to Portland] until they find out if they secure the contract or not.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, August 7, 1908, page 6

    The new pump and motor for the city water works are standing on the freight depot platform awaiting removal to the water plant, but in all probability it will not be installed for some time, because of the fact that the pump and motor now in use have a capacity greater by far than is the water supply of Bear Creek.
    The new outfit is a 135-horsepower General Electric Company's motor, and the pump is a Worthington rotary with a capacity of 1000 gallons per minute.
    The necessity for this increase in the pumping capacity of the water plant was made apparent several months ago, when it was figured out that during the past two years the water users of the city had increased in number fully 50 percent, according to Superintendent Farrier, the number of users now being over 400, and still there is a clamoring for more water mains by the people living in the outlying districts.
    It would be a safe estimate to say that there is fully one-third of the population of the city who have no water pipe connections with their residences.
Medford Mail, August 14, 1908, page 5

Presents Many Facts Regarding the Water Supply from the North Fork--Fish Lake Is a Beautiful Sheet of Pure Crystal Water.
(By J. S. Howard.)
    The object of this article is to discuss the water supply of the north fork of Little Butte Creek, so we will leave the features of the south fork out, except for estimating the amount of the water appropriations below the junction of the two trunks at Lake Creek post office.
    In order to present the matter in an intelligent manner we will give a geographical description of localities first. The north fork of Little Butte has its source at Fish Lake in township 36 south, range 4 east, at the southwest base of Mt. Pitt, near the summit of the Cascade Mountains, at an elevation of 4687 feet above sea level. The source of supply are a cluster of big springs at the east end of the lake, coming right out from under Mt. Pitt. The general source of the creek is west for about 34 miles, when it empties into Rogue River two miles above Bybee bridge at an elevation of about 1200 feet. From Fish Lake to the forks of the creek, 18 miles, it has a fall of 3087 feet, or 170 feet per mile. Its rapid fall has cut the channel deep into the bedrock for that entire distance, so that there are no banks of alluvial soil to wash into the creek.
    The creek from the source to within four miles of the forks runs through a deep canyon, heavily timbered, with two or three settlers all that distance. The upper portion is in the forest reserve, and the watershed will always be well protected. There are no streams running into the creek for this distance of 18 miles except Wasson Canyon, a small, short stream, which many seasons in the past has gone entirely dry in the summer.
Fish Lake.
    Fish Lake, at the source of this stream, is about two miles long, with a white, sandy bottom, and clear as crystal. The Fish Lake Water Company have purchased this lake from the United States government for a reservoir, containing 450 acres, and the company has completed a dam across the outlet and now has here 450 acres of water 12 feet deep stored in its reservoir. The same company have secured from the government Four-Mile Lake at the north base of Mt. Pitt, a beautiful sheet of water four miles long and from two to 4000 feet wide, with a narrow outlet for a reservoir, and are about completing a dam 25 feet high to store the water at that depth. The reservoir has an area of 976 acres and will contain 24,400 acre-feet when filled, or enough to flood 24,400 acres of land one foot deep. This reservoir will be connected with Fish Lake by a comparative short ditch and a natural channel; the two reservoirs will cover an area of 1426 acres and will hold when filled enough water to make a continuous flow of 5000 miners' inches for four months of the irrigating season. These reservoirs will be filled in the spring or flood season and will supplement the natural flow of the creek to that extent during the dry season. The flow of Little Butte Creek at the junction of the two forks (about one mile below the intake of the company's ditch) is about 6000 miners' inches in the middle of August as ascertained by measurements made annually by myself for the past seven years. The amount used by all the ditches below is about 2500 inches as determined by me as the result of six different measurements of all those ditches made at six different periods. All these elevations and quantities are no guesswork, but from actual measurements and observations.
There in 1862.
    In 1862 I made an examination of Little Butte Creek and posted notice of appropriation for parties in Jacksonville, who contemplated taking out a ditch to cover country on the south of the creek. In the early '70s I made a survey from the Hanley ranch to McAllister Soda Springs, four miles. I have made surveys and reports for four different companies who contemplated an appropriation of the water. About 17 years ago I spent a month surveying a ditch tine from the forks for Henry Klippel and John B. McGee, residents of Medford, who contemplated bringing the water to Medford and would have done so if [not for] the great financial stringency that occurred at that time. So you see when it comes to discussing water matters of Little Butte Creek, I know pretty well what I am talking about.
    Now we will get down to the real business of discussing a pipeline supply from Little Butte to Medford. In the first place, the elevation of Medford at the Southern Pacific depot is 1374 feet above sea level. The elevation of the intake of the Fish Lake Ditch on Little Butte is 1699 feet. The elevation of Little Butte Creek about one mile above the intake is 1800 feet. The difference of elevation at Medford is 426 feet. The distance by pipeline is less than 22 miles. Now, going 10 feet per mile, hydraulic grade for a pipeline, and we have 206 feet trend from a reservoir site east of the city, giving a pressure of 88 pounds per square inch (which is plenty and a demonstration can be had by putting on the pressure gauge at the pumping station and pump direct into the mains at that pressure with the other mains shut off. Attach the hose to the hydrant and you have the demonstration.). Now, this point of diversion is not on the Hanley ranch, and can be had for a nominal sum, and the right of way below will or need not cross over 2000 feet of the Hanley land, and that can be easily condemned and will not cost but a small sum.
What Can Be Saved.
    Now let us see what we saved by this over the Wasson Canyon project. The proposed point of diversion is two miles nearer than the Wasson Canyon point, so we can save $20,000 worth of pipeline. It will not require any steel pipe, saving $3000 on 3000 feet steel pipe by the other estimate. The price of the water from the Fish Lake people is $15,000, making $33,000 less cost than the lowest estimate of the other project. The city will be immune from any litigation, as the Fish Lake people have 5000 inches supply from the reservoir and 3000 inches in the creek above all prior appropriations.
    Now, in the face of all this, why do the majority of the water committee insist on Wasson Canyon, with only 100 inches of water in the dry time (and some years none) and a title to the water which is utterly no good, being only riparian, insist on that purchase?
    The general talk on the street is that there must be some self-interest or else the majority of the committee is incompetent to handle the proposition, and I am inclined to the latter. The vast sum of $300,000 seems beyond their comprehension, and they seem worried with what they should do with it all. Go on the street and ask the heaviest taxpayers and hear what their sentiments are.
Medford Daily Tribune, September 4, 1908, page 1

Vote Then To Be Had on the Various Water Propositions
    At a special meeting of the city council held yesterday afternoon it was decided to call the election for the vote on the different water propositions for November 5, 1908. In case, however, that none of the propositions receive a majority of the votes cast, then the one receiving the smallest number will be eliminated and the two remaining ones will be submitted at a subsequent election to be held on November 7, 1908.
    The following are the propositions which are on file in the office of the city recorder: Edgar S. Hafer, to supply water from Big Butte Springs; I. L. Hamilton, for supplying water from Little Butte Creek, and by the Condor Water & Power Company, for supplying water from Rogue River by pumping the same.
    All of the members of the city council were present at the meeting with the exception of Councilman Eifert and Mayor Reddy, the place of the latter being taken by Ben. J. Trowbridge. All were favorable to the motion.
Medford Mail, October 23, 1908, page 1     Hamilton won the election.

    The Jackson County Bank, local agent for John Nuveen & Co., bond brokers of Chicago, are in receipt of the blank bonds for the $292,000 remaining of the bond issue of $355,000, and the brokers wish $20,000 of them signed at once and returned to their offices, showing that they are experiencing no trouble in their disposal. It begins to look as though the money would be on hand before the sources of supply for the new water distributing system had been determined.
"Financial News," The Pacific Banker, Portland, Oregon, October 24, 1908, page 6

The Fish Lake Company Was Building Dam There.
    V. T. McCray, superintendent of the Fish Lake Water Company, is in the city. He has been compelled to quit work on the dam at Four Mile Lake for this season on account of the snow, it being over two feet deep at their camp Thursday, when the teams left with the camp outfit. Their works are in good shape for the winter. They will return in the spring and construct their ditch, which will connect Four Mile Lake with Fish Lake. A dam is to be built at the latter lake, which will raise the water thereon some 20 feet. When completed this will be one of the finest bodies of water in the state, being pure snow water from Mount Pitt, and the quantity which these lakes, as reservoirs, will contain will be sufficient to irrigate the whole of this valley if it could be placed thereon.
Medford Mail, October 29, 1908, page 2

I. L. Hamilton More Than Making Good on His Water Proposition.
    When the recent water contract election was on, The Morning Mail may have said in substance that if Mr. Hamilton was awarded the contract for supplying the city with water he and his company would "make good."
    The Morning Mail didn't have much hesitancy in making that statement, because Mr. Hamilton said he would--and "Shorty's" word is as good as a government bond, but is he making good? Let us see.
    In the first place, the Fish Lake Ditch Company closed the contemplated deal for the purchase of the upper Slinger ranch. There are 356 acres in this tract, and $7500 was paid for it. Why did they do it? Well, it was a good buy, to begin with, and then Little Butte Creek runs through it for a distance of one mile, and the company can, and will, fence the creek on both sides for this full distance--and there will be that much of the creek which cannot become contaminated from any stock which might happen that way. Then again it may be that the water intake will be on this land, and if so, the land and right-of-way for this intake will not cost the city anything.
    Then again, there is the "hurry-up" or emergency water, which the company has agreed to supply from the "Bradshaw drop." Nothing said about this before the election, but it will be a mighty good thing to have lots of water to spill around over the city about next August time. It won't be as good as we will get when the permanent intake is established above the Hanley ford, but it will be wet, will put out a fire and there'll be lots of it.
    The Morning Mail is satisfied those 535 voters will never have cause to regret doing what they did on November 5, 1908.
Medford Mail, November 27, 1908, page 1

    John Nuveen & Co., bankers of Chicago, who contracted for the Medford water bond issue of $365,000, for which the firm received a commission of $18,000, threaten to withdraw the offer for the bonds and substitute a damage suit unless the city agrees to its terms and pays accrued interest from the date of the bond issue, regardless of when the money is received by the city. The city council at a meeting held this week decided to refuse to pay for money that will not be received for a year yet. A crisis exists that may result in prolonged litigation and hamper the construction of the new gravity system.
"Financial News," The Pacific Banker, Portland, Oregon, November 28, 1908, page 6

    The reservoir site has been selected and surveyed. It will be on the McAndrew hill, one and a half miles from Medford. There are five acres in the tract contracted for, and its elevation is 210 feet above the city. This site is to the north of the Armstrong hill and is said to be a most desirable location.
"Preliminary Work," Medford Mail, December 4, 1908, page 5

    All fear that Nuveen & Co., the Chicago investment bankers, who had contracted for the $50,000 Medford water bond issue, would refuse to take them was quieted this week by a message from the Chicago firm saying they would pay the interest on the issue accruing between the date of the bonds and the date of delivery, which was the point at issue.
"Financial News," The Pacific Banker, Portland, Oregon, December 5, 1908, page 6

    To date there has been no satisfactory adjustment of the difficulties existing between the city and John Nuveen & Co. of Chicago, the bond brokers, over the payment of the accrued interest on the gravity water supply bonds.
"Financial News," The Pacific Banker, Portland, Oregon, December 26, 1908, page 6

    John Nuveen & Co., of Chicago, have instructed W. I. Vawter, of this city, to meet with the city council and negotiate for them in the matter of the sale of the gravity water bonds which the council recently decided to resell in order to end the quibbling that has gone on since the bond house was awarded the bonds. A meeting of the council will be called in the near future, so that Mr. Vawter will have the opportunity to set forth what Nuveen & Co. intend to do. No doubt the Chicago firm will come to some agreement with the city at that time and accept the remainder of the bonds.
"Financial News," The Pacific Banker, Portland, Oregon, January 2, 1909, page 6

Tunnel Work Commenced.
    A crew of four men was sent out to the Brownsboro tunnel this morning to begin the work of boring the tunnel for the new water system. Two men will work at east end in digging the tunnel. Later on, when the tunnel has progressed sufficiently far to afford shelter for the men, a double force will be put at work during the night shift.
Medford Mail, January 22, 1909, page 5

Place of Intake for Water Works Has Been Selected.
    Engineer Roberts and contractor Baker returned Wednesday from a several days' trip over the new water pipe line. The trip was made at this time for the purpose of surveying the pipe line to and from the tunnel near Brownsboro. This work was cut out last fall when the rest of the line was run because of the fact that at that time it had not been definitely settled that the tunnel would be put in. This tunnel will be 615 feet in length, and the contract for its construction has been awarded to Little & Rogers as previously stated in these columns. Work will be commenced at once on the tunnel, and it is thought that between four and six months' time will be required to complete it.
    A goodly amount of the rock excavation at other points on the line has been let, and at station 526, beyond the tunnel, the first powder blast on the pipe line was set off on Tuesday of this week.
    It is estimated that the hauling of pipe and other material for the pipe line will amount to two thousand tons, and the contract for performing this work has been awarded to C. E. Tull, the West Side liveryman.
    The place of water intake on the line has been decided upon, and will be on section 25, about 500 feet above the Hanley ford, at a point where the stream narrows and the abrupt walls on either side close in. It is a noticeable fact that the water in Little Butte Creek is less turbid than any other mountain stream of that locality. This because of the volume of pure mountain water which comes from Mt. Pitt lake, and the small amount which comes from the mountains and hillsides.
Medford Mail, January 29, 1909, page 7

    J. B. Dent informs us that he expects to go to work today on the reservoir site. If the scrapers arrive he will start at least five teams removing the earth out of the way. As soon as this is done, blasting the stone will follow and will be pushed until completed.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, February 5, 1909, page 6

    L. D. Lewis, who is employed on the pipe line tunnel work near Brownsboro, was in the city yesterday. He reports that the work is progressing nicely. About 75 feet of the tunnel, , besides the approaches, are completed.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, February 26, 1909, page 6

    Been pretty bad weather for work on the city water pipe line, but there has not been a ray of sunshine lost on the construction of the reservoir, and because of the persistent hustle of contractor Dent that certain piece of work has progressed faster than had been expected it would. The tunnel out near Brownsboro has also been pushed with considerable vigor and it, too, is progressing rapidly.
    Engineer W. J. Roberts returned yesterday from a business trip to Seattle and Olympia. While in Olympia he visited the National Wood Pipe Company's factory and was there told that the Medford water pipe contract was the largest ever signed by the company. The company's business has increased during the past two years to such an extent that it has been found necessary to double the capacity of their factory.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, March 5, 1909, page 5

    I. L. Hamilton will have a force of men laying the cast-iron pipe to connect the reservoir of the new gravity water system with the city distributing system at Riverside Avenue in a week or ten days, and the work will be rushed to completion.
    It had been contemplated to have this work done later, when Bear Creek had receded. The reason that the work is undertaken now is the fact that the contractors wish to accommodate the residents of East Main Street, which is to be paved, and by doing this work early, it will give ample time for the ground to settle before the paving is put down.
Digging an Irrigation Ditch, circa 1910
Digging an irrigation ditch (in Utah), circa 1910
    Monday, two eight-horse plow teams will be put to work digging the main pipe line from the reservoir. This work will be rushed, and it is expected that the line will make connection with the Fish Lake Company's ditch at Bradshaw Drop before the first of July.
    Work on the Brownsboro tunnel is progressing rapidly, about 225 feet having been bored in each end of the tunnel. The subcontractors are making more rapid progress than was expected, for the reason that the rock through which the tunnel is being bored is softer than anticipated.
Medford Mail, March 26, 1909, page 1

Traction Engine To Assist in Cutting Big Trench
    At the rate Shorty Hamilton and Shirley Baker are right now "rolling logs" on Medford's new water system, there seems little chance for the company paying a forfeiture because that their contract is not completed within the prescribed time limit.
    A large traction engine was secured yesterday, and to it will be hitched a heavy ditching plow, and the surface of the pipe ditch will be torn up for its entire length in all places where the engine crew can be operated. This plowing not only loosens the top crust, but it has a tendency as well to retain the moisture near the surface, making the actual digging work much easier. A "try-out" of the engine and plow will be made today on the line between the city and the reservoir. Should this method prove satisfactory, two engines will be put to work.
    There are now 45 men at work on the new system, distributed at the reservoir, and in grubbing rights of way and hauling material.
    The tunnel is now completed for a distance of 300 feet, which is about half of its full length.
Medford Mail, April 9, 1909, page 1

    Preparations are being made to lay the wooden stave pipe from the reservoir to Roosevelt Avenue. It was generally supposed that an iron or steel pipe would be laid, as called for in the original estimates by engineer Roberts, but the proposition submitted by I. L. Hamilton, and voted for almost unanimously, calls for wood pipe.
    In spite of the fact that they voted for a wood pipe, many citizens are surprised to find that they so voted.
    The right-of-way committee of the city council has been busy securing rights of way the past week and have nearly completed their labors. Some of the rights of way they secured some time since provided for steel or iron pipe, and owners are refusing the rights of way for the wooden pipe.
Medford Daily Tribune, April 13, 1909, page 1

    The work of excavating a ditch for the city's water pipe is progressing at a rapid rate. They have ground broken as far as the Bates brothers' ranch, and the greater part of the distance the ditch is completed. Yesterday a crew of men was working at the west end of the Bear Creek bridge to make connections with the city mains. It is expected that several carloads of the wood pipe will be here today.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, April 16, 1909, page 5

    The city council is considering taking steps toward calling a special election to vote on the question of amending the charter so as to permit of additional bonding for the purpose of securing further extensions to the city distribution system. It is probable that a date for such election will be named in the near future.
"Financial News," The Pacific Banker, Portland, Oregon, April 17, 1909, page 6

    A new camp is this week being established out on Dry Creek, where work on the pipe line ditch is being pushed. Fifteen new men were sent out yesterday. The contractors are now employing about 200 men.
    The laying of the 12-inch iron pipe from the city mains east to the city limits was completed yesterday, excepting the part across Bear Creek, which will be attended to later. Work placing the wood pipe will now proceed at a lively pace.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, April 30, 1909, page 2

    The butte on which the immense reservoir for the city water works system is being made is composed of solid sandstone, into which the reservoir is being excavated. Work is progressing at a rapid rate, and foreman Joseph Sharka states that the reservoir will be completed by July 1. Large wagons are being constructed by the contractors who are putting in the pipe line, for the purpose of hauling supplies to the crews of men who will be putting in the pipe. The wagons are capable of hauling immense loads and will be drawn by teams of four and six horses.
Medford Mail, May 7, 1909, page 5

    Within a few months the city of Medford will have an abundant supply of pure mountain water--enough for everybody--four or five times as much as will be needed by the present users of water.
    This water is for the people of Medford--for all the people--not merely for a few who live in the center of the city.
    The city needs more customers for its water, lots more of them. It must have them, or the greater part of this splendid water supply will be absolutely wasted and lost. It wants its mains on every street so that everyone can be supplied.
    To the city it will mean larger revenue. It will make it possible to pay the interest on the water bonds out of the water receipts. This will mean lower taxes.
    To the people it will mean an abundance of pure water for their homes, lawns and gardens. It will mean lower rates for water, better fire protection, lower fire insurance.
    But the city has no money available to pay the cost of laying these mains. Our plan is to pay for their cost out of the receipts from the additional sales of water. That is the object of the proposed charter amendment.
    If a property owner wants a water main on his street he will be asked to advance a small amount for the purchase of water. The city will take this money and put in the water main and deliver to the property owner the water he has thus paid for at any time he may want it without further charge.
    While the cost to the city in the aggregate for all these mains would be very large, to each individual owner the cost will be almost trivial. Take, for example, the case of a man owning a 50-foot lot on which a six-inch water main is to be laid. The will be asked to pay about $3 in cash and a similar amount every year for nine years, with interest on deferred payments at 6 percent. This amount, both the principal and the interest, pays for just so much water, which the property owner can use whenever he gets ready. If he is using water on the premises he will, of course, be asked to advance nothing, for his water bills will amount to more than the $3 each year. If he is not using water at the time the main is laid he will have just so much water paid for whenever he gets ready to use water on the premises, whether that be in five or ten years.
    The amount given above is as heavy as any property owner will ever be called upon to pay for the reason that it will be unnecessary to lay any water mains larger than six inches, and even if any larger main should be laid, the city would pay the additional expense over and above what a six-inch main would cost.
    Those in charge of the city's affairs have given a great deal of thought to this matter, and the above plan seems to be the best, and, in fact, the only feasible one. I hope the voters of the city will show their interest and loyalty in the city's welfare by getting out on election day, which is May 10, and giving the amendments a hearty endorsement.
W. H. CANON, Mayor.       
Medford Mail, May 7, 1909, page 6

    The Jacobsen-Bade Company yesterday shipped their trench-digging outfit back to Portland, having completed their work in this city. The company has been carrying on operations in this city for about a year, and during that time has dug 17 miles of trenches, 8 miles of which were for sewerage and the remainder for water pipe.
Medford Mail, May 14, 1909, page 5

    The Jacobsen-Bade ditcher, made famous in a poem by A. Brown, will remain with us. The machine had been loaded on the cars ready for shipment back to Portland, when it was decided that it might be used to advantage in the digging of the trenches for the water mains, and so it will remain with us for a time at least, while the doggerel machine grinds out another stanza or two.
Medford Mail, May 21, 1909, page 8

    The ditch for the city's water supply pipe line is completed to the Bradshaw drop. Pipe has been delayed from arriving for some reason, but is now coming again. Several cars have arrived in the last few days, and more is on the way to arrive this week.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, May 28, 1909, page 2

    The work of blasting rock at the city reservoir is completed, and the work of clearing out the loose rock will soon be finished.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, July 16, 1909, page 2

New Water System Is Now in Use, and the People Are Happy
   Yesterday, for the first time in its history, Medford was supplied with water under a gravity system--and it was supplied with a lavishness which caused old and decrepit hose to spring leaks in places where, under the old pressure, they were good for another decade.
    At 10 o'clock yesterday morning, July 19 [sic], water from Mount Pitt Lake was turned into the city mains, and it came with a rush, so much so that the accumulated Bear Creek mud in the city mains was put in motion and the water from hydrants was roily all day--and will be so until the entire system has been flushed. The water as it left the pipeline was clear and sparkling, and the usual Monday wash in East Medford was cleansed with Mount Pitt water.
Been Hard Struggle.
    To supply Medford with water has been a desperate struggle from the very first days of its existence. In the early days it was not so much the kind of water to be had as it was "just water"--the kind which would dampen a fire and produce a garden. In those early days a few hundred dollars expended upon a water supply was more to the few citizens than thousands are now. Mount Pitt water at that time was only a dream, and no person thought for a moment to reckon with it as a possibility. The early days' system was the best and only one which could have been thought of, and even then there was a deep and earnest consideration given it.
    The first water system was put in during either the fall of 1886 or 1887. [The Medford Water Ditch was dug in 1888-89.] It consisted of two and a half miles of open ditch, running south from Medford to Bear Creek at the Gore ranch, and the water for the city was taken into the ditch at the east end of J. G. Gore's now-famous pear orchard. This ditch came into Medford along G Street, and at a point between Seventh and Eighth streets a large reservoir was made on ground where the Garnett-Corey wholesale hardware building will soon be erected. The old tank, which has been in use until now, was erected [on the Carnegie library site] and the water from this reservoir was pumped into the tank, and Medford's first water system was established. The overflow of water from this reservoir was carried in a ditch across Seventh Street and on out north and east, and was turned back into Bear Creek near the old Crystal place.
    The Reason Why.
    Many people have often wondered why the north side of Seventh (Main) Street was several inches higher than the south side. Here is how it happened: When this overflow ditch was carried across Seventh Street it was suggested that there be troughs put in on either side of Seventh Street, from G Street to Bear Creek, and that this surplus water be permitted to flow through these troughs or gutters all this distance. This project was carried out, and for months there was a stream of water running constantly in these gutters, but it was found not to be a satisfactory arrangement because of the fact that debris of all kinds gathered in the streams, and instead of being a unique and beautiful arrangement the water, because of this gathering of debris, became sluggish and in places it was the habitation of numberless frogs. The fall necessary in carrying water to both these streams may have been the reason for one side of the street being lower than the other.
    A few years later a large well was dug near the tank, and tunnels were run in several directions at the bottom of the well, in the hope that enough water might be secured in this way and enable the city to do away with the use of Bear Creek water. This effort was not a success, and a little later a well was dug on Bear Creek and the pumping plant was moved there, and until yesterday it has served the people's needs--in a way, but with all the best possible available needs [sic].
With Best Results.
    As it was said in the start, the water system has always been a desperate struggle, but it has been worked out with the best results which could be brought.
    Medford has the best grounds in the world to be proud of its present water system--and none feel better over the present achievements than do those who have taken a hand in the past struggles.
    When Mayor Reddy appointed F. E. Merrick, H. G. Wortman and W. W. Eifert a water committee and directed them to get water, these gentlemen went to work--and they secured the water, not, however, without an effort, but they accomplished the end for which they were appointed, and in them there is due all honor, and full measure of appreciation from the citizens of Medford.
    Medford has today one of the best water systems on the Pacific coast.
Medford Mail, July 23, 1909, page 1

    The rock work on the reservoir, east of the city, has been completed. Cementing the sides and bottom will soon commence.
Medford Mail, July 23, 1909, page 1

    A drinking fountain is soon to be put in by the city at [the] northwest corner of Main Street and Central Avenue, near the Medford National Bank.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail, July 23, 1909, page 8

    Mount Pitt water is now ready for delivery to the city of Medford. On Tuesday of this week at 1 o'clock p.m., water was turned into the new pipeline at the Bradshaw drop, and at 1 o'clock p.m. yesterday the water had reached the reservoir east of Medford, and half an hour later it was at Roosevelt Avenue, in East Medford. Just 72 hours from the time the water was turned in until it reached the reservoir, a distance of about 11 miles, is greater speed than was expected. This more particularly because of the fact that it could ordinarily be expected there would be some delays in the pipe requiring refitting or retightening, but in this instance there were no such delays--the small leaks closed up very quickly, and in many miles of the line there are not now any leaks at all.
Wash Out the Mains.
    The water can now be turned into the city mains at any time, but in all probability it will not be turned in for a couple of days. It is the intention to thoroughly wash out all of the city mains before this water is turned in, and also to thoroughly flush the pipeline to make sure that no debris is in the pipe which might afterward cause trouble. The water is now being discharged from a waste gate just beyond the reservoir.
    If there are any two men in Medford this morning who are feeling better than any other two men these are engineer W. J. Roberts and contractor I. L. Hamilton. The first gentleman because all the details of his plans have worked out so nicely, and the latter because that he has been able to so satisfactorily work out these plans.
    By getting the water to Medford before August 1, the contractors, according to agreement, are entitled to $50 a day for each and every day the water is delivered here before August 1, not to exceed $1000 in all the amount to be paid. On the other hand, had not the contractors gotten the water here by August 1, they would have to pay the city $50 per day for each and every day beyond that time that water was not supplied.
The Reason Why.
    In view of the fact that there are a number of recent arrivals in the city, some of whom do not understand why it is the city is having right-of-way trouble with the Hanleys and still be getting water from this same source, it might not be out of place to state that the present intake, near the Bradshaw drop, is only about half the distance to the permanent intake above the Hanley ranch, and the right of way in litigation is between the temporary and permanent intakes. The Fish Lake Canal Company have a canal right of way across the Hanley Ranch, but the city has no pipeline right of way across the same land, and it is water from the Fish Lake Canal Company's canal that the city will be using temporarily. The reason the city did not contract for water delivered at the Bradshaw drop was that it wanted to avoid the open ditch from the Bradshaw drop to the permanent intake.
Medford Mail, July 23, 1909, page 3

    Four carloads of water pipe arrived in Medford yesterday from Binghamton, Alabama. This is for use in the several extensions of the city water system. E. F. Hansen, who had charge of the gravity system work, will superintend the laying of this pipe.

"Personal and Local Brevity," Medford Mail, September 10, 1909, page 6

Imposing and Sanitary and an Ornament to the City.
    The new fountain erected at the corner of C and Main streets is ready for use. This fountain is made out of a square block of granite and is said to be the only sanitary fountain made. The design was furnished by Mrs. J. M. Root, and the Oregon Granite Company made it for half the cost price, or $64.80, the Greater Medford Club paying the other half. The plumbing was donated by Mr. Aitkens.
    The fountain is a credit to the city and shows that Medford is on the progressive march to a city of 25,000 people by 1913. The water will always be running out of the fountain.

Medford Mail, September 10, 1909, page 8

    Sunday the new ditch digger of the Vincent-Baker Co. arrived in Medford to use on their contract work for laying water mains. It is similar to the sewer digger used here, only it is smaller.

"Personal and Local Brevity," Medford Mail, September 24, 1909, page 2

Engineers Make Statement of Preliminary Work
    Irving Worthington, engineer for Fred M. Cummings, has just returned from Fish Lake and Four-Mile Lake reservoirs and finds the work for the season very satisfactorily done.
    The Fish Lake dam site has been cleared of all brush and timber and the same piled and burned to conform to forestry regulations.
    There is now at this site a temporary dam ten feet in height which impounds some 3000 acre-feet. This dam is to be replaced with one of the "rock fill" type, having concrete sluiceway, steel headgates and concrete spillway. When completed this structure is planned to be 800 feet long and 35 feet high, capable of impounding 11,000 acre-feet.
Excerpt, Medford Mail, October 8, 1909, page 4

Judge Hanna Decides Against Medford in Water Case
    Medford must wait before completing her new gravity system, until the supreme court of the State of Oregon can pass upon the question whether the act of Governor Benson in appointing Judge John S. Coke to hold court in this district and passing upon an issue of court record in this county is valid or not.
    Such is the effect of Judge Hanna's long-awaited ruling, handed down yesterday, in the matter of the City of Medford against M. F. Hanley to lay pipe line for the city's waterworks system through Hanley's land. Judge Hanna overruled the motion of City Attorney Porter J. Neff to dissolve the injunction obtained by Hanley to restrain the city from entering upon his premises.
History of Case.
    It will be remembered that the city and Mr. Hanley could not arrive at a satisfactory agreement for the privilege of extending the pipe line through Hanley's ranch, and the city went into court and offered to execute a bond for $2000 to guarantee the payment of any damages that might be awarded by a jury for laying the pipe through the Hanley ranch. Judge Hanna said that he did not have time then to hear the case, and as it was urgent that something be done to avoid delay in completing the pipe line, a petition was sent to Governor Benson to appoint some other judge to hear the case. The governor appointed Judge Coke, and at a trial of the cause at which he presided the jury awarded Hanley $600.
Validity of Act.
    Hanley, through his attorney, A. E. Reames, sought an injunction to restrain the city from entering upon the premises on the ground that the governor's act was unconstitutional. Attorney Neff filed a motion to have the injunction dissolved, and after having the matter under advisement about a month, Judge Hanna yesterday sustained the defendant in the action.
    Now the case will go to the supreme court, and the laying of pipe must be held in abeyance until that tribunal renders an opinion.
    The city is not without the use of its mountain spring water in the meantime, however. Through an agreement with the Fish Lake company, water is carried through its ditch across the land in contest and fed into the big conduit which carries it to the city reservoir.
Medford Mail, October 15, 1909, page 1

M. F. Hanley Submits Proposition to City of Medford.
    A temporary agreement has been offered by M. F. Hanley by which the city of Medford may have the use of water through its water pipe line across the premises and avoid the necessity for using the open Fish Lake ditch until the suit between the city and Mr. Hanley is disposed.
    In making this offer to the city, Mr. Hanley will impose two particular conditions, one that he be absolved from any damages which might be imposed by reason of the present litigation, to cover which he has put up a $10,000 bond. The other condition is that the pipe line across his premises shall be laid on the surface of the ground, so as to prevent possible blocking of sub-irrigation, which is one of the main contentions for damages against the city by going through his ranch with its underground pipe line.
Provide Better Water.
    Under this plan the city will have better water than it gets at present through having to convey it some distance in an open ditch, and will be practically as good as that which will be had from the permanent intake, as it will come out of Mr. Hanley's ditch not over half a mile below the permanent intake for the city's system.
    This proposition will temporarily remove the obstacle which has stood in the way of the city completing its pipe line until the suit which is now in court and which on its way to the supreme court is disposed of.
Medford Mail, October 22, 1909, page 1

Water Plant Work Rushed.
    MEDFORD, Or., May 23.--(Special.)--Contractors are gathering all the men they can today to complete the laying of the city's water line through the Hanley ranch. It is expected that the pipe will be laid and the water running within 60 days. This is a direct outcome of the compromise effected last Saturday between William Hanley and Mayor Canon, by which the city agreed to pay to the Hanley brothers $2000 for the right-of-way through their ranch.
Morning Oregonian,
Portland, May 24, 1910, page 7

Contractors Start Crew on Final Stretch of Gravity System Through Hanley Place--
Will Be Completed in from Thirty to Sixty Days.
    Vincent & Baker today began actual work on the completion of the city's gravity water system, when their trenching crew began work at the Hanley line. During the past week the contractors have been busy building their camps and gathering a crew, but actual work began work today.
    Shirley Baker, who is in direct charge of the work, estimates that it will take between 30 and 60 days to finish the contract. There remains the laying of the pipe a distance of two miles and building of the intake.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 31, 1910, page 8

Medford's $500,000 Water System Completed
It Is Second To None in the State

    After many long months of agitation, litigation and hard work, Medford's $500,000 water system may be said to have been completed. While there are still additional mains in the distributing system to be laid, and some "touching up" to be done on the gravity system, the city is enjoying a water supply that is second to none. That the contractors have done their work well and that the city will soon formally accept the plant seemed to be the consensus of opinion among the city officials, who made a tour of inspection over the line Friday. Those who made the trip were Mayor W. H. Canon, City Attorney P. J. Neff, City Recorder Robert W. Telfer, Councilmen Eifert, Wortman, Emerick and Merrick, City Engineer Foster, Consulting Engineer Roberts, Shirley Baker and Harry H. Hicks. The party left early in the morning, visited the intake and various points on the line, finishing their inspection of the line at the reservoir.
    The system has cost Medford nearly $500,000--truly an ambitious sum for a city of 9000 souls. However, the future has been carefully safeguarded, and out of the revenue will come the interest on the bonds issued to construct the system and the necessary sinking fund with which to take up the bonds when they mature.
The Distributing System.
    In the old water system, through which a pumping plant on the banks of Bear Creek forced the supply, there was 21,440 feet of distributing mains, a little over four miles. After renovating this system the city began a year ago last fall the laying of 35,577 feet, or over seven miles, of new mains. These mains were large ones and were put out as trunk mains to feed the laterals, a contract for which, to an amount of 43,327 feet, or over eight miles, was let a year ago and has been completed. Thus the city has completed a distributing system containing 103,344 feet of pipe, or nearly 20 miles. Other laterals are being laid which will greatly extend the distributing system of the city, making a total of 25 miles.
    This system has cost the city nearly $200,000 and is being extended as rapidly as possible.
Source of Supply.
    The supply of water to feed this system of mains and laterals is thoroughly equal to its task. It is taken from the Little Butte Creek, 23 miles from Medford, and brought through a pipeline the entire distance entirely by gravity.
    Little Butte Creek, the source of supply for the system, finds its source in Fish Lake, which is fed by the melting snows "ten thousand summers old" upon the slopes of Mt. McLoughlin. The creek plunges down 13 miles of gorge, falling 2600 feet in that distance. The sides of the canyon through which it tunefully tears its way are lined with giant firs and pines. Then above the Hanley Ford it enters into the huge pipeline, which it follows for some 23 miles until it reaches the faucets in the various residences of the city.
    This gravity system has cost the city nearly $300,000. Of this amount the original contract, which was let to Vincent & Baker, called for $239,100. In addition to this amount, $13,000 was set aside as the estimated cost of the engineering expenses. Then also, $15,000 was paid the Fish Lake Ditch Company for a water right. This shows the cost of the gravity system to be some $282,100, but with the incidental expenses, which included a right-of-way across the Hanley premises, the building of a telephone line and the like, the cost has come very close to $300,000, which with the distributing system will make the total cost of Medford's water supply nearly $500,000.
    The income from the present system in Medford will be between $25,000 and $30,000 a year. It can easily be figured that the city will break even and will be able to pay interest and set aside a sinking fund for the retirement of the bonds.
2700 Gallons a Minute.
    Medford is now receiving 2700 gallons of pure mountain water a minute through the system, or 4,000,000 gallons a day. In the large reservoir above the city there is at present 2,000,000 gallons as a reserve supply. The water which the city could use in 24 hours would be sufficient to keep 15 five-inch fire nozzles at play under a 100-pound pressure for 24 hours.
    It takes the water eight hours to make its way from the intake to the city. There is less than one degree difference in temperature. The average temperature of the water is 58 degrees at the reservoir, or one degree colder than the water in "Hanley's" well on Central Avenue.
    From a layman's point of view, the work seems to have been well done. Consulting Engineer W. J. Roberts has been "on the job" continually since it was undertaken and has seen that the city has got a square deal throughout. He gives the contractors, Vincent & Baker, credit for doing everything in their power for the city, and with not trying to substitute cheap material.
    A source of pure water for a city is one of its greatest assets. No city can thrive and be poorly equipped in this direction. Medford has realized this, and a water system second to none is the result. And the system was not built for today alone. Ample provision has been made for the future--the supply is adequate for a city of 30,000 people.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 31, 1910, page B1

    The old water tower, almost as old and historic as the traditional "moss-covered bucket," is to be removed, according to the dictum of the city council made at its meeting Tuesday night.
    At that meeting bids were ordered for the destruction and removal of the old water tower from the park grounds.
    It was in the early stages of Medford's growth that the water tower was constructed, and for several years the electric light and power plant installed by [R. A.] Proudfoot stood alongside it. When Mr. Proudfoot sold the electric lights and water to the city in 1900, the power plant was removed to the banks of Bear Creek, but the old tower was used as a base of supply in case of emergency. For many years the two lights on the top of the tower acted as beacons to the belated traveler--that was before the days of acetylene lights, paved streets and all that sort of luxury.
    Now the old building is to be removed, and perhaps the only grief caused will be to the squirrels which have for years made it their home.
Medford Mail Tribune weekly, August 18, 1910, page 6

Medford Has the Best Water Supply on the Coast
By Dr. J. E. Shearer, City Health Officer
To the Editor:
    During the last month or so there have been hundreds of inquiries of me as health officer regarding the purity and wholesomeness of the city's new supply of water, coupled with urgent requests for an investigation and report, and as I recently had the opportunity of availing myself of the company of a party consisting of Frank Burgess, Dr. Porter, O. M. Murphy and Charles True, some of whom were familiar with the Fish Lake region, I accordingly determined to make a thorough investigation of the situation, which I did, with the most gratifying results. Whatever distrust of this water supply has been felt by the skeptics is based entirely upon a misunderstanding or lack of knowledge of the real facts in the cast.
    In order that all may have a clear understanding of the true conditions, I will first describe the geographical and physical surroundings of the water system. Fish Lake draws its water supply from one large and several small springs in the lava rock at the base of Mt. McLoughlin, from which the water gushes forth in abundance, sparkling and cold. A dam is nearly completed which will raise the level of the water 30 feet, making a vast natural reservoir, from the sides of which all trees and vegetation are to be stripped to the high-water level, which will eliminate the slight traces of vegetable organic matter in the water at present, due to the flooded timber along the banks. From here, at a level of 4687 feet above sea level, the water falls swiftly through a cool, rocky canyon, 12½ miles to the city's intake, at a level of 2114 feet; thence the city's supply runs through pipeline to the city reservoir, at an elevation of 1586 feet, which is 210 feet above the United States benchmark at the Nash Hotel.
    At the present time this water is perfectly wholesome and can be used with entire safety, for the rapid fall of over 2500 feet in 12½ miles, or 200 feet to the mile, results in the water being thoroughly "charged" with air, just as soda water is charged with carbonic acid gas. This "aeration" of the water, as it is called, has the effect of purifying the water of any contamination it may have received from the vegetation on the banks of the lake or from campers along its edges. It is evident that it must reach the consumer in all its purity, as it completes its journey in closed pipes. It is a common mistake to suppose that the water stands in the reservoir near the city and becomes warm and impure, but this is not true, as the water used in the city is conducted through a "bypass" around the reservoir, and runs directly from the pipeline into the distributing system. The water which the city does not require, and which is run through the reservoir and allowed to find its way back to Bear Creek through ditches and natural channels. The water in the reservoir, which is thus kept fresh at all times, is simply held as a reserve supply, in case it should be necessary to stop the flow through the pipeline for a time for making repairs or any other purpose.
    It should also be borne in mind that the intake of the pipeline is above the Hanley ranch, and that the water is therefore protected from contamination by cattle, etc., contrary to a mistaken idea which has been formed by some people. In fact, the only possible sources of contamination are, as I have stated, the flooded vegetation along the shores of Fish Lake, which are to be stripped of this vegetation, and the summer campers at McCallister Springs and along the lake. All danger from the latter source can be removed entirely by the establishment of proper sanitary conditions for these campers, which can be done at an expense of about $200, and which I am advised will be done by the city before next summer. By doing these things and installing the buildings and residence of the caretaker at the head of the pipeline below the intake, all possible sources of contamination will be eliminated.
    As I have stated, such slight contamination as the water receives from these sources is eliminated by its swift course down the canyon, and it reaches the intake limpid, cool and delicious, and fit for use by the most fastidious. In fact, the chemist of the University of California, in reporting upon this water, states: "These analyses show that the water is of exceptional purity and can be used without deleterious effects for drinking and domestic purposes. It will be a great advantage to the city of Medford to be able to draw their water supply from such a pure source."
    The slight difference in taste between the city supply and the well water in Medford, which is noticed by some, is accounted for by the fact that users of the well water have become accustomed to "hard" water, while the new supply is "soft" water, and for that reason preferable to the other. As a matter of fact, I cannot too strongly urge the use of the city water in preference to well water, which is necessarily contaminated to a greater or less extent by impurities draining in from the surface and by seepage from cesspools and other sources of infection. Another advantage possessed by the city supply is the fact that the passage of the water through the pipe consumes just enough time so that the water entering the pipe in the early morning, when it is coldest, reaches the consumer during the heat of the afternoon, when it is most refreshing. In fact, any consumer who will let the water run until that which has been warmed by the sun in the service pipes has run off will find that he can obtain water from the pipes which is just as palatable and more wholesome than ice water.
    In brief, the result of my investigations, in which result Dr. Porter, who was a member of the party, as I have said, heartily concurred, was that Medford has secured a supply of pure, clear, cool, wholesome water equal to the best municipal supply on the Coast, the use of which I most heartily recommend to everyone and, indeed, when the measures above outlined are taken to improve conditions still further, Medford's supply will be superior to any of the others, for the conditions surrounding the system are simply ideal for a perfect water supply.
J. E. SHEARER.       
Medford Mail Tribune, August 31, 1910, page 1

    September first this year for the first time finds Medford with the best municipal water supply of any city in the West, with a gravity system bringing water twenty-five miles from its source in the snow-capped sentinels of the Cascades, with pure water ample for a city of twenty-five thousand people. It finds Medford with a completed distributing system exceeding twenty-one miles of cast iron mains and with work begun on nine miles of main extensions.
"What September Finds in Medford,"
Medford Mail Tribune, September 1, 1910, page 4

Historic Tower, Long Landmark, Is Torn Down.
    MEDFORD, Or., Sept. 1.--(Special.)--The historic old water tower of Medford is no more. With the fine new reservoir on the hill east of town and pure mountain water running into it from Fish Lake 25 miles away, Medford no longer needs the old tower. Accordingly, at the command of some of the ladies of the town, who desire that the beauty of the city park be no longer marred by the weather-beaten old structure, the city council has placed a crew of men at work tearing it down.
    A number of years ago the tower began to lean, and grave fears were felt lest tanks and all would crash to the ground. A complicated system of braces was placed against the building to hold it, all of which was needless, as the wreckers have found that the old veteran refuses to lie down to the enemy except board by board.
    The electric light that was hung in the tower will be missed by road travelers of the night.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, September 2, 1910, page 7

    The old water tower on West Main Street is no more. It has been completely wrecked, and except for a small heap of iron that has not been hauled away and the smoldering fire in which the useless lumber was burned, nothing remains to remind one of this historic old structure. Soon the black, barren spot on which the tower stood will be planted to grass and will lose itself in the verdure of the surrounding lawn.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 28, 1910, page 2

    The "bubbling cup," a sanitary means of supplying pure water, has been installed at both the Lane and high school building in Roseburg and the germ-infected cup formerly in use has been abolished. This is an excellent move and is appreciated by parents of school children. That the old mode of drinking cups were a menace to good health there is no question.
"Local Notes,"
Gold Hill News, November 26, 1910, page 5

Medford reservoir, February 5, 1911 Sunday Oregonian
Medford reservoir, February 5, 1911 Sunday Oregonian

    The following sewer, water and other ordinances were passed by the council at their meeting Wednesday afternoon:
Sewer and Water.
    Ordinances assessing benefited property for improvements were adopted as follows:
    Six-inch lateral sewer in alley from Fifth to Fourth, between Oakdale and Ivy; cost $350; per front foot, $1.40.
    Eight-inch lateral sewer on Grape Street from Sixth to Eighth Street; cost $771.90; per front foot, 83 cents.
    Ordinances declaring cost of improvements were adopted as follows:
    Water main on Almond Street, $901.15; per front foot, 67 cents.
    Six-inch water main on Cottage Street from East Main to south end of Cottage, $1847.50; per front foot, 82 cents.
    Four-inch water main on Oak from Maple to Vine, $1104.83; per front foot, 97½ cents.
    Six-inch water main on Jackson from Central Avenue to Vermont Street, $2026.72; per front foot, $1.41.
    Ten-inch lateral sewer on Sixth from Ivy to Riverside, per front foot, $1.71.
"Pass Many Bills, Improvements," Medford Mail Tribune, March 9, 1911, page 2

Force of Men at work Making City Property on Riverside Presentable--
Old Well Will Probably Be Filled In.
    Superintendent Tranna of the city water works has men at work overhauling, tearing down and building new the old pumping plant station on South Riverside Avenue.
    The city owns several lots there, and for several years the grounds have been a catch-all for the city water system. This is all now being changed. Carpenters are removing the surplus buildings, recovering those needful and to be retained; the old motors, pumps, engines and boilers are being dismantled and placed in shape to be offered for sale. The grounds are being leveled off for convenience in handling new material, and the place generally is beginning to take on an appearance in keeping with the slogan "Medford, the City Beautiful."
    But while all these improvements are going on, the old well, fully 50 feet deep and 20 or more feet across and filled nearly to overflowing with Bear Creek water, is still in evidence, a hole in the ground to the memory of Medford's outgrown water system.
    As there cannot be any possible chance for this well to ever again be of use to the city, it will be filled up. There are sure enough germs lurking around that old hole in the ground [omission] well-being of the community.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 16, 1911, page B2

J. S. Howard Writes of Water,
Doctors and Rosy Cheeked Maidens
    Editor Mail Tribune: With your permission I would like to express myself through your valuable paper regarding some conditions of Medford's water system. I was much interested in the visit a few days ago of the city council and other officials to the intake or head works at the point of diversion on Little Butte Creek and was much surprised that they should take an eminent M.D. who stands at the head of his profession as an allopathic physician to make out for their prescriptions as a hydropath, which is certainly out of his element, and I was still more surprised when he recommended the drawing off of the waters of Fish Lake reservoir, as a sanitary measure. Why, of all the blunders that were ever made this is the most raw and utmost criminal move in the whole category of mistakes. It ought to be enjoined immediately. It should be filled up to the overflow so that all the debris floating on the surface might be drawn off through the spillway and strained on the large weir below before it reaches the creek again.
    It is my recollection that the reservoir was filled or partly so about two years before the Medford water system was connected at the creek and all dry loose wood or bark and fiber material was floated to the surface and has stood there or has been floated out over the spillway and all timber, stumps, logs, etc., have been soaked for three years and all gophers, reptiles and ants have long ago been eliminated and everything has now settled down to normal and sanitary conditions.
    Now it is known that water supply is drawn from the bottom of the lake where the water is pure and cool and that the surface of the lake is warm and warm water always rises to the top and all debris, such as leaves, sticks and fish bones and all such stuff floats on the surface, therefore the deeper the water above the more pure it is. Chicago tunneled four miles out under Lake Michigan to get into deep water for their supply. Now if you draw off the water from the lake or reservoir all this floating debris follows the receding water down to the narrow channel from the springs above, else when the water is drawn off there will be hundreds of fish stranded and dead on the low flats just above the channel, the bears will come down for the dead fish and make bear wallows in the marshes, the snakes, lizards and other reptiles will regain possession of the basin and when the reservoir is filled again the condition of our water system will be demoralized.
    The people for their own safety should take immediate action against drawing off the lake. The whole trouble with the impurity of the water supply lies in the headworks at the intake, and the blooming idiot who was paid for designing and installing sanitary headworks ought to face a criminal prosecution. There is no adequate settling basin or forebay. There is no sand gate at the bottom of the intake basin to discharge the sand and mud that might come down the creek, but the intake pipe runs directly into the basin and receives all the soil and sand and carries the same right on through to our system in the city and is now deposited in all the low points, bends or dead ends in our water pipes, and the whole impurity of the water exists right in the pipes in the city limits and not at the reservoir or lake.
    Fish Lake comprised originally an area of about 75 acres but Fish Lake reservoir has an area of 450 acres. Now if you draw off the water from 375 acres and leave it exposed to the sun and elements for sixty days and you will create a condition that will take a year to overcome and make the conditions as good as they are today. The intake or settling basin should be just what its name implies. The waters should be made as still as possible to make it. Then all sediment and sand will settle and be carried off by the sand gate instead of going into the water pipes as [it] has been doing.
    Our present city engineer has a clear conception of what is required, and if the city council give him their confidence he will install a good system at the intake. If the board will eliminate entirely professional men, such as doctors and lawyers, from their inspection tours and only take men of good hard common sense they will get better results.
    The water pipe at the intake is eighteen inches in diameter and has a velocity of about eight feet per second, making a very strong current which would draw in minor foreign matter, whereas if the mouth of the pipe at the intake were thirty-six inches, or about four times the area of the present pipe, the velocity of the current would be reduced to two feet per second, leaving never-still water in the settling basin, permitting all sand and vegetable soil to settle at the bottom and be discharged at the sand gate at the bottom. (The pipe should be thirty-six inches at the intake and taper to the size of the present pipe in twenty feet in length.)
    When these changes have been installed we shall have a water system second to none on the coast, Portland's Bull Run not excepted. All this installation should have been planned by that $7000 schoolmaster engineer, but this and other blunders in the installing have or will cost the city not less than $35,000. If the council listens seriously to such experts as the learned M. D. heretofore mentioned, the whole system would soon go to the dogs. I am in my 80th year and I owe my long life to the fact that there were no learned M.D.s in the county where I was raised till I was nearly of age. Microbes and bacteria were not invented at that time and we drank our water from the good old gourd that hung by the side of the old moss-covered bucket as it came from the well and we drank it without boiling and if some rosy-cheeked maiden drank from the gourd we were not afraid to drink from the same cup, even on the same side touched by her ruby lips.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 2, 1911, page 4

Medford Costly Gravity System
of Pure Mountain Water Best in World

Water right--daily flow, 4,860,000 gallons.
Diverting dam on Butte Creek.
23 miles 16-inch pipeline.
2,000,000-gallon reservoir, 210 feet above city.
27.4 miles cast-iron distributing system.

    There are three points in the game of municipal water supply: Quantity, quality and cost. Medford won on all three points.
    The quantity delivered at the city reservoir exceeds the original estimate by a third; the quality is better than was originally proposed, and finally, the total cost of the gravity portion was $32,000 less than the $300,000 allowed.
    An issue of $365,000 of bonds was authorized in May 1908, of which $65,000 was to be used for cast-iron pipe within the city proper for distribution, hydrants and accessories, and $300,000 was allowed for the gravity supply and reservoir.
    The report which was the basis of the bond issue estimated the supply of 3,000,000 gallons daily, diverting the supply from the north fork of Little Butte above the Fish Lake Company's intake to their canal. As carried out, the supply was actually diverted at a point three miles farther up the creek, assuring better water for having gone above the two large stock ranches of Hanley and Slinger, and more water for the added 400 feet of elevation. By this betterment the "gradient" becomes 23 feet fall per mile, against 13 feet per mile proposed.
    The expenditures on the gravity water system are as follows:
    The net proceeds of the sale of $355,000 gravity bonds amounted to $337,498.20. Ten thousand dollars were never issued, the bonding company refusing that much as necessary to cover interest during the time of construction.
    The expenditures on the gravity water system are as follows:
Water rights . . . $15,000.00
Right of way . . . 2,369.35
Telephone line . . . 2,939.45
Reservoir site (5 acres) . . . 250.00
Litigation (right of way) . . . 1,529.73
Hamilton construction contract . . . 239,800.00
Extras . . . 415.72
Engineering, surveys, etc. . . . 9,585.25
Investigations, Applegate, etc. . . . 122.60
Inspection . . . 1,861.00
Administration . . . 536.60
Miscellaneous, printing, etc. . . . 307.60
Total . . .$274,418.20
Deduct . . . 6,200.00
Cost of gravity system . . . $268,518.20
    The distributing system paid for out of the so-called gravity water bonds amounted to $68,979.93; gravity system, as above, $268,518.27; total, $337,498.20--proceeds of the bonds.
    What did Medford get for the $355,000?
    Water right--A perpetual water right to a daily flow of 4,860,000 gallons from a pure mountain stream whose minimum flow is at least ten times this amount, and further guaranteed by the stored waters in Fish Lake and Four Mile Lake, on the summit of the Cascades.
    Pipe line--23 miles of 16-inch pipe line, constructed of machine-banded wooden stave pipe having a carrying capacity of 4,100,000 gallons daily.
    Distributing reservoir--A reservoir about a mile east of town having a capacity of 2,000,000 gallons at an elevation 210 feet above the business center of Medford.
    Reservoir site and park--Five acres of ground for future enlargement of reservoir or for city park.
    Distribution--Pipe: 3124 feet 12-inch pipe, 1462 feet 10-inch pipe, 2040 feet 8-inch pipe, 23,015 feet 6-inch pipe, 8236 feet 4-inch pipe; total, 37,877 feet, including hydrants, gates, blowoffs and other fittings, and 6.83 miles of cast-iron mains.
    During 1910 13.24 miles of additional mains were laid and in 1911 7.34 miles, making a total of 27.4 miles of cast-iron mains actually laid.
    To the $68,979.93 from the gravity water fund expended for distribution was added the amount rebated on freight by the Southern Pacific company, a total of $73,717.88. Thus there was actually received and expended out of gravity water bonds for "distribution" $76,351.84.
    The citizens of Medford may well be proud of their water supply. No better water is furnished any city in the state.
    The supply is adequate for 20,000 people without restrictions, and figured upon such averages as apply in the Middle West, the quantity daily delivered to the distributing reservoir is sufficient for 25,000 to 30,000 people.
    In this connection it may be interesting to note that the average cost of a municipal water supply for cities of this class is not far from $50 per capita. Pumping systems go a little lower, and gravity systems a little higher. Medford's gravity supply has cost less than $50 per capita of present population, and when it is known that the supply is sufficient for thrice the present population, the indebtedness per capita is among the lowest of the towns having a system as good as ours.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1912, page D2  Other than minor updates, this article is identical to a version printed in the issue of January 1, 1911, page B5.

    Medford, Or., Water Main: The city council has authorized the laying of a 4-inch water main on E. 9th St., from Portland Ave. to city limits.

"Municipal," Pacific Builder and Engineer, Seattle, January 27, 1912, page 89

Medford Grows Healthier.
    MEDFORD, Or., Feb. 8.--(Special.)--According to the annual report of City Health Officer Stearns, Medford has had 60 percent less illness in 1911 than 1910. Dr. Stearns attributes this decrease largely to the new $500,000 water system, the new sewer system and rigid enforcement of laws of civic cleanliness. The list of contagious diseases last year was: Scarlet fever, 5; typhoid fever, 17; diphtheria, 9; tuberculosis. 11; measles, 22; total, 64. The record of the former year, when the population was smaller and the reports of physicians were imperfectly collected, was: Scarlet fever, 51; typhoid, 34; measles, 52; whooping cough, 2; tuberculosis, not reported, estimated only, 15; total, 154.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 9, 1912, page 6

Medford, Oregon
    Pavement, 9.17 miles, cost $434,536.23; sewers, $55,377.92; water mains, $77,399.86; concrete walks, $16,187.15; miscellaneous, $1,328.21; street lighting, 52 clusters on Main Street. Estimate for 1912: Paving, 50,000 square yards; cement walks, five miles; sewers, four miles; water mains, three miles; fire department, auto fire engine, cost $5,500.--O. Arnspiger, city engineer.
"Engineering Works in 1911," Pacific Builder and Engineer, Seattle, February 24, 1912, page 167

Repair Crew at Work and Hope Is That Damage Will Soda Be Fixed. Soft Drink Shops Popular.
    MEDFORD, Or., June 30.--(Special.)--"Water in the reservoir, but not a drop to drink," was the wail of Medford today when a break in the supply line from Fish Lake compelled the cutting off of the city water supply, and the reservoir had to be held in case of fire emergency.
    Medford residents even had to go without their usual cup of coffee, while tea was as impossible as the washing of faces and hands. For a while the soda fountains did a land office business and housewives went from church to the confectionery stores for enough charged water to help out the mid-day meal. Soda water soon gave out, however, then lemon pop, and Colestin spring water became the substitute. One public-spirited citizen with a case of beer peddled a few pints to close neighbors and friends, but as Medford is dry Sundays, malt beverages did not give any material relief.
    The Hotel Medford could serve no coffee or tea, and had to carry the table water by bucket from the well belonging to Dr. E. B. Pickel.
    Mayor Canon with a party of engineers left for the scene of the trouble, near Butte Creek, by auto this morning, and telephoned back that the break was a bad one but they hoped to have it repaired early Monday morning.
    This is the first serious trouble Medford has had with her $500,000 water system since it was installed several years ago.

Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 1, 1912, page 3

    In looking over the record of those who have distinguished themselves in public service, our thoughts naturally turn to the record of Dr. E. B. Pickel. The doctor has the record of being the handsomest mayor to date, and will probably continue to enjoy the distinction until we elect a suffragette.
    Dr. Pickel was mayor [1904-05] in the days when we drank Bear Creek "liquid." It was generally liquid. In those days if we wished to leave our homes at night we equipped ourselves with rubber boots, procured a lantern, and with fear and trembling sallied forth into utter blackness. If we reached our destination without stepping on the end of a board whose other end was not nailed down we felt that we were under the protection of a special providence.
    Dr. Pickel was largely instrumental in selecting the present site of Medford's pure water supply [Fish Lake], and for this service alone we think he is entitled to a place in "Medford's Hall of Fame."
Minnie (Mrs. Harry C.) Stoddard, "Medford's Hall of Fame," Medford Mail Tribune, December 18, 1912, page 4

Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1913
Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1913

    The street and road committee of the city council has ordered the installation of two new drinking fountains in the city, one for citizens and the other for animals.
    The fountain for horses will be constructed on Fir Street just south of Main Street while the other will be placed at the intersection of Main and Oakdale.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 21, 1913, page 4

    "Any Medford doctor can tell to a day the day that the Medford water system was turned on," says Dr. Conroy. "Previously, all doctors were kept busy with typhoid and intestinal troubles. Since people have been using the gravity water supply, however, Medford has become one of the healthiest cities in the country, and there is little for the doctors to do. I really believe that in such a healthy climate as this, that if the people would eat properly, they would have the doctors starving to death."
    Other doctors agree that the greatest thing that ever happened to Medford in the line of health production is the gravity water system, and that if human life is worth anything, the gravity water system is far beyond the power of estimation in value.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 1, 1913, page 5

    Medford's water system was put out of commission for a time this week by the bursting of the main supply pipe near the Bear Creek bridge Wednesday evening. A force of men were immediately put to work repairing the break. The Sun, in describing the effects, says: "Owing to the suddenness of the accident hotels, restaurants and homes were left without water, and there will be great skirmishing around this morning for the early risers, as it will take considerable time to mend the break. Thirsty folks downtown drank bar refreshments, soda fountain beverages and milk."

"Local News," Jacksonville Post, October 11, 1913, page 3

    In his annual report submitted to the city council Water Supt. Tranna makes several recommendations.
    The old city well at the intersection of Eighth and Riverside he declares a menace to the health of employees who are engaged around the premises and threatens the food supply at the public market. He suggests withdrawing the pumps and filling the well. The electric pump, according to the report, if pressed into service for emergency use would perhaps contaminate the entire water supply of the city.
    A new water main from the reservoir to the southwest part of the city is urged and the following extract is quoted regarding the intake:
    "During the salmon spawning season many fish can get above the intake and die when the intake tender removes splashboards of [the] diverting dam. If the matter were taken up with the fish and game warden it is probable that a permit can be obtained that will grant the city privilege of obstructing the stream."
    "The cost of gravity water line maintenance increases year by year, and deterioration is rapid. The city should make preparation for future requirements by providing a substantial sinking fund as it will be needed probably in 5 years for pipe replacement.
    The report shows that the cost of the department in 1913 for labor and material averaged nearly $1000 a month. The phone line to the intake cost $2005.24.
    Attention is called to the expense of fire hydrant maintenance including cutting weeds and flushing. The expense could be reduced, in the opinion of the water superintendent.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 24, 1914, page 4

Declares Action Would Infect Every Water Pipe in City--
Would Be Blunder--Hopes Council Will Reject Plan

    Disapproval of any proposed plan to repair the old city well as an auxiliary to the city water supply is voiced by Dr. E. B. Pickel of this city and a member of the state board of health in the following statement, which speaks for itself. The statement is:
    "That dirt is dangerous and cleanliness--though doubtless an acquired taste--is a protection against disease is a dearly bought experience of all civilized peoples. Now if a public water supply becomes infected, not matter how rigid or strict the principles of cleanliness are carried out by the inhabitants of a city, the risks are serious and no intelligent community would willingly run the hazard. No one disputes the value of a supply of pure water, yet the maintenance of active measures for the protection of the source of that supply is equally important.
    "It is understood that [there is] the question of repairing the well at the brink of Bear Creek, used in the ancient days of Medford, by cementing the walls and extending a concrete pipe underneath the bed of the creek, thus supplying the well with pure (?) water for use in case of emergency.
    "All early citizens of this vicinity know something of the costly experiments and mistakes the history of Medford's early water supply reveals and had hoped the water problem was practically settled, but of all the blunders fostered upon a suffering people the proposition above is one of the rankest and causes one to wonder at the vagaries of a human brain; also to exclaim 'man is fearfully if not wonderfully made.'
    "The idea of such a well containing pure, wholesome water is too ridiculous for a sane mind to consider. It is actually difficult to realize that anyone should be so criminally ignorant in a highly civilized community at the present time.
    "One clause in the sanitary laws of all cities relative to the water supply states that no person shall do or permit to be done any act or thing that will impair or imperil the purity or wholesomeness of any water used or designed as a drink in any part of the city. Yet this one act would infect every water pipe and main in the city provided it should once be used, endangering the lives of every household.
    "I have too much faith in our city council to believe they would seriously consider such a criminal step."
Medford Sun, February 17, 1914, page 1

    Conservation of the city water supply, by compelling all water users outside of the city limits to install meters, and a rigid enforcement of the water laws during the summer months, was the most important action taken by the city council Tuesday night.
    The meters were ordered installed to equalize the water assessments of all users. Residents outside the city limits have been paying the same rates as users within, yet paying nothing towards the upkeep of the city. The meters will make it possible for them to pay for the water they use, and raise their payments. A protest is expected to arise from this action. Some in their efforts to dodge the water assessments have purchased water from their neighbors on a half and half basis.
    The hot weather coming on, lawn sprinkling is in vogue, and the regulations provided for this use will be rigidly enforced by Superintendent Tranna.

Medford Mail Tribune, May 20, 1914, page 2

    Medford papers report 51 leaks in the first four miles of that city's water main.
"Local News," Jacksonville Post, June 27, 1914, page 3

    A half million gallons increase in water from the city water supply is expected by councilman Medynski when he finishes improvements contemplated as a result of an inspection of intake and system this week. By raising the overflow valves he says the increased flow will be obtained.
    Councilman Medynski inspected the pipeline and found it in much better shape than he expected. The 600-foot tunnel was also inspected, and cave-ins found where the supporting timbers had rotted. A force of men will be sent up next week to make needed repairs, and the water system put in first-class shape at a cost of several hundred dollars.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 3, 1914, page 8

    Twenty arrests were made at Medford Thursday for violation of the sprinkling rules of the water department.

"Local News," Jacksonville Post, July 18, 1914, page 3

    There was a trace of muddiness in the city water early today owing to the heavy drain during the hot weather on the city reservoir.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, July 31, 1914, page 2

Dam at Fish Lake
    J. T. Sullivan, manager of the Rogue River Canal Company, has returned from a trip to Fish Lake. He traveled by auto, reaching the dam at the west end of the lake. This is the first time an auto has ever made the trip.
    Manager Sullivan reports that fifty men are now employed on the construction of the dam and that within the next ten days or two weeks the force will be increased to 150. The dam will be completed by the time snow flies.
Jacksonville Post, July 15, 1915, page 1

    The Mail Tribune does not want to appear in the role of obstructor or discourager of enterprise, but it desires to call the attention of the public to the fact that the purity of Medford's water supply is endangered by the building of a dam at Fish Lake.
    The dam is needed to impound water for irrigation purposes, but some provision should be made at once to safeguard the city's water supply, for the impounded water will not be fit for drinking purposes unless a filtering system is utilized.
    When the previous dam existed, analysis of the water showed it impregnated with typhoid and other bacilli. It could not be otherwise. The reservoir basin and drainage area has been used as cattle pasture for half a century. All the debris of countless herds as well as the decaying vegetation of the forests will be drained into the lake, to decompose and find its way into Medford stomachs.
    Some method must be provided to keep Medford's water pure, and should be provided by those causing its spoliation. Now is the time for action, before the damage has been done.
    If Medford calmly watches without protest the ruin of its water supply, in which it has invested nearly half a million dollars, it will lose its right of protest after the ruin has been wrought.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 28, 1915, page 4

To the Editor:
    Public drinking fountains installed by the city are placed at convenient heights and at readily accessible places for the purpose of obtaining a good, wholesome drink of running water. By their very nature, they should continue to stay sanitary. But this, of late, cannot long remain if certain conditions are not rectified. By this I mean the habit of an individual's coming up to the fountain, rinsing and cleansing his mouth of foreign objects near to or directly over the drinking jet. It may not in all cases serve to infect the frame of the fountain, but it is decidedly offensive for a woman or any person, for all that, of good habits to approach and drink at the same fountain immediately after.
    Then there is the habit of several persons, talking business or otherwise, of leaning against the fountain, speaking of those built of brick as the one on the Medford National Bank corner [Main and Central]. The clothing of these persons may be scrupulously clean, and again it may not. It is disagreeable in no small degree to request certain men to move aside, and either drink amid jesting and clouds of smoke, or to do without a drink at that fountain.
    In the interest of the whole community, individually and collectively, an observation of these conditions, and a careful endeavor upon the part of the citizens to prevent them, will tend to give the public a drink of cool, clear running water in an undisturbed manner.
E. C. F.           
Medford Mail Tribune, September 7, 1915, page 4

    The Rogue River Canal Company has agreed to take any steps the city council may suggest for the protection of the city water supply at Fish Lake, where the canal company is building a dam to be used to secure storage water for irrigation purposes. The council held a meeting this afternoon, and councilman Miles is drawing up the demands of the city.
    The city will ask that the land to be overflowed by water be cleared of all brush, dead logs, leaves and debris, and that it be made as reasonably clean and free from injurious matter as possible. This the company has agreed to do.
    Standing timber the canal company does not want to cut down at this time, owing to the heavy cost, but agrees if afterwards it is found to be detrimental they will take steps to clear it away.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 14, 1915, page 4

    Mr. and Mrs. Walter Antle and daughter Jane, who have been spending the winter months at the city intake, where Mr. Antle is keeper, have returned to Medford to remain.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, March 22, 1916, page 2

    In the city park there has been considerable trouble occasioned by the roots of trees breaking into the wooden mains. Several times it has been necessary to dig up and repair the mains. The city engineer was instructed to figure on the cost of replacing these mains with cast iron pipes. . . . at the suggestion of City Engineer Arnspiger it was decided that the members of the council will make an inspection trip to the intake of the city water system in the near future.
"Council Solves Paving Trouble; to Act Monday," Medford Mail Tribune, September 6, 1916, page 6

    The fountain before the Methodist Church on the corner of Oakdale and Main will be moved by the water department to the opposite corner before the Washington School. Reason lies in the danger to pupils of the school, who continually cross the street in front of autos and streetcars after a drink at the fountain.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, September 23, 1916, page 2

     Analysis made by the state board of health of samples of city water lately send by Dr. Thayer, city health officer, shows a lower degree of contamination than does any previous analysis. This is probably due to the greater body of water at Fish Lake, which causes a greater dilution and also keeps the water at a lower temperature. The following is the latest analysis:
    Bacteria per cubic centimeter: Fish Lake 100, intake 250, city faucet, 100.
    The present unusual amount of wood fiber and sediment in the water is due to the fact that Fish Lake is now being drained for the purpose of cleaning the ground now covered by water. In liberating this extra amount of water, sediment is drawn from the bottom of the lake. While this sediment and wood fiber is not desirable, yet it is not considered a real source of danger. It is water contaminated by sewerage that is the greatest menace to public health. Such contamination cannot be seen and is determined only by careful analysis such as has been made by the state board of health.
    At present very fine mesh screens are used at the intake, and Water Superintendent Arnspiger is doing all that is possible to keep the water clear. According to his statement, it is possible to keep this sediment out only by the use of a settling tank or system of filters.
Medford Sun, September 28, 1916, page 2

    The foreign odor and taste in the city water will continue at least a week, and may last for a month, according to Water Superintendent Olen Arnspiger. The Rogue River Canal Company, he explained, is draining the water from Fish Lake in order to gather and burn the debris in the bottom of the lake. At the same time, they are adjusting the gates at the outlet of the lake, sometimes lowering and sometimes raising them so that the water and sediment is being constantly roiled up. When a large head is allowed to pass through, the creek is raised, and by the time the water reaches the city intake it has picked up a large accumulation of silt and vegetable matter from the banks.
    If the condition of the water is not abated within the next two or three days, Arnspiger stated, he will go to the lake and endeavor to have the gates opened as wide as the size of the creek bed will allow and complete the drainage in the shortest possible time. However, there are between 500 and 600 acres covered with water, and at best it will require a week to empty the area of water.
    In spite of the odor and taste, he continued, there need be no fear of contamination from the water, as the tests recently made show the water to be remarkably free from bacteria.
    The safe way, however, is to boil the drinking water.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 29, 1916, page 3

Cleaning Out Bed of Lake
    The Roguelands Company has closed down its camp at Fish Lake and established bachelor quarters for a crew of eight men, who are engaged in clearing and burning the debris on the bottom of the lake. This crew will work until snow is too deep to allow further progress. It is thought that the bed of the lake will be cleared before spring. With the first heavy rain or snow, the gates at the intake will be closed, and the storing of water for the next irrigation season will begin. The lake is not expected to reach its high storage level until the middle of June.
Jacksonville Post, November 11, 1916, page 1

Citizens Compelled to Resort to Well Water and Soft Drinks Until Dam Is Repaired.
    MEDFORD, Or., June 6.--(Special.)--On account of the grave emergency water situation in the city and fearing the danger of fire while the water pressure is low, Mayor Gates today called upon Captain Freeman Newport to summon as many of the Medford Home Guard Company as was necessary to patrol the city and stop all people irrigating lawns, gardens and lots. The captain, Lieutenant H. B. Clark and sergeants Blaine Klum and M. C. Wright and six privates of the Home Guard, in five automobiles, then began the work of patrolling the city and stopping all irrigation.
    No arrests were made, but several people were warned and a second infraction will result in their water being shut off.
    Reports from Fish Lake tonight indicated the break in the dam, which yesterday endangered the city intake, would be fixed tomorrow, and normal conditions would return by the end of the week. Owing to the roily condition of the water today the people of Medford had to depend largely upon wells and soft drink parlors for their drinking water.
Oregonian, Portland, June 7, 1917, page 4

    The few wells and private water systems in Medford did the largest business in their history this past week because of the city water being muddy and unfit to drink for several days on account of the break in the Fish Lake dam and subsequent flooding of Butte Creek. Wherever there is a well, most of the day neighbors and persons not neighbors were lined up waiting their turns to fill jugs, buckets and other receptacles.
    The most popular well in the city was that of the Medford Soda Works on South Bartlett Street. It did a land office business day and night. "In the past three days not less than 10,000 gallons was taken from this well," said C. P. Bigham yesterday. "The people came from all over--on foot, in autos, carriages and any way to get there, and we gladly let them take away as much of the water as they wanted to."
    For the first time in their lives many Medford people this week knew what it was to be really thirsty. Many, rather than go a long distance for pure or clear water, finally gave in and tried to drink the mud.

Medford Mail Tribune, June 9, 1917, page 2

    The fire whistle was blown at 1:30 p.m. yesterday because the water pressure had become so low as to be a menace, and at once the pressure greatly increased as the people stopped irrigating.
    Water Superintendent Davis reports that the water supply situation was much improved today and states that while he hopes to have the willing cooperation of the people in obeying the regulations in order to keep up the water supply in the reservoir for fire pressure purposes, if water users do not cooperate the water department will have to adopt drastic measures. His position is set forth in a large display advertisement to the people in this issue of the Mail Tribune.
"Local Briefs," Medford Mail Tribune, July 10, 1919, page 2

Large Delegation

    The city council last night decided to take immediate steps to relieve the water famine condition at the end of South Oakdale Street and vicinity, after listening to the urgent pleas for relief from a delegation of citizens from this long-suffering section of the city. The council also transacted business with every member present, including the mayor and members Gaddis, Hill, Dressler, Keene and Antle.
    Guy conner and Delroy Getchell were the spokesmen for the delegation, which included Edison Marshall. The residents of this section have often complained in years past to the council about their water conditions and asked relief, and various unsuccessful expedients have been tried to that end.
    However, the residents are tired of promises and makeshift expedients, and now demand as citizens and taxpayers that this part of the city be given plenty of water, and pure water, both from the points of health, sanitation and fire protection, as was emphatically but courteously declared by Mr. Getchell in his address to the council. At times the meager water supply they now get is stagnant and odorous.
    The trouble is that while Medford has plenty of water, the distributing system, built years ago, is inadequate to carry it to the South Oakdale section, which is the highest in the city. This situation is further aggravated by the fact that the system has a dead end at the end of this street.
    A further complication is that the city has no money to make the extensive improvements and alterations to ensure an adequate water supply to the residents of the southwest section, whose citizens, as Mr. Getchell pointed out last night, are entitled to the benefit of the city taxes they pay and to all the benefits enjoyed by the other parts of the city.
    Mr. Conner proposed a scheme of connecting the main of that district with large mains from other districts and removing the dead end so as to form a circulating system, which he and other residents figured would not only give a more plentiful supply but a pure supply.
    The councilmen, who have unanimously been in sympathy all along with the water sufferings of the South Oakdale section, last night decided that the time had come to act in the way of supplying the needed relief, and referred the situation to the council water committee consisting of Messrs. Hill, Keene and Miles and Water Superintendent Davis, with power to act. This committee expected to delve into the situation today and decide on some plan to give this section a good and pure supply of water.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 18, 1920, page 8

    The mayor and city councilmen held a special meeting last night with representatives of the Medford Irrigation District and the Rogue River Canal Company, at which the city government insisted that in the building of the district system the district and contractor amply protect Medford's water pipe system and right of way in the Fish Lake and Lake Creek section from any injury or likely injury, and the promise was made that the irrigation system thereabouts would be constructed in whatever way the city officials desired. A special council committee will visit the scene of operations Monday and make the council's wishes known.
"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, June 4, 1921, page 2

    To the Editor: I was interested in your editorial regarding Medford's water supply and heartily approve. In addition to a reserve reservoir and enlarged pipe line to southwest Medford, there should be a careful examination of the effect of raising Fish Lake and the clearing of land covered by water. The purity of Medford's water supply must be protected.    A SUBSCRIBER.
    This suggestion is timely and the matter warrants careful examination, but we believe there is no cause for alarm at present. Members of the city council have already taken up the question unofficially with representatives of the Rogue River Canal Company, and officials of the company have given assurance that if the responsibility is theirs they will guarantee that Medford's water supply will be protected in every way.
    The city has already started proceedings to have the Fish Lake watershed placed under control of the National Forest Administration, and City Attorney Mears has just received a letter from Congressman Hawley, declaring that HR5686 has been favorably reported by the Department of the Interior.
    This question, like the question of a reserve reservoir and increased city pressure, should be the subject of thorough examination by some competent engineer, and the entire plan of protecting and bettering Medford's water supply should be worked out in detail in the near future.
    Opinions differ as to what effect the raising of the water in Fish Lake will have upon the city's water, but the water will not be raised for another year, and in the meantime the city council can be depended upon to go into the matter exhaustively, and see that Medford's interests are fully protected.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 15, 1921, page 4  Medford's interests were NOT protected. The forest inundated by the higher water level was not cleared, forcing Medford to spend a million dollars to find another water source.

    Among applications for water rights filed with the state engineer at Salem last Saturday was one by the City of Medford for 10 second-feet from the Big Butte Springs for a municipal water supply. It is understood that this filing has been made by the city to ensure a future new available water supply for the city should it ever become necessary.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 26, 1921, page 2

Medford Apartment House Doomed by Fire--Water Low
    Inadequate pressure in the Medford water system is handicapping the efforts of the fire department of that city in extinguishing a fire that broke out in the Barnum Apartments of Medford, according to word received here this afternoon. It is said that the apartment house, the finest of its kind in Medford, is doomed to complete destruction. Firemen, unable to play an adequate stream of water on the blazing structure, were waging an uneven battle at a late hour this afternoon.
Ashland Weekly Tidings, October 5, 1921, page 1

    The very warm weather of the past few days caused all water users to go the limit in watering their lawns and gardens with the result that with everyone drawing water at the same time the all-around pressure was low and the residents in the southwest section of the city as usual on such occasions could hardly get enough water even for drinking purposes. Hence the city placed the water regulations into force today.
    These regulations will be changed somewhat, the changes to be made at a special meeting of the city council to be held next Monday night. At this meeting some drastic changes will be made, not only to conserve the water supply, but also to equalize as much as possible the distribution over the city by strict regulations of irrigation hours. This matter was to have been taken up last night, but the councilmen got all fussed up with the passage of the anti-mask ordinance and a mass of other unexpected business.
    One of the things the council must act on at once, its members say, will be to curb the growing practice of people with commercial gardens putting in a half dozen to a dozen standing sprinklers to one large garden lot, which they work to the limit in irrigating. Inquiry at last night's council meeting developed the surprising fact that the old-time war irrigating rate of $2 per lot was still in force, and yet applied to these commercial gardens.
    This was surprising news to some of the councilmen, and all members of the council declared that this extravagant use of water by commercial gardeners must be stopped at once. The councilmen declared that the number of sprinklers would be limited on any lot and that no matter what price commercial garden lots would be willing to pay, if forced to, for irrigating water, they would be allowed only a reasonable amount of water.
    It was reported during the informal discussion of the water subject last night that when one man with a commercial garden on the east side was told that the city must not only raise the price of water to commercial gardeners and compel them to pay a commensurate price for water, but that their supply of water must be cut down in justice to the other water users of the city, that man replied:
    "We wouldn't stand for any such thing. We commercial gardeners would form in a body and march on the city council and tell them what is what."
Medford Mail Tribune, May 17, 1922, page 6

    The danger of a temporary water famine in the city ceased at a few minutes after 6 p.m. yesterday when the break in the main pipe near Wellen was repaired and water again began freely flowing through the city mains. It came just in time, as at 4 p.m. when the drain on the reservoir during the day had drained that immense basin so that only three feet of water remained Fire Chief Lawton ordered the remaining water in the reservoir shut off from the city mains, as it was needed to maintain pressure for possible fire use.
    The only water supply from then on until the chief's embargo was lifted, as soon as the break had been repaired and water again began flowing into the reservoir, was what was contained in the mains, which enabled a few homes to obtain a little from faucets. In the great majority of homes, however, not a drop of water could be obtained from the faucets, and in many homes where the women had neglected to fill tubs, kettles, boilers and other receptacles earlier in the day, in preparation for an emergency, the families were truly "up against it" for water for drinking and cooking purposes.
    Hence when shortly after six o'clock the water began again to flow strong through the mains there was much rejoicing throughout the city.
    However the siren whistle was not blown to tell the people that the embargo on watering lawns and gardens was lifted, as that could not be done until the reservoir had filled up again. This desired result was reached this morning about 8:45 and City Superintendent Davis ordered the whistle sounded at once.
    The reservoir could have been filled up earlier had not many water consumers in their selfishness and recklessness for consequences stolen water, mostly in open hoses, during the evening and night to irrigate their lawns, gardens and flower beds.
    The city reservoir holds two and one-half million gallons of water, and water flows into the reservoir from the main pipe line at the rate of four million gallons every twenty-four hours, hence it would take ordinarily about 12 solid hours to fill it.
    During the day when the situation was so grave and it was not known when repairs could be completed many Medford water users, men and women, showed astonishing selfishness and utter disregard for their own and the public welfare, by not heeding the orders not to irrigate gardens and lawns, despite the warnings that had been issued. Chief of Police Timothy had to visit one woman's home three times before she would desist. She, as well as a number of others, used an open hose at times.
    Fortunately no fire occurred during the day and the main body of citizens conserved the water supply as much as possible.
    Superintendent Davis announces that the repairs made by his crew of workmen at the broken pipe are regarded as permanent. This accident to the water supply system yesterday won many citizens over to the long-urged idea of the city building an additional or reserve reservoir and making other changes in the system, as an absolute necessity to protect the health and welfare of the people and furnish ample fire protection.
    Ray Moran, manager of the Rogue River Canal Company, declares the slide which broke the main pipe line yesterday morning was due to no fault of the canal company or its canal. He says that there was no seepage from the canal at that point which could have caused the slide.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 28, 1922, page 8

Council Decides to Construct Reserve Reservoir in September or October--
Lid Is Clamped Down Hard on Water Law Violators.

    The lid was clamped squarely down by the city council on the permitting of further violating of the water regulations last night, every councilman and the mayor ordering that arrests be made from now on of all water violators. The council is back of this promulgation to a man, and the orders are to arrest, and rearrest as often as necessary, all offenders. The council, every member of whom, Messrs. Lumsden, Keene, Gaddis, Antle, Miles and Dressler, were present, and Mayor Gates are determined to break up the water stealing and give all water consumers in every part of the city as square a deal as possible.
    To this end a change in the watering hours was made, which it is thought will give the people of the west side, especially in the southwest portion, more water.
    Hereafter water users in the section of the city east of the railroad tracks on their regular water days can only water from 4 a.m. to 11 a.m., and instead of starting in again at 4 p.m. and watering until 11 p.m., must not begin until 7 p.m. and then can water until 11 p.m. Thus three hours of watering is cut off from the east side water users, because they have a better water pressure than on the west side, and the change will work no hardship whatever on them, the council figures. This three hours cut off from the east side will give all parts of the west side a much needed pressure.
    The water hours on the west side of the railroad tracks are just the same on their water days as heretofore, except that west of Oakdale Avenue, and south of West 12th Street, the water users who because of' their extreme low pressure have been allowed to water every day at any time, must water during the hours assigned to the remainder of the west side.
Water Stealing Evils
    Although the evening was a torrid one in the council chamber when the shirtsleeved councilmen began to discuss the water question and the stealing of water, the temperature grew warmer as Mayor Gates and the councilmen, one by one, related the evils of water stealing. Many dark and dastardly deeds of this kind were related, and instances told of where a number of water users have habitually used water as they please regardless of hours and required hose nozzle, actually defying the city.
    The council means business at last in this enforcing of water regulations and is unitedly back of those charged with the enforcement. The owner of commercial gardens with their lines of sprays must walk chalk from now on, and will be closely watched by other water users. It developed after the council meeting last night that one of the largest commercial gardeners of the city, after the council recently curtailed use of water by commercial gardens, had been going ahead using water as usual, with permission, it is said, from a councilman. No councilman has authority to grant anyone permission to violate any ordinance of the city, the rest of the councilmen say, and they won't permit this man to violate any longer. "Treat every water consumer alike," is now the slogan of the city government.
Build Second Reservoir
    Councilman Lumsden voiced the sentiments of the council and mayor when in the beginning of last night's discussion he earnestly declared that Medford has plenty of water for all consumers, if stealing of water were only stopped. While the city fathers were still heated up on the water question they said it was futile for water consumers to expect to get sufficient water in their homes for the bath tub, etc., while at the same time they had one or two hose nozzles playing on their lawns. If they would shut off the irrigating on their lawns, plenty of water in most cases would pour into the house.
    Councilman Antle brought up the question of the city starting work as soon as possible in building an additional or reserve reservoir, and the mayor and every councilman was heartily in favor of doing this in the fall. Plans prepared by Olen Arnspiger, former city water superintendent, and Fred Cummings, the district water commissioner, many months ago for the building of such a reservoir, estimated that the expense would be from $20,000 to $23,000. The city council will look up these plans and confer with Messrs. Arnspiger and Cummings at the next council meeting, and prepare to start the work of construction September 1st or October 1st, next. The money for such building will be taken from the city water fund.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 6, 1922, page 8

    The water situation in the southwest portion of Medford is intolerable. It has been intolerable during the summer months for many years. The Mail Tribune can add nothing to what has already been said, but it certainly must be apparent to everyone that before another summer this condition must be remedied.
    The city council has already decided to.construct another reservoir, work to begin in September, and to so increase pressure in the southwest part of the city that a reasonably civilized condition may be enjoyed. Nothing should be allowed to interfere with this program.
    The main fault lies with the system of distribution. There is plenty of water. The absurd contention that the use of city water to irrigate a few ranches caused the water shortage has been finally exploded this year. The ranches concerned are using water from the district irrigation canal, and the situation shows no improvement.
    Nothing is more important to a city than a good water supply. Nothing is more destructive to municipal development and growth than a poor city water supply. Within reason, there is no limit to the value of good water and plenty of it, for the people--all the people--of Medford.
    Here is a problem in which every resident of Medford should take a vital interest. The water experiences of the past few years must end. What has to be done, in this direction, must be done before another summer season is here.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 2, 1922, page 4

    A solution plan of Medford's water problem, which was put before the city council last night by Earl H. Fehl, and which seems feasible as tending to ensure the city an ample supply of pure mountain water from Big Butte Springs, is looked upon with much favor by the councilmen and Mayor Gates.
    This is in addition to the city administration's plan of building an additional reservoir and pipe line system across Bear Creek this fall, work on which will begin in September. This addition will be built this fall independent of the plan offered by Mr. Fehl, the councilmen and mayor assured Delroy Getchell, who happened to be at the meeting on another matter when the Fehl solution came up, and who also looked with approval on the plan offered and hoped it would be adopted.
    But taxpayers need not be alarmed, as no bond issue to carry the Fehl solution out must be voted by the city. The water system under his plan will itself pay for the necessary bonds to be issued.
    Mayor Gates and the councilmen, all of whom were present at the meeting except Mr. Gaddis, who is on a vacation, told Mr. Getchell he could write A. N. Farmer, chairman of the finance committee, on building a national orphans home for the Brotherhood of Yeoman fraternal order, that an additional reservoir and pipe line system would be built before winter.
    The vicinity of Medford is being considered as an available site for this big orphanage, with its proposed 125 bungalows and other structures to house 2,000 persons, and naturally the Yeoman order takes an ardent interest in the future water supply of the city. Mr. Farmer, who has left the city, has recently addressed the local Chamber of Commerce forum on the orphanage plan.
    City Water Superintendent Davis last night also reported to the council that the estimated cost of building a single system settling basin and filtration plant was $50,000. The council merely received the report and left its discussion for some future meeting, but offhand its cost was probably deemed as too much to make this improvement.
Fehl Outlines Plan
    The council will investigate into the Fehl proposition: thoroughly before acting on it. Mayor Gates appointed an investigation committee, the council water committee consisting of Messrs. Keene, Miles and Lumsden, to look into all angles with Mr. Fehl, Water Commissioner Cummings, and others interested, and report back to the council at its next meeting two weeks hence.
    The plan as outlined by Mr. Fehl includes a first water right, measuring 50 second-feet and dated Dec. 10, 1913, on Big Butte Springs, on which he holds a ninety-day option in behalf of the city, and which he will turn over to the city free of charge. The water will be delivered to the city through a large reinforced stave pipe line.
    As explained by the speaker, for the city to procure this supply of pure water, it will be necessary for the city to create a city water commission, and by vote of the people enter into a contract with the water commission for the use of the water, following which the water right and the delivery of the water to the city will be financed by a bond issue secured by the water, pipe line and contract with the city. In no event will the city be asked to stand good for the bonds. The control of the water commission would be in the hands of the city at all times, but the commission itself would be a corporation existing for the purpose of supplying water to the city.
    Mr. Fehl declared the plan was simple and easily carried out, and that similar plans are being used in many lines of business.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 2, 1922, page 6

    Dr. C. R. Ray presented the following view of the Medford water situation before the city council Tuesday evening:
    "About 15 years ago, the City of Medford was pumping water from Bear Creek with a steam pump for local consumers (and some old timers now say that it was better water, and more of it, than it is now and that they then did not have to take turns to get it or stand in line or wait to after midnight to take a bath, like a certain banker).
    "But the people were not satisfied with Bear Creek water, they wanted something better. They had drunk the cool water from the cold springs near Prospect, Dead Indian, Butte Creek, Wasson Canyon and Fish Lake and they wanted something like that; they could see and smell Bear Creek, hut they could not see or smell Fish Lake.
    "About 15 years ago, as stated, a man by the name of Colonel Ray from New York proposed to deliver pure water to Medford in a 10-mile pipe line from Rogue River above Bear Creek (by pumping to a reservoir to an elevation and flow by gravity to a reservoir in Medford at a pressure sufficiently high to afford plenty of water to all the Medford inhabitants here then or who would come here in the future, including the banker).
    "The water was to be delivered in the Medford reservoir and wholesaled to the city (so that the city could distribute the water through its pipe lines to the consumer at a profit and sell for much less lower rates than are prevailing now) and in addition the taxpayer did not have to pay one cent for the pipe line or the pumping, or in other words had the city accepted the Ray proposition, it would not now be burdened with a $1,000,000 debt and only a rotten pipe line to show for it.
    "Fortunately, or unfortunately, a wooden pipe line manufacturer happened along about that time, who had pipe for sale, and a local irrigating company had water for sale, and other people had water for sale, and a local newspaper had space for sale, and they got together. Ray could not buy advertising space in the newspaper but the other people could and did.
    "The people did not want water for nothing. They reasoned like the little girl who went to a circus with her father, and the father said, 'Let us go to the lemonade stand and I will get you a glass of lemonade for nothing.' But the little girl said, 'I do not want lemonade, because it cannot be any good if it costs nothing.' But the Medford people reasoned likewise, although a noted Medford physician and health officer (who was here then and is still here now) took samples of Rogue River water and Fish Lake water and had them analyzed by the Oregon Agriculture College chemists, who pronounced the Rogue River purer and better.
    "As a result the Medford people now get the Fish Lake water and are about one million dollars more in debt than they would have been if they had accepted the Colonel Ray proposition.
    "Colonel E. E. Kelly stated at the Forum meeting yesterday that Colonel Ray might be Induced to consider a similar proposition, if the council would make co proposition to to that effect to Colonel Ray.
    "Or in other words the Colonel Ray proposition meant then, that if the city of Medford needed additional water then, they could pay him a reasonable wholesale price for the water delivered at their doors, to be available for use without expense in case the water system broke down or in case of fire, provided the city would agree to pay wholesale price for the water when they needed more water than they then had or would need in the future.
    "Or in other words it was not proposed to supplant the city water system but to ensure a present and future water supply when needed, without cost."

Medford Mail Tribune, August 17, 1922, page 6

Council Prepares to Put City Water Board Issue to People--Council and City Health Officer Pickel Agree That Drinking and Irrigation Supply Should Be Separated.

    Independent of the fact that City Health Officer Pickel last Tuesday warned Medford residents to boil the city water for drinking and culinary purposes, the city council last night, among the other business transacted or under discussion, informally discussed the water situation and decided to go ahead in the near future and create a city water board, to take over the city water supply and system, make improvements, and operate all matters pertaining to Medford water, provided this course is approved by a vote of the people.
    Dr. Pickel's warning, which bears no special significance other than as a precaution, was issued after he had received word from the state health board that the monthly sample of the city water that is taken from the mains and sent to the board to be analyzed, stating that the water was unfit for use at present without boiling.
    "While the water can be bad and not produce typhoid when used in the natural state, in view of this report it was incumbent on me to issue the warning, which people will do well to heed," said Dr. Pickel this noon.
    "Otherwise if the people continued to use the water without boiling until further notice, and a typhoid fever epidemic should break out I would be held to blame for not issuing a precaution. There is no typhoid in the city, so far as is known."
    The doctor declared himself as heartily in favor of Medford's obtaining a new source of water supply, and is in favor of the talked-of Butte Springs supply, which the city holds and can easily obtain.
    The sentiment uttered by Councilman Keene at last night's city council meeting is also held by the other councilmen and Mayor Gates. During the discussion Dr. Keene, who this week visited the Fish Lake source of supply of the city water with Messrs. Miles and Lumsden of the council water committee, said:
    "Fish Lake should be cleaned up if Medford is to continue to take its supply from that source, but our water supply and that for the Medford Irrigation District must be separated, and Medford must obtain a better source even though the water from Fish Lake on its way to Medford is greatly purified in its 12-mile run through Butte Creek to the city intake."
    The matter of creating a city water board by the council passing an ordinance was introduced into the council some time ago by Mr. Gaddis, and the council then authorized John H. Carkin to look into the matter and correspond with other cities of the coast, which have water boards. Mr. Carkin reported last night that the correspondence he has obtained from those cities shows the success of the plan, notably Eugene, whose water board ordinance will probably be used here as a model, if the plan is inaugurated.
    The council wants to move carefully in the matter, and therefore appointed Mr. Carkin, City Attorney Mears, and Porter J. Neff, who as a former city solicitor is familiar with all the water ordinances of past years and who has volunteered his services, as a committee to draw up the water board ordinance to be submitted at an adjourned council meeting for this purpose next Tuesday night.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 22, 1922, page 1

    The city council at its meeting last night took action on two important water matters when it awarded the contract for building the new reservoir and passed the ordinance creating lower meter rates for the large commercial users of water.
    Three bids were submitted for the construction of the new reservoir of 2,000,000 gallons capacity, the lowest and best of which the councilmen deemed to be that of Lindstrom & Feigenson of Portland at $27,461, and therefore that concern's bid was accepted. The other bids were those of C. J. Seamon of Medford at $28,843, and R. I. Stuart of Medford at $28,527. Each bid was accompanied by a 5 percent certified check and was in accordance with the plans and specifications previously laid down by the city council.
    Construction work on the new reservoir will be begun at once after Lindstrom & Feigenson have threshed out full details of the work with the water committee of the council and other city officials. This firm, which is just finishing its contract of erecting the bridges on the new Crater Lake Highway section, will be through with that work in a few days, and then will start its crew to work at building the reservoir. Already much of the concern's machinery used on the highway is in storage in this city, so that there will be no delay in getting to work quickly.
    The ordinance embodying the new meter rates for the large commercial users of water was passed without debates, as all the details had been threshed out at previous meetings of the council. The new rates are as follows for the minimum charge:
    Three-fourths inch meter, for 5000 gallons $1.75; one-inch meter for 5000 gallons $2.00; one and one-half inch meter for 5000 gallons $2.50; two-inch meter for 5000 gallons $3.00; three-inch meter for 10,000 gallons $5; four-inch meter for 10,000 gallons $7.50.
    Any amount of water in excess of the minimum rate as above mentioned shall be charged for at the rate of ten cents per thousand gallons up to 100,000 gallons. In excess of 100,000 gallons the charge shall be at the rate of 7 cents a 1000 gallons.
    Where water is supplied through one meter to more than one building or to more than one business or occupation in such structure, the minimum rate will be charged for each separate consumer.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 15, 1922, page 3

City Water Committee Presents Evidence to Support Charge of Business Men's Publicity Committee--Fehl Letter Is Reproduced.
    The following statement was issued today by the water committee of the city council:
    Some time ago the city council made a careful investigation of the Big Butte Springs for the purpose of determining whether these springs would be a desirable municipal water supply, in case the City of Medford found it necessary or expedient sometime in the future to make a change from its present source of supply. After this investigation, it was decided that the waters of these springs, if available, and the project of conveying these waters to Medford feasible, would be a most desirable source of supply.
    Consequently, in order to protect the City of Medford, in the event that it should in the future desire to undertake this project, on September 16th, 1921, the City of Medford filed on ten second-feet of this water, which filing was accepted by the state engineer. Soon after this time, the state engineer was in Medford and the water committee had a conference with him relative to the matter, which was very satisfactory, as he expressed a willingness to cooperate with the city in every way consistent with his official duties. Afterwards, it was deemed advisable to file on an additional ten second-feet, which was done on October 2nd, 1922, this filing also being accepted by the state engineer.
    Recently, Mr. Earl H. Fehl appeared before the city council, and a little later before the water committee, representing that he was agent for, and had an option from another party whom he claimed was the absolute owner of the waters of Big Butte Springs and Mr. Fehl endeavored to sell this water, together with some additional water out of Big Butte Creek, to the City of Medford for the sum of $14,000. Of course, his proposition was rejected, for the reason that it is ridiculous for the city to even consider purchasing something which it already has.
    On October 3rd, 1922, Mr. Fehl wrote the city a letter stating that there had been organized and that articles of incorporation had been filed at Salem of the Rogue River Valley Municipal Water Company, that the object of this corporation is to bring into the valley the water known as Big Butte, that he had merged his option, and that all future negotiations would be conducted by him on behalf of said corporation, etc. Under date of Saturday, October 28th, 1922, the corporation commissioner reports that no articles have been filed for any such corporation.
J. M. KEENE, Chairman,
    Water Committee.
Medford. Oregon, Oct. 3, 1922.
To Mr. C E. Gates, Mayor of Medford, and the Members of the City Council:
    This is to inform you that there has been organized, and that articles of incorporation have been filed in Salem, of the Rogue River Valley Municipal Water Company. The object of this corporation is to bring into the valley the water known as "Big Butte," by conduit, and to be distributed to the various municipalities, including Medford.
    In connection with this project I wish to say that as one of the organizers and incorporators, I have merged my option on Big Butte waters into the said corporation. This corporation will in the future transact any business pertaining to said water supply that may come up before your honorable body.
    My proposition as previously placed before you will be held in abeyance pending the attitude of this body relative to same. It is to be understood that all future negotiations will of necessity be conducted by me on behalf of the Rogue River Valley Municipal Water Company, Incorporated.
Respectfully yours,
    (Signed)  EARL H. FEHL.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 30, 1922, page 1

    Under the direction of Chas. Davis, superintendent of the city water works and streets, workmen have been engaged several days past in laying the new pipe line through the warehouse district, which when completed in several days more, and connected up with the water system, will give that district greater fire protection and generally reduce the fire hazard of the city. This boon has long been talked of by the city administration.
    The new pipe line is 1000 feet long, of six-inch cast iron pipe, and its cost when installed will have amounted to about $1600. It extends from Twelfth Street south as far as the Knight packing plant, and will give the big warehouse district of that section ample fire protection as far as water supply goes.
    At present, as in the past, when a fire occurs in this district south of the Mason-Ehrman wholesale grocery building the nearest water with which to fight the flames has to be taken from the hydrants on South Central Avenue.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 14, 1922, page 5

    The shutdown of the water works system Saturday night and all day Sunday while 300 feet of new pipe was laid in the pipeline tunnel about 18 miles from the city impressed Medford people as never before perhaps of the blessing of always having fresh water in their homes simply by turning a faucet.
    Much inconvenience was caused and considerable worry felt because of the water being shut off, and many a bath and shave was postponed until last night, and cold meals the rule because of the fear of wasting what supply of water residents had been able to store in kettles, boilers and tubs after the notice came with startling surprise in Saturday afternoon's newspaper that the water would be shut off at 6 p.m. until the new pipe was laid and connected.
    It had been planned by city officials to have this notice inserted in Friday's paper, but through some oversight this was not done, and the first known of the coming stoppage was when the Mail Tribune reached the homes of the people.
    Probably at least half the people do not read their Mail Tribune until 6 o'clock or thereafter, and hence there was a grand scurrying around of families in storing up water and shutting off electric heaters.
    The water department notice in the paper did not state just when the water service would be restored, and most people feared the stoppage might last a day or two. Hence much water was stored.
    Because of the lack of running water no fire was started in the cook stove in the majority of homes Sunday. Great was the joy of most everyone when the water began to flow through the faucets Sunday noon, but it came out very muddy and lasted only a short time. This was done to enable the people to cook dinners, but few did so, fearing correctly that the water would not last.
    Hence when the water again began coming again in full force between 5:30 and 6 p.m. great was the relief, for it was realized that the job was over and things were normal again.
    However, at no time was there any fire danger, as ample pressure was maintained in the reservoir for fire protection, and when the change had been completed late yesterday afternoon and the water service restored, the reservoir is said to have been half filled with water.
    The difficult work of tearing out and carrying away the 300 feet of old wooden pipe and installation and connection of new chemically treated pipe was done in very quick time, considering the fact that only six men could work in a cramped position at a time in the tunnel. J. F. Conrad, assistant water superintendent, had active charge [of] this work, which was done by two crews, a night and day one.
    Mayor Gaddis, Councilman Close and Superintendent Davis visited the tunnel yesterday and watched the work being done.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 19, 1923, page 9

    Water was turned into the big white concrete basis of the city's new 2,000,000-gallon reservoir at 8:53 [sic] o'clock this morning. The new basin will be filled slowly, about two feet at a time, in order to allow the concrete walls to absorb the moisture gradually.
    Construction on the new water storage basin was started last December by Lindstrom and Feigenson of Portland, contractors. Cummings and Semon, F. E. Semon in charge, have done all the engineering work on the new project.
    The basin of the reservoir is complete and the coping around the top edge is now being poured and is expected to be complete by the end of the week.
    Five thousand cubic yards of rock and twelve hundred cubic yards of earth were excavated for the trenches, for carrying connections to the mains and for the basin itself. Three thousand sacks of cement, five hundred cubic yards of gravel and 355 cubic yards of sand have been used in the construction.
    The new reservoir is said to be one of the finest pieces of rock and concrete construction in the Northwest. The rock taken from the excavation has been banked all around the sides of the new reservoir, forming an excellent retaining wall.
    The structure, which is situated just north of the old reservoir on the same hilltop and the same level, is of practically the same capacity. It is 120 feet wide, 180 feet long and 18 feet deep, the basin being in the form of an inverted, truncated pyramid. It has cost the city approximately $30,000.
    The builders state that the reservoir was perfectly capable of holding water before the concrete lining was applied, and that but for the added convenience afforded by the concrete in keeping the water clean and in allowing the cleaning of the reservoir itself, it would have been possible to do without it. They state also that due to the large amount of solid rock excavation that they have made nothing on the job. In excavating the trenches where solid rock formation was removed, as in nearly all the rest of the excavating, the cost of the powder used exceeded the amount of $3.00 per cubic yard which the contractors had bid for removing the rock, according to Mr. Lindstrom of the contracting firm.
    The new reservoir will receive its supply in normal times from the overflow of the old reservoir. An arrangement of the valves provides for the operation of the two reservoirs together at the same water levels, one being filled or emptied independently of the other.
    The new two-million-gallon container will be used for stoppage of water only and in case of fire the city will always have the extra two million gallons of water in reserve, to be used if needed.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 24, 1923, page 8

    The new water districts and rules put into force Wednesday by the city water commission in its efforts to equalize the water supply and pressure in all sections of the city is working satisfactorily, city officials claim. The maximum use of water for the season has been at its height for several days past.
    True it is that there is less water during the morning and evening peaks of consumption, but immediately after these peak periods when all consumption ceases the reservoir begins to fill up again and is full when the next peak period arrives. Each daily peak consumption period draws the water down in the reservoir from two and a half to three feet.
    This is all done by using the old reservoir, due to inability to use the new reservoir, finished months ago, and which still continues to spring leaks in its bottom because of the tremendous pressure of water above when filled. This pressure is from 16 to 18 millions of pounds.
    The city officials have repeatedly plugged these leaks and made repairs, each time making much advancement in stoppage of leaks, but there are still several cracks in the bottom that are causing leakage trouble. The outlook is that the new reservoir will not be available for use until fall at least. There are between 8 and 9 feet of water now in this reservoir.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 17, 1923, page 3

    Among the cases being heard by Judge A. L. Leavitt of Klamath Falls, sitting on the circuit bench of Jackson County for Judge C. M. Thomas, was that of Rowley et al. against the City of Medford to enjoin it from the use of the Big Butte Springs above Butte Falls, upon which the city some time ago filed for municipal water supply.
    It was claimed by the Fehls, Rowley, et al. that although they had relinquished their appropriation to the state, it was ahead of the city's right, but after plaintiff's testimony was all in, the court allowed the city's motion for a non-suit, thus dismissing the case, the court holding that the plaintiffs had relinquished their right to the water when they assigned same to the state.
    This leaves the city and the Eagle Point Irrigation District with equal rights in the water of Big Butte, and is considered a big victory by both the district and the city. Citizens generally feel that it is but a short time before the city will need to make use of the new water supply, which will be ample for a city much larger than Medford for many years to come.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 4, 1924, page 2

    A representative of the Mail Tribune discovered today that the following conditions prevail at the city reservoir.
    In the old reservoir, there is a coating of mud, covering the sides.
    In the corners of the reservoir, where the water is quieter than in the middle, there are large numbers of apparently full-grown polliwogs.
    By standing to the windward of the reservoir, an investigator can get a pronounced whiff, identical with the scent that comes from the faucets of the city.
    Swallows flit over the old reservoir, gathering mud from the sides of the reservoir for nest building.
    Water drawn from a faucet above the reservoirs is clear, tasteless, and odorless.
    Water drawn from a faucet in the yard of the city reservoir tender is the same, though warmer.
    The walls of the new reservoir are clean, and contain no visible animal or vegetable life.
    It has been contended that the present odoriferous and rancid condition of the city water was due to the low stage of the water in Fish Lake, resulting in the tearing loose of submarine vegetation, afterwards carried by the stream to the city intakes, the emptying of Four Mile Lake into Fish Lake for irrigation water, and resultant stirring up of the water, and from seepage water from Four Mile Lake.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 25, 1924, page 3

    To the Editor:
    Replying to statement relative to city water in your issue of the 25th inst., the City Water Commission wish to state that in their opinion the city reservoir is not responsible for the taste and smell of the water, as users on the line, namely 401 Ranch, James Owens, and also von der Hellen all report the same condition on gravity line several miles above the reservoir.
    Upon a visit to the reservoirs by members of the City Water Commission and others, a more odorous condition was found to exist in the new reservoir than in the old one.
    The water in the new reservoir at this time was fresh water from the gravity line, and in our opinion, as members of the City Water Commission, the taste and smell of the water must be caused by moss and vegetable matter in Fish Lake.
    The reservoir will be immediately cleaned, but we do not believe there will be any improvement as long as conditions remain as they are now at Fish Lake.
    City water users will not be permitted to use water for irrigating lawns or gardens at any time day or night Monday, July 28, and July 29, 1924, while this work is being done.
    Medford, July 26.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 26, 1924, page 2

    To the Crater Club:
    The article appearing in last night's Tribune together with the one of Friday's issue we feel would do untold harm to Medford and its citizens if the public were left without further enlightenment upon the subject.
    The water commission of this city, together with the members of the city council, are truly glad that a number of the substantial citizens are awakening to some of the facts in the water situation, and we all will welcome your club's activities, provided you will go into the matter thoroughly and from all angles.
    The publicity so far put out has done much harm to the city and its good name, and it will take untiring efforts to overcome this feature; at the same time it cannot either improve nor change the conditions of the present water supply.
    This is a matter of some five or more years' standing and was brought about by the failure of those handling the irrigation problem to clear the Fish Lake reservoir site of the thousands of trees now dead and falling in the lake because of their inundation; and the situation has become further aggravated by the drawing down of the reservoir to the very bottom due to the failure to obtain the water from Four Mile Lake in time to prevent this condition.
    This situation has been a recurring condition each year and will not improve with time; the only real remedy is another source of supply, which this body is actively investigating, and it is the hope of the commission to be able to put to the people such a project with our recommendations together with those of recognized engineering authorities sometime this fall or as soon as it can be thoroughly worked out.
    All of the public authorities consisting of the city health officer, the state board of health, the city council and the city superintendent, and now the city water commission have been and are giving the matter their closest attention. And the city council because of this very same condition installed some years ago a chlorination plant at the city intake so that any disease-bearing germs might be killed and the public health protected, and this has been carefully watched and operated ever since. The results show that same has been efficient.
    The rumor to the effect that the water has caused typhoid in Medford is without foundation and is specifically denied by the city health officer, Dr. E. B. Pickel, whose integrity is beyond question.
    We will be glad to give your committee all the information there is and to assist you in making a quick and thorough investigation of the entire matter so that any fear that may exist regarding the public health may be cleared up and unwarranted gossip eliminated.
    The city reservoirs have just been recleaned, and as the same conditions remain, it goes without further comment that such causes that do exist come direct from the lake.
    To those who feel that propaganda is being spread, we will say that if the truth is propaganda, then it may well be called such, but we feel assured that the best interests for the city lay in the securing of additional and better water.
    We have taken the liberty to give a copy of this letter to the Mail Tribune so that the entire public may be fully informed.
Yours very truly,
    B. E. HARDER,
    H. L. WALTHER,
    H. U. LUMSDEN,
    A. L. HILL,
        Water Commission.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 29, 1924, page 6

Rhea Luper Gives Out Announcement at Salem Regarding Water Supply for Medford--Denies There Is Any Water Shortage.

    SALEM, Ore., July 30.--It is doubtful if there is sufficient water in Big Butte Creek to supply both Medford and the Eagle Point Irrigation District, according to Rhea Luper, state engineer, who was called into conference this week by the city council at Medford, which is seeking a change of water supply for municipal purposes.
    Medford is seeking to divert 30 second-feet from this source at a cost of $600,000 to supply the needs of the city. The present source of water is from Little Butte Creek. Medford is not facing a shortage of water, Mr. Luper said, and the question is one of quality rather than quantity. The Eagle Point Irrigation District is receiving 100 second-feet from the creek at present.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 30, 1924, page 1

    STATE HOUSE, SALEM, Feb. 20.--The senate late yesterday passed H.B. 300, judiciary committee--Granting of Medford right to use water of Big Butte Creek. The bill now becomes a law when signed by Governor Pierce, and there appears to be no opposite to the measure whatever.
"Big Butte Bill Passes Senate; Will Be Signed," Medford Mail Tribune, February 20, 1925, page 6

    The heaviest legislative work ever done by the city council at any one meeting was the record of that body last night when 16 ordinances and resolutions were passed incident to the coming special election in October, including the one setting the call for this special election on Thursday, October 8, from 8 a.m. to p.m., with 17 precincts at as many balloting places.
    The chief proposition to be submitted to the voters of Medford that day is the proposition to issue $975,000 in water bonds for the purpose of establishment of a new water system with the Big Butte Springs as the source of supply. The ordinance outlines it as "for the purpose of procuring funds to make additions, betterments and extensions to the water system of Medford."
    The proposed semi-annual serial bonds will mature in 30 years and bear interest not to exceed 5 percent per annum. Of the proposed $975,000 water bonds, $100,000 will be for the betterment and extension of larger water mains.
    Another important ordinance to come up at the special election is the proposition to issue $50,000 in bonds for a new city hall structure and to authorize the sale of the present city hall, for which the city has already been offered $25,000 by a prospective purchaser. The passing of this ordinance is to pave the way for the proposed removal of the courthouse to Medford from Jacksonville, the new city hall to be occupied as a temporary courthouse while a permanent courthouse is being erected in the city. Of course, this plan is contingent on the voters of Jackson County approving the removal of the courthouse to this city. If they do not the $50,000 bond issue becomes void.
    A number of the ordinances and resolutions passed last night related to charter amendments to be submitted at the special election.
    Another ordinance provides for the submission of the question of annexation of a number of outlying districts at the special election.
    Still other ordinances provide for submission at this election of the question of approval by the voters of the city giving land for a residence lot for the park superintendent and also for a headquarters to the Crater national park; and also the giving of land by the city to the Crater national forest for a field headquarters in Medford.
    Also in the batch of matters to be submitted to the voters is a proposition to increase the fund limit of indebtedness of the city from 10 to 12 mills. This measure will make it possible to increase city taxes later if the voters decide to pave more streets or make other improvements.
    The voters at this special election will also pass upon the proposition to approve of the city council consisting of eight members, as now two from each ward, one to be elected for a two-year term and the other for a four-year term, thus ensuring that there will always be experienced councilmen left over whenever the city administration changes.
    Last night's meeting was also the most tiresome and tedious in the city's history, as each long measure had to be read three times and voted on. City Attorney J. H. Carkin did the  reading. City Recorder Alford did the recording of the proceedings, which were presided over by Mayor Alenderfer and also listened to by E. C. Dillard, city water expert. Only a quorum of councilmen were present, the five members being Messrs. Crose, Jacobs, Hammond, Elliott and McDonald. Councilmen Hubbard and Janney are away on their vacations and Councilman Paul was unable to be present. However, all the measures formally passed on last night had been previously decided on unanimously by full council meetings.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 8, 1925, page 2

    Hundreds of Medford people today had their first taste of water from the Big Butte Springs, this city's new source of supply for the proposed new water system entailing a big bond issue to be voted on October 6th, and were delighted with its palatability and general taste.
    This treat was furnished by the Economy Groceteria to its customers, Messrs. Gates and Lydiard, the owners, having obtained 160 gallons of this water from the Big Butte Springs way up in the mountains and hauling [it] in their own truck down to the city, where the customers eagerly drank samples during the day as long as the supply held out.
    The management did this not so much to boost the new water supply, as to put over an advertising stunt.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 19, 1925, page 2

    At the Kiwanis meeting Monday, F. C. Dillard, engineer for the city in the movement for more and better water, made a very interesting and instructive talk on this subject. He began by saying it is currently reported that when the present water system was installed the people were told it would serve a city of 25,000 people, but does not and some are skeptical about the proposed system serving 40,000 as is claimed. He read from the report of W. J. Roberts, who was in charge of putting in the present system, which said "the present system will supply four million gallons a day and will be sufficient to supply a city of 25,000 with a per capita use of 160 gallons per day."
    Mr. Dillard said in part:
    "People of Medford are today using an average of 430 gallons per capita or more than two and a half times what the per capita consumption was estimated when installed.
    "The consumption today in Medford is about 41 gallons per capita per day for commercial use and 74 gallons for domestic use, leaving 315 gallons per capita per day for lawns, garden and other uses. Figuring the average lot as 40x150 feet, at least two-thirds of which is lawn and home garden, there is then 270 acres irrigated in the city on which the use by 315 gallons per capita per day. This makes a use of about one acre-foot per acre per summer months, which is not extraordinary as the average for alfalfa and meadow use in the country is six-tenths acre foot per summer month.
    "The increase of users in the city has been constant, much greater in proportion the last three years. In 1914 there were 2100 users, in 1922 there were 2200, and in 1925 it had increased to 2500, the greatest increase being this year. This shows the increasing population.
    "It has been suggested to put on meters in this city. This would cost $50,000 and would increase the cost of water on present consumption more than it will cost water users for the increased rates to pay for the new system proposed. It has cost $18,000 the past 18 months to repair one-third of the collars of the present system, and a conservative estimate is that it will cost $25,000 per year to keep it in repair and replace collars the next three years. At the end of that time work of replacing the worn-out wooden pipe will have to begin and on a basis of 10 years at an expense of $30,000 a year, or $300,000 in 10 years, in addition to the $75,000 spent for repairs in three years previous to this, would make $375,000. When completed there would only be a repaired plant and only 30 percent of the supply the new plant would furnish. This would mean the continued shortage and the present unsatisfactory quality of water.
    "The new system on a baas of 500 gallons per capita per day--an increase of 70 gallons per person over present supply--would supply an abundance of water for a city of 20,000 people. The minimum supply of the pipe proposed would be 15 and 4/10 second-feet, and the maximum 17½ second-feet. The present supply is 6 second-feet. The water right of the city to Big Butte Springs is far in excess of the amount proposed and is sufficient for all demands of a city much larger than 40,000.
    "To pay for the new plant and the present debt of the present plant provision has been made in the proposition to positively pay all bonds and interest before 1955, and before the life of the proposed plant has served its purpose and leave an accumulation for betterments. This can be done on basis of present receipts and an increase of 50 consumers per year.
    "The payment can be made either by increasing the present rate 50 percent with no tax or increase water rates one-fourth and a small tax levy, either of which would still leave the rate at Medford lower than any other city in the state, according to water used, excepting Ashland, but not even excepting Portland.
    "The bond issue submitted includes $100,000 to put in new mains and increase others, which is necessary to carry the increased water supply and relieve the low pressure in the city during the period irrigation is allowed."
    H. W. Guard, of Madras, talked on irrigation, and what it means to Oregon and urged all who can to attend the irrigation congress at Grants Pass, October 5 to 7.
    Bill Gates furnished the water for the dinner, which came from the Big Butte Springs, the proposed new water supply. All were delighted with the wonderful water and were of the opinion that to supply Medford with such pure, cold spring water would be well worth the cost.
    Secretary Tengwald called attention to the films to be shown at the Rialto next Monday by the Rotarians.
    President Fabrick urged all Kiwanians to attend the meetings regularly and get into the harness for the fall work.
    E. G. Trowbridge received the attendance prize given by Louie Ulrich.
    Guests were W. H. Deason, representing the Canadian Pacific railroad and a Portland Kiwanian, F. C. Dillard, engineer, Bert Anderson and O. E. Hickman, division superintendent of the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 22, 1925, page 5

Big Butte Springs, before their development as a water source.
Big Butte Springs, before their development as a water source.

Election for $975,000 Bond Held at Medford Polls, Replacing That of Fish Lake.
    MEDFORD, Ore.--Medford voters went to the polls in a special election October 8 and voted overwhelmingly to bond the city for $975,000 for the construction of a new source of water supply at Big Butte Springs, replacing the present Fish Lake supply.
Excerpt, The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, Washington, October 13, 1925, page 6

    The installation of a mile of water and sewer system on city-owned property on the east side is to commence after the holidays, according to the city attorney's office today, giving several reasons for doing same at this time of the year.
    Primarily the installation of the systems, says attorney Carkin, will enhance the sale value of the lots and in addition will provide work for the unemployed in the city at this time. The construction of the 10 blocks of trenches will be under the supervision of City Superintendent Davis and will have no connection with the city water department.
    The city plans to cooperate with the local Red Cross chapter in placing the men who desire work.
    The districts involved in the construction include the Conroy and Clancy addition, Medford Heights and three additional streets on the east side.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 24, 1925, page 6

$975,000 Being Spent to Pipe Pure Spring Water Over 30 Miles to City--Chemists Declare Supply Absolutely Pure.
    One of the many achievements of the present mayor and council of the city of Medford was to increase the supply of water to meet the demands of the rapidly growing city and to improve the quality of the water. Working with the water commission, they secured the right to an abundant supply of absolutely pure water from the Big Butte Springs 32 miles from Medford, submitted a proposition to a vote of the people of the city that carried by an overwhelming majority, authorizing an expenditure of $975,000 to bring the water supply to the city reservoirs.
    We give herewith a story by the engineer in charge.
By F. C. Dillard, Engineer
    In the summer of 1927 the citizens of Medford will be refreshing themselves with a drink of wonderfully pure, cold mountain spring water. This is made possible for the reason that in October 1925 a bond issue of $975,000.00 was authorized by the voters of the city for an extension and improvement of the present water system, principally to pipe mountain water to connect with the present city system. Due to the rapid growth of the city the present supply is wholly inadequate for the demands made upon it during the summer.
Source of Supply
    Big Butte Springs were selected as the source of the new supply, and it is truly a wonderful source of water supply for any city and is unequaled on the coast.
    Big Butte Springs are situated 30 miles northeast of Medford in Jackson County on the west slope of the Cascade Mountain Range at the base of Mt. McLoughlin, under whose snow-clad slopes the water is iced and protected from contamination by the heavy strata of pumice soil and lava rock under which it flows.
    At Big Butte Springs the water gushes to the surface, forming a group of large springs with an almost uniform flow of about 50 cubic feet per second. The temperature of the water is 43 degrees Fahrenheit the year round.
Water Absolutely Pure
    Repeated samples taken from the springs and analyzed by the U.S. Public Health Service and Oregon State Board of Health show not one single bacteria count, which means that the raw water may be freely given to infants and invalids without injury. A chemical analysis made by Prof. O. L. Hafford, head of the chemistry department of the University of Oregon, shows the following results:
Parts per
Constituent of water
Silica 28.4
Iron and aluminum oxides   3.2
Magnesium sulfate   7.9
Magnesium chloride   4.7
Calcium carbonate 17.1
Sodium and potassium--
    small amounts undetermined.
    These tests show that the water of Big Butte Springs is practically sterile and can be used where sterile or distilled water is required.
Flow of Water Protected
    The flow from the springs is collected by a concrete-lined tunnel and large collection gallery which is constructed of reinforced concrete and is tightly sealed, thus making the water at the intake invincible and free from any possible contamination. From this collecting gallery the water is diverted into a steel pipe line which will carry it to the water users in Medford.
    The Big Butte Springs pipe line is being constructed of special forge welding steel. The longitudinal and roundabout seams in the fabricating shop are electrically welded, and the roundabout joints in the field are oxyacetylene welded. After being fabricated the pipe is then preheated and vertically dipped in an air-blown asphaltic compound and wrapped with a soil-proof felt wrapping. This assures a greater length of life for the pipe line. In fact it is estimated that the city will outgrow the capacity of the new gravity supply line before it requires replacing.
Capacity of Pipe Line
    The capacity of the pipe will be between 15 and 18 cubic feet per second, delivering approximately 10 million gallons daily to Medford. The size of the pipe at the intake is 25 inches in diameter and continuing this size for 6.7 miles; there the size is reduced to 21 inches for 10.7 miles, then reduced to 20 inches for 2.2 miles, then increased to 21 inches for 39 miles, increased again to 23 inches for 6.8 miles to the city distributing reservoirs, making a total length of line of 30.3 miles.
    The difference in size of pipe used is due to the different grades on which the pipe is laid. The thickness of the steel varies from .134 inches to .25 inches due to the variation in head on the pipe.
New Supply Will Not Require Ice
    The pipe is to be buried in the ground with a minimum covering of two feet of soil and is protected at all creek crossings by a casing of heavy concrete. This heavy soil covering assures that the water will be delivered to the house tap at such a temperature that it will not require ice on the hottest summer day.
    Medford is a city that is famous for its green trees, lawns and flowers, and in living up to this reputation consumes a large amount of water. The new supply will furnish 400 gallons daily per capita to a population of 25,000 people which use will maintain the reputation of which the city is justly proud.
    The pipe line at present is under construction, practically all of the pipe trench being dug and twelve miles of pipe welded in place. Various portions of this pipe is under test. The pipe has been subjected to very rigid inspection and tests. Starting at the steel mills tests are taken of each melt of the steel to see that it contains the proper mixture of ingredients.
    In the fabricating shop of the Beal Pipe and Tank Corporation the complete pipe is subjected to a high-pressure hydraulic test. In the field under the eyes of capable inspectors each weld is examined and finally after the pipe has been welded in place a high-pressure hydraulic test is again applied and maintained until all leaks have been stopped.
    Thus Medford is guaranteed a water supply that is unsurpassed any place in the world and a water system that will deliver plenty of water to the consumer pure and cold.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 2, 1927, page B4

    Despite the weather, work on the city pipe line is progressing. About 22 miles of the 30 miles of pipe has been laid, and three welding crews are working now. Water has been turned into the first eight miles from the Big Butte Springs to test the line.
    There remains only about a mile of ditch to be dug just outside the city limits.
    The laying of extension mains in the city limits is also progressing rapidly and the whole plant is expected to be completed early in June.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 8, 1927, page 8

    Few people in Medford have any idea of the immensity of the job connected with the building of the new water system, work on which will begin within the next week or two, to last over a year before the new system is completed and in use.
    An idea of this immensity is conveyed when it is herewith stated that the Beall Pipe Line and Tank Corporation of Portland, which concern holds the subcontract from Swartley Bros. of Corvallis, who have the general construction contract, by this subcontract must make in Portland 32 miles of electric arc-welded pipe in 25-inch, 21-inch and 18-inch dimensions, and deliver it in the trenches in Medford.
    To remove this 380 tons of metal pipe from Portland to Medford will require 317 freight cars, and the freight cost alone of this removal will be between $75,000 and $80,000.
    An interesting fact in connection with the 14 bids submitted last Tuesday to the city water commission for the general contract of building the system is that eight of the 14 bidders provided for Beall water pipe in their bids. The pipe firm never bids direct for their pipe to be used, but bids through contractor representatives.
    Of the last 10 water jobs let in the Northwest, outside of Portland, the winning contracts for nine and a half of the jobs provided for Beall pipe. The other half called for the use of split wood pipe.
    The Beall concern also has furnished eight miles of 30-inch diameter pipe for the new water system at Eugene.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 14, 1926, page 3

    Except for about 2000 feet, the welding of the main pipe of the new city water system is now complete, according to F. C. Dillard, engineer in charge, and he expects this welding to be done by the middle of next week.
    The new crosstown water main will be completed by the first of June, and except for some delay, caused by high water near Antelope Creek, water should be delivered by the new system the latter part of June.
    The formal opening of the system, however, will not be held until the first of July.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 12, 1927, page 3

    Being turned into the newly completed city water pipe line last night, Medford people today for the first time are tasting the water from the city's new source at the Big Butte Springs, 38 miles distant. The full head has not been turned on and consequently the pressure is not as high as it will be when the full force is used. While the water restrictions may now be taken off, no definite information could be obtained today.
    City Water Engineer Dillard left this morning for the intake at the springs for a short inspection, and before the pipe line is formally accepted, it must stand successful tests while in operation. While a large proportion of the water coming out of city faucets is from the springs, there is still a part from the Fish Lake supply which will, however, be gone in a very short time.
    The operation of putting the new line into use last night caused some inconvenience to local households, inasmuch as water was turned off for a short time and thereafter air was being forced out of the new pipes.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 1, 1927, page 7

    With the completion in ten months of Medford's million-dollar water system from Big Butte Springs, local citizens at this time next year will have at their disposal water rarely equaled in purity and coolness from a source of supply that can easily provide for the needs of a city of more than 40,000 people. Construction work at the intake, 38 miles northeast of this city, is progressing satisfactorily as are the operations in connection with the building of 30 miles of pipe line, which will supply a flow of 17 second-feet for local consumption.
    The springs, now flowing 54 second-feet or 35 million gallons daily, from an underground channel, can never dry up, engineers and geologists are agreed. The prevailing drought, inspired by rain and snowfall shortage of last winter and spring, has caused the flow to only decrease less than 20 percent, still leaving three times as much water as the city could ever think of using. The mineral content of the water is so small that it can hardly be computed. A [cubic] centimeter of water divided into one million parts, analysis shows, contains only 53 parts of mineral, a mark that is rare in municipal supplies.
    The average temperature at the springs hovers near 43, and when the water is used in Medford it is expected to have raised only 12 degrees, the average temperature of ice water, but much purer. Sediment is unknown, making the water as clear as crystal in addition to its mountain softness. In future years no chlorine will be needed to purify the local supply, which now necessitates the use of one pound for every 200,000 gallons.
    In fact, even in the driest of years, water of the new system will not be necessary from the reservoirs, of which the city has two on a high elevation on the east side. The flow will go directly into the main and the surplus into the reservoir or out of its overflow, the system that is now being used. However, with the present small incoming supply, the reservoirs are essential.
    Another feature of the new system is the fact water first comes into contact with daylight when it comes through the local faucets. Two heavy concrete coverings, 200 and 550 feet long, protect the seven springs constituting the supply from all possible contamination, even though otherwise contamination would hardly be possible. The city owns 40 acres of land, of which they are in the center, and domestic animals are said to hardly ever be near.
    One spring, which flows the heaviest, is several hundred feet farther away from the intake than are the group of springs immediately adjoining. In order to make use of the water, a tunnel is being dug 280 feet through a rise 30 or more feet high, to bring to the pipe a flow of 18 second-feet. From the point it emerges directly out of the ground to the point it enters the tunnel the water flows under a covering protection of concrete with walls 12 inches thick, a roof of four inches on close steel centers. It also has a floor and is a concrete tunnel in itself.
    The springs closer to the intake are likewise protected with concrete coverings. They are ten feet wide and from four to five feet high with thick walls and floors. A dividing wall separates the water from the two sources, making possible two systems independent of each other by the use of two gates. If trouble should develop in one source the other will always be available.
    The tunnel, which follows a division between the rock and clay through which the springs flow, is now 115 feet long and is being worked only from one end. However, next Monday excavating will be commenced on the northern or opposite side. The work is made dangerous by the loose character of the material, tunneling being done apparently through what was once an old stream bed covered over by a lava flow from Mt. Pitt, seven miles away, centuries ago. The miners are confronted with working through loose rock formation difficult to handle and hard to brace. The tunnel intercepts all flows between the clay and rock, providing additional water.
    Before it is complete, the tunnel will be lined and floored with concrete and with 18 inches of flowing water on the bottom will probably present a difficult problem. A cofferdam, it is planned, will be built with a partition in the tunnel, diverting all water to one side while concrete is poured on the other. This is expected to take a month.
    Wooden forms are up and considerable concrete has been poured for the protective coverings for the springs adjoining the intake. A spillway has also been constructed for water not going into the city pipe, or two-thirds of the entire flow of the springs. That water will come in immediate contact with daylight for the first time while the rest will not until it reaches Medford.
    The intake work is being carefully done by the city and was not let by contract. It is in full charge of F. C. Dillard, city engineer, who made all plans, and is in immediate charge of H. E. Judd, construction engineer. The pipe line, which leaves the intake in a due westerly course, is a contract job let to Swartley Brothers of Corvallis, who have thus far fully completed 18 miles of ditch excavation and are now on the full construction of the remainder with the exception of five miles near Derby, which will be sublet.
    A half mile from the intake is the deepest cut of the entire line, made for the purpose of encouraging pressure. It is 700 feet long and at the deepest part 23 feet in depth. On this, a large steam shovel of special construction and in the hands of an expert operator is now working. Progress, even though the shovel takes 21 cubic feet at every bite, is slow because of the depth and rocky nature of the soil. Activities commenced on the cut shortly after July 4 and persistently ever since the shovel has been at work, while under average conditions the machine is said to be able to dig four miles of ditch per day. Another cut 20 feet deep and not so long is located a short distance farther down in order that the pipe line may come out on a plateau.
    The pipe, on the average, will be buried at least two feet underground and because of special preparations is expected to give uninterrupted service for more than 40 years. It is wrapped in a special apaffine paper [paraffin paper?], while the inside is coated with a special preparation which has tar as the foundation, but is guaranteed to leave no taste in the water. A cup, it is said, can be fashioned out of the material and be used in the same manner as any glass, being as tasteless as the latter.
    The pipe, for seven miles from the intake, will be of the 25-inch size and for approximately 20 miles will be 21 inches and at pitches 20. The speed of the water will average six feet per second or four miles per hour and will go as high as nine feet per second in the 20-inch size. At the point the 21-inch size stops, the pipe will be two inches larger until it ends at the city main and reservoirs.
    To remove all danger of the pipe bursting because of too much pressure, a standpipe will be placed near the 401 Orchards for overflow purposes. As yet no laying has commenced, but several carloads have been unloaded two miles above Butte Falls, where activities are scheduled to commence next week in both directions. The ditch, planned by City Engineer Dillard, takes practically a straight course the full 30 miles it covers, with the exception of necessary bends around mountainsides. From a point several miles north of Eagle Point, it is being dug in a beeline to this city.
    The pipe is made in 30-foot joints, each weighing approximately 1600 pounds, from special process Bethlehem steel, and is of a much higher grade than the kind ordinarily used in municipal water systems. It is being transported 16 pipes to the carload from Portland to this city, from here up the Owen-Oregon logging railroad. When moved around for actual laying purposes, it will be transported by means of skids to save the paraffin covering from ruin. This part is said to be most essential for preservation; rust, if any, can only attack from the outside, as the water from the springs, containing no sulfide, is unable to cause such condition.
    If pipe had been available, it is said, construction of the line might have been completed by November 1, and by the latter part of December at the latest. However, with the material and equipment just arriving at the present and allowing time for the stormy months of winter, May 1 is the earliest possible time for completion, which is positively assured to take place before July 1, 1927. Medford will then have water only rivaled by the famous water of Dunsmuir, Calif., on the Coast, it is claimed.
    The Big Butte Springs, it is related, are fed by underground channels from Mt. Pitt, gathering up moisture from the snow that falls there during the course of a year. Torrential rains have but little effect on their flow. The snows that slowly melt, and perhaps seep into an underground storage basin which may feed the springs, are of value to Medford's water supply, which is confidently expected to provide for the needs for more than several generations.
    As long as snow falls, as it has during countless centuries, on the long and sloping sides of Mt. Pitt, and as long as it slowly melts into the hidden underground channel, as now presumed, Medford can never run short of pure, crystal, cool water, which only a few cities possess. If the city should outgrow the new supply, provisions have been made for an additional pipe line to tap the intake to provide for increased consumption. Another line could be laid at the side of the new one, taking even more water, and the springs would still be producing a larger flow than necessary.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 15, 1926, page B5

    Two of the largest generators ever employed in welding work on the Pacific Coast arrived by special express this morning for use on the Medford water supply pipe-laying work, consigned to the Beall Tank and Pipe Company of Portland, who have the contract for the laying of the pipe line. Charles Beckwith and D. L. McNeil, engineers of the Portland Hydrogen & Oxygen Company, in the Portland Welding Supply Company, are on the ground to superintend the installation of the machinery.
    The generators were shipped from Chicago by special express, and were unloaded today from their special express car.
    Twenty welding experts, gathered from four states of the Northwest, have been marshaled for the work, which will be rushed to completion.
    The generators will be set up at the 401 Ranch, and will take the place of the smaller acetylene generators that have been used in the work so far.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 27, 1926, page 8

    Progress is advancing so satisfactorily on Medford's new water system from Big Butte Springs that the builders have expectations of completion a month or more before July 1, the scheduled date, it was announced yesterday by City Engineer Dillard. Although a good share of the pipe line building crew has been laid off, approximately 100 men are rushing work to assure a new water supply in time to be of especial use during the usual dry months of summer next year.
    The organization of construction has been made so perfect that delay of any consequence is yet to be seen, progress going on steadily ever since activities first commenced early last summer. Weather conditions are the only problems with which the builders must contend, rain suspending all outside activities, and thus far suspensions have not been frequent. However, with fall rains and later winter snows, progress will be considerably slowed until the arrival of spring, when building efforts will probably be redoubled.
    At the present time, 28 of the 30 miles of trench which must be dug for the pipes has been excavated, leaving two miles in the vicinity of Derby and odd lengths scattered along other sections or the long right-of-way, which is eight miles shorter to the springs than the route taken by the shortest road. The greater portion of the completed ditch was made by a special excavating machine of the Swartley Brothers of Corvallis, contractors of the gigantic undertaking. The ditch averages four feet in depth but at one point near the intake at Big Butte Springs there is a cut 23 feet deep to encourage sufficient flowing pressure.
    Thus far in the neighborhood of 100 carloads of pipe have been received from the Beall pipe manufacturing concern of Portland, and approximately 150 more are expected before the contract is filled. Made of special process steel and coated on the outside with heavy tar paper, it is guaranteed to last indefinitely, and thus far tests have shown it to endure the lapse of ten years without any visible signs of wear.
    Three welding crews, composed of 11 men, now at work, are capable of welding on the average of 1200 feet daily. Twelve miles of pipe have been distributed along the right of way, and of that five miles has been welded. The welding operation is performed over 1000 feet ahead of the point where the pipe is laid in the bottom of the ditch, being held up by chains at intervals until it lies on top of the ground alongside of the ditch, where the acetylene torch is used to weld the 30-foot lengths together.
    While a considerable portion of the pipe has been laid near the intake, more has been laid along the section running by the 401 orchards five miles or more northeast of this city, where pipe is being received from an unloading depot established at Central Point a month ago to facilitate transportation problems to that point of the right of way. Other shipments are being received through Medford and redispatched over the Owen-Oregon logging railroad, running up into the Butte Falls country, where the greater portion has been and will be sent.
    Following November 1 construction work at the intake at the springs will be discontinued and, according to present plans, will be resumed in the spring. Work to be done then includes the lining with concrete of a tunnel built to connect the springs in order to increase water flow, which approximates 53 second-feet or three times more than necessary for the supply needed by the pipe line, capable of providing for the needs of a city of more than 40,000 population. The concrete lining would have been done this fall, states City Water Engineer Dillard, had it not been for the fact that additional flow may be developed during the ensuing winter months. With this flow available next year, he said, it would be a needless waste to rush activities.
    The intake work, not let by contract and which has been done by 25 or more employees for the city during the summer past, includes the entire covering of the springs to shut out possible contamination. Concrete work on four-inch reinforced steel centers does the trick. An up-to-date camp was established near the scene when work was commenced last spring. After this month it will be abandoned until next year.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 20, 1926, page 3

    Earl H. Fehl, the weekly newspaper publisher and editor and building contractor, whose side issue for years has been to find fault, for its own good, with whatever city administration happens to be in power, relative to taxation matters and the like, has again forcibly made known his love for the taxpayers and other common citizens of this glorious city.
    All this, by way of explaining the appearance Monday of one of the finest and tastiest street drinking fountains in Medford, on West Sixth Street in front of his Pacific Record [Herald] building, adjoining the post office on the west.
    At last Earl is cooperating in the utmost harmony with the city on this water question. Not only did he install the drinking fountain at his own expense between two shade trees, which fact will be greatly appreciated by passing thirsty citizens, especially as it is the only drinking fountain in that section of the city, but he himself did the actual installing work.
    Mr. Fehl had just finished putting the finishing touches on the installation in the forenoon when along came the snooping fat reporter of the Mail Tribune, with whom he had found much fault in the past about the way he wrote things up, and stopped to see what was going on.
    Then the bighearted editor man, who never forgets the woes of the common people, invited the reporter to be the first common slob resident to drink from the new fountain.
    It tasted exceptionally good. Mr. Fehl has always been a live wire citizen, full of Christian charity, and has a way of making smart-aleck reporters regret some of their former writing deeds.
Medford Mail Tribune, March 22, 1927, page 7


    We don't know whose idea it was not to officially commemorate the turning on of Medford's new million-dollar water supply, but we consider it a poor one.
    In our humble opinion this is one of the most important days in the history of Medford's progress.
    At this very moment the people of this city are drinking the finest water that can be obtained anywhere on the Pacific Coast--or in the country for that matter.
    Spring water--cool, clear and 100 percent pure--that is what Medford has secured on this, the first day of July, 1927.
    Unless some imperfections in the pipe line develop, this supply--a crystal-clear mountain spring in every home--will be continued for generations and generations in the future.
    A later celebration is planned. That is better than none. But today is the day, and the city fathers should at least blow the fire whistle to mark it.
    Under the circumstances not one person in ten knows what has happened. The Mail Tribune has printed the bare facts given out by the water department, but bare facts can't compete with airplane flights and baseball scores.
    The Mail Tribune, therefore, takes this occasion to proclaim that Medford today acquires the greatest single asset any city can enjoy, and nothing it has ever achieved can be a greater benefit to the health of the community, its future growth and continued prosperity.
    We drink in aqua pura to the health of the men responsible for this great achievement, and congratulate the city on its great good fortune.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 1, 1927, page B4

    With the water restrictions lifted at 4 o'clock this morning and with all consumers of the city, who cared to, irrigating their laws and gardens, the water pressure during today was better than for many months past, especially between 8 and 10 a.m., when the majority of residents were using water for irrigation. Hence much praise is being heard throughout the city for the new $975,000 pure cold spring water supply and system.
    it is conjectured by the city water authorities that with unlimited use of water daily, except as to open hose and other permanent restrictions, much more water will be used for the first few days until the consumers get used to the novelty of enjoying the use of water for irrigating whenever desired, and that when this novelty has worn off much less water will be used.
    The fact that water can be used whenever desired, it is also conjectured, will cause most people to use less than usual, for with good pressure the lawns and gardens can be watered with the hand sprays in 15 to 20 minutes time, instead of it taking hours as heretofore. It is pointed out that lawns and gardens will be much better off, also, with this method of irrigation, than by the old method of setting sprinklers on the ground and letting them run for hours, literally soaking the ground.
    Then, too, the city water commission calls attention to the fact that too much cold water on lawns and other vegetation, in the sun, will be harmful, especially to lawns.
    In a signed warning to the public the city water commission says:
    "We strongly advise against the use of cold water on the lawns during the middle of the day, as there is danger of killing the grass. Irrigation through an open hose is not allowed. Excessive irrigation will not only kill out your lawn, but is a useless waste of water."
    The difference between the clarity of the former city water supply from Fish Lake and the present supply from Big Butte Springs can be plainly seen in the fish aquarium at the Chamber of Commerce building. The present water is as clear as crystal, whereas formerly it took efforts to peer into the water of the large container.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 7, 1927, page 8

    Local citizens as well as all visitors from the county, tourists and other travelers continue to shower profuse praise on Medford's new and ample water supply, which seems destined to be one of the biggest advertisements that this city has ever known.
    The local populace is so in love with this pure spring water supply that a favorite topic of discussion among all classes of citizens is "our new water," which is proudly boasted, and what is the best means to let the whole outside world know of it.
    Not only the palatability and pureness of the water attracts general attention, but the ampleness of the supply which enables citizens to irrigate their lawns and gardens whenever they want to. Visitors to the city can hardly believe there are no restrictions as to the use of the water, beyond using an open hose and irrigating during a fire--in fact local residents can hardly believe it themselves. It seems too good to be true.
    One hears many discussions on the streets and in the homes as to the best means to accentuate our good fortune with all tourists and travelers passing through Medford. Dr. L. Bundy, as well as a number of other well-known citizens, suggest that every faucet in a hotel room, and all drinking faucets in public places, as well as the street corner drinking fountains, be labeled something like the following:
    "Spring water, 100 percent pure. Try it, and drink your fill."
    Another suggestion made, which seems to strike a popular local chord, is that of M. C. McGraw, veteran Postal Telegraph Company operator. His suggestion, and it is violently approved by Turner Fifer, the Medford National Bank teller, who also warmly approves the Bundy suggestion, is that the Grants Pass slogan "It's the Climate" be paraphrased to read "It's the Water," and thus advertised.
    It is pointed out that this would not interfere with the Josephine County slogan in any way, and would really accentuate the advertising of the whole Rogue River Valley with two such catchy slogans.
    While the plentiful water supply and the liberty to irrigate whenever desired makes the city much greener than usual, and especially enticing to the visitors, it is pointed out that a few lawns whose owners did not heed the admonition of the city water commission not to water their lawns in the hot sun during the heat of the day are showing discolorated grass and vegetables, because of the effect of the cold water in the hot sun.
    As a general rule most citizens irrigate too much, it is pointed out, but they are learning to use less water as they find their lawns thrive better with less.
    A booklet entitled "Medford's New Water Supply," giving regulations and rates of the new water system, in addition to a short history of Medford's water supplies since 1907, is ready for distribution to Medford water users. It contains comprehensive information and lists all water regulations.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 19, 1927, page 3

Prominent Medford People Agree World Should Be Told About Local Water Supply--Illuminated Fountains Suggested.
    It takes a good drink to fire the imagination and call forth a noteworthy burst of eloquence. Orators have spoken wonders on a glass of cognac, poets have created masterpieces on humbler cups of wine. Now comes several prominent local citizens, who, having quaffed a satisfying draught of the new Medford water, are set to tell the world about it in sparkling terms. They all agree upon one thing. The world must know about it. But how?
    "Bill" Gates and "Bill" Lydiard (speaking together): "We believe there should be fountains along the highways leading into Medford, backed by signs calling attention of the tourists to the crystal coolness of our superior water. Suggest to them that they fill their water bottles and canteens here to take along with them on their journey. When this runs out later on, and they are forced to use the poorer water of other places, they will sigh, 'Ah, to be back in Medford, where we could have an honest to goodness thirst-quenching draught of Medford's finest.'"
    Next came Dr. E. B. Pickel, who leaned back in his swivel chair and dreamed out his ideas of putting Medford's new system on the map. "I'd like to see many, many drinking fountains on the highways and through the city. But they should be things of beauty--the real fountain idea, with a suggestion of coolness and a refreshing quality about their makeup. Make them stand apart from other fountains, sort of the service station idea--artistic, you know.
    "You know, a tourist remarked to me the other day, after having taken a drink, 'Why, this is as good as
Bull Run water.' I told him that Bull Run was a lost race compared with the way Medford's new system would push her ahead."
    W. H. Gore, president of the Medford National Bank: "Someone suggested a big celebration to advertise our new water system. I'm not in favor of this, have seen too many of them. It would resolve itself into a big political blowout of some kind, and the main purpose would be lost sight of in a confusion of personalities and foreign purposes. And then there would be the mammoth cost for nothing.
    "I would have one good page in the local newspapers devoted to the exploitation of all our industries, with the new water system holding the center of the stage. Print enough of these copies to be distributed not only through the state but throughout the United States, to the various chambers of commerce etc. Newspaper publicity is cheaper than any other, and has a more definite stroke and a wider appeal. Newspaper publicity is catching too. It wouldn't be long before other papers would copy the propaganda from ours, and the world would soon know this town for what it is."
    B. E. Harder, president of the First National Bank: "I believe two large electrically lighted fountains would almost do it. Of course they would have to be different and unique. Something on the idea of one large center fountain with different colored lights playing on the falling water idea. Then around the sides have smaller fountains where the people can get a drink. Place the first one on the highway within the town district. Then another one, probably smaller, at the depot where the tourists coming through could get off and take a drink. Getting off of a hot, stuffy train and taking a drink of this wonderful Medford water--why, don't you see, they'd never forget it."
    C. E. (Pop) Gates: "I like to see a good slogan written to advertise Medford and its new water system--a slogan that would sink itself into the heart and mind of every man, woman and child who passes through our city. Why, by bringing this new water system into Medford, we've accomplished the impossible. It's not only been successful as a business investment, but it is bringing real happiness into Medford homes. Because of its purity and superior quality it's going to be a life saver and a life prolonger. Here we have the real fountain of youth. It's taken ages to find it. Get that idea across to the world, and the rest will take care of itself."
Medford Mail Tribune, July 21, 1927, page 6

    Work will be begun within a few days on the erection of a new drinking fountain just east of the Chamber of Commerce building and the Front Street curb, to be built jointly by the city Water Commission and the Chamber of Commerce, to exploit and advertise with the tourists and other visitors to the city the pure new spring water supply of Medford.
    While the final plans for the fountain and its exact location on the site are not yet completed, it is known that the fountain will be quite an ornamental one. The city Water Commission already had ordered a fine porcelain fountain from Portland when City Superintendent Fred Scheffel and Secretary C. T. Baker of the Chamber of Commerce got their heads together and planned a much more ornamental layout for the fountain. They held a conference on this matter this morning, and their plan will undoubtedly be used if the city Water Commission can be induced to countermand its order for the porcelain fountain.
    By this plan an ornamental square fountain will be located under a frame canopy of ornamental shingles resting on four large cedar posts. Of course, no matter what kind of fountain or ornamental setting, the fountain will have a conspicuous tablet setting forth the virtues of Medford's wonderful water.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 27, 1927, page 3

    Chris Gottlieb hasn't been himself for several days. But this morning he snapped into it.
    Chris was walking down the street when he saw a tourist-filled car stop in front of the fountain by the Liberty Building. A man got out and took a drink. Chris slowed up to catch the reaction on his face as he quaffed Medford's latest refreshment.
    The man began peering down into the stem of the fountain, around the sides and around the base. This was queer conduct, but the local employment head has seen all sorts of outsiders. He approached the strangers.
    "I beg your pardon, did you lose something?" he asked. The man looked embarrassed.
    "Why, no--that is--I was just curious to know how you got it in there--and why waste it anyway?"
    "What in there--what waste?" queried the puzzled Chris.
    "Why, the ice."
    "This isn't ice water. You're in Medford," informed the blase Chris.
    "You don't mean it's naturally that cold in this weather?"
    "Consider the source," begged the reproachful Medfordite--and, waving his hand majestically toward the surrounding mountains, he was off.
    As he turned a corner further down the street, he glanced back and saw the tourist's family lined up in front of the fountain. The man was still gazing toward the mountains.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 27, 1927, page 4

    It doesn't take horse sense to appreciate Medford's new water system, say the city fathers. So the old watering trough, the last vestige of Medford's horse and buggy age, was extracted from the pavement on Riverside Avenue this morning. The group of workers took pains to preserve the adjoining concrete drinking fountain.
    A shaggy, white-haired old nag, drawing a decrepit wagon past the familiar spot this morning, jerked her head to the right and the left as if to loosen the collar that tightened around the lump in her aged throat. 'Twas many's the drink she quenched there in bygone days.
    But she outlived her day. As she crept in her antique conspicuousness up the busy street she burst into a philosophical neigh in which she embodied all the sentiments of another exponent of liquid refreshments who contributed the memorable lines, "Water, water everywhere, and not a drop to drink."

Medford Mail Tribune, July 28, 1927, page 1

    Marking the removal of the last concrete watering trough in the business section of the city, laborers this forenoon demolished the trough on South Front Street at the intersection of Eighth Street. One was removed on South Riverside Avenue last week. Neither of the two had been used for some time, both having been kept dry for lack of horse "customers."

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, August 1, 1927, page 2

    Concrete has been poured and is rapidly hardening for the new city water fountain immediately east of the Chamber of Commerce building. The construction of the fountain is approximately half completed, cedar posts having yet to be set for the wooden canopy which will provide shade.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, August 2, 1927, page 2

    The watering trough on the lee side of the C. of C. is nearing completion. The Committee on Leading a Tourist to Water, and the Committee on Making Him Drink will meet at once, and formulate a plan of action.
Arthur Perry,
"Ye Smudge Pot," Medford Mail Tribune, August 2, 1927, page 4

    Checking at the fountain in front of the Medford National Bank is the latest pastime for ambitious and patriotic Medford citizenry. C. S. Butterfield took ten minutes from his lunch hour one day this week, and Earl Gaddis checked for ten minutes the next day, and the drinking data they got will do to tell.
    Butterfield found that there was a drinker every fifteen seconds, or four drinkers a minute. And the women were heavier drinkers than the men. Gaddis found that there averaged six drinkers a minute for ten minutes, and that the men were heavier drinkers than the women.
    Gaddis and Butterfield are thinking of securing a relief force, which will stand for ten-minute shifts from 10 o'clock in the morning to 6 in the evening. They are calling for volunteers.

Medford Mail Tribune,
August 7, 1927, page 3

    Put partly into operation yesterday, the new city fountain, immediately east of the Chamber of Commerce building, is already being well patronized by thirsty local citizens and tourists. When completed the fountain, which at present has only one stream of water, will have four and will be shaded by a wooden canopy set upon four cedar posts. The fountain has a rustic stone finish and has a special faucet from which buckets and canteens may be filled by autoists.

"Local and Personal," Medford Mail Tribune, August 9, 1927, page 2

    Medford's new water supply is as nearly 100 percent pure as drinking water can ever be, it is shown by reports from the state board of health, where some samples of the water of 29 cubic centimeters each (about 20 [sic] drops) showed only five germs found.
    Three of the samples were taken from faucets located at various places over the city. The fourth was dipped from the overflow at the reservoir in Siskiyou Heights. Two of the faucet samples showed one germ each, and the third had two. The fourth example, which had gone through the reservoir, only showed one germ also.
    The samples of the water from the Big Butte Springs were collected and sent to the state board of health on August 17 by Dr. E. B. Pickel, city health officer.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 26, 1927, page 1

Thirty-Mile Pipeline Is Constructed--Capacity 410,000 Gallons per Hour--
Cost Is $975,000--Surplus Water Goes into Reservoir.
Medford Water Users.
    Year                                        No. of Users
1912 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,781
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,919
1914 . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 2,099
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,122
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,134
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,147
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,153
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,159
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,182
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,212
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,298
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,390
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,480
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,660
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,000
    "A mountain spring in every home" is a vision that was created in Medford this year upon the completion of a new million-dollar municipal water supply. With farsighted visions of future growth and prosperity, this city capped the giant Big Butte Springs, constructed a thirty-mile pipeline to this city at a cost of $975,000 and literally placed a mountain spring in every home. It is one of the outstanding achievements in the history of this city and an inspiration for Medford's Jubilee of Visions Realized this year.
    It took over a year [of] planning, preparation and actual construction to make possible the new system which brought cold snow water to Medford's water mains to be broadcast over the city through the municipal distributing system. In July the final touches were put on the pipeline and Medford people were given their first water from the new supply.
    The Big Butte Springs are situated northeast of Medford in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains near Mt. McLoughlin, also known as Mt. Pitt, under the eternally snow-capped summit of which is the ever-reliable source of water for the springs, all of which have a maximum flow of 54 second-feet and a minimum of 46. This flow contributes approximately half of the low water volume of Big Butte Creek. The city's water supply, 17 second-feet of the total or 12 million gallons daily.
Supply Adequate for 50,000 People.
    "The supply is so adequate," states City Water Engineer Dillard, "that no worry should be felt by the people of Medford for years, for there is enough water to provide for the needs of a city five times the size of Medford, even though at present the water is consumed at the rate of 500 gallons per capita--a very high rate."
    An outstanding feature of the system is the fact that the water does not see daylight until it is released through household faucets, giving no opportunity for it to become contaminated. Chemical analysis shows the new water supply contains eight minerals in quantities so small that they can hardly be measured, ranging from 28 to three parts per million. The chemicals include silica, iron oxide, aluminum oxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, calcium carbonate, sodium and potassium.
    The outlet of the springs is located under a lava capping of undetermined age, which is believed to have covered an old bed for the snow-covered slopes of Mt. McLoughlin. The lava, being of a porous nature, provides a storage basin for the drainage of the northwest slopes of the mountain, which at one time was a volcano. Finding its way slowly through the lava it emerges in a manner of springs, all of which have been joined together by the means of a tunnel and ditches to insure adequate water for the new system.
Watershed Amply Protected.
    The purity of the springs has been insured through the foresight of the water commission, which effected the purchase of 200 acres immediately surrounding them. With the larger part of the drainage area in the Crater National Forest, the city also has the protection of police service by the forest rangers. A thick concrete collection gallery protects the springs feeding the pipeline, and a tunnel, which is 300 feet in length and connects a heavy-producing spring with the others, is now being lined with concrete. This work is practically the last to be done on the water system, all other details having already been completed.
Pipeline 30 Miles Long.
    The pipeline, which runs in practically a straight line from the springs to Medford, is approximately 30 miles long and is guaranteed by the makers, the Beall Pipe and Tank Company of Portland, for thirty years. However, due to the fact that the pipe is protected with a special covering on the inside and heavy tar paper covering on the outside, it is expected to last indefinitely. The city engineer believes that 40 to 50 years will find it in as good condition as at the present, the steel being of exceptionally good quality. The average life of steel pipe, such as used in this section, is held to be 30 years.
    A special forged welding steel was used in the manufacturing of the pipe, each section being dipped in an asphalt preservative coating. The pipe has a capacity of 15 to 16 second-feet of water, or approximately 410,000 gallons per hour. The pipes are buried fairly deep in the ground and are thoroughly protected from the heat, making cool water possible in Medford and causing strangers to wonder in the summertime if each street fountain is equipped with ice coils.
    The following sizes of pipe are used in the line in keeping with the grade: 25-inch pipe, 6.65 miles; 23-inch pipe, 6.90 miles, 21-inch pipe, 14.60 miles; 20-inch pipe, 2.24 miles; total length of pipeline, 30.40 miles.
Water Temperature 43 Degrees.
    At the springs the water has a temperature of 43 degrees, and during the 16 hours it takes for it to come to Medford, the temperature is not increased by more than 10 degrees. The pipe on the average is from three to four feet under the ground, and at one place near the springs it is buried over 20 feet deep in order that proper pressure may be secured for its long trip to the city. The pressure on hydrants in Medford averages from 80 to 90 pounds--a decided increase over the old system, for which water restrictions--now not necessary--were put into effect during the warm summer months.
    This water comes directly to Medford water mains without going into the two large reservoirs on the east side of the city on Capitol Hill. However, water which is not used goes into the reservoirs, both of which have spillways. They were found very necessary when Fish Lake water was used and were essential for fire protection purposes.
Fifth System Since 1883.
    The present system is the fifth to have been put into use since Medford was established in 1883 and incorporated February 24, 1885, as the "Town of Medford." Medford was re-incorporated in 1905 as a city, and at present has a population of over 12,000, growing from a population of 967 in 1890 and 1700 in 1900.
    An open ditch of three miles in length was Medford's first water system in 1889 and was constructed from Bear Creek to deliver water to a well. Two large wooden tanks, with a capacity of 32,000 gallons each, were located in the city park on the present site of the public library and served the needs of the city with the water pumped from the well until 1902 when the system was abandoned. In that year a pumping plant was established on the west bank of Bear Creek not far from the present site of the substation of the California Oregon Power Company on South Riverside Avenue.
    Steam power was used for pumping until two years later when electricity for pumping was furnished on a ten-year contract by the Condor Water and Power Company. The water, which was supplied from a well along the banks of the creek, was found to be unsuitable for drinking purposes, and in 1908 negotiations were closed with the Fish Lake Water Company for a new supply, which was used until the summer of this year.
    For the construction of a gravity line and the supply of seven and one-half second-feet of water, the city agreed to pay $254,100. The line, which was used for the first time in 1910, consisted of 21.9 miles of 16-inch machine-banded wood stave pipe and was dipped but not creosoted under pressure, with banded collars used. A total of 375 feet was the maximum head on the pipe and was constructed with a fall of 4.333 feet per thousand, with a carrying capacity of 6.15 second-feet. The intake was not directly at the lake, the water being taken from Little Butte Creek eleven miles or more below.
    However, a few years after the new line was completed, the quality of the water was damaged by the construction of a storage dam for the Medford Irrigation District, leaving a woody taste and odor in the water because the land put under irrigation in the new reservoir, formed by the dam, had not been cleared of its timber and brush. When the lake became low in the latter part of the year, the water became especially unpalatable because of an algae growth, causing a pungent smell, and state health tests showed that it was not fitted for domestic use.

Fish Lake 1945
Fish Lake--complete with submerged trees--July 8, 1945

    The old line caused considerable trouble, because of loose collars and defective staves, and necessitated considerable expense money for upkeep. Heavy rains and freshets would cause the water to become discolored, which is something unheard-of in the present system.
    Realizing that the old supply of 6.15 second-feet was far insufficient to provide for the needs of a growing city in which a surprisingly large area was sown to lawns and used for gardens, a special city election was held in October 1925, for the authorization of a $975,000 bond issue. Of this amount $875,000 was used for the construction of the pipeline and the remainder for improvements in the city distributing system. The bonds were sold above par. The election carried by a large majority, though mass meetings were held by certain interests to bring about defeat.
The Water Commission.
    The city water commission, which was elected for an indefinite term at the same time the bond issue was voted, is composed of E. C. Gaddis, H. U. Lumsden (just deceased), A. L. Hill and O. Arnspiger.
    F. C. Dillard is the city water engineer and was in charge of the pipeline and intake construction, assisted by engineer Ralph Cowgill, while J. T. Conrad is assistant city water superintendent.
    The line was constructed by the Swartley Brothers of Corvallis, while construction work at the intake and in Medford was done by the city water department. The contract for the furnishing and installation of the pipe, including the electric welding, was held by the Beall Pipe and Tank Company of Portland.
    The municipal water department has its own building of concrete brick on West Jackson Street, completed last year, and including storage space for city equipment. Its front yard has been landscaped with lawn and flowers.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 14, 1927, page E6


    Following much intense activity by the city attorney and staff of employees in preparation of the water assessment ordinances in districts where new water mains were laid during the past year, these ordinances, 21 in number, were passed at a special meeting held by the city council at 5 p.m. yesterday. The ordinances fix the average price per foot front to the benefited property owners at $1.
    It had been intended to fetch City Recorder Alford, who is recuperating from a recent serious operation, from his home to the city hall to the meeting to sign the passed ordinances, but because he had not been feeling so well for several days this plan was given up, as such a course was not deemed a legal necessity.
    The property owners in these specially assessed districts can pay whatever is due at once, or may take advantage of the Bancroft act within 10 days after notice is served, which provides for payment in 10 annual equal installments, provided however one-tenth of the sum due is paid at once.
    An interesting feature in connection with the installation of these water mains is that the cost is the same as the laying of the old mains years ago, due to the fact that the cost of the cast iron pipe used was about the same and that the contractors, Swartley Bros., and R. I. Stuart & Son, were able to enter an exceptionally low bid for the laying because of having their equipment here handy for use.
    The ordinances creating the assessments for the sewer districts in which new servers have been installed during the past year are not ready for action by the council, but the city attorney's office expects to have them ready about April 1, next.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 22, 1927, page 5

1927 Receipts Show $17,000 Gain Over 1926, and Water Users Increase to 2825, 165 More Than the Year Before.
    The Medford water system closes the year 1927, with receipts of over $100,000, and 2825 patrons upon its list. This is an increase in round numbers of $17,000 over 1926, and a gain of 165 water users. In ten years the receipts and the patrons have doubled in amounts and numbers.
    In 1927 Medford placed in operation a new $1,000,000 water system, and the new plant was built for the future, being capable of supplying a population of 50,000 or more. The pressure is adequate at all times for fire protection, is an abundance of water available for lawn and home shrubbery irrigation, and the arid front yard and the parched rose bushes are unknown.
    The average temperature of the water supply, the calendar around, is 43 degrees Fahrenheit, and it is free from any and all contamination. Repeated tests by the state board of health show no bacteria.
    The source of supply is from the Big Butte Springs, which are fed from the glaciers of Mt. McLoughlin, about 30 miles east of Medford. Before the water gushes forth, it seeps through miles of lava beds.
    The water is piped to the city from a huge concrete intake. The carrier pipes of wrought steel are buried on an average of five feet in the ground to protect the temperature of the water, and it pours from faucets chilled and crystal pure. The circulation of the water in the pipes is continuous. On the warmest day of summer the water is refreshingly cool. Two reservoirs furnish an emergency supply of water for fire fighting and emergency purposes.
    The installation of the new water system was the outstanding civic accomplishment of the year, and brought to the metropolis of Southern Oregon a healthful and practically inexhaustible supply.
    By reason of this supply, the city water board and civic organizations adopted as their slogan "A Mountain Spring in Every Home."
    This is a brief but highly accurate description.
    The water receipts for the year, by monthly periods, is:
January $  5,228.90
February 7,835.54
March 8,309.51
April 8,295.15
May 7,724.56
June 10,184.58
July 8,006.06
August 9,731.52
September 8,126.08
October 10,244.17
November 7,656.35
December (est.) 10,000,000
    In the collection of water rents, the city is divided into two districts, the districts remitting on alternate months.
    The receipts from the water collections aggregate $101,342.42. This is ample to care for maintenance and redemption of water bonds, interest thereon, and incidentals, with[out] the need of additional tax levy.
    Statistics upon the water receipts for the last 17 years are as follows:
1910 $26,000.00
1911 30,600.00
1912 32,000.00
1913 31,700.00
1914 31,900.00
1915 31,750.00
1916 32,300.00
1917 31,600.00
1918 46,500.00
1919 43,200.00
1920 48,300.00
1921 54,000.00
1922 61,000.00
1923 56,561.00
1924 64,076.00
1925 63,184.00
1926 83,689.41
1927 (app.) 101,342.42
    The figures upon the number of water users, showing a year-by-year increase, for the last 15 years is as follows:
Year No. Users
1912 1,781
1913 1,919
1914 2,090
1915 2,122
1916 2,128
1917 2,134
1918 2,147
1919 2,153
1920 2,159
1921 2,182
1922 2,212
1923 2,298
1924 2,390
1925 2,480
1926 2,660
1927 (Dec. 1) 2,825
Medford Mail Tribune, January 1, 1928, page F8

    The water consumers of the city will be glad to learn that the new water supply, which had come forth from the faucets the past few days in a roily or milky white-like condition, thus giving rise to the false rumor about the city that the water was being drawn from the old Fish Lake supply and not from the pure Big Butte Springs source, ceased to gush forth that way any longer last night.
    The reason for the roilyness or discoloration was due to the fact [that] since starting in to use water from the new Big Butte Springs source of supply last summer following the practical completion of the new system, only half the volume of water had been allowed to run through the mains until recently, when City Water Engineer Dillard started to allow the full volume to gradually enter the mains.
    As the volume increased the pressure of air in the mains and smaller pipes caused the discoloration until last night when the full volume of water had been let into the pipes and the air pressure had disappeared.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 6, 1928, page 5

    In the past year or more the city has laid four miles of water mains, three and a quarter miles of sewers, graded and graveled four miles of streets and paved, either with concrete or asphalt, about three miles of street, a total improvement of approximately $200,000, one-half of which has been for paving. Compared with the vast amount of work done in 1910 to 1912, the recent paving program has been less than 10 percent, but sewer improvements have been approximately one-third of those in former years, while the water mains recently laid have been more than equal to the amount laid in the former years, due to the laying of a new distributing system in connection with the new Big Butte water system.
"Outgoing City Officials Have Good Records," Medford Mail Tribune, December 31, 1928, page 3

    Another indicator of increased population in Medford in 1928 is the increase shown in the number of Medford water users, now having a total of 3200, over 100 more than one year ago. Based on an estimate of four to five persons for every water user, the city has a population of more than 13,000 people, all of whom are residents within the city limits and not in outlying districts.
    Nearly 150 users will be added to the list next year with the extension of water service to the Berrydale section north of Medford along the Pacific Highway. However, this extension will not mean an actual increase to the present number, as one large meter will be used and the water will be sold wholesale to the Berrydale section as one joint user. The new system is expected to be in operation by next summer, and if conditions warrant, the system may eventually be extended to Central Point.
    The Perrydale section west of Medford on the Jacksonville Highway has been planning to use Medford water. However, no plans of a definite nature have been made, and if they are made, it is possible that they may also include Jacksonville.
    The city of Medford, with its source at the Big Butte Springs above Butte Falls, has a water supply of sufficient volume to supply a city of three to four times the present size and can easily supply the needs of the proposed extensions. The water flows to the city limits at a rate of 18 second-feet or 135 gallons per second or 11,664,000 gallons every 24 hours. Taking advantage of this huge supply, a recent survey revealed that Medford consumes four times as much water per capita as Portland, caused mainly by carelessness in the use of water and indifference to waste.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 31, 1928, page C4

Ten Million Gallon Supply to Be Added--No Bond Issue Required--Present Reserve Not Adequate for Emergency.
    To safeguard the city water supply and ensure a necessary supply for one week or more until repairs could be made in case there should at any time in the future be a break in the new water system, it develops that the city water commission, in cooperation with the city council, is going to build another huge city reservoir, this one with a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons of water, holding over twice as much as the two existing reservoirs, at an estimated expense of $100,000.
    Good news for the taxpayers is that the new reservoir would be built without a bond issue, or any extra drain from the city's finances, about $70,000 left over from the original bond issue of $975,000 for the new water system forming the main source of financial supply for this purpose.
Precautionary Measure
    The building of the new reservoir is merely a precautionary measure, as the capacity of the two present reservoirs, in the neighborhood of 4,000,000 gallons, constitutes only one day's average consumption, and in case of a break in the main pipe line of the water system the city's supply must be drawn from these two reservoirs until the break could be repaired. If the people were permitted to use the average daily consumption in such a contingency the two reservoirs would be drained in one day's usage. Of course, with a limit of consumption put on during such a repair period the one day's average consumption could be stretched over a period of several days.
    Therefore the city water commission's forehandedness in taking steps for the building as soon as possible, before the summer weather sets in, of a third reservoir with a 10,000,000 gallons capacity. Then with a reserve supply always on hand from these three reservoirs the city would be prepared for any emergency until normal supply could be restored, even if it lasted over a week.
    Of course no city official expects such a break in the new system, as it was built with thoroughness and strongly reinforced at points where pressure might be strongest.
    As is well known the city water supply does not come from the reservoirs, but flows directly through the mains from the Big Butte Springs source of supply. The reservoirs, which are filled by the overflow during the night, are merely there, filled to capacity, in case of anything happening to the main pipe line feed system, or in case of being needed for extra pressure during a fire contingency.
Near Present Site
    The new $100,000 reservoir will be built directly north and adjacent to the two present reservoirs, and at the same level, without a bond issue and without causing any extra financial pressure, according to present outlook.
    The city water commission so handled the $975,000 bond issue when the new water system was built, and since, as to have left $20,000 from the bonds already sold, in addition to the $50,000 worth of bonds yet to be sold. The remainder of the necessary $100,000 would come from the revenue taken in by the water rentals and other sources, by the city water commission.
    The above facts were set forth to the city council last night by President E. C. Gaddis of the water commission, aided by F. G. Dillard, water engineer for the city, so that the city government might understand the situation and be prepared to cooperate with the commission in the selling of bonds, etc., when the time came. Mayor Pipes and the city councilmen approved the plan, as set forth, for the new reservoir.
    The work of preparing the specifications and plans will be put under way at once and after being advertised bids will be asked for, so that actual construction work can be undertaken about April 1st.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 20, 1929, page 6

    In cooperation with the Forest Service and the Medford Water Commission, Boy Scouts of the Medford District will spend next Saturday, April 6, in planting trees on the land which was burned off in 1922. It is imperative that green timber protect the watershed in the vicinity of Big Butte Springs so that heavy rains will not disturb or endanger the continuous supply of water of the City of Medford.
    On Saturday morning, 40 Boy Scouts will load on the city trucks at the Boy Scout headquarters and spend the day in planting several hundred trees under the direction of the Forest Service officials. Each troop in the Medford District has been invited to send a patrol of picked Scouts; as only 40 Scouts can be taken, it is expected that some Scouts may be disappointed who would like to go.
    Naturally all Scouts are eager to take part in any activity in the out of doors, and doubly so on an occasion of this kind where they have an opportunity to render service to their community.
    Up to date, Troops 6, 7 and 8 have registered, a total of 18 boys. Other troops have not reported.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 2, 1929, page 5

    Preliminary work in preparation for the construction of the immense new reservoir when the city government some time ago decided to build, just north of and adjoining the present reservoir, has been under way for a week or more past, although the city water commission is just advertising bids.
    This 10,000,000-gallon reservoir, which will be used as a reserve supply should anything happen to the other reservoir, or the main pipe line of the new water system through which the water system through which the water flows direct into the city mains from the intake, and it is expected to have it completed for use before the hot summer weather sets in.
    The huge reservoir of reinforced concrete will be circular in form, will cost $100,000, and will be paid for out of water commission funds and revenues. A surplus left over from the $975,000 bonds for the construction of the new water system will largely aid in financing this cost.
    The city water commission will open the bids on April 22 in the city council chamber at 8 p.m.
Medford Mail tribune, April 7, 1929, page 8

    Soaked with rain and tired out with their strenuous day's labor, but with a feeling of pride and satisfaction at having done the community of Medford a good turn, twenty-seven local Boy scouts arrived back in Medford early Saturday evening from the Big Butte Springs watershed near the city system intake, where they planted 3000 young trees between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
    It had been expected that at least fifty of the scouts world take part in this activity, but the wet and threatening weather greatly decreased the attendance. The party left Medford at 8 a.m. and departed for home at 4 p.m. The tree planting was done under the supervision of Messrs. Norman White and Lee P. Brown of the Crater National Forest headquarters staff, and F. C. Dillard, city water engineer, and Messrs. Hoff and Smith of the city water department.
    The work was all the more tiresome because of the hard digging in the stony ground on the watershed and the bad weather. Showers fell from noon until 3:30 p.m., and then came a steady downpour at 4 p.m. The boys stuck valiantly to their job, although many of them were quite weary by early in the afternoon.
    The 3000 young yellow pine trees, or seedings, covered a distance of four acres on the watershed, the trees being planted 6 feet apart. These trees will give much shade in 15 years, and in fifty or sixty years will have reached the merchantable timber stage.
Medford Mail Tribune, April 15, 1929, page 3

No Danger of Depleting Medford's Supply by Sale to Outside District, Declares Chairman of Water Commission--Good Business for Taxpayers.
    At the regular Monday night meeting of the city water commission there was a general discussion of the opinion just given by the city attorney as to the sale of surplus water to districts outside the city, and it was generally agreed that there was no serious obstacle to prevent a solution being arrived at between the city council and water commission.
    E. C. Gaddis, chairman, summarized the action of the meeting as follows:
    "Since the commission has full authority within the city, it appears to be logical that they could be given like authority by the council or by vote of the people to sell surplus water to outside districts.
    "Those who are familiar with the original act creating the board of water commissioners have understood that they were to be given full authority over the water system, both inside and outside the city limits, and it appears that through failure to repeal a part of one section of the city charter this authority was not conveyed to the water commission as intended.
    "The commissioners are unanimous in their conclusion that a part of the surplus city water be sold to outside districts for domestic use. Two years' careful checkup of Medford's average daily use of water enables us to know the actual amount required; therefore, there is no guesswork nor snap judgment on this important matter. Four million gallons average daily use for 1928 and eight million gallons average daily waste for the same period. Let us assume that we might double the average daily use per year within the next fifteen years; should that occur, the city would then consume an average daily amount of eight million gallons for the year 1944 but would still be wasting an average of four million gallons of water per day throughout the year, which would still represent an enormous waste. Why isn't it good business to build up outside sale to approximately one-half million gallons of water per day if possible and save a small part of the loss now suffered continuously?
    "Total water bonds outstanding the first of the year was $1,231,000, and payments are planned and scheduled to retire them within 28 years. Revenue of $1000 per month received from outside water users during these 28 years would pay $336,000 of these bonds, or almost one-third of them. What better opportunity could present itself to the city to cash in on its surplus water and distribute the bond burden to a much larger number of citizens?"
Medford Mail Tribune, June 19, 1929, page 6

City Water Commission Lays Cards on Table--Official Figures of Water Waste Given--Sale of Water to Suburbs Small Item--City Charges Are Lowest.
    The following statement was issued today by the Medford Water Commission regarding the sale of waste water to suburban districts:
    "In view of the recent comments through your paper regarding the sale of water outside the city of Medford, the water commission takes this opportunity to supply additional information that might help to a better understanding of the situation.
    "This commission was created by the voters of Medford for the specific purpose of supervising the construction and operation of the water system, and to safeguard the interests of the city by exercising the best business judgment in managing the affairs of this department. No move has been made, nor any plan adopted, that has not first been carefully studied and proved to be safe, practical and workable. That was the policy of the commission during the period of planning and constructing the new and enlarged water system we now enjoy, and has likewise been their policy in the proposal to sell to outside users a small portion of the surplus water now flowing from Big Butte Springs. After an investigation extending over one and one-half years, which permitted a thorough study of the problem, outside sale was unanimously recommended by the commission, from the standpoint of direct benefit to the city in bettering health conditions, stabilizing the suburbs, and producing an income from a portion of the water now wasted.
    "The question appears to have resolved itself down to an issue between sentiment and strictly business methods, and it is hoped that this statement will help to clarify the situation.
    "The following is a table that gives the average daily use and average daily surplus of water for the past twelve months:
Daily Use Daily Surplus
Month Year Gallons Gallons
Aug. (1928) 7,128,000 4,508,000
Sept. 4,103,000 7,530,000
Oct. 3,229,000 8,404,000
Nov. 2,314,000 9,319,000
Dec. 2,242,000 9,391,000
Jan. (1928) 1,997,000 9,636,000
Feb. 2,701,000 8,392,000
Mar. 2,319,000 9,314,000
April 2,046,000 9,587,000
May 4,438,000 7,195,000
June 4,560,000 7,073,000
July 6,658,000 4,985,000
    "The above table shows an enormous excess of surplus water in every month of the year except July and August.
    "The contemplated sale of surplus water to outside users would not require half a million gallons daily all told, and this small amount would never be missed from the large surplus turned into the creek every day. The above should be conclusive proof that there would still be ample reserve for a long period of time.
    "The commission feels that there is no better way to assure sound value of city property than to help build up the country surrounding Medford, for our city can only progress as the outside areas become developed.
Water System Pays Its Way
    The water department receives $20,000 per year from the city as rent for 337 fire hydrants for fire protection, 7 sewer flushing tanks, 16 drinking fountains and water service at city buildings, parks, playground, etc., and all service equipment is maintained by this department. This rental is very much less than would be charged by a private corporation for similar service and upkeep. While this money is raised by tax, it is to pay for direct water service rendered the city, the same as payment for lights, police, street cleaning, etc.; therefore, the water department is self-sustaining and operated entirely within its water revenues.
Outsiders Pay More
    "Comparative costs show that the water users inside the city pay less than eleven cents (11¢) per thousand gallons (1000 gallons) average cost; whereas, the water users outside the city pay over twenty-three cents (23¢) per thousand gallons (1000 gallons) average cost. Every home outside the city that uses city water must pay $2.50 per month for five thousand (5000 gallons), then twenty cents (20¢) per thousand gallons (1000 gallons) for the next 45,000 gallons, or $9.00 more if the use is that much; however, the average use is less than six thousand gallons (6000 gallons) per month.
    "The average use per user within the city ranges from twenty-one thousand gallons (21,000 gallons) per month in the winter, to nearly sixty-nine thousand gallons (69,000 gallons) per month during the summer, therefore it is evident the outside user is paying his part.
    Outside districts must finance themselves, build their own pipe lines from city limits, assume their own risks, collections, upkeep and extension. Being quality users, they obtain outside meter rates and are required to sign a contract for surplus water only, although it is contemplated that their water rental would be so important to the city in future years that they would have no desire to cut them off, as any well-balanced city system will always a large surplus of water at night time.
Can Build Another Pipe Line
    "The city has not doubled in population since 1910, but assuming that it will double its present population within the next twenty years, it would then be too large to safely depend on a single pipeline 30½ miles long from the springs to the city, and service would demand a double supply line by that time.
    "In the meantime we should utilize a small portion of the water now running to waste and secure enough revenue to aid very materially in paying for the present pipe line. A nominal return of $1000 per month is possible, thereby saving for the city $240,000 during the twenty-year period.
    "The commission wishes to reaffirm a former statement, that it should not be said this waste is tolerated to the detriment of adjacent districts and without regard to its present potential value.
    "Let us serve our neighbors and build a Greater Medford."
    "E. C. Gaddis, Chairman."
August 12, 1929.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 15, 1929, page 1

Council Approves Recommendation of Finance Committee on Contract Details--
Charge $2.50 Per User for Minimum 5000 Gallons--Meters to Be Installed.
    After much debate at the city council meeting last night on the question of the city allowing the Midway and Berrydale districts a water supply from the city's system, the council voted to approve the recommendation of its finance committee regarding general details of the contract, after that committee had reached its decision following conferences with the city water board and representatives of the Midway district.
    The recommendation in general provides for the installation to the Berrydale district by the district itself, with a charge of $2.50 to each user for a minimum of 5,000 gallons, all users to be metered, the same as is charged all other outside users; the limit supply to be drawn from the city water system for the Midway district to be one-half second-feet; the City of Medford to collect the payments, and the city water board to have charge of the general details of the contract, etc.
    The council's action was not unanimous, J. O. Grey voting no, James Collins refusing to vote and R. B. Hammond, another of the four councilmen who had opposed furnishing water to the Midway district, not being present at last night's meeting. P. M. Kershaw, who had lined up with the other three mentioned as opposed to furnishing water to the district, voted in favor of the recommendation of the finance committee, as did Councilmen E. M. Wilson, J. J. Buchter, Charles Wing and R. E. McElhose.
To Draw Contract
    The next step will be for the city water board and the people of the Midway district to get together on the terms of the contract, which the water commission will draw up. The city attorney's office will do the actual drawing up of the contract.
    Other important matters acted on last night included action to give a temporary water supply at the airport until the city can be piped to the port in about two months, as related elsewhere in this newspaper, a number of street improvement matters and consideration of much routine business.
Discuss Hall Rental
    The matter of Treichler Motor Company occupying the quarters in the city hall formerly occupied by the fire department was finally disposed of. In so doing the mayor and city council decided to rent out to some tenant the main part of these quarters, after Chief of Police McCredie had stated that not all this space would be needed for the police station. The chief stated that the police department would not be ready to move into its new quarters in the city hall, improved some time ago, for a week or so yet.
    The council instructed J. J. Buchter, chairman of the council buildings committee, to learn whether Mr. Treichler desires to continue using his present quarters, and if so he will be given a lease for a one-year period. If he does not some other tenant will be given a one year's lease of the quarters, and Mr. Treichler will be given notice to vacate his present quarters inside of 15 days. The council decided that whoever leases the quarters must sign a bonded lease.
Favor Road Project
    The council also unanimously voted in favor of the Williams Creek road project for a shorter route to the Oregon Caves and Crescent city, and to tap the Redwood Highway.
    Steps were taken to do away with the unsightly and unsanitary rickety old Radovan fruit drying plant, which is declared a fire menace and nuisance otherwise. Months ago Mrs. Anna Radovan, the owner, who now resides in Washington, was given written notice to remove this old structure, which has not been heeded for one reason or another. The city attorney last night was instructed to take the necessary legal steps to do away with the nuisance, as the city officials will wait no longer for Mrs. Radovan to do so.
    Frank P. Farrell, the new city attorney, and John H. Carkin, the old city attorney, both participated in last night's council meeting, but the former mostly in the capacity of a listener, learning and smelling the councilmanic ropes.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 4, 1929, page 1

    Preliminary steps have been taken for the establishment of snow measurement stations in Jackson County, the government, the state and the California Oregon Power Company jointly financing the snow survey to be conducted the coming winter. The work will be under the general supervision of Fred N. Cummings, watermaster for the Southern Oregon districts.
    Sites have been selected for the establishment of stations at Anna Springs, Crater Lake National Park and on Butte Creek, between Four Mile and Fish Lake. Stations will be established in the Siskiyous, and on Hyatt Prairie.
    Instruments for the snow measuring and weighing have been received and will be installed at once.
    A daily report will be taken by observers, setting forth the snow depth [and] water content. At the end of the winter, from the reports, a prognostication will be made on the water supply for the coming summer season.
    The snow is weighed daily by a delicate scales, to determine the water content of the snow.
    The survey will be conducted over a number of years and will be of high value in the apportionment of irrigation waters.
    The stations will be established at points in the hills suited for securing records of the normal snowfall.
    The instruments used in taking the measurements are a long steel tube, graduated in inches. The tube is hollow in the middle, with frequent slits. The tube is rammed into the snow and when full is weighed, in inches, instead of feet. At the end of the snow season the daily records are added up and in the recapitulation it can be determined fairly accurately the volume of water the snow will produce.
    Observers will be named for all the observation stations, except the Hyatt Prairie station. Measurements at this point will be taken from the local office.
    Snow measurements have been taken for years by the California Oregon Power Company. The coming survey is the first with state and federal assistance.
Medford Mail Tribune, Sept
ember 12, 1929, page 6

Commission Publishes Financial, Operating and Maintenance Figures for Year in Detail
    The water commission has just published a financial statement and report covering the operation and maintenance of the department for the year of 1929. Although the costs of the Big Butte Springs pipe line have heretofore been made public, the cost of this work is given in detail. The report declares there is need of an additional storage reservoir and claims it is a function and a duty of the department to anticipate the future needs of the city.
    The pipe line capacity is given as 12,000,000 gallons daily flow, which is sufficient for a population of 25,000 people, based on the present average daily consumption, and provided sufficient additional storage is provided to store the water now wasted.
    An interesting fact is noted that on August 30, 1929, one of the driest years of record, the total flow of the Big Butte Springs was 50.24 second-feet.
Protect Area
    Steps have been taken by the water commission to protect and park the area surrounding the springs. One hundred thirty acres have been purchased, the ripe timber logged off and 7000 yellow pine tree planted last year. About 15,000 more will be required to complete the planting. About 90 percent of the trees now planted lived and made a good growth.
    Another fact brought out in the report that is not generally known is that all the water used by the city is measured at the reservoirs on Capital Hill by master meters. The receipts for 1929 show that for each 1000 gallons of water delivered to the city 9.31 cents was received, and 29.02 cents was received for each 1000 gallons used outside the city limits.
    The financial statement shows that assets of the water department to be $1,442,110 and the liabilities $1,215,000.
    Receipts for 1929 were $133,342.59, and expenditures for the year of 1929 were $131,497.12. The final costs on the construction of the Big Butte Springs pipe line are also given.
    A copy of the report can be secured from the water commission office.
    The members of the commission are E. C. Gaddis, chairman; A. L. Hill, Olen Arnspiger, F. G. Thayer and E. M. White.
    F. C. Dillard is the engineer.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 22, 1930, page 1

    The first shovel of dirt will be removed from the ground preparatory to the installation of the new Midway water system at 8 o'clock Wednesday morning, it was announced today. Mrs. R. M. Kent, secretary of the newly organized district, and one of the ardent promoters of the extension of the Medford system into that neighborhood, will handle the shovel.
    Work will progress rapidly on the installation of the water main this week. The first load of pipe for the system will arrive tomorrow. Costs of the system are expected to total approximately $15,000. Contract for installation has been awarded the Hillsboro Power and Investment Company.
Medford Mail Tribune, May 5, 1930, page 2

    Medford's dozen or so street drinking fountains must be kept clean, Mayor A. W. Pipes announced yesterday, and he is having arrangements made whereby men in the city employ will wash them thoroughly every other day. There has been considerable complaint that the fountains appear habitually dirty and are not conducive to the greatest joy in drinking water from Medford's million-dollar system.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 6, 1930, page 6

Meter Basis May Be Necessary Says Water Engineer at Kiwanis Meet--
Need New Reservoir.
    There is a possibility that Medford water users may be placed on a meter basis if some effort is not made to curtail the waste of water shown by two master meters at the reservoirs, F. C. Dillard, city water engineer, told members of the Kiwanis Club at noon luncheon today at the Hotel Medford. Last Friday was the big day of the year when over 12 million gallons was used.
    This gallonage pulled on the capacity of the reservoirs to some extent, as the pipe line to Big Butte Springs is capable of supplying only 11 million gallons daily. Faulty plumbing fixtures and excessive irrigation are given as the two main contributing causes for the heavy usage.
    The speaker recommended the construction of an additional reservoir to supplement the two present reservoirs with a storage capacity of two million gallons each. The third storage tank would take care of any emergency in case something should happen to the pipe line. It would be especially beneficial for fire protection.
    Mr. Dillard also spoke of the old pipe line to Fish Lake, and because of its condition it is apt to be abandoned. Three more sections went to pieces early this month and are now being prepared. It has been maintained to a certain extent in the hope that the water might be sold to some local industry, but so far there has been no demand.
    Due partly to the continued addition of water users, Medford's consumption for last month was 177 million gallons compared to 135 million for June of last year. Since that time 100 new users have been added, exclusive of the Midway water district, which so far has added 50. The speaker also explained a number of expenses of the water department including the much-discussed $17 spent for auto licenses, made so low due to the department receiving rates from the state. The expenditures of $14,000 for pipe inspection was also explained. This amount included the employment of two experts.
Medford Mail Tribune, July 14, 1930, page 8

    Lee Garlock stepped out of his office in the chamber of commerce building yesterday afternoon for a drink of Medford's million-dollar water gurgling from the rustic roofed fountain a few feet away. A woman had taken a drink just before him, [and] taking another, stepped away and looked at the fountain with curious eyes, apparently puzzled.
    "Could you tell me something?" she asked, approaching Mr. Garlock. "How is that fountain made?"
    "Just ordinary construction," the local man replied as he took a drink.
    "No, there's something different," she returned, "the water is so cold and doesn't taste like the iced fountains we have down in Santa Barbara. I'd like to know how you get the ice in there to keep it so cold when the rocks are cemented together so tightly."
    When told the water gurgled forth at natural temperature direct from mountain springs, she lost no time in procuring a jug from her car, filled it up and told Mr. Garlock that such water would soon draw her back to the city--it would be such a saving on the ice bill.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 21, 1930, page 5

Special Meeting of Council Set for Thursday Evening to Consider Petitions Asking Change in Charter--Vote Looms.
    A special meeting of the city council will be held Thursday evening at 7:30 o'clock to consider initiative petitions circulating about the city asking for repeal of the charter amendment providing for a water board and return of control of the Medford water system to the city council, it was decided at the regular meeting of the council last night following request of Edward Kelly, attorney, representing the petitioners.
    The meeting was called by the council to avoid necessity for holding a special election, after Mr. Kelly informed the group that the petition must be filed 60 days prior to the regular election in order to get the amendment on the ballot. According to the law, approximately 600 names must be filed on petitions to get the issue on the ballot.
    The petitioners already have 300 signatures, Mr. Kelly stated, and will have more than the required number by Thursday evening.
Reasons Not Given.
    Reasons for the petitioners asking removal of the water board were not given by Mr. Kelly.
    A protest to the sale of city water to residents of the Perrydale district was also entered by Mr. Kelly on behalf of a group of Medford business men. His protest was presented to the council before the request of the Perrydale petitioners, which was later read. He stated that if water is sold to the Perrydale district the business men he represents will call for a referendum.
    The petitioners of Perrydale, who are W. H. Gore, C. N. Culy and J. R. Tyrrell, ask that the water system of Medford and the main pipe line of the water system surveyed and adopted by the Oak Grove Improvement Company be connected to carry city water to residents of the Perrydale district. The letter, addressed to the council, stated that the water board had agreed to make the connection, if it met with the approval of the council.
Referred to Committee.
    The matter was referred to the finance committee and the city attorney, and no further action was taken by the council. Mr. Gore and other residents of the Perrydale district were present at the meeting, but did not appear before the council.
    The general election to be held November 4 will be authorized at the special meeting of the council Thursday evening and the water board amendment placed on the ballot if a sufficient number of names are received on the petitions.
    A mayor and five councilmen will also be chosen at the November election.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 3, 1930, page 1

    For the purpose of giving first-hand information as to the powers and duties of Medford's water commission there appears elsewhere in this paper a copy of the charter amendment.
    Every citizen of Medford is asked to read each section so as to become fully informed of the authority under which the commission operates. By so doing, it may be noted that every commissioner appointed by the mayor must be confirmed by the city council; that it is mandatory on the water commission to fix and maintain water rates that will raise funds sufficient to pay bonds and interest, operation and extensions of the system, and that these duties were placed on them by the city council as set up in the charter amendment.
    Shortly after the adoption of this charter amendment the council passed ordinance number 1404, and later, resolutions numbers 90 and 96 which specified definite amounts of money that must be set aside each year for bond payments, and the water commission has therefore been operating so as to comply with these mandates of the council.
    It will be seen that the major purpose of the charter amendment was to create a supervisory board for the city water department and to safeguard the funds so that succeeding city councils could not from time to time withdraw money from the water department and use it for other city purposes.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 16, 1930, page 7

Charter Amendment
Creating the

Water Commission

Voted by the citizens at November election 1922, creating the Board of Water Commissioners of the City of Medford, defining its Powers and Duties.
Chapter 15
    Section 173. There is hereby created a Board of Water Commissioners in and for the City of Medford. Said Board shall consist of five members who shall be citizens of the City of Medford, and WHO SHALL SERVE WITHOUT COMPENSATION. They shall be appointed by the Mayor and before assuming office SHALL BE CONFIRMED BY THE COUNCIL and shall subscribe and file with the Recorder on Oath to faithfully perform the duties of their said office. Said Board shall be appointed by the Mayor as soon after January 1, 1923, as is practicable. The term of the members of said Board so first appointed shall expire in one, two, three, four and five years respectively after their appointment, and when their successors have been appointed and qualified. The members so first appointed shall determine by lot their respective terms and thereafter on January 1st of each year, or as soon thereafter as may be, there shall be appointed one member to serve for a term of five years and until his successor is appointed and qualified. Vacancies occurring in the Board from any cause shall be filled in like manner for the unexpired term.
    Section 174. The treasurer of the City shall be ex-officio treasurer of said Board, and the Recorder of said City shall be ex-officio Clerk of said Board, and the bonds of said officials shall hereafter be conditioned upon the faithful performance of their duties and safe keeping and prompt delivery of all moneys or other property of the City as required by the City Council or by said Board.
    Section 175. The management, control, operation, improvement and extension of the Water System of the City of Medford, and all future additions thereto; is hereby vested in said Board. Said Board shall have power to establish rules and regulations for the sale, distribution and use of water from said system and to fix the rates to be paid therefor.
    Section 176. All moneys received by the Board from the sale of water, or otherwise, shall be deposited in the treasury of the City to the credit of a fund to be known as the Water Fund and shall be kept separate and apart from all other moneys of the City, and shall only be drawn from said fund upon demand previously approved by vote of three members of the Board and taken with "ayes" and "noes" and spread on the minutes.
    Section 177. It shall be the duty of said Board to fix and maintain rates for water to be sold and distributed by it from said system adequate to raise funds sufficient to pay operating expenses of said system, together with all interest accruing upon outstanding bonds and obligations of the City heretofore or hereafter issued for the purpose of constructing, improving or extending said water system, together with such amount to be placed in a sinking fund as shall be determined upon by the City Council, pursuant to Section 72 of the Charter of said City.
    Section 179. It shall be the duty of said Board to furnish water to the City of Medford for fire protection and other municipal purposes and TO RECEIVE INTO THE FUNDS OF SAID BOARD FROM THE GENERAL FUND OF SAID CITY SUCH AMOUNT AS MAY BE MUTUALLY AGREED UPON BY THE SAID BOARD AND THE CITY COUNCIL.
    Section 180. All the rights and powers conferred upon the City Council by Section 38 of this charter with respect to the funds of said City are hereby expressly conferred upon the Board of Water Commissioners of said City with reference to the funds of said Board.
    Section 181. It shall be the duty of said Board to make full reports to the City Council of the business transacted by it and of the condition of its funds once in every three months, and it shall also make special reports on any matters relating to said water system when called for by the City Council.
    Section 182. Said Board shall also possess such other rights and power with reference to said water system. and to the improvement or extension thereof, AS MAY FROM TIME TO TIME BE CONFERRED OR IMPOSED UPON IT BY ORDINANCE OF THE CITY COUNCIL OF SAID CITY.
    I hereby certify that the above is a true and correct copy of the Charter Amendment to the City of Medford creating the Board of Water Commissioners and is published at the request of Medford citizens, for the information of the general public.
M. L. ALFORD, City Recorder.
Medford, October 16, 1930.
--Paid Advertisement.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 16, 1930, page 8

Medford Still Owes for Old Water Plant Because Had No Commission Then
    Citizens of Medford should keep in mind that the bond for the old Fish Lake water system, now abandoned, also the bonds for the new Big Butte Springs water system are yet outstanding, and this requires sufficient revenue from the water department to pay for both of these systems, although one of them was abandoned in 1927 when the new water supply was obtained from Big Butte Springs.
    There are yet remaining unpaid $266,000 of bonds covering the old Fish Lake system, and this is practically the original cost of the system, which was slightly over $268,000.00, so despite the fact that the old system furnished Medford water from 1910 to 1927 and was managed by the council up until May 1, 1923, there was scarcely any bonds paid on the cost of this old system.
    Immediately after the water commission took charge of the water department on May 1, 1923, a careful study of all of the water department affairs was made and need was evident of regular payments on these water bonds if they ever were to be paid off, and immediate steps were taken for the yearly payments that should have been made years ago.
    The record of payments as made by the water commission are given in another place in this paper. By reading this you can quickly see that results have been obtained, particularly on these old water bonds.
    It will be noticed that $132,000 of bonds have been paid off by the water commission from 1923 to 1930 inclusive; at the same time, it will be seen that there was a very large interest charge during this same period of $313,759.90. Notice particularly that in 1930 the total bond principal and interest payments will reach $110,525 for this year alone.
    It is claimed, had the water department had the same management from the city council during 1910 to 1920 particularly, they would have paid off at least $200,000 of bonds during that period, but they did not pay off one dollar of these bonds, although they had a new water system to operate during that period. This illustrates that with the council changing every other year, it would be difficult for the water department to be operated to pay its cost in full during the life of the pipe line.
    It seems no more argument is needed to convince that the water department affairs, under the supervision of the water commission, have been handled as they should be handled.
    For a continuance of business methods and bond payments, vote to continue the water commission by voting against the repeal of the charter amendment, which would destroy it.
    Vote 503 X No.
Medford Mail Tribune, October 25, 1930, page 6

Medford Water Bonds
Big Butte Springs Watershed
    When Medford obtained the new water supply at Big Butte Springs the responsibilities of certain protection to that watershed was also assumed. In order to determine just how much territory contributed to this water supply the Water commission hired a prominent engineer and geologist, Ira Williams, to make a study and survey of this watershed. When his report was received by the Commission it showed a definite boundary of the lava flow that had filled the canyon where the water flowed and thereby created Big Butte Springs.
    It was then necessary for the Commission to take steps to protect this watershed so that people could not continue to live thereon; also to see that any dead livestock in that section would be promptly removed and burned. The first step necessary was to acquire privately owned property on this watershed. First the Commission purchased 130 acres of land surrounding Big Butte Springs. They also traded for and purchased two ranches totaling approximately 640 acres. One, the Little Butte Creek Ranch and the other ranch involving a cost of $8,000.00. These purchases will accomplish the removal of all residences from the watershed.
    The Commission also received excellent cooperation from Hugh B. Rankin, Supervisor of Crater National Forest, in working out plans so the government will take over all available lands adjacent to the springs, also they have extended the boundary of the forest reserve on both sides of the springs property, thereby ensuring perpetual control by the government of all the remaining lands in the watershed. By accomplishing this last project the Water Commission made it unnecessary for the City of Medford to purchase any more land in this area, as all remaining will be held by the government instead and set aside for Medford's watershed. This accomplishment in itself has meant the saving of over fifty thousand dollars to the City.
    While it is true that the water supply comes from large springs it is also true that the volcanic ash and lava in all that district is subjected to a certain amount of seepage from the surface of the ground, hence the need of establishing and protecting a certain area surrounding the springs for the city watershed.
    This represents only one of the many important problems of the Water Department, emphasizing the need of some supervisory board who will make it their business to study all the problems and plan for the future.
    Refuse to abolish your Water Commission by voting 503 X NO.
Paid Adv. by Medford Water Publicity Committee.
By ELMER E. WILSON, Secretary.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 1, 1930, page 3

    For over a week the faucet of the street drinking fountain at the northwest corner of Sixth and Grape streets has been broken, and the hundreds of school children, Holly Theatergoers, patrons of the post office and others who daily pass by that corner at least once a day and have been in the habit of taking a drink at the fountain found it almost impossible to do so without the water spurting all over their faces.
    Some public-spirited passerby yesterday kindly fixed up the top of the faucet temporarily so that a person with an extremely large mouth can risk taking a drink with the fluid only spurting into his ears.
    Many persons had said during all this time that they were going to at once notify the city water department of the broken faucet but each probably forgot to do so, and that department may yet be in ignorance of the fountain trouble.
Medford Mail Tribune, December 5, 1930, page 5

Commission Finishing Three-Year Project to Conserve Moisture for Big Butte Springs.
    The end of this week will mark the completion of the three-year program of tree planting the water commission has undertaken at Big Butte Springs.
    During the springs of 1929 and 1930, 10,000 western yellow pine were set out.
    This year a greater variety is being experimented with in conjunction with the school of forestry at the Oregon State Agricultural
    Twenty thousand western yellow pine have already been planted this year. This is the hardiest tree of the West and is familiar to everyone.
    Five hundred Scotch pine are being planted on the ridges. This tree is similar to the yellow pine, but having an advantage over it in that it is not susceptible to insect attacks.
    One thousand Port Orford cedar are being planted along the creek banks. This tree is a native of the Coos Bay region. It has a beautiful foliage and is valuable
    One hundred redwoods, wonder tree of the northern California coast, will be planted in a grove in the most sheltered location.
    One hundred Russian mulberries will be planted on higher ground as they are a hardy tree and make a rapid growth in favorable conditions, This is an excellent tree for bird lovers as it exists where little other bird food survives.
    One hundred Chinese elm will be planted in a grove. This elm is a recent importation from China and thrives in spite of adverse conditions. They attain a height of 65 feet and a diameter of two or three feet.
    One hundred European larch, a hardy European species that makes an excellent timber tree, will be found now in the Big Butte springs area.
    The water commission realizes the importance of a dense forest growth on the watershed, and have taken advantage of the service offered by the forestry department of the Oregon State Agricultural College.

Medford Mail Tribune, January 29, 1931, page 7

    While at the present the two city reservoirs have no leaks, as shown by the dryness of the drain tiles running out from their base, the city water commission is making preparations to keep them in that condition. A reinforced "Gunite" lining is to be applied, a mixture of Portland cement, fine aggregate and water, placed in
a cement gun. It is a dense concrete with a strength practically twice that of the ordinary mixture and is impervious to water.
    The north reservoir was constructed in 1908, and upon its completion it was found to "leak like a sieve," according to the water commission. The contractors went to the additional expense of using an asphaltic and felt lining, followed by a concrete face. However this work required later attention and has been a source of trouble ever since. The south reservoir was completed in 1923 and it soon developed cracks, calling for constant expensive patching. It is lined with burlap and asphaltic coatings, said to be efficient only temporarily.

Medford Mail Tribune, March 20, 1931, page 5

    At the meeting of the city water commission last night the contract was let for the Gunite reinforced lining of the city's two reservoirs to the lowest bidder. the Cement Gun Construction Company of California, whose bid was $8272.
    There were four bidders following the required period of legal advertising of the specifications that preceded the opening of the bids last night, the bids running from the highest, $16,325, by H. McBride of Seattle, to the lowest.
    Work of lining the reservoirs will begin next Monday morning. About six men will be employed, all local workers except the trained operators of the company.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 7, 1931, page 5

    A crew of workmen are engaged at the city reservoir applying coats of "Gunite" to repair leaks which have resulted in the loss of quite a quantity of water from the four-million-gallon water storage containers. The work started four days ago and is expected to continue two weeks before both reservoirs will have been completed.
    In the past the leaks have been repaired by tar and burlap, but this method of treatment proved to have inefficient results. The new preparation, composed of concrete and applied by pressure guns, is guaranteed to give service indefinitely.
    The public is invited to visit the reservoirs to watch the repair work in progress.

Medford Mail Tribune, April 19, 1931, page 3

    [Irvin Terrell] misses the old watering trough at the public market front where, when he was a kid [circa 1915], he spent many happy hours drinking water with the horses and stray dogs, following romps inside the market with the pumpkins and rutabagas.
"Terrell Recalls Happy Days Here in Horse Trough," Medford Mail Tribune, August 19, 1931, page 8

    No matter how good is their well water or other legitimate drinking supply, many residents of the suburbs or other adjacent communities of Medford enjoy the bootlegging of Medford's pure water from the street fountains or from homes, especially during a hot weather spell.
    Their own communities shut off from obtaining an extension of the much-desired city water from the city system by practically minded but seemingly hard-hearted municipal governments, these outside residents are thirsty all the time for the city water, and there being no law against the practice, or even complaint, they are seen at all hours jumping from their cars close to the street drinking fountains, or going into the homes of friends or relatives throughout the city and filling their jugs or other containers with the precious fluid, after first drinking their fill.
    Then they hurry home, where other members of the family eagerly await with parched throats their arrival.
    Some of the suburbanites are too proud to be seen tn daylight filling jugs and the like and carting them home, hence they do this work at night, and any curious citizen doubting this statement can verify it by keeping watch at the fountain just east of the chamber of commerce building, which has a faucet adjunct, placed there primarily for tourists to fill their containers.
    As far as the majority of Medford people are concerned the residents of the adjacent communities are welcome to carry away all the water they want, either from the street fountains or from the homes of relatives or friends. Medford people are proud of their water, and it pleases them to see outsiders so greatly appreciate it.
    There is no way of knowing just how much water is thus bootlegged from the city mains, but it is generally figured that the amount in no way depreciably decreases the city's supply.

Medford Mail Tribune, September 2, 1931, page 3

    The report of Chairman C. A. Meeker of the city council committee on finance, submitted last night, asking that the council take steps to induce the city water commission to bring its bond payment sinking fund as near up to date as possible, was adopted.
    To meet its schedule of heavy annual water bond retirement  payments to retire both old and new bond issues will require about $50,000 from now on to July 1, 1938, including the $20,000 annually that the council has been voting to assist in retiring the water bonds. The sum still due on the old bond issue is $256,000.
    The city council under Mayor E. C. Gaddis in 1923 passed an ordinance requiring that the water commission pay from $15,000 to $30,000 into the bond sinking fund from 1923 to 1938 to retire water bonds, but since 1923 the commission has only paid into this sinking fund during the past seven or eight years the sum of $37,500. However, if the schedule of annual bond payments in accordance with the 1923 ordinance schedule had been followed out to the letter since 1923, $185,000 should have been paid on water bond retirement by now. Hence the lack in the sinking fund according to this schedule is $147,500.
    The city council is responsible for the retirement of water bonds, hence Chairman Meeker's request that the water commission be prodded to catch up in water bond retirements.
    Of the annual $50,000 required for this purpose from now on practically $16,000 is required to aid in retiring the new water bond issue.

Medford Mail Tribune,
September 16
, 1931, page 10

    Having started yesterday noon, county trucks are now hauling water to Jacksonville for use in that city, where the supply is very low. Mayor Oscar Knox stated this afternoon that he expected such operations to continue until another rain.
    The water is drawn from the fire hydrant at the end of West Main Street, and is placed in the small reservoir at Jacksonville. Three shifts, working night and day, are keeping up the supply, hauling 1200 gallons an hour.
    Although the equipment ts being furnished by the county, the city of Jacksonville is paying for the water at the rate of one dollar per 1,000 gallons, according to Mr. Knox.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 7, 1931, page 2

    Although the force engaged in that work are still hauling Medford city water from the hydrant at the end of West Main Street to the Jacksonville reservoir at the rate of 1200 gallons per hour in efforts to fill the depleted reservoir of the former county seat town, they are finding it a difficult task because the water can hardly be dumped fast enough to more than keep up with the water consumption of Jacksonville.
    This rate of hauling water will keep up until the first heavy rain falls, and Robert Duff, superintendent of the Medford water department, declares that the water sold to Jacksonville will not be missed from this city's ample water supply, as five or six million gallons of it daily go to waste through overflow.
    The Jacksonville people greatly appreciate the getting of Medford's fine water in this time of emergency caused by the fact that their own city reservoir had grown so low and many of their wells had gone dry.

Medford Mail Tribune, October 9, 1931, page 14

    For the protection of Medford's million-dollar water system, the federal government has purchased approximately 6000 acres of land in the Butte Creek section from private holders, it was announced today by Karl L. Janouch, supervisor of the Rogue River National Forest.
    Supervisor Janouch pointed out that the land purchase now protects the sources from which the water enters the main stream. The land was bought from the Owen-Oregon Lumber Company, he said.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 8, 1934, page 3

Waters Gushing Forth at Base of Mt. McLoughlin
Never See Light Until Released from Faucet.
    Medford's "Million Dollar Water Supply" places it in an enviable position. Every fountain in the city is a proof of this statement and carries its message to all that nowhere are people blessed with water more deliciously cool and pure. "A Mountain Spring in Every Home" is a thoughtful description of what local citizens have provided for themselves in the Big Butte Springs water supply.
    The permanent purity of the water was the first consideration in selection of the Big Butte Springs, and in the design and construction of the system no expense was spared to keep the supply generous and undefiled.
Comes from Spring
    Gushing from among mossy rocks in the foothills of the Cascade Mountains adjoining Crater National Forest, the "sparkling water" ripples forth crystal clear, and is trapped in all its purity by a concrete collection gallery and led to the pipeline intake, where it flows 31 miles southwest to Medford. The water emerges from every faucet in the city with the same glistening highlights and sparkle that it gathers as it filters down to Big Butte Springs through lava beds from the snows that tap ancient Mt. McLoughlin. Some rare mineral content which defies detection in the most exacting chemical analysis, yet captivates the eye and imagination of the drinker, gives the water its beautiful crystalline sparkle.
    The supply system was completed July 1, 1927, and visions of green lawns and beautiful flowers throughout the city during the hot months, and a happy and healthy Medford populace, were realized.
Purity Absolute
    The permanent purity of Big Butte Springs is placed beyond possible suspicion by rigid tests repeated twice monthly by the Oregon State Board of Health. The report received always confirms the absolute purity of the water. Combined with a refreshingly low temperature, even after it has been carried 31 miles through specially constructed pipelines of steel properly preserved against corrosion and temperature change, the water comes to the citizens of Medford as the very ultimate beverage.
    Daylight never reaches its crystal clearness from the time it ripples out of the springs until it reaches Medford homes. The temperature of the water at the springs is 43 degrees Fahrenheit, and as it sparkles from the city fountain, 52 degrees.
Enough for 30,000
    The sufficiency of the supply is such that it will afford 400 gallons per capita for a population of approximately 30,000, and additional pipeage may be constructed to supply a population of nearly 60,000 people. When that demand is reached, as it surely will be with all the attractions of the surrounding valley, this perfect supply of cool, crystal water will still be one of Medford's greatest charms.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 4, 1934, page B7

    Medford's fears that chlorine would be added to its water supply, because of the proximity of Camp White, and because this is a defense area, were eased today when Robert Duff, water superintendent, said the water commission would not add the chlorine unless an emergency made it necessary.
    Medford is installing a chlorination plant, however, for use in emergency. Duff said that an emergency would be considered to exist if the water became contaminated, or failed to show pure in the weekly tests made by the state board of health.
Medford News, August 28, 1941, page 4

    The regional office of the Federal Works Agency, Seattle, announced in a press release today the approval of a project calling for the construction of a chlorinator house with chlorination equipment in connection with the Medford water system. Cost of the project is estimated at $4,000.
    Robert A. Duff, superintendent of the Medford Water Commission, explained the project was a part of the commission's $215,977 application for water meters, a new reservoir and chlorination house and equipment, the latter to be built to comply with U.S. public health regulations for defense areas.
    Duff said the chlorination facilities would probably be constructed at the intake of Butte Falls, but was unable to say when work would start.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 14, 1942, page 1

    The Commercial Club building is in a fine state of demolishment, and the civic water trough alongside awaits the same fate. The structure in its prime was the center of the 1910 boom, and community oratory.
Arthur Perry, "Ye Smudge Pot," Medford Mail Tribune, April 15, 1945, page 6

Fountain Honoring Pioneers Given by Rev. D. E. Millard
    A large group of citizens and courthouse officials attended the presentation of a fountain and bench at the courthouse Saturday afternoon. Dedicated to pioneers of southern Oregon, the bench, made of petrified wood by D. E. Millard, and the fountain were the gift of Rev. and Mrs. Millard.
    Judge H. K. Hanna was chairman of the ceremonies. He introduced Mrs. Millard, who read a poem entitled "Rocks," which had been written for the occasion by Rev. Millard.
    Judge Hanna also introduced Rev. Millard, who gave a talk on petrified wood and made the presentation. Ralph Sweeney, county treasurer, made the acceptance speech in behalf of Judge J. B. Coleman. "Shorty" Conrad of the city water department turned the water into the fountain.
    Preceding the ceremonies the entire courthouse group assembled on the steps of the building for a picture.
Medford Mail Tribune, June 10, 1945, page 10

By an Old Timer
    Looking back over the nearly forty years I have had contact with the various water systems of the city of Medford, I am wondering at the patience the people of that city have shown through the years. When I first landed in Medford in the fall of 1908, one of the first things I saw was a huge water tower on West Main Street in the block west of the city park where the city library now stands. It was a wooden tower with a very dilapidated appearance. When I inquired as to where the city well was I was told that there was no well but that the city water was pumped from Bear Creek. The pumping plant was on the banks of the creek a short distance above the bridge not far from where Valentine's Cafe now stands [at 5 South Riverside].
    I and my family were fortunate in not having to use this water to any great extent for the first two years of our residence in the city, as our next-door neighbor had a good well and we carried what we needed from there. I believe it was in 1910 that the first water main was laid on South Fir Street where we lived and we began to use city water. [The 1910 Medford city directory lists A. E. Powell's address as 528 South Fir.] By this time the city had put in a new water system, which was known as the Fish Lake system. This was a great improvement over the Bear Creek pumping system, both as to quantity and quality. In fact we got away from the stigma of having every public restroom in Ashland carrying signs telling users to "Pull the chain. Medford needs the water."
    If you will look at the map of Jackson County you will note that the North Fork of Little Butte Creek is the outlet of Fish Lake. Anyone who has ever driven up that canyon knows that the water plunges downgrade very rapidly for the first twelve miles or so--in fact the falls are so thick that the water is mostly foam! This has a tendency to aerate the water and take away the stagnant taste usually found in lake water. From the intake on the Hanley Ranch the water was brought to the city in a large redwood pipe. The water wasn't half bad, although it got quite warm where it crossed the "desert." I believe the old pipe is still being used to bring water for irrigation purposes for the Rogue River Valley Irrigation Company.
    This water system was still in use when I moved away from the valley in 1920. I was gone for five years in other parts of the state, and when I returned to my old home in 1925 I found to my delight that during my absence the city had once more put in a new water system--the present one. [Medford citizens passed the bond measure for the Big Butte Springs water system in 1925, but the water didn't arrive at Medford taps until July 1, 1927.] A bond issue of one million dollars had been voted by the people of the city; the city charter had been amended and the present water commission set up, with all the powers usually belonging to any other municipal corporation.
    The city had acquired the land adjacent to the Big Butte Springs above Butte Falls. Here some three or four huge springs boil out of the earth very close together. A concrete basin was built about these springs roofed over with a concrete roof to avoid any possibility of any foreign matter getting into the pipeline. From this concrete basin the water is brought to the city in a huge steel pipe buried deep in the ground. The water at the springs is very cold and even after being conveyed some forty miles in this pipe is delivered to the consumer at a temperature of about 55 degrees. The pressure in the downtown district is about 90 pounds, while in some parts of the city it is as high as 110 pounds. The present pipeline will only carry about one-fourth of the water which boils from the big springs. Thus all that would be required to bring down more water in case the demand should exceed the present supply would be to build another pipeline to the springs.
    Thus the city of Medford has the distinction of having one of the finest water systems of any city in the United States. Pure, soft water--so soft and free from mineral content that it may safely be used in storage batteries instead of distilled water--brought down from the mountains by gravity. Truly, a "mountain spring in every home."
    Since the installation of this wonderful water system the city of Medford has enjoyed a very rapid growth. Whether having such a water system had anything to do with this growth is any man's guess, but it no doubt helped. Today this water is used by the Berrydale Water District, the Oakdale Water District and the city of Eagle Point, as well as Camp White, which has a contract with the city of Medford for a maximum of 5,000,000 gallons of water a month. The revenue derived from the sale of water to so many customers has enabled the city to pay off a large percentage of the original indebtedness of 1,000,000 dollars. In speaking of the different districts which use Medford water I forgot to mention the hundreds of suburban homes east of the city, as well as other subdivisions scattered all about the city limits, all of which get this water.
Arthur E. Powell, Central Point American, August 9, 1945, page 1

Spring Water for Every Home Carried by Medford's System
    Following completion of structural tests, Medford's new 8,200,000-gallon covered reservoir has been put to work, more than trebling the city's emergency water storage facilities on Capital Hill east of the town. Construction required over one year.
    Located just east of Medford's two older and smaller reservoirs and designated as reservoir number three, the new structure, in addition to its tremendous size, differs from the others in that it is roofed to preclude contamination and the development of algae, which thrive on sunlight. Since the smaller reservoirs hold 2,000,000 gallons each, the new container brings the total capacity of Medford storage facilities to 12,200,000 gallons.
Ready for Emergencies
    Robert A. Duff, superintendent of the Medford Water Commission, pointed out that with the new reservoir the city water system may more adequately meet any emergency situations. He said that the 30-mile pipeline from Butte Springs is 20 years old, half its estimated lifetime, and if the new pipe had failed before the new structure was built, Medford might have been out of water in half a day. During the recent hot spell the water department's master meter recorded a new high of 10,910,000 gallons consumption in one day, 7,000,000 more than the aggregate capacity of the two older reserve tanks. Sole purpose of Medford reservoirs is emergency storage, as the line from the springs flows directly into the city mains.
    Costing an estimated $231,027, the new container is being paid out of accumulated water department funds bolstered chiefly by the Camp White contract, the water superintendent stated. Over $100,000 in revenue from Camp White sales has been received, Duff said.
Started June 6, 1945
    Construction of the reservoir, designed by John H. Cunningham and associates of Portland, was started June 6, 1945 by the Adler Construction Company of Seattle under supervision of Harold C. Adler. The completed structure sits on solid rock. Because of the block nature of the sandstone encountered in excavating and because nearness of residences precluded heavy blasting, excavation consumed more time than anticipated, according to Superintendent Duff. Shortages of both skilled and unskilled labor at various stages of the project also hindered progress. Also, to avoid damage to adjacent residential property, the contractors found it necessary to bore a 300-foot tunnel through solid rock on Capital Avenue for a 24-inch pipeline. Wall thickness varies from one to one and one-half feet at the base of the vertical section of nine inches at a point one and one-half feet below the wall top, the top being one foot thick.
    Copper strips one inch in width placed halfway into each vertical joint seal the reservoir. A unique feature, Duff said, results from the utilization of four-foot keyways. Those four-foot concrete sections were left unpoured between alternate wall portions to enable the other concrete to obtain full shrinkage without cracking.
Floor Reinforced
    Reinforcing steel runs continuously in both directions across the entire five-inch concrete floor, which has no expansion joints except around its perimeter.
    Supporting the 1,822-ton roof are 97 circular reinforced concrete columns 15 inches in diameter and solidly poured from base up to the head or capital. Dim light seeping through the side vents of the reservoir gives a cathedral-like appearance to its interior.
Roof Is Thick
    The roof, a feature of the most modern reservoirs and needed to keep out dirt, leaves and birds and to prevent the growth of algae, is formed of six huge sections five and one-half inches thick. For drainage purposes the roof was built six inches higher in the center than around the perimeter. Heads of the pillars and two-and-one-half-inch drop panels above the columns on the underside of the roof and the roof sections the columns support were poured simultaneously and constitute a solid mass. A network of scaffolding was necessary to facilitate pouring the cover.
    Concrete for the project was supplied by the Tru-Mix Concrete Company and batched at the plant on McAndrews Road under city specification and inspection.
    The concrete is to withstand pressure of 3,000 pounds per square inch, according to specifications.
    While the new Medford reservoir is one of the few large covered ones in the state, it is not the biggest. Eugene's capped structure has a 15,000,000[-gallon] capacity.
    In regard to inviting local citizens to inspect the interior of the reservoir before it was filled, Duff stated that the water commission was hesitant because of the extremely hazardous ladder descent.
Spring Water
    Medford's familiar slogan, "A Mountain Spring in Every Home," is no idle boast. The giant Butte Creek Springs at the foot of Mt. McLoughlin 31 miles northeast of Medford are capped, and the water runs directly into the city's mains carried by gravity down through thirty miles of steel pipeline averaging 23 inches in diameter. This system delivers the spring [water], unexposed to light or day, to the household faucet at a temperature near that at the source.
    The present Medford water system came into being July 1927 after the algae problem and two other major complaints had brought about the city's determination to seek a better source. Previous to that time local water came from Fish Lake, near the source now utilized. The lake water, low in the fall of the year, would become soupy with algae, and the wooden pipe had a disconcerting habit of springing leaks just when the growing community needed all the flow the pipe could handle.
    Damming of the lake at its outlet end was the final straw. The water was backed up several feet to provide greater winter storage for use in an irrigation district in the summer. Submerging trees, stumps and logs above the normal water line, the backed-up water acquired a dark brown color, taste and odor.
    The city finally secured ownership of Big Butte Springs, a cluster of fifteen, some very large, which gush forth at the foot of the 9,497-foot cinder cone, Mt. McLoughlin, in a wild and little-frequented area. McLoughlin's deep snow cover begins to melt in late spring, and it is this snow water, seeping down through the mountain, which creates a continuous cold flow even in the driest portion of the year. Minimum flow comes in November, when the previous season's snow has long since disappeared. Even then the cold liquid appears at the rate of 45 cubic feet per second, or 28,000,000 gallons daily.
Always Fresh
    Flow of the surplus water through the three reservoirs keeps that supply fresh, and the waste furnishes irrigation for several small farms.
    Because of the water's purity, proven by weekly tests ever since its first use, Central Point and Eagle Point, which have had trouble obtaining adequate and pure supplies from wells, are now being supplied as well as the Oak Grove district, a heavily populated suburb of Medford.
    Other towns and suburban neighborhoods on the valley floor are hopeful that arrangements may be made for the extension of the mains so that the spring water may become available to them also.
    Members of Medford's water commission point out that laying of another pipeline from the source will be necessary in the not-too-distant future, not only because of the age of the present line but because of the growth of the population in the vicinity of Medford. Average daily consumption for the year is now about 4,000,000 gallons with an average of approximately 8,000,000 during July and August. In one day the pipeline brings down 11,500,000 gallons.
Costs $2.50
    Because the water they receive is ever clear, cold and pure, consumers have not hesitated to pay a heavier than average monthly charge resulting from the large expenditures of the system. Families in ordinary dwellings pay $2.50 per month. The bonded water debt is now about $341,000. Cost of the pipeline to the springs was nearly $1,000,000.
    In reference to future distribution of Medford water, Duff has said that, if additional areas are served, use would be restricted to houses in those localities, and its utilization for irrigation prohibited there.
    Superintendent Duff, with the water department since the inception of the current setup, has held his present position since 1931. Now on the Medford Water Commission are Paul Rynning, chairman, Eugene Thorndike, Bert Thierolf, Seth Bullis and Charles Clay.
Medford Mail Tribune, August 4, 1946, page 3

Additional Water Will Start Flowing During October
Tour of Project Reveals Magnitude

By Eric Allen Jr.
Mail Tribune City Editor

    It looks as though Medford is getting a lot of pipeline for its money.
    The big new 30½-mile project is nearing completion. The last link will be welded this week, probably on Tuesday. After a period of testing, flushing and sterilizing, the pipeline will go into service about the middle of the month--two or three weeks from now.
    The entire project, which will provide for Medford's water needs for many years to come, will cost in the neighborhood of the $2,800,000 voted for it before it is completed. It is a massive undertaking--just how massive it is difficult to comprehend unless it is seen at first hand.
Takes Four-Wheel Drive
    I jounced the entire length of the pipeline one day recently with City Water Superintendent Robert Duff, Pipeline Field Supervisor Jack Hoffbuhr, and Councilmen Stanley Jones and Paul Selby. We traveled in a four-wheel-drive station wagon; no conventional vehicle could have negotiated the grades and bumps of the temporary roadway which runs most of the distance along the line.
    Starting from the reservoirs on the hill in east Medford, the new pipeline's fresh scar cuts a path through fields and orchards to the north and east. It skirts the Lone Pine School and follows the rolling hill line along the Foothills Road until it reaches the Agate "desert" near Camp White.
Lowest Point
    There it cuts cross-country, striking hills again shortly before bypassing Eagle Point on the east. A mile or so from this community the line dips under Little Butte Creek, the lowest point on the line's length.
    From here it rises again, crossing over Nichols Gap, a dip in the hills east of a major promontory of the western Cascade foothills.
    Nichols Gap is an interesting spot. It is exactly on the Willamette Meridian, on which all Oregon land surveys are based, and here four major utility lines near or cross each other as they travel toward their different destinations. Two are the Medford pipelines--new and old--a third is the main irrigation canal of the Eagle Point Irrigation District, and the last is the California-Oregon Power line, which here runs due north and south.
    The new pipe gets into really hilly country beyond this point following Reese and McNeil creeks in an up-and-down gradual curve to Butte Falls. In this section the line goes scooting up and down steep hills, and one of these has the steepest gradient on the entire length--58 percent, where the line goes 58 feet up in every 100 feet traveled horizontally.
Skirts Butte Falls
    It skirts the southern edge of Butte Falls, climbs a steep hill, comes down by the fish hatchery, follows the Medco railroad and the fish hatchery water line for a couple of miles, and takes off cross-country again, through heavily forested land and along the Big Butte Creek, finally curving around southward to the Medford water intake area surrounding Big Butte Springs.
    In this area considerable work in cementing up springs has been completed, to take advantage of sources of water heretofore untapped. At the main springs is the caretaker's house, settled comfortably under tall Douglas fir trees and surrounded by green lawn and flowers.
    It is here that the main supply of Medford city water flows out of the ground, cool, pure and delicious. The present intake was completed in 1926 and 1927, and has furnished an unfailing supply ever since.
Planned for Years
    Only the unprecedented growth in population and industry in Medford and its environs required the construction of the new pipeline. The project has been in the "thinking" stage for a number for years, but it was in the spring of 1950 that the Medford board of water commissioners decided the time had come to ask the people of the city for the money to build the big project.
    On May 19, 1950, the election was held to authorize the commission to issue bonds for the project. It passed by a whopping majority--3,934 to 552. The bonds were issued, and shortly thereafter bids on various phases of the project were called.
    The job of improving the water department's intake facilities was a big one for more than one reason. In the first place, Medford holds concurrent water rights on Big Butte Springs water with the Eagle Point Irrigation District, and to insure that the district will receive all the water to which it is entitled, no matter how much of the pure spring water Medford takes, an earth-fill dam is being built across Willow Creek. It is from this source [that] irrigation water will be supplied the district when Medford starts taking more than its original allocation of the spring water.
Many Contracts
    For another reason, the nature of the work required a number of separate and distinct contracts for the various phases of the work. This multiplicity of contractual relationships can be best illustrated by a list of them, which now total more than $2,383,000. They are:
    1. The main pipeline contract itself, awarded to the Morrison-Knudsen Company of Boise, Ida., originally for $422,669, but later revised to some $523,000. It is common talk along the line that the M-K Company is losing money on the job, and the bid was more than $300,000 under engineers' estimates.
    2. The general pipe and pipe-wrapping contract, largest single one on the entire job, which was awarded to the Consolidated Western Steel Company of South San Francisco for $910,535. The pipe-wrapping phase of this project was sublet to the Pacific Pipe Company of San Francisco, and this firm constructed a wrapping plant in the White City area especially for this job alone, the first time this has been done.
New Galleries
    3. Construction of a new series of collection galleries at the intake, and a pipeline connecting them, awarded to Everett Den Herder Company, Sweet Home, for $17,005.95.
    4. Construction of the Willow Creek Dam, awarded to Leonard and Slate Contractors, Portland, for $840,091.10.
    5. Two logging and clearing contracts, at the dam site, to K. C. Wenmark for $57,150 and $75,000, a road relocation contract, let to Tony Garcia for $14,150.70, and another clearing contract, also to Garcia, for $14,500.
    In addition to all this, the Medford Water Commission has had to expand its own staff to handle the work of following through on the contracts, including both office and field work. In addition to Field Supervisor Hoffbuhr, there are 12 field inspectors at work on the line for the city, checking to make sure that specifications are adhered to, to the letter.
    Completion of the entire project, expected about a year from now, will permit several things. First of all, it will mean the end of water restrictions next summer for Medford water users (who, incidentally, use about three times the per-capita average use of water in other United States cities).
For Other Areas
    It will also mean that other populated areas near Medford, which have depended on marginal and sometimes dangerous water supplies, can purchase spring water which in the past few years has been reserved largely for Medford users.
    It will mean that the water needs of Medford will be cared for for a good many years--barring, of course, a wholly unanticipated expansion out of all proportion to expectations.
    Most of these benefits, however, will be realized well before next summer. With completion of the pipeline itself during October, the immediate water problems of the city are solved (unless next year is an exceptionally dry one--like the summer of 1931--and the supplies at the springs are not enough to furnish both Medford and the Eagle Point Irrigation District with the full requirements).
Gone Smoothly
    The job has not been an easy one, but by and large has gone smoothly. It has met difficulties in construction, and will be completed about six or eight weeks later than the first "target date" set last year. The dam's completion will come about a year later than at first anticipated. It could have been done this winter, but only at the expenditure of some million dollars more than it will cost by being delayed a year.
    A great deal could be written about the pipeline, for practically every phase of it has an interest all its own. It would be easy to go on for pages about the technical problems--such as putting waterproof enamel on both inside and outside of the pipe and checking it electrically to make sure there are no leaks; or such as the problem of carrying the line up steep gradients and under creeks, and welding sections in advance to fit particular spots. There were hundreds of such problems faced and met.
    But it must suffice to say that in the opinion of this reporter the pipeline project has been well and efficiently handled by an outstanding water commission and professional staff; that Medford citizens are getting full value for their water-rate dollars in the pipeline project, and--perhaps most important in the long run--that one of Medford's greatest assets, its unequalled water, will be flowing freely from our faucets for a long time to come.
Medford Mail Tribune, September 30, 1951, page B1

Water pipe ad, August 1953 American Cities magazine
Water pipe ad, August 1953 American Cities magazine

October 19, 1956 Rogue River Times
October 19, 1956 Rogue River Times

Chlorine Added to Medford Water
    The Medford water department is adding small amounts of chlorine to the water supply as a precautionary measure to maintain the water purity since the extreme[ly] heavy rains in October, Robert L. Lee, water superintendent, has announced.
    The chlorine was first added Thursday.
    Lee noted that since the heavy October rains the water has not measured up to its usual high standards. While the rainfall has since returned to near normal, the water quality has not.
    Lee explained that the necessity for chlorination is hoped to be only temporary. The water is regularly tested for quality, and chlorination will be discontinued as soon as possible.
    The addition of chlorine to the water supply was approved Thursday by the Medford Water Commission.
    Lee noted that the amount of chlorine added is one pound per 10,000,000 pounds of water. At this concentration, he continued, only a few people can detect the presence of chlorine in the water. The chlorine is added at a point below Big Butte Springs and is generally dissipated before the water gets to the users.
Medford Mail Tribune, November 16, 1962, page 1

Duff Water Treatment Plant, January 21, 1966 Medford Mail Tribune
Bond Election in May Proposed to Finance City Water Project
    The Medford Water Commission voted at a special session yesterday to ask the city council to launch the legal machinery necessary for creation of a supplemental water supply from the Rogue River.
    Completion of the project [the Robert A. Duff Water Treatment Plant] would entail authorization of $2.6 million in bonds to finance the cost, a portion of which would be used for construction of a water treatment plant.
    Action will be considered by the council at the regularly scheduled meeting Feb. 3. The commission met with the council at a luncheon meeting yesterday, convened a special session after the luncheon, and registered its vote.
    The commission, according to Robert Lee, water department manager, desires that the intended bond issue be placed before the voters at the May primary's election. An amendment to the city charter will be necessary for ultimate approval.
    The total cost of the Rogue River development is estimated at $2.8 million for land acquisition, rights of way, treatment facilities and the plant. Funds from current water utility revenues and reserves amount to $200,000, and the remaining $2.6 million would require 20-year bonding.
Near Bybee Bridge
    The location of the proposed water treatment plant is near Bybee Bridge on Table Rock Road.
    Lee explained further that no increase in water rates or taxes for Medford residents would be necessary since the sale of the additional water provided by the project would add revenue to cover the new debt, service and higher operating costs. However, if costs exceed the estimates, a rate increase for outside users would be needed, probably not exceeding 10 percent.
    Completion of the initial phase of the project would provide 15 million gallons of water per day and could be expanded as the need arises to 65 million gallons per day. The city holds a permit for diversion of 65 million gallons per day from the Rogue River and has applied for an additional 41 million gallons per day, which is expected to be sufficient water for the next 50 to 60 years.
    The present Big Butte Springs supply, Lee explained, has a capacity of 26.4 million gallons per day. The greatest daily use last summer reached 23.5 million gallons, and it was not a particularly hot or dry summer.
    Lee expects the water requirements for the summer of 1968 will be between 27 and 28 million gallons per day, which would be in excess of the existing supply.
    Should the valley continue to grow at its present rate, it is considered necessary that the supplemental supply be ready for use during the summer of 1968 to prevent the need for restrictions on water use. A favorable vote at the May primary election would allow the necessary six months for detailed design and plan preparation and 18 months for construction.
    The quality of water in the Rogue River can be equalled to that of Big Butte Springs' supply in every aspect, Lee said, except in temperature. With construction of the proposed Lost Creek Reservoir, the summer temperature of the Rogue River will be materially reduced, which would alleviate that problem.
    The initial investigation of the project was done in 1959 and 1960 by the consulting engineering firm of Cornell, Howland, Hayes and Merryfield of Corvallis. This firm, Lee explained, reviewed the original plans, updated the data, and submitted the preliminary designs and cost estimates to the water commission late last year.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 21, 1966, page 1

Last revised June 10, 2024