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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Jackson County News: 1861


    INDIAN NUISANCE.--Jacksonville, Oregon, is said to be swarming with lazy, good-for-nothing vagabond Indians, who prowl and loaf about the streets by day and disturb the neighborhoods near where they encamp by night by their hideous, brutal orgies.
Sacramento Daily Union, January 1, 1861, page 4


    THE Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel is the only high-toned, worthy newspaper we receive from that state. How the people submit to so much slang and vituperation as is practiced by the press of Oregon is more than we can understand. Franklin, speaking of the liberty of the press, said he would "cheerfully consent to exchange his liberty of abusing others for the privilege of not being abused himself." If Franklin lived in Oregon at the present time, he would undoubtedly quit the business.
Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, January 5, 1861, page 2


    RICH LEAD.--The quartz lead of W. W. Fowler & Co., on Applegate Creek, Jackson Conty, Oregon, yields $95 to the ton. It is an extravagant yield, but the Jacksonville Sentinel vouches for the truth of the statement.

Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, January 5, 1861, page 2


    ORIGIN OF "SISKIYOU" AND "YREKA."--The Siskiyou County Journal enlightens the world as to the origin of these names. It says:
    Siskiyou, in the language of the Rogue River Indians, means bobtail, and the chain of mountains forming the dividing line between Oregon and California obtained the name of Siskiyou Mountains in this wise: Once, on a time, many years ago, a party of Rogue River Indians were crossing that mountain, when a bobtailed horse, belonging to the party, gave out and was left on the hill; afterwards, when the Indians spoke of going back for the horse, they used the term Siskiyou, meaning the horse, which term was afterwards applied as the name by which to distinguish that particular chain of hills. [The word is from Chinook jargon, and the party was a Hudson's Bay Company expedition.]
    The town of Yreka was originally called Shasta Butte City, from its near proximity to Shasta Butte, but it was afterwards discovered that the Indian name for Shasta Butte was Yeka. What is now Siskiyou County was then a portion of Shasta County; and to avoid confusion between the names of Shasta City and Shasta Butte City, the Indian name for the butte was adopted as that of the city, changing its orthography from Yeka to Wyreka. In the course of time the "W" was dropped and the word has ever since been spelled Yreka.
Contra Costa Gazette, Martinez, California, January 12, 1861, page 4



    Almost every severe winter lives are lost in attempts to cross the great, barren, dreary mountain ridges on the Crescent City road to Jacksonville, Oregon, upon which snow falls to a great depth. At present mail communication is entirely stopped.
Marysville Appeal, Marysville, California, January 17, 1861, page 2



Indian Affairs.
    Thos. Pyle, of this county, has received from Superintendent Geary the appointment of Sub-Agent of Indian Affairs for this section. With the appointment came no specific instructions authorizing Mr. Pyle to take any steps towards removing to some suitable location the swarm of vagabond Indians who now infest the town and neighborhood, but we are pretty well satisfied that as soon as the Superintendent receives information of the condition of things out here he will give the sub-agent authority to act effectively and promptly in ridding our people of these abominable nuisances. Within a half mile of this town are one hundred Indians--a few of them Klamaths, but by far the greater part Shastas, Modocs, and stragglers from one or two other California tribes. La Lake, head chief of the Klamaths, is with his people, and can control them, but he has no more influence over the others than a domestic cat would have over a band of catamounts. The property of our citizens is endangered every night while this savage, mischievous swarm is permitted to camp near the town, nor, until they are removed to a safe distance, will this danger be averted. We do not believe in the policy of purchasing peace from the Indians, yet since it is the plan adopted by the government, there is no just cause why an exception should be made in respect to the Indians belonging upon our frontier, and of which these we are pestered with are part. If the Superintendent has the power, he should authorize Mr. Pyle to make such offers to them as will procure their immediate departure from the settlements. They have wild hunting and fishing grounds whither they can and should be compelled to go, and return no more to annoy or molest the whites. Should they be unprovided for this inclement season, furnish them with coarse provisions and goods to feed and protect them from the cold until warm weather comes again, and until they can hunt and fish and sustain themselves. But under no consideration permit them to prowl and loaf about the settlements, in the practice of the most revolting vices, making more corrupt and dissolute the few who will hang about every town, living from hand to mouth, without work, and without a spark of honesty. We call the attention of Mr. Geary to this Indian nuisance, and earnestly press upon him the necessity of speedy action. The population of our town is between four and five hundred, men, women and children. With this small population we have full one hundred Indians, men and squaws, preying constantly upon us, to say nothing of the corruption and vice they occasion. We ask to have the pest abated, and if in his province, he should, in common justice, order its abatement.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, January 19, 1861, page 2


    BAD TRAVEL.--Crescent City quarter has been visited by some of the severe storms that not long ago afflicted the country farther to the south. No great damage was done in the town. The mail carriers, however, for Jacksonville and Happy Camp had been compelled to return to Crescent City, being unable to cross the snow, which was deep on both road and trail, and too light to admit of a passage on snow shoes. On Monday, the 31st of December, they started again, the warm rains having carried off the most of the snow, and from late reports succeeded in getting over the trail. There was no more difficulty in crossing with animals. The snow had disappeared very rapidly.
Sacramento Daily Union,
January 19, 1861, page 1


    THE MINES IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel of the 19th January gives the following account of mining in the neighborhood of Jacksonville:
    "Along in the bed of Jackson Creek, the miners are every day busily employed, and so far as we learn, nearly all of them are making from good to first-rate wages. Not enough rain has fallen yet, however, to afford regular work to those holding claims a little way on either side of the creek, in the bank slopes, and unless a supply of water is had, these diggings will go another season almost unworked. Water is sadly needed.
    "From Applegate we learn that the miners are generally realizing handsomely from their claims. Water is plenty except in one or two high, newly prospected localities, and should no more rain fall, the supply now assured will give the miners a long season's labor. The rich quartz lode of Fowler & Co. increases in the auriferousness of the rock as it is further explored. The next yield from the arrastras is looked forward to with much interest by those who have examined some of the quartz recently taken from the vein.
    "On Monday we had a visit from William Hand, of Pleasant Creek, who informed us that each one of the 30 to 40 miners engaged in that vicinity were doing very well. Water is plentiful, the late storms have been much more severe there than up this way. The snow was over a foot deep on the flats and low ground, and on the hills from two to six feet in depth. The average wages made on the creek is over $5 per day. The miners have constructed ditches and reservoirs, so as to secure water to work their claims through most of the dry season, and there is little doubt that from eight to ten consecutive months' mining will be had."
Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, January 28, 1861, page 1



    THE SOUTHERN MINES.--We condense the following mining news from the Jacksonville Sentinel:
    The diggings in the immediate vicinity of Jacksonville are quite generally worked, a few paying high wages, and almost all yielding fair average pay. The snow and thaws of the past week have been of much benefit, and with a few days of rain every claim along the hill slopes and banks could be steadily worked.
    The Williamsburg mines are fed with water plentifully for present labor, and the miners realize quite as handsomely as in former days. The prospect of a constant supply of water from the ditch during the better part of the dry season is good.
    At Applegate, some new diggings have recently been discovered in the hill and along the upper waters of the several small streams, which prospect flatteringly. At Willow Springs several of the claims pay good wages, and if water were had, it is more than probable that the weekly product would abundantly prove that that section is second to none in golden store.
    The reports from the newly discovered diggings in the vicinity of Phoenix, which come from perfectly reliable sources, give assurance that no richer mines are worked in the country. Where water is had, extravagant wages are made, and the extent of the gold deposit is sufficient to ensure good mining to hundreds whenever water shall be furnished plentifully.
    On Sams Creek, several miners are profitably employed. The diggings are by no means thoroughly prospected, but those who own them are confident that in time they will prove extensive and productive.
    We hear rather unfavorable reports of the diggings beyond Rogue River, along the Oregon road, although they are worked with hydraulic appliances.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, February 2, 1861, page 2


    THE STORM.--The late storm was very severe in the vicinity of Jacksonville and Yreka. Several bridges were washed away. Rogue River rose to within a few feet of the bridge at rock Point, about 30 feet above low water mark. The Klamath rose to a height not reached before in the last six years. The snow filled the roads over the Siskiyou and Scott mountains so fast that it was with the greatest difficulty they could be kept open. The mail was delayed two days in crossing the Siskiyou.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, February 23, 1861, page 4


Southern Oregon.
    The mines in the vicinity of Jacksonville are abundantly supplied with water, and are generally paying well.
    A little daughter, aged about three years, of Judge Prim, of Jacksonville, was severely burned on the 9th inst. She was playing with some matches when they ignited, setting fire to her dress.
    A young man named A. J. Barrow was killed by the caving of a bank, while engaged in the mining claim of Gale & Murray, at Waldo, Josephine County, on Tuesday, 6th inst. He was a native of Wisconsin, and came to California from Iowa. He has relatives residing on Feather River, in this state.
    Quartz specimens, rivaling in richness those formerly obtained from the Ish lead, at Gold Hill, have been taken from Fowler's lead, on Applegate Creek.
San Francisco Herald, February 25, 1861, page 1


From the Crescent City Herald.
March, 1861.
    We hear that Messrs. Black and Gasquet. have looked out and intend to open as soon as possible a new trail to Illinois Valley which is said to be ten miles shorter than the one now used.
April, 1861.
    The wagon road between this place and Illinois Valley is now open, the snow having been cleared out.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, May 5, 1894, page 1


    The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel says that Fowler & Co. lately obtained 773 ounces of amalgam from thirty-five tons of quartz; equal to $350 per ton.
Weekly Butte Record, Oroville, California, March 2, 1861, page 4



MARRIED:
    In Jackson County, Mr. Samuel Chappell and Miss Hannah Malvina Cammack.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, March 8, 1861, page 3


    From the Sentinel we make up the following items:
    The stage between Jacksonville and Yreka had much difficulty in getting through. It took twenty hours continuous driving to make less than one hundred miles.
    The roads over the mountains to Crescent City are blocked up with snow.
    New quartz diggings have been recently discovered on Rogue River, about a mile below Hunter's (Bethel's) ferry.
    The mining country around Phoenix is attracting much attention. A company of prospectors made some discoveries last spring and covered them up; but not before they had staked off their claims. This last was done by secreting the notice of the parties claiming. Those who hold adversely to this secret claim intend to work the diggings.
"News from Various Places," Weekly Oregonian, Portland, March 9, 1861, page 2


MARRIED:
    In Jackson County, Mr. Samuel Chappell and Miss Hannah Malvina Cammack.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, March 9, 1861, page 3


    UNPRECEDENTED QUARTZ YIELD.--The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel, records a most remarkable quartz yield at the Applegate lode in that vicinity. From ten tons of quartz rock crushed in an arrastra, over 1,470 ounces of gold were taken. This gives an average of $2,452 and a fraction to the ton.
Nevada Democrat, Nevada City, California, March 23, 1861, page 3


    The flouring mill owned by J. W. Allen & Co., on Illinois River in Josephine County, was burned two weeks since--supposed to have been set on fire purposely. Loss, $2,000.
    The body of James Terrill, was found on Applegate Creek, in Josephine County, a few days since. He had been missing for some time. The jury of inquest decided that he had met his death at the hands of Elliott, his partner. Elliott has been put in jail to await his trial.
    Rich gold quartz discoveries are said to have lately been made at Buncom, Jackson County. $1,000 has been refused for one third of the claim.
    McMahon, the new postal agent, is wanted much in this quarter. He confines his attention to California. We need a postal agent for the exclusive benefit of Oregon and Washington territory.
"News from Various Places," Morning Oregonian, Portland, March 23, 1861, page 2


    ON THE MOVE.--We are credibly informed that near 2000 miners may be expected through Portland in the next month from the Willamette Valley and Jacksonville. A great many go by way of Sandy and the Cascades by land, and still more will go by water. We have noticed a great many in the past few days rigged out in full mining costume, passing through town. The Nez Perce mines appear to be the principal attraction.
"City," Morning Oregonian, Portland, March 26, 1861, page 3


    A man in Jackson County named Henry Shook shot himself in the breast with a yager. Cause, unrequited love.
"Domestic Items," Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 1, 1861, page 2


Crescent City Road.
New Bridge over Applegate.
    THE undersigned respectfully informs the traveling public, teamsters, packers, &c. that he has completed the new bridge across Applegate, on the main road between Jacksonville and Crescent City, and the structure is now open for the accommodation of all who may choose to favor the enterprise.
    The work has been an expensive and protracted undertaking, yet the toll rates will be placed at the lowest living figures, to suit present hard times.
    The bridge is most substantially built.
    The patronage of the public is respectfully solicited.
R. JACKSON.
    Applegate, April 3rd, 1861.
"New Advertisements," Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, April 6, 1861, page 2


    FROM SOUTHERN OREGON.--We make up our summary of news from Southern Oregon, from the Sentinel of the 6th inst.:
    At Williamsburg, there are 150 miners making from $5 to $12 a day to the man. Water is very plenty, and there is a good prospect for it to last during most of the dry season.
    The reports from Buncom Diggings are considered favorable.
    The average wages of miners, regularly engaged on Jackson Creek, are said to be $10 a day to the man.
    The Pleasant Creek diggings are about abandoned by white miners.
    The mines on Galice Creek appear to be attracting more notice than any others, and some very handsome strikes have been made. Water is always abundant in that locality.
    Madam Broy, of Portland (who is she?) is giving concerts at Jacksonville. The Sentinel says that "the northern papers speak well of her vocal powers." She is not known in this locality.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, April 11, 1861, page 2


From the Crescent City Herald.
May, 1861.
    A claim on Jackson Creek, Or. yielded over $900 in one day's washing lately. The mine has always paid $10 to the hand per day.
    It affords us much pleasure to announce the commencement of a semiweekly mail service between Crescent City and Jacksonville.
June, 1861.
    Teams and pack trains have been plenty in town the past week, and freight moves out as fast as it arrives. Prices are to Jacksonville, 4 cents; Sucker and Althouse, 3, and to Sailor Diggings and Kerbyville 2¾.
Del Norte Record, Crescent City, May 12, 1894, page 1


    GOOD TIMES.--The Yreka Journal says that the precious metal is now beginning to pour in by thousands of dollars, from nearly every mining locality in the county. The same paper says the northern California telegraph line has passed into the hands of the state line, and are now engaged in repairing, and will no doubt soon extend the line to Jacksonville and Portland, Oregon.
Placer Herald, Auburn, California, May 18, 1961, page 2


    MINING IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel of the 11th May says:
    "At a few of the mining localities the miners have temporarily suspended operations, as the supply of water is considerably diminished. By means of small reservoirs and dams enough can be obtained, however, to guarantee the working of claims for a month or two yet in the driest diggings where water is plenty yet, as at Applegate, Williamsburg, the diggings above Wellsville, Rich Gulch and Jackson Creek, the miners are busily at work, and are making from good to extravagant wages."
Evening Bulletin, San Francisco, May 18, 1861, page 2



    John F. Miller, the secession nominee for governor of this state, is a very literary man, as the following letter to the Jacksonville Sentinel will show:
Amity may 28th 1862
Editor Sentinel
    Sir I. hav been a subscriber to the oregon Sentinel from its first isue up to the present time. and hev been pleased with its politics. up to the presant time. but from the presant tone of the paper I. think it would suit some free Negro in Massachusetts better than My Self So if you are willing to risk him for the pay you can do as you please about Sending it to him, but do not Send it to me agane
    Yours in hast        JOHN F MILLER
    The Republican at Eugene City gives the following as quotations from his speech at that place:
    "He tuck command."
…"He would pettifog and demagog on any subjeck in the world."…"There was a mob sperit out south, and I said gentlemen such things ort not to be done."…"Ef I am elected I'll be proud uv it, any man uv my age ort to be proud uv it."
    If Miller is elected, he will be a fit successor to Fiddling Whiteaker.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, May 24, 1862, page 2


    INDIAN BATTLE.--The Shasta and Klamath Indians had a fight near Jacksonville on the 16th inst. One Klamath Indian was killed.
San Mateo County Gazette, Redwood City, California, May 25, 1861, page 2


    SUICIDE.--A miner at Sterling, named Character, shot himself through the head some days ago near Jacksonville, Oregon. He had been very sick for several days, and was heard to declare the afternoon before the commission of the fatal act that sooner than pass another night like the one just preceding, he would put an end to his existence. He was well known at the diggings, and was very generally liked.

Weekly Butte Record, Oroville, California, May 25, 1861, page 3



The Right Talk.
    The Jacksonville Sentinel has gone into the hands of new men. Like the Democrat, Union and Advertiser, it has belonged to the Lane secession party. The new editors thus purge their paper of all the heresies that might be supposed to taint it, and declare their position on the great national question now before the country:
    "While we disclaim emphatically and unequivocally any sympathy with the leading articles in the Sentinel under its previous management, it can matter little to readers what our private political opinions may be, as we are not presumptuous enough to desire, even if we had the ability, to manufacture public opinion. Fortunately for our patrons, we have not the faculty for compiling long-winded articles, and court not that doubtful talent.
    In regard to the civil war now pending in the Atlantic States, we have a fellow-feeling with every American in believing that the Union must be maintained and the laws enforced in all sections at whatever cost. We are of those who make it a religion to sympathize with our common country when her flag is dishonored, and to that degrading pass have the secessionists now brought it. And under such circumstances, we would consider ourselves unworthy of the proud title of American citizens were we the least dilatory in boldly affirming our determination to support the government, to the best of our ability, in any capacity to which we may be called."
    That's "the clear-strained rosin."    
Morning Oregonian, Portland, May 30, 1861, page 2


    FROM JACKSON CO.--A friend in Jackson County writes to us, May 8, as follows:
    "The vagabond ruffian class have been hoisting the flag of mutiny in Scotts Valley and Jacksonville. The disunion flag was raised in the latter place by a band of which Charley Williams (the man who killed Butterfield) is the leader, and who is now under bonds to answer an indictment for murder. The good citizens of the town tore down the treasonable flag as soon as it was discovered, for it was put up in the night.
    "I am of the opinion that Jeff Davis has conceived no less an idea than a strike for empire. His object doubtless is (or was) to seize upon the capital and the archives of the nation, and have his authority recognized by the powers of the earth as the de facto government. It certainly is an act of outrageous desperation and rashness, but it will find sympathy in a large mass of vagabondism that has nothing to lose and all to gain by the weakening or the breaking down of all authority or law, which would give them a chance to follow their instincts for pillage, plunder, robbery, and rapine. It naturally as the breaking up of the foundations of society always inspires that class with hope to rise and commit acts which the criminal law is made to suppress. Good government, good laws well executed, and good society, are an oppression upon murderers, robbers, thieves, and villains of all kinds. The great question is now to be settled, and it will be left with the future historian to chronicle the decision. I don't believe in the breaking up of a nation in a day. I don't believe the American Republic will ever fail. The pro-slavery onslaught will be repulsed, and its leaders will ultimately be hung.
    "If any of the secession leaders in this state undertake to organize their banditti, I am in favor of a big Union vigilance committee, with 'Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty' as its chief motto--one that shall have power to hang all traitorous scoundrels, and do anything else necessary for our protection and honor. Level your thunder at these villains, and brand them as they deserve. If they crowd upon us, it will be our duty to fight, and we will not shrink from a duty so sacred as the defense of republican government..
    "Yours, for the Union, the Stars and Stripes, the Constitution as it is, and the execution of the laws, to the last gasp."
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, June 1, 1861, page 1


    The Oregon Sentinel says the prospects now are that there will be an abundant harvest in that valley. Wheat is remarkably promising.
    A rich quartz lead has been discovered on Squaw Creek, in Jackson County, Oregon, which has yielded, as far as prospected, $2,000 per ton.
    A report having been circulated that the celebrated Applegate quartz lead, near Jacksonville, Oregon, had run out, the Sentinel says that the company have cleaned up three hundred and two ounces of pure gold from a run of their arrastras for three weeks.
Daily California Express, Marysville, June 6, 1861, page 2



    O'Meara has left the Jacksonville Sentinel, and the paper is now published by Denlinger & Hand. The Sentinel is now strong for the Union.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, June 8, 1861, page 2


The Jacksonville Sentinel.
    We like to open and read the Jacksonville Sentinel now. It has no longer two- or three-column articles justifying secession and glorifying Joe Lane. It is for the country--and we trust the Union men of Jacksonville and vicinity will see that the pockets of the editors are filled with the right sort of "rocks."
   The Inst number contained a notice of an enthusiastic pole-raising at Phoenix; and closed the notice as follows:
    "Talk about subverting the government of the United States! All the power of the world could not. What degree of stupidity a man must possess to spend his breath, let alone his ink and paper, in talking about Pacific Republics and new governments separate from the American Union! Such politicians have entirely misjudged the temper of the mass of the American people. We believe that when the liberty pole--that special institution of the American--and the Stars and Stripes begin to go up in the rebellious Confederate states, as they assuredly will, woe to the whole clique of pestiferous, conspiring traitors. Their reptile government will be pitched overboard, a better class of men will be called by the emergency, fresh from the ranks of their own people, into public affairs, and the machinery of the Union will once more be put in proper motion--firmer and more enduring from having withstood the test of its stability."
Morning Oregonian, Portland, June 10, 1861, page 2


    LATE FROM OREGON.--A dispatch to the Marysville Appeal, dated June 22nd, from Yreka, has the following:
    "Advices from Oregon state that a terrible accident occurred on Tuesday night, at the house of Mrs. Mary Hinkle, situated between Crescent City and Jacksonville. The residence was burned to the ground, and Mrs. Hinkle and two daughters perished in the flames. The fire was discovered about midnight by persons being near, who did all in their power to save the inmates, but without success. Nothing was left them to do but to stand by, and with aching hearts witness the building crumble to ashes over the unfortunate victims. From the position of the bodies after the building fell, it would appear that the mother had awakened, and with her little daughter attempted to make her escape, but fell before reaching the door. The older daughter was doubtless suffocated, and never awoke to a sense of her danger. Mrs. Hinkle was forty-two years of age. Her eldest daughter, who was soon to have been married, was sixteen, and the youngest six years. The emigrated from Missouri in 1853.
    "Clugage & Drum had six valuable horses stolen from a ranch on Butte Creek.
    "A shooting affair occurred at Sailor Diggings, June 18th, between James Little and Matthew Graham. Little was shot in the hip."
Sacramento Daily Union, June 24, 1861, page 2


    Jas. O'Meara, formerly of the Jacksonville Sentinel, has issued a prospectus for a paper to be called the Jacksonville Gazette.
"News Items," Oregonian, Portland, June 29, 1861, page 4


    NOT CURED YET.--James O'Meara, Esq., has purchased the material of the defunct Crescent City Herald, and intends to publish a semi-weekly newspaper and treason-peddler at Jacksonville. We hope he will not meet with success.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 1, 1861, page 2


Affray in Jacksonville, Oregon.
YREKA, July 1st.
    A letter from Jacksonville, Oregon, dated June 30th, says yesterday James O'Meara, ex-editor of the Sentinel, and Denlinger, present proprietor, had an affray. The parties were separated. This afternoon they again came together, and after severe struggling, Denlinger succeeded in taking O'Meara's pistol from him, and shot him three times, one ball taking effect in the wrist, one in the leg, and one in the side, when Denlinger was caught by the bystanders. O'Meara is not seriously hurt and will probably recover.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 2, 1861, page 2


    CRIME IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--At Jacksonville, recently, in the case of the State vs. Henderson, indicted for an assault with intent to murder, the jury found the defendant not guilty of the crime charged, but guilty of an assault only. Israel Elliott, indicted for killing James Ferrell, last fall, was found guilty of murder in the second degree, and received a sentence of the punishment affixed by law to that crime--imprisonment in the Penitentiary during life. Wm. Hobraber was found guilty of larceny, having stolen a mare, the property of Henry York, and was sentenced to imprisonment in the Penitentiary for a term of five years.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 10, 1861, page 4


    We have some further particulars of the editorial row at Jacksonville. It grew out of this article:
    "CAUTION.--All persons indebted to the Sentinel office for subscription, advertising, job work, or otherwise, are hereby cautioned against paying said debts to any but the authorized agents named above or the publishers. We especially notify debtors that Mr. James O'Meara, former proprietor of the Sentinel, has no interest whatever in the debts due said paper; that he is no agent of ours, and, therefore, has no authority for making collections.
DENLINGER & HAND, Proprietors.
    O'Meara met Denlinger with a pistol. Denlinger took it from him and shot him three times with it, when outsiders interposed. The Advertiser intimates that O'Meara took the shots kindly.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 11, 1861, page 2


    TERRIBLE ACCIDENT.--The Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel records the particulars of a most distressing affair which occurred in that vicinity on the night of the 18th ult. At a late hour in the night, the residence of Mrs. Mary Hinckle caught fire and was burned to the ground, the inmates, Mrs. Hinckle and two daughters, perishing in the flames. The fire was discovered by the neighbors, who did everything in their power to rescue the perishing inmates, but to no purpose. "Nothing was left for them," says the Sentinel, "but to stand and see the building crumble to ashes over the heads of the unfortunate victims. Mrs. Hinckle was forty-two years of age; her eldest daughter, who was soon to be married, was sixteen, and the youngest six years."
Nevada Democrat, Nevada, California, July 11, 1861, page 1



    The Jacksonville Sentinel says:--"The stages of the California Stage Company are beginning to come and go full of passengers. The stage from Yreka on Wednesday brought over sixteen passengers, nearly all for the Nez Perce mines."
    A "STAMPEDE."--The Jacksonville Sentinel says that "It is not sufficient justification for a stampede to the Nez Perce mines that men write they are making ten, twenty or a hundred dollars a day." That may all be true--but a stampede is certainly going on from Southern Oregon and Northern California to the Nez Perce mines.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, July 17, 1861, page 3


    THE GLORIOUS FOURTH.--Our correspondent at Jacksonville says, "We had a glorious time. You may set down Jackson County as loyal to the Union as any county in the state."
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, July 20, 1861, page 2


    DANGEROUS SPORT.--On Wednesday last, says the Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel of the 17th, Peter Ame, a boy about fourteen years old, while out hunting near his father's farm, about three miles from town, hearing a strange noise behind him, looked around and saw what proved to be a panther, just in the act of springing upon him. Peter stepped back a foot or two, took deliberate aim and fired, killing the varmint on the spot, thus saving, by his coolness, not only his own life, but a great deal to the farmers in that neighborhood in the way of young stock.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, July 21, 1861, page 2


    OREGON MARBLE.--By the Jacksonville Sentinel, we are led to believe that Oregon can boast of as fine marble as that which is imported from the Atlantic States. It says:
    "B. F. Dowell, Esq., has sent us a beautiful specimen of white marble, taken from a quarry about twenty miles from this place, and four miles southwest of Williamsburg in Josephine County, where there is a mountain of it, of all sizes and of all colors, from the common blue to the finest white Italian marble. A vein runs through the mountain, which is in sight at the top of the ground, about one hundred yards in width, and as wide as the piece sent us. A good wagon road runs within a mile of the quarry. Mr. Dowell left here on the 15th, with his team and four men, and returned in four days with a pure white block, six feet long, two and one-half feet wide and nine inches thick."
Red Bluff Independent, August 3, 1861, page 3


    Beautiful marble is being taken from a quarry in Jackson County, Ogn. The Sentinel says "there is a mountain of it, of all sizes and colors, from the common blue to the finest white marble."
"Gatherings by the Wayside," Washington Standard, Olympia, August 10, 1861, page 2



Publisher's Notice--Extras.
    To meet the increased demand for the very latest intelligence from the Atlantic States, the publisher of the SENTINEL have determined to issue Extras immediately on receipt of the Pony [Express] dispatches, and forward them to subscribers by first conveyance, in advance of the regular weekly issue. The Pony now arrives twice a week, the news from which usually reach us on Sunday and Wednesday evenings, by telegraph from Sacramento to Yreka, and thence by stage to this place. The northern stage lying over for twelve hours gives ample time for printing and mailing the extras north, while we will be equally fortunate in hitting Monday's mail for Crescent City.
    To meet attendant expenses, we shall issue to subscribers of the SENTINEL twenty-five numbers of the Extra for the trifling sum of One Dollar in advance.
    Orders, with the cash, left with any one of the agents named above will receive prompt attention.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 17, 1861, page 2


    The first number of the Southern Oregon Gazette, published at this place by O'Meara & Pomeroy, made its appearance on Thursday morning last. It presents a fair typographical appearances, publishes and endorses the late speech of John C. Breckinridge, and professes to be Democratic in politics.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 17, 1861, page 3


    FIRE.--About four o'clock yesterday afternoon, a fire broke out in a frame building occupied by F. B. Sprague for the manufacture of fanning mills. The flames immediately communicated with the large blacksmith shop of Bigham & Langell, and thence to several small tenement houses, owned by P. Ryan. Five thousand dollars will cover the entire loss. At the breaking out of the fire there was but little air stirring, but by the time the blacksmith shop was in flames, a light northwest breeze had sprung up, which threw the greater part of the heat and flames toward the vacant corner lot owned by C. C. Beekman. It was very providential that this was the case; for had the wind been blowing from the northeast, there is but little doubt that the flames would have reached the livery stable of Clugage & Drum, and from thence communicated to almost every portion of the town.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 17, 1861, page 3


Fire at Jacksonville, Oregon.
YREKA, August 17.
    A fire occurred at Jacksonville, Oregon, on the 15th instant, consuming a block of wooden buildings. Loss, $4,000.
Sacramento Bee, August 17, 1861, page 3


    FIRE AT JACKSONVILLE.--Last Thursday, at 5 p.m., a fire broke out in one of the workshops of Bigham and Langell, and before the flames could be subdued, five other frame buildings were consumed.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, August 24, 1861, page 1


    FIRE AT JACKSONVILLE.--Last Thursday, at 5 p.m., a fire broke out in one of the workshops of Bigham and Langell, and before the flames could be subdued, five other frame buildings were consumed.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, August 24, 1861, page 1


    NEW PAPER.--We have received the first number of the Southern Oregon Gazette, a paper just started at Jacksonville by James O'Meara and T. S. Pomeroy. The Gazette presents a very fair typographical appearance, and will soon be issued semi-weekly, at the rate of $6 per annum. It professes to be Democratic in politics, but appears to be strongly tinctured with secessionism.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, August 24, 1861, page 2


    Forty-two volunteers, well armed and equipped, with thirty-five days rations, left Jacksonville yesterday to guard the emigrant trains through the Indian country on the Southern Road to Oregon. L. Applegate is elected captain.
"From the North," Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, August 25, 1861, page 3


Indian Hostilities in the South.
JACKSON COUNTY, Ogn., Aug. 19th, 1861.
Editor of the Oregonian:
    You are, and the public is, generally informed of the murder of Messrs. Joseph Bailey and Evans by the Modoc Indians while on their way to Washoe with a drove of cattle--some six or eight hundred head. There were sixteen men in the company, probably well armed, and they were defeated after a fierce engagement.
    By later news we are informed that a company of 20 soldiers were sent out from Fort Crook, in pursuit of the Indians, and but one of the 20 escaped to tell of the sad fate of the remainder. (This report has been contradicted.) [line of type obscured by a fold] The Indians about Goose Lake and Pit River are in force, very numerous, well armed with guns, pistols, arrows, &c., and elated with victory; but as it would not do to delay for a stronger force to assemble, as emigrants coming by the old emigrant trail to Oregon, by the Klamath Lakes, might already be in the enemy's country, a company of volunteers, under the command of Captain Lindsay Applegate, on the 10th ult. organized in Rogue River Valley and started on the old emigrant trail to protect the emigrants into this valley. The company numbered but forty-two men, but they are well armed--good shots and very cautious--most of them have seen service in most or all of the wars with the devilish Indians of this section. To do the company justice, the men are picked for this dangerous service; and I am confident if the Indians attack them where they have a chance to fight there will be many a dusky warrior bite the dust. The company, however, will be compelled to pass through ravines and other places where the skulking foe may take all advantage. About 30 Rogue River Indians came into Rogue River Valley about two weeks since and requested the settlers to leave the old reserve on Evans Creek. The settlers talk of making them glad to stay away. The inquiry is why are the Indians not kept on the Grand Ronde reserve but allowed to return and disturb the settlements?
Yours in haste,
    J.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, August 31, 1861, page 1


    THE NORTHERN IMMIGRATION.--G. F. Anderson, who has lately arrived in Jackson County, over the plains, says, in a communication to the Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel, of August 31st:
    As to the extent of the emigration, from our own observation and from what we could learn from others, it is equal in numbers--cattle alone excepted--to the famous emigration of '52. The greater portion went to California, and had with them a "copious effusion" of fine stock (horses) for that fast country. For the benefit of future emigrants, I would say take the celebrated Lander's Cutoff, as we did, from the last crossing of Sweetwater, and find for yourselves and stock an abundance of the best water and grass, instead of the barren wastes of the old route; also a saving of sixty miles of travel. Another great advantage of this route is that it leads you through the Green River Mountains above the forks of that rapid stream, allowing you to ford it with safety, instead of having to ferry the dangerous stream below. This route joins the old road at the City of Rocks, the junction of the Salt Lake road and Sublette's Cutoff. We left Tenbrook and friends at this place--the City of Rocks. He waited at this place for a company of California emigrants that were calculating to go by way of Honey Lake, as he preferred that route to the one by way of Goose Lake. At Lassen's Meadows, the junction of the Old California, Northern California and Southern Oregon roads, we were joined by Dr. Wells and Commodore Rose, who were designing, as we also were, to come through on the Goose Lake route; but before getting to the junction of the Honey Lake and Goose Lake roads, at the Antelope Springs, myself and friends, finding that our horses would not be able to make the trip over the Goose Lake route, they being barefooted and the route a very rocky one, concluded to go by way of Honey Lake, where we could get our animals shod. This left of the company to come by the way of the Goose Lake route fifteen men and several women and children. They expected to get into the valley seven days ahead of us, which was however too great a difference in favor of that route. We have been in six days and they have not yet arrived. The Indians on that route are known always to have been more or less hostile. They have lately killed Bailey and one of his comrades, and until further is heard from them, you must draw your own inferences as to their fate. I fear the worst, but sincerely hope they may have been detained by a better fate than that which befell Bailey and his party. Lemuel Baker, of Albia, Iowa, whose father lives in Portland, was with this company when we left them. There were of our company, already arrived, about eighteen men, nine women, quite a number of children, nine wagons, twenty horses, and twenty-five head of cattle. Three of these teams, with their cargoes of humanity, were bound for Linn County, Oregon; two of them for Puget Sound; one was "scattering," that is, didn't know where it would fetch up, and the others would stop in this county.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 4, 1861, page 1


    APPREHENDED INDIAN DIFFICULTIES.--Fifty or more Rogue River Indians have returned to their old hunting grounds on Sams Creek, about fifteen miles from this place, and assert that it is their country and that they propose to occupy it, and to make their society still more interesting, they tell the settlers there that three or four hundred more will join them in a few days. As an evidence of what they intend to do, they have turned some of their horses into a pasture and told the owner, at his peril, not to take them out. Unless the authorities give immediate attention tot his matter, trouble may be expected.--Jacksonville Sentinel.

Oregon Argus, Oregon City, September 7, 1861, page 2


    ROGUE RIVER INDIANS.--A large number of these Indians have left the reservation and gone to their old haunts in the South, insisting on being reinstated in possession of their lands in Jackson County.
Nevada Democrat, Nevada, California, September 12, 1861, page 2



    Capt. Lindsay Applegate informs us that he visited the Rogue River Indians, reported troublesome on Sams Creek. He found them peaceably disposed, and learned from them that they had left the reservation for the reason that they had no one to take care of them and could get nothing to eat. Mr. Rector, Indian Superintendent, will soon be here, when the Indians will be sent back to the reservation and provided for.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, September 21, 1861, page 3


    The Oregon Gazette says that Capt. Rufus Ingalls, late Quartermaster at Vancouver, has been appointed aide to Gen. McClellan.
Washington Standard, Olympia, September 21, 1861, page 2



    HORRIBLE DEATH.--A German named Bitner was ground up in the gearing of a mill near Jacksonville, Oregon, last week.
Los Angeles Daily News, September 27, 1861, page 1



    FIRE AT KERBYVILLE.--A fire broke out at Kerbyville, on the 23rd ult., in Morris & Taylor's new building. The fire soon extended to John Steers' saloon, on the opposite corner, which was totally destroyed. The Union Hotel was saved by great exertion. There was nothing saved from Steers' building but one billiard table. Morris & Taylor, and J. L. Steele, contractor, lost about $4,000; John Steers, $4,000; union Hotel, damaged $500; other parties small amounts. We take the above from a correspondent of the Jacksonville Sentinel.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, October 12, 1861, page 1


    WASHINGTON, Oct. 8.--Yesterday, Capt. Jas. Lingenfelter, of Jacksonville, Oregon, of Col. Baker's regiment, while on picket duty on the Derby road, imprudently ventured some distance beyond our lines into the woods, accompanied by five of his men. They were suddenly surrounded by a force of rebels, who commenced firing at once. Capt. Lingenfelter and his companions fired upon the rebels with their pistols, but a rebel bullet killed him instantly.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, October 21, 1861, page 2


    NEWSPAPER CHANGE.--The Weekly Patriot, printed at San Bernardino, has been purchased by U. B. Freaner, Esq., late of the Sentinel, published at Jacksonville, Oregon.
Los Angeles Star, October 12, 1861, page 2



Fatal Affray in Oregon.
JACKSONVILLE , Oct. 27.
    via Yreka, Oct. 28.
    Yesterday afternoon, an affray occurred on Sams Creek, in which Peter Scott was killed by a rifle shot by Robt. Wilson. From evidence given before a coroner's jury today, it appears clear that Wilson acted in self-defense. The difficulty originated from a political discussion. Scott was a secessionist.
Marysville Daily Appeal, Marysville, California, October 29, 1861, page 3


    MAN KILLED.--At a shooting match, near the residence of Columbus Gall, on Sams Creek, in this county, held on Saturday last, Robert Wilson shot and killed Peter Scott. The particulars of this unfortunate affair as they have reached us are these: There had been a feud of some weeks standing between the parties when they met at the above place. Wilson had his rifle with him for the purpose of contending for the prize. Scott approached him in an insulting manner; Wilson requested him to keep away and stepped behind a third person to avoid him. Scott followed him up a few steps, and put his right hand up to his left breast, as if in the act of drawing a weapon; at this demonstration, Wilson fired, the ball taking effect in the left breast, killing Scott instantly. Wilson immediately gave himself up to Justice Nye. On an examination of the body of Scott by the Coroner, a Navy revolver fully charged was found in the left breast of his overshirt.
    An examination was had before Justices Nye and Lee on Monday, when Wilson was discharged, it being clearly shown that he had acted in self-defense.
    Orville P. Scott was the name of the deceased. His parents reside in Lafayette, Yamhill County.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, November 2, 1861, page 3


    FIRE AT KERBYVILLE.--A fire broke out at Kerbyville, on the 23rd ult., in Morris & Taylor's new building. The fire soon extended to John Steers' saloon, on the opposite corner, which was totally destroyed. The Union Hotel was saved by great exertion. There was nothing saved from Steers' building but one billiard table. Morris & Taylor, and J. L. Steele, contractor, lost about $4,000; John Steers, $4,000; Union Hotel, damaged $500; other parties small amounts. We take the above from a correspondent of the Jacksonville Sentinel.
Weekly Oregonian,
Portland, October 12, 1861, page 1


    DEATH OF CAPTAIN JAMES LINGENFELTER.--The following is from the news by Sunday's Pony:
    The Herald's dispatch of the 23rd says:
    "Yesterday Captain Lingenfelter, of Gen. Baker's California Regiment, while on picket duty near the Kirby road, north of Hall's house, imprudently ventured some distance beyond our lines into the woods, accompanied by a lieutenant, an orderly sergeant, and three privates. They were suddenly surrounded by a force of the rebels, who commenced firing at once. The privates returned the fire and then made a successful retreat. Capt. Lingenfelter and his companions fired upon the rebels with their pistols, but a rebel bullet killed him instantly. The lieutenant and sergeant then escaped, and getting a sufficient force they returned to the scene of the conflict. The body had been stripped of sword and pistols. They conveyed the body to the camp, and today it was escorted by a guard of honor to the congressional burial round ,and buried with funeral honors. Capt. Lingenfelter was from Oregon. He has friends residing in Fonda, Montgomery County, New York."
    We knew young Lingenfelter well. He first came to California, round the Horn, in 1848. In 1858 he came to Marysville, and was for some time an operator in the state telegraph office. The following winter he was operator in the office of the Northern Telegraph Co., in Sacramento, and in the summer of 1859 was engaged in mining near Downieville. During the fall and winter of that year he was employed at Firebaugh's Ferry and other points on the Overland Telegraph line towards Los Angeles. In the spring of 1860 he went to Oregon and started the project of building a telegraph line from Jacksonville to Yreka, but, not meeting with the encouragement he had expected, he gave up telegraphing and commenced the practice of law, a profession for which he had thoroughly prepared himself before leaving New York for the land of gold. He was an ardent supporter of Col. Baker for the U.S. Senate, and stumped the state in his behalf. When the California regiment was raised in New York under the direction of Col. Baker, Lingenfelter joined it and took command of a company. He risked his life, and lost it in defense of his country's honor.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, October 17, 1861, page 2  Lingenfelter was the first Oregonian killed in the Civil War.


    TREASON IN OREGON.--A while ago the Portland Advertiser published a selected extract in which the following language occurred:
    "We have every reason to invoke divine interposition to stay the hand of Lincoln, paralyze his efforts and put a stop to the unnatural, intestine war that he has inaugurated and carried on."
    We fail to discover the least particle of blasphemy in it. We unhesitatingly endorse it.--Southern Oregon Gazelle.
    The editor of the above paper is a special friend of Gen. Lane. He approves of the lie that Mr. Lincoln inaugurated this war and invokes God to paralyze his efforts to sustain it.
    No one can mistake the Gazette. Mr. Lincoln represents the government--crush Mr. Lincoln and his administration at this time and the government is crushed. There will be no constitutional government. The nation will be in a state of anarchy. That is manifestly what the Gazette--speaking for Lane--desires. Then its Southern friends could run riot over the ruins of the best government upon earth.
    This is the policy--the wish--the design--of the traitor party in Oregon. "Disguise it as they may, this is the bitter draught they offer to the people in the loyal states."
Oregonian, Portland, November 9, 1861, page 2



    The Jacksonville Sentinel well says:
    "Whenever a newspaper or journal becomes dangerous to the public peace and welfare, whenever it pursues a course calculated to the public tranquility and to produce disorder and anarchy, then it is not only the right but the duty of government to suppress the poisonous publication. Ought the father to recognize the libertine's right of free speech in his own house and amidst his own daughters? Ought the parent to sit still and out of regard to freedom of speech hear his own son taught the damning lessons of disobedience to parental authority? He who can answer these questions in the affirmative can well afford to grumble at the acts of the government in denying certain papers the ordinary mail facilities."
Morning Oregonian, Portland, November 28, 1861, page 1


The Floods.
    On last Sunday, we were visited with a much more destructive flood than that of the previous week. On the night of Friday, 6th inst., a heavy rain set in, and continued to pour down heavily almost without intermission until Sunday morning. This body of water pouring into the channels which were yet full from the flood of the preceding week was too great for the ordinary bounds of the streams, and in consequence it spread over a considerable portion of the valley. The lower portion of our own town was submerged from the waters of Jackson Creek, and the valley was converted into a group of numberless small islands and lakes. Jacksonville and immediate vicinity has sustained no material damage, but from other portions of the county we learn that the losses have been very severe.
    It is said that in Neal's Canyon, beyond Ashland, through which a stream of water was running, on Sunday became clogged by accumulated drift logs, and backed up an immense body of water. Under the heavy pressure the dam gave way and the water rushed with irresistible velocity down the valley, carrying everything before it. By this torrent, we understand that Mr. Wm. Taylor lost his outhouses, grain, etc. We have not particulars as to the full extent of damage, but the loss must be heavy. The farmers along Bear River have suffered. One gentleman who owns a farm on that stream tells us that, on Sunday, he stood by for a while and watched his property, in fences, float off at the rate of about one hundred dollars per hour. He lost a number of horses and several thousand rails, and without doubt many others have been equally unfortunate.
    There has probably been many heavy losses that we are unable to record, owing to the interruption of communication, even from portions of our own county. With the miners, the damages they have suffered will be more than repaired by the supply of water, which is indispensably requisite to their profitable labor. It is to be hoped that the mines may pay well enough to leave a margin of profit to the community over all losses.
    The Rogue River bridge, which had weathered the first storm, was not able to withstand the latter. Its loss, up to the present time, has effectually blocked communication north of us. We think it safe to say that there is scarcely a bridge left in its position over a single stream in the county.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 14, 1861, page 3


    THE MINES NORTH.--The Jacksonville Gazette makes itself facetious about the northern mines in the following style: "The latest accounts from the north bring intelligence of a great race to come off the ensuing spring; the stake, human life and human misery. British Columbia enters black horse Cariboo, three years old, by Humbug, out of Fraser River; backers, the Victoria people and the correspondents of the Alta and Bulletin. The Oregon Steam Navigation Company enters cayuse filly Salmon River, by Starvation, out of Snow; backers, Portland merchants and Washington Territory land speculators. The stakes are expected to be raised by the people who have never seen the 'Elephant.'"
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, December 14, 1861, page 4


Floods--Great Destruction of Property.
ROGUE RIVER.
    It is impossible to compute the losses sustained by those owning property in the neighborhood of this river. All the way down to Willow Springs, the road is badly cut up, and all the small bridges are gone. At Point of Rocks, White's bridge and dwelling house have been swept away; from thence to Jewett's the fences near the river are all gone. Mr. Jewett lost his finely furnished house, with contents, ferryboat, outbuildings, etc. His family barely escaped from the flood. Evans Creek bridge and sawmill are also among the missing. Mr. Hunter, at Hunter's ferry, had a portion of his house swept away, with contents, and also his ferry and small boats. Mr. Vannoy lost his ferry, 50 head of sheep, a lot of other stock, with house furniture, hay, oats, etc. Mr. R. S. Belknap carried his family to high land, from his house, on horses. His valuable orchard is almost entirely destroyed. His loss in fence, hay and grain is heavy. Miller and Gibson have also sustained heavy losses in hay and grain. At the mouth of Limpy Creek the Dutcher and Shun Evans places are covered with sediment from six inches to two feet in depth. About thirty inches of Martin's ranch is piled with driftwood from 10 to 15 feet high. The road from Lulle's ferry to Galice Creek is covered with a continued, immense pile of drift.
    Of the eight houses at the mouth of Galice Creek, but one is left standing. All the dams on that stream have been swept away. At Skull Bar, eight houses have disappeared, and but two remain on the Bar, one of which is the store of J. V. R. Witt; his goods are undamaged. At this place the water, Sunday noon, was 45 to 50 feet above the low water mark. Five houses floated by within an hour. From thence down six miles two houses are reported missing. Fourteen miles below, four Chinamen on an island, with their cabin, have disappeared.
APPLEGATE.
    I. N. Knight & Co. have had their mining flumes and dam washed away; loss $700. They expect to be able to repair damages in six or eight weeks. Mr. Bell has also had his dam and flume carried off; loss $400 or $500. Applegate was higher than in '52.
    Jackson's bridge, Purdy & Stevens' boats, and fences all the way down to Chad. Roberts' have been swept away. Mr. Harley, at the mouth of Applegate, lost all his hay, grain, etc. The water was three feet deep in his house. The tax collector has just returned from a visit to the Chinamen on Applegate. He reports having had poor success in disposing of licenses, as the Chinamen's claims were damaged almost beyond redemption by the high water.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 21, 1861, page 2


    THE FLOOD NORTHWARD.--We are under obligations to Mr. Tracy, of Wells, Fargo & Co., for late news from the north country. It seems that the storm was quite as furious in Oregon as in California. It is said that there is not a bridge standing between Jacksonville and Portland. Crescent City was nearly destroyed. The flood took it all. Mr. Preston, a lawyer of that place, was drowned. Wells, Fargo & Co. send their express hereafter by San Francisco, until the roads, &c., to Portland are repaired.
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, December 21, 1861, page 2


The Storm in Southern Oregon.
    The Gazette, published at Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, in its issue of Tuesday, December 10th, has the annexed particulars of the late storm in that section:
    During the week there has been a very brief period of dry or clear weather. By Friday the flow from Jackson Creek through the town had materially subsided, and the pools had quite disappeared from the valley. But Friday night the rains resumed and poured without cessation until Sunday morning. Before midnight of Saturday, Jackson Creek had broken over its banks and came sweeping in through the lower part of town. By morning the flood reached its height. Again, as on the Sunday morning preceding, houses were surrounded, lots submerged, fences torn way, and some damage done to gardens. Down the valley as far as could be seen were streams and sheets of water. The inundation extended over a greater area than that of the week before. A slight rain fell during Sunday, but the flood gradually abated, and yesterday it had disappeared from one portion of the space it had covered, and only a small stream coursed outside of the regular channel of the creek. From the disasters and destruction of property caused by the storm of which we have already been informed, we fear the losses sustained in the valley and over on Applegate are very serious. The long bridge over Rogue River at Rock Point, built only about two years ago, together with the toll house, on the north bank, was swept away Sunday evening. This was the finest bridge in the country. It was on the mail route northward, and had been recently purchased from Mr. R. B. Morford by a Mr. White. Until another bridge is built the mail stages will have to cross the river at one of the two ferries below Rock Point, and it is said that both lost their boats last week and cannot replace them soon. The sawmill and bridge at Wells' on Applegate were also carried off. Applegate rose six feet above the highest water mark of previous years, and was yet swelling so as to threaten the destruction of buildings, bridges, ditches, and other property. We hear from several localities of mining claims injured considerably by the flood. Throughout the low farming lands fences are swept off; winter stocks of buried vegetables washed out and carried away, and much other damage sustained. Rogue River was never seen so high before, and threatens to rise yet higher. Should it do so the devastation will be great. All the streams are at an unprecedented height, and the loss of bridges, if nothing worse, is quite certain. Jacksonville is likely to be an isolated town even from county communication for a short time.
Nevada Democrat, Nevada City, California, December 27, 1861, page 4


More About the Flood.
    The Corvallis Union in reference to the destruction by the late freshet in the southern part of the state says:
    Mr. B. F. Dowell, who left Jacksonville on Sunday, Dec. 1st, says the destruction was great in Rogue River and Umpqua valleys. He says Evans' bridge on Rogue River is gone, Briggs' bridge on the South Umpqua, the North Umpqua bridge at Winchester, the bridge on Pass Creek, in Umpqua, near Mr. Drain's place, and several others of lesser note. He thinks that the freshet out south has been full as severe as in the Willamette Valley.
    From L. F. Mosher Esq. we learn that Markham's mill about a quarter of a mile above the Winchester bridge is gone with the houses adjoining the same, and about 300 head of hogs belonging to Markham. Also Kindal's saw mill on North Umpqua, Mulvany's saw mill on Pass Creek in Umpqua County is gone, and that all the bridges between Mulvany's and Estes' are rendered useless, Mr. Mosher came by the Pass Creek road, and represents it almost impassable by reason of the quantity of fallen timber, logs and drift upon it. He came down the coast fork, arriving December 8th, in Eugene City. The water in Eugene was then six inches higher than it had been the highest time of the first flood December 2nd. All the stores on the main street could have been gone to in a boat. The highest part was opposite the barber's shop, and they went from that in boats and on rafts. The water was all around the court house, and all the bottom between the Willamette and McKenzie's fork overflowed. From Eugene City to Coyle's on the river road, there is scarcely one rail on top of another except in drift piles. The loss of stock is very considerable. The grass is all covered up with mud and sand so that what stock has escaped the flood will probably starve to death for want of pasture. If anybody proposes to travel south Mr. Mosher advises them to go with the expectation of working their passage, and to take a life preserver along with them. Workmen were busily employed putting up a new bridge on Pass Creek, near Mr. Drain's place, as our informant came by.
Washington Statesman, Walla Walla, December 27, 1861, page 2



    FERRY ON ROGUE RIVER.--Mr. Hunter has completed a new boat for the ferry at his place on Rogue River, formerly known as Bethel's.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, December 28, 1861, page 3


    Nothing of a political nature, worthy of note, occurred in Southern Oregon until the spring of 1861, when, after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, the pro-slavery sympathizers began to be heard from again. Of the nineteen counties in the state at the time of the adoption of the [state] constitution, Jackson was the fourth in population, gave more pro-slavery votes and a greater percentage of them than any other county, and three years afterwards gave a greater vote for Breckinridge and Lane than any other, wherefore it was assumed by those of Southern sentiment that Jackson County would be at least neutral in the contest. As a bit of humor it was reported that the Butte Creekers, living in the north end of the county, had in fact seceded. Indeed, if the prevailing talk were to be taken as proof, the whole of Jackson had gone out.
    Earnest Unionists were reminded every day that the public peace depended upon positive knowledge as to the position the whole of Oregon would take in the approaching struggle. There was no election near at hand by which to ascertain public sentiment, and the state and county officers were elected before the issue arose, and most of them were Democrats. Calling public meetings and passing resolutions was in effect to precipitate wrangling with no decisive response. Really the time for talk had passed and the time for action had come. A conference with the leading Republicans of Phoenix developed only divided counsels, and deeming delay dangerous, I drew up a subscription paper to obtain money for the purpose of raising a liberty pole and a United States flag. The real purpose was to segregate the political elements of Jackson County, and it was a method which dispensed with argument and would rally round the flag many whom argument would only confuse and who from habit and the delicious memory of other days would exult at sight of the starry banner of the Republic. Subscribers were limited to 50 cents and, after signing, I presented it to Harrison B. Oatman, a Republican, who, after inspecting it, asked with fearful emphasis, "Why, man, do you want to see blood run here in Phoenix?"
    "Oh, no, my friend, this is to dispense with bloodletting."
    But he did not sign, then.
    The next man I presented it to was a Breckenridge Democrat, who was called One-Armed Tabor. I told him of Oatman's fears, to which he replied, "When it gets so that an American citizen is afraid to raise his country's flag, it is time for him to go down into his boots, and I am not there yet." My brother, John, Orange Jacobs, S. Redlich, a Jew (the Jews were all loyal), signed, and later Mr. Oatman--who was no part of a coward--reconsidered his hasty speech, assisted in raising the pole and flag, and later in recruiting a military company of which he became first lieutenant.
    The news went abroad, subscriptions came without asking, and as a surplus was undesirable, many had to be refused, but were permitted to sign as honorary members. A Dutchman by the name of Barneburg procured a 100-foot pole from the mountains, and Mr. Redlich and I stood guard over it of nights until patriotic women had made the flag. In the meantime, the enemy came with a protest. A Mr. Wells, well known in the county, a very strong Southerner, came to the store of Redlich and Goldsmith, where I was employed, to inform us that the flag-raising would not be permitted. He introduced the subject in this style, "I hear that you are intending to raise a Yankee flag here in Phoenix next Saturday, and I came to tell you that it will cause blood to flow."
    I said, "Mr. Wells, you have been misinformed, the flag we shall raise is not a sectional flag, but the flag of the Union you have marched under many a time and shouted for much oftener."
    "Oh, that's a Yankee rag now, and it is not mine."
    At this juncture George Woolen, who sat near, put his big hand upon Mr. Wells' knee and, looking him squarely and almost fiercely in the face, said, "Mr. Wells, that flag will go up Saturday and woe be to the man who raises his hand against it." In the language of the poker table, the Yankee had called the Southerner's bluff and took the pot.
    Late the next Friday, E. L. Applegate dismounted from his mule at the store, and his first words were these: "I heard several days ago that there is to be a flag-raising in Phoenix tomorrow, and I thought I'd come down out of the Siskiyous and see about it, for from what I've heard some of our Southern brethren say, you may need help." (The last word he gasped out convulsively.)
    Whether from fear or detaining employment, not as many attended the pole-raising as were expected, but with the help of wives, daughters, sisters, the tall flag staff was firmly planted upright without a halt or accident while some half dozen or more Southern sympathizers witnessed the event from the veranda of Pat McManus' store, a few rods distant. One guy rope was managed by the women with the assistance of Samuel Colver Sr., an octogenarian immigrant from Ohio in 1857, and a pioneer to that state before 1800, as mentioned in previous pages. He was awarded the honor of raising the flag, and he suggested that the girls should share it with him.
    And in that crisis, it was verily a thrilling sight, the national banner aspiring to the top-mast like a living sentient thing, and unfurling grandly to the breeze, in response to the patriotic impulse of blushing, blooming maidens and tottering age. But exultant as were the feelings of that little assembly at this ascension of the sacred symbol of national unity, liberty, order and law, there was no shouting; it was a solemn service, a conscientious performance of duty, for the future seemed to everyone dark and portentous. Later, the expected ones arrived, and to this earnest, prayerful congregation, speeches were addressed by O. Jacobs and E. L. Applegate.
    The flag at Phoenix went up every morning at the rising of the sun, and strange what courage the sight of it gave to timid souls. They soon waved in Jacksonville and all along the road north and south. Our Southern sympathizers were not wrong in their dread of the flag, for it was an assertion of sovereignty, a challenge to submission or combat, and they were wise enough to engage in no useless struggle, and no further protest was made.
    I left Rogue River [Valley] on the first of June, and everywhere on my way north the signs of loyalty were visible. Disloyalty, whether much or little, was in hiding, and likely those affected with it were never so numerous as noisy, and then gave no intimation of discontent.
T. W. Davenport, "The Slavery Question in Oregon," Oregon Historical Quarterly, December 1908, pages 360-363




Last revised May 18, 2024