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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Jackson County News: 1859


    The Pit River Indians have massacred several whites. The mines in Southern Oregon are yielding largely, and new discoveries were being made.
"California Overland Mail," Columbian Register, New Haven, Connecticut, January 1, 1859, page 4


    The snow on the mountains between Jacksonville and Yreka is four and a half feet deep; on the Crescent City mountain it is about four feet.--Sentinel.
"Oregon," Weekly Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, January 15, 1859, page 3


Division of the State.
    In the year of eighteen hundred and fifty-two, the question was first agitated in Northern California and Southern Oregon relative to the formation of an independent state comprised of the territory therein included. In 1853, a convention was called in the Rogue River Valley, to take into consideration the practicability and propriety of these measures, when it was unanimously declared to be the correct policy. An effort was accordingly made in the California Legislature, resulting in the engrossment of a considerable time, and in the proposition of various plans of division, none of which proved satisfactory. Some advocated the propriety of separating the agricultural from the mineral land, urging that their interests were incompatible with the equal laws of a common government, and therefore proposed that the state should be divided into three parts, setting aside the northern counties, which with a liberal slice of Southern Oregon, should form the northern district, and retaining Shasta, the central and a portion of the southern mines for the southern district leaving the cow counties, as they are called, for the southern state. After the expenditure of a great deal of gas in the Legislature, by the press and the people, the subject finally settled down into a comparative repose, with the exception of citizens in Siskiyou, the northern counties, and in the Umpqua and Rogue River valleys of Southern Oregon--this portion of the coast not being so easily satisfied with the difficulties with which they were obliged to contend, in traveling several hundred miles to and from their respective capital. A temporary quietus was, however, soon placed upon the Umpqua citizens, in the establishment of a port of' entry at a town founded on the coast by the name of Roseburg [sic]. Here the postal department made it obligatory for the mail steamer to land regularly and exchange its mails, which fact has imparted a sort of independence to that portion of Southern Oregon. But it seems that notwithstanding the necessity of the landing of the mail steamer, there are, owing to fearful shipwrecks, but few vessels whose masters have the hardihood to enter its port; and owing to the expected revision of the general government in the proposed economy of its postal arrangements, even the mail steamer will probably be withdrawn, when they will again he reduced to entire dependence on Crescent City and the overland roads.
    Citizens of the Rogue River Valley are alive, we are informed, to the local advantages of a central government, and in the northern counties of our own state, the question of "division" is again becoming a topic of conversation, and a question of serious consideration.
    The apparent apathy of central and southern California, in the interests of the north, and their seeming want of confidence in our local importance and worth, is arousing a sense of self-dependence whose natural tendencies are favorable to an independent government. It is true that a railroad, such as we have advocated, would greatly tend to remove the barriers against reciprocity which exist between us, but it also seems true that lower capitalists do not appreciate the common benefits that would result from it; while with us at the north, a railroad or division is becoming the watchword.
    There are advantages that would accrue to the formation of more states on the Pacific coast, among the most important of which is the additional influence which we would command in Congress. And, it is but fair to concede that the increased and increasing importance of the Pacific demands additional votes in our national legislature. One thing is quite certain--something must be done for the north, or otherwise, she will be forced into retrenchment, and to the necessity of acting for herself.--Siskiyou Chronicle.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, January 20, 1859, page 3


    FIRE.--The Sentinel says the residence of Dr. McCully, at Jacksonville, was destroyed by fire on the 26th ult. The family had barely time to escape, and did not save even their clothing. Loss reported at $2,000.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, January 25, 1859, page 2


    SUICIDE NEAR JACKSONVILLE, O.T.--Private correspondence dated 25th January, from Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, informs us that A. J. Butler, a farmer near that place, committed suicide a few days before by shooting himself with a pistol. He was supposed to be insane. His family at the time were on a visit to this state.

San Francisco Bulletin, February 4, 1859, page 2


BIRTHS.
    At Jacksonville, O.T., January 25th, the wife of John Anderson, a daughter.
Sacramento Bee, February 5, 1859, page 3


    DISTINGUISHED CORRESPONDENTS.--We venture the assertion that no paper in America has a more distinguished corps of correspondents than our northern neighbor just over the line, the Jacksonville (Oregon) Sentinel. In the last number of that very admirable paper we observe Washington letters, addressed to the editor, from each of the Senators-elect from that embryo state. We hope our Senators will place us on a level with our neighbor of Oregon. According to the Constitution of the United States, "the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states." If Oregon editors can have U.S. Senators for correspondents, we do not see why we shall not. We hope Messrs. Broderick and Gwin will attend to this little matter.
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, February 5, 1859, page 2


    Sim. Oldham recently shot and killed a man in one of the lower counties. Sim. must be rather a dead shot. A few years ago he shot and killed Dr. Alexander, formerly of this town, in a "scrimmage" in Jacksonville, Oregon.
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, February 5, 1859, page 3


Agricultural Meeting in Jackson County, Oregon.
    We are happy to notice and record the proceedings of the convention reported below, from the Oregon Sentinel. We are glad to hear of the energy displayed and the zeal manifested. Success to their efforts.
    Pursuant to a previous notice for an Agricultural County Convention to take into consideration the propriety of organizing an agricultural society for Jackson County, a number of the farmers of the valley and citizens of the town met at McCully's Hall, in Jacksonville, on Tuesday, February 8th, at 2 o'clock p.m. The Convention was called to order by Dr. Jesse Robinson, and, on motion, Col. John Ross was elected Chairman, and W. J. Robinson Secretary.
    Mr. James Kilgore stated the object of the convention, and made some very appropriate remarks on the benefits and advantages to be derived from an agricultural society.
    Messrs. J. A. Brunner, J. H. Reed, Jesse Robinson, Thomas Hopwood, and other gentlemen addressed the convention upon the propriety and necessity of organizing an agricultural society, and it seemed to be the general feeling of all who were present that such an organization would be beneficial, and advance the best interests of the whole people of Jackson County.
    On motion of Mr. James Kilgore, the Chair appointed a committee of five, consisting of Messrs. James Kilgore, Stephen Watson, Curtis Myers, Jesse Robinson and J. H. Reed, to draft a constitution and by-laws, to be presented to an adjourned convention, to meet at Jacksonville on the 22nd February.
California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences, San Francisco, March 4, 1859, page 2


    MATTERS ABOUT YREKA.--We notice in the Union, of February 3rd, the annexed intelligence:
    A man by the name of A. J. Butler was recently found dead at his residence, in Rogue River Valley, with every appearance of having committed suicide by shooting himself through the head.
    A fatal accident occurred on the 19th of January, in a mining claim, near Cottage Grove, Klamath River, by which a man named Dennis Woods was instantly killed. Deceased was from New Orleans.
Sacramento Daily Union, February 10, 1859, page 1


PETITION.
To the Senate and Assembly of the State of California:
    The undersigned pray a law authorizing the division of the state of California, in accordance with annexed bill, and as in duty bound, etc.
    Signed: F. G. Hearn, M. Erlenbach, J. M. Watson, H. A. Winckler, Wm. Ottenheimer, E. Steele, Charles F. Hoben, H. J. Hellman, L. Cohen, R. L. Westbrook, D. Isaacs.
    Yreka, Feb. 9th, 1859.
THE BILL.
    AN ACT to authorize the citizens of the state of California, residing north of the fortieth degree of north latitude to withdraw from the state of California, and organize a separate government.
    Section 1. At the next general election the qualified voters resident in that portion of the state of California north of the fortieth degree of north latitude may cast a vote for or against the organization of a separate government, embracing that portion of the territory of California and Oregon lying between the fortieth and forty-fourth degrees of north latitude.
    Sec. 2. At all of the election precincts within said district a ballot box shall be provided for the reception and deposit of such ballots, and the canvassing and returns shall be governed by the laws upon that subject regulating the elections for members of Congress, and the balloting shall be subject to the laws now in force regulating elections.
    Sec. 3. The voting shall be by ballot, said ballots shall be either written or printed, or partly written and partly printed, upon a separate slip of paper, the words: "For Separate Government," or the words "Against a Separate Government," and if after election it shall appear that a majority of the votes cast upon such question are against the division of the state upon said boundary, then the provisions of this act shall cease, but [if] after the canvass of the vote aforesaid, it shall be found that a majority of the votes cast at said election upon the question of separate government shall be found in favor of that proposition, that portion of the state of California is authorized to withdraw from the state at any time when the southern portion of Oregon, as far north as Rogue River or further, shall join for that purpose and form and establish separate governments.
    Sec. 4. In case of the separate organization as above provided, the state of California and the new government so organized shall forthwith, upon the complete organization of said new government, each appoint their commissioners, whose duty it shall be to assemble at the capitol of the state of California, there to settle and determine the property and right and the financial liabilities of the two governments, upon the following basis: The said commissioners shall cause a just and true valuation to be placed upon all of the state property and effects, of what kind soever, and the same shall be charged to the state at the rate so fixed. They shall then estimate the sum total of the indebtedness and liabilities of the state, which shall be placed to her credit and the balance struck. The balance so found shall be apportioned between the state of California and the new government, pro rata, to the amount of taxable property in the state of California, and the taxable property in that portion of the new government which now forms a portion of said state of California, as estimated by the last assessment next prior to said division; provided, if the indebtedness of the state of California shall exceed the assessed value of the assets, that portion assumed by the new government shall be made payable in the like manner and upon like terms and conditions as those resting upon the state of California.
    Sec. 5. The school fund belonging to the state of California shall be divided by said commissioners between the said state and the said new government pro rata to the number of white citizens resident in the state of California and in that portion of the new state which is framed out of the northern part of the state of California, estimated according to the census taken next prior to such division.
    Sec. 6. The said division and separate organization shall be subject to the further condition of the ratification thereof by the Congress of the United States of America and the establishment of a territorial government therein until a further organization shall be had by the citizens residing therein, and in case the vote shall be in favor of such separate organization, the state of California as a part and parcel of the federal government is pledged to the perfection of such separate government by the Congress of the United States.
    Sec. 7. This Act shall take effect from and after its passage.
"California Legislature, Tenth Session," Sacramento Daily Union, February 18, 1859, page 1


    YREKA.--McDonald of the Trinity (Cal.) Journal gets off the following good hit at Yreka--the place Brown went to when he left Jacksonville on account of the immorality of the people:
    "Rev. Mr. Reasoner states, in a letter to the Christian Advocate, that he has 'arrived in Yreka and the Lord is still with him!' We are advise that the reverend gentleman's traveling companion was much surprised at the extent of the place--never having heard of Yreka before."
Oregon Statesman, Salem, February 15, 1859, page 2


    The Siskiyou Chronicle has an article urging the formation of a State out of Northern California and Southern Oregon.
"Further from California," Baltimore Sun, Baltimore, Maryland, February 17, 1859, page 1


    Several bills were introduced, among them a bill to allow the creation of a new government out of the northern counties and of Southern Oregon. . . .
"Legislative," Sacramento Daily Union, February 18, 1859, page 2


    THE 
NORTH DEMANDING A SEPARATION.--The Yreka Union  that the northern part of the state shall be cut off from California and united with Southern Oregon to make a new state, which is to include all the territory west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains, between parallels 40 and 44 of north latitude.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, February 18, 1859, page 1


Agricultural Society in Jacksonville, Oregon.
    A MEETING of the citizens of Jackson County, was held at Jacksonville, pursuant to adjournment, on the 22nd ult. A committee, previously appointed, reported a constitution, consisting of eighteen articles, which was adopted. The name adopted is the "Jackson County Agricultural Society.'' Some thirty citizens subscribed their names, and the following gentlemen were elected officers : President--W. C. Myers. Vice President--John E. Ross. Secretary--Jesse Robinson. Corresponding Secretary--J. H. Reed. Treasurer--R. F. Maury. Directors--James Kilgore, Isaac Constant, and J. H. Walker.
    The Fairs of the Society are to be held between the 25th day of September and the 25th day of October, annually.
California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences, San Francisco, March 18, 1859, page 2


     GREAT 
NORTH.--The Yreka Union  that the northern part of the state shall be cut off from California and united with Southern Oregon, to make a new state, which is to include all the territory west of the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains, between parallels 40 and 44 of north latitude.
San Joaquin Republican, February 26, 1859, page 1


Jackson County Democratic Convention.
    There will be a Democratic County Convention held at Jacksonville on Saturday, the 2nd day of April next, 1 o'clock p.m., to elect six delegates to attend the Territorial or State Convention to be held at Salem on the 20th of April, 1859.
    It is recommended that precinct meetings be held in each precinct at the usual place of holding elections, on Saturday, the 26th day of March, 1859, at 1 o'clock, for the purpose of appointing delegates to attend the County Convention.
JOHN S. MILLER,
S. D. VAN DYKE,
PATRICK DUNN,
    County Committee.
Jacksonville, March 4, 1859.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, March 22, 1859, page 3


    A number of black cattle have died lately in Southern Oregon, of a disease which causes them to foam at the mouth and bite themselves, and to strain as if they were choking.
"Oregon," Daily Delta, New Orleans, March 24, 1859, page 1


    We are informed that Davis Evans has just erected a new sawmill on Evans Creek, near the mouth and on the north side of Rogue River. This will afford lumber to the settlers on the north side of Rogue River.
"Jacksonville, O.T.," Sacramento Daily Union, March 31, 1859, page 2


    TELEGRAPHIC EXTENSION.--The Oregon Sentinel says that it is the intention of the people about Jacksonville to extend the Northern Telegraphic Line to that place during the coming summer, and that by this line news will reach Portland in advance of the steamer.

Sacramento Daily Union,
March 31, 1859, page 5


        JACKSONVILLE, O.T.--Mining in this vicinity appears to be quite successful. The Sentinel, of March 12th, says:
    The reports from all mining districts are good. Recent news from Williams Creek places that among the very best of diggings. We are told that our old friend J. Layton is taking out about one ounce per day to the hand, and extensive preparations are being made to make this locality pay well.
    Sterling, as usual, continues to pay well, and also Jackass Creek, Poor Mans Creek and Applegate.
    Willow Springs diggings are paying better than heretofore. In fact, these diggings, whenever water can be had, will pay better as a general thing than any in the country.
    Evans Creek and Rogue River pay good wages.
    We are informed that Davis Evans has just erected a new sawmill on Evans Creek, near the mouth and on the north side of Rogue River. This will afford lumber to the settlers on the north side of Rogue River.
Sacramento Daily Union, Jacksonville, March 31, 1859, page 2


    AFFAIRS IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--A correspondent of the Union, writing from Kerbyville, Oregon, gives the following relation of matters in that section of the globe:
    The intelligence of our admission into the Union as a sovereign state, lately received here, created a considerable excitement among the political and patriotic of our little village. Having no "big guns" to fire, each one "blew his own horn," and some horned it until they themselves were blue.
    We are just emerging from the hardest winter ever known here "since the stars fell." The snow attained a depth of ten feet on some of the mining streams, where it had never been known more than seven feet before "by the oldest settlers," and on the mountains it is said to have been from twenty-five to thirty feet deep, which, of course, is no joke.
    The stock in this part of the country has suffered greatly from the scarcity of feed, considerable numbers having already died of starvation, and many more are scarcely able to navigate, being reduced to the woeful strait of Job's turkeys. But for a few days past the weather has been mild and clear, bidding fair to open balmy spring with all its flood of flower and songs anon.
    The next item of interest here is the recent organization, in this place, of the Grand Camp of the Independent Order of Knighthood. Through M.W.L. L. E. V. Coon, I am enabled to furnish you with the following, which may be of some interest to a portion of your readers. It appears that since the first establishment of the order here by Mr. Coon it had made but little progress in its work until the late return of its founder, when it sprang up as by magic, and there came flocking to its standard the most worthy citizens of the whole country, who, it appears, have achieved a great work in the thorough organization of a Grand Camp composed of the best of the noble legion of their Knights. Their proceedings are to be made public as soon as printed, when I shall be happy to give you the full particulars, together with a copy of their works and proceedings.
    The Grand Camp elected its officers as follows:
    J. W. McCully, G.R., Jacksonville; G. T. Vining, D.G.R., Kerbyville; W. V. Rinehart, G. Sec., Kerbyville; L. S. Thompson, G.T., Jacksonville; G. E. Briggs, G.N., Waldo; E. A. Rice, G. Lecturer.
    The session lasted three days, and twenty-seven delegates were present. The Order is in a flourishing condition in this state.
Sacramento Daily Union, April 4, 1859, page 3


    JACKSONVILLE, OREGON.--In the Sentinel, of March 26th, we notice the annexed mining intelligence:
    The miners generally on all the streams in this vicinity have finished sluicing and are busily engaged in washing out the gold. The results, as far as we are informed, are most satisfactory--exceeding their expectations. On Jackson Creek the miners, with few exceptions, have finished sluicing and are busily engaged cleaning up and are realizing large amounts of he dust.
    We received yesterday evening a rich specimen of quartz rock, taken out of the mining claim of Davis Evans, on Rogue River. Specks of gold are visible all over the surface, with an occasional lump of twenty-five or fifty cents in value.
Sacramento Daily Union, April 8, 1859, page 4


    Stephen Hayden, a prominent citizen of Klamath County, has been drowned in Rogue River.
"By Telegraph to the Union," Sacramento Daily Union, April 9, 1859, page 2


    FURTHER FROM THE NORTHERN COAST.--By the steamer Columbia we have the Crescent City Herald to 6th April, from which we condense the following intelligence:
    Stephen Hayden, with another man and two squaws, started recently in a canoe to go from the mouth of Illinois to the mouth of Rogue River, and on the way the canoe was upset in a rapid, and Hayden and one of the squaws were drowned. Hayden had relations at Scottsburg, Oregon.
    W. J. Watterman committed suicide, near Crescent City, on 28th March, by cutting his throat with a razor. He was one of the first settlers there, and owned a ranch within two miles of the town. He was nearly 50 years old, and was reported to have a son living in New Orleans. He showed some signs of mental aberration the same day, supposed to have been occasioned by being in debt, and which finally induced him to take his own life. The body was found the next day in a field between his ranch and Crescent City.
    A man named Muma, who recently started from Crescent City to Sailor Diggings, with James Agnew, the mail carrier, perished on the way by cold, while traveling over the snow. The deceased was from Canada. He had but lately come to California. A party of seven men started on 28th March from Crescent City for the same diggings. On the way, they picked up four other men, and proceeded through the snow. After a time, they found that they had wandered off the trail, and were proceeding in a circle. By this time several of the party were exhausted, and were left behind. A portion of them with much difficulty at last arrived at Elk Camp, perfectly worn out, and so covered with frozen snow that they looked like masses of ice. After a time those left behind were rescued after they had been exposed in the snow for three days and two nights without food or water.
Sacramento Daily Union, April 11, 1859, page 2


"TEMPORA MUTANTUR," &C.
    A little more than two years ago, Mr. John H. Reed, a lawyer of moderate ability, who hung out his shingle in Jacksonville in partnership with Gen. Lane's son-in-law, Mosher, was nominated in Jackson County as a Democratic candidate for delegate to the constitutional convention. A short time previous to his nomination, he had been concerned, with Mosher, in the prosecution of T'Vault, editor of the Sentinel, for perjury, and had therefore incurred that worthy's wrath. Accordingly, during the canvass, the Sentinel pursued Mr. Reed most vindictively, attacking his character, both public and private, in the vilest Billingsgate of which its editor was master. To such an extent did the editor of the Sentinel carry his malignity that Mr. Reed was obliged to silence him by a threat of personal chastisement ("a very cogent mode of reasoning with 'old T.,'" Reed said.)
    However, Mr. Reed was elected, and at the time appointed appeared at Salem and took his seat in the convention. During his short stay here he acquired the respect of his associates, without much reputation, but his career in the convention might have been a brilliant one, but for its brevity. Mr. Reed doubtless intended, when he took his seat in the convention, to remain during its continuance, but Mr. Reed was but human, and subject to human impulses and human passions. Mr. Reed had his weaknesses, among which was an inveterate hostility to bunkum speeches. Now it chanced that Delazon Smith was also a member of the convention, and his besetting weakness was a passion for making bunkum speeches. Upon the questions that arose, Mr. Smith favored the convention with his views, greatly to the annoyance and disgust of Mr. Reed, who declared that Smith's "brains were all in his mouth." At length, Mr. Smith so exasperated Mr. Reed, that one day, when he had commenced a speech upon some question, the irate delegate from Jackson, with a portentous frown on his brow, rose from his seat, tore up his papers and trampled them under his feet, jammed his hat on his head, strode from the hall, went to his hotel, ordered his horse, paid his bill and returned in wrath and disgust to his constituents in the "sunny South." Just before leaving Salem, he wrote and sent to the Jacksonville Herald, for publication a correspondence in which he "pitched into" Mr. Smith and has oratorical pretensions unsparingly; it was not published, however. And, until a quite recent period, Mr. Reed entertained a profound contempt and dislike to Delazon Smith.
    It is rather amusing, considering these things, to find Mr. Reed now supporting Delazon Smith for U.S. Senator, and rather astonishing to find him acting as sub for T'Vault during the absence of that worthy from the sanctum of the Sentinel. We can account for Mr. Reed's present support of Smith, on the ground of his connection with the Lane party, but we are at a loss to conceive how he could condescend to play second fiddle to T'Vault, a man whom he despised and hated, and whom he had frequently denounced as an epitome of everything that was vile and infamous. But so it is. We must take the facts as we find them, and leave to others the task of assigning the philosophical wherefore.
    In the Sentinel of May [sic] 28th, we find an editorial article headed "The Oregon Statesman," evidently from the pen of Mr. John H. Reed, and intended as a complete extinguisher of the Statesman. Indeed, if we may believe Mr. R., this paper was already in a rapid decline, when he undertook to give it the finishing blow, and it only needed the "withdrawal of a prop" to bring it tumbling down. The reasons which induced Mr. R. to the belief that the Statesman was in a sinking condition are several. 1st. It had ceased to support Jo. Lane. 2nd. He (Mr. R.) had discontinued his subscription. 3rd. "The school houses scattered throughout the land, the general dissemination of learning," &c. 4th. "We (i.e., T'Vault, Reed, Jo. Lane & Co.) need no Bush." Several other reasons doubtless exist, equally convincing. We shouldn't be surprised, however, if the Sentinel, under the management of Messrs. T'Vault and Reed, aspires to the position of party organ, and imagines the Statesman to be the only obstacle in its way to that dignity. At least, such a conjecture, under the circumstances, is quite natural.
    In the course of his article, Mr. Reed gets off the following, which, were it not for his relations to those gentlemen, might be considered a good hit at Lane and his "ancient enemies," T'Vault and Delazon Smith:
    "We often see men of ordinary caliber, and less than ordinary integrity, elevated by circumstances to a position and a power above their deserts, and to a place from which they will drop at once when the supporting power is withdrawn."
    If the quotation was not intended for the persons we have named, it is at least quite applicable to them.
    The closing sentence of Mr. Reed's article is a model of impudence. Says he:
    "Whether or not the Republicans will have him (Bush) after we have discarded him, remains to be seen."
    It matters not whether the personal pronoun "we" means only Mr. Reed, or includes also the senior, Mr. T'Vault. The idea of them, or either of them, discarding the Statesman or its editor is so supremely ridiculous that the Republicans, and everybody else, can but join in the laugh at it.
    However Mr. Reed is, on the whole, something of an improvement upon the editorial staff of the Sentinel. He is less frequently guilty of violations of the orthographical and syntactical rules of Messrs. Murray and Webster than his predecessors in the editorial chair of that sheet. Indeed, he makes a quite readable article, and those of its readers who have been often completely bewildered and befogged in endeavoring to follow its luminous senior through half a column of stuff, travestied from the N.Y. Day-Book, which nobody--not even himself--understood, must be exceedingly gratified to learn that Reed "writes for it," and that at least a portion of the editorial matter of that interesting hebdomadal is couched in plain English, however much it may lack in common sense.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 14, 1859, page 2


    FROM THE SOUTH.--The Jacksonville Sentinel says the extraordinary winter and spring have caused the Crescent City road to remain blocked up so as to prevent travel, only an occasional expressman being able to cross. The snow on the mountain, April 2, was very deep; the past week it having been almost continuously snowing. It will probably be as lste as June before wagons can pass over the road, which will prove a great injury to the interior of that section. On the 28th of March, a party of eleven men left Crescent City and arrived at the mountain early the next morn, where they were overtaken by a severe snow storm. They soon lost their way, and wandered about over the mountain until the second night after, when some of them found their way back to camp, where some barley was found, parched, and some of it carried back to those who had lagged behind. One man gave out, and was left there, at Elk Camp. The rest of the party reached Jacksonville on the night of the 31st, having been for two days without anything to eat but the parched barley, and several of them so badly frozen as to be unable to walk.
    The week previous, a man named George Muma was frozen to death in attempting to cross the Crescent City mountain.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, April 23, 1859, page 2


By the subscriber, living at Vernon ranch, five miles east of Gasburg, Jackson Co., one pale red cow, eleven or twelve years old, white in the face, and branded HP. Also, one four-year-old steer, red sides, white back and belly, marked with an underslope in the left ear, and branded T. Also, one four-year-old steer, red with white face,marked with a crop off the right ear. Also, one pale red cow, four years old, white in the face, marked with a swallow fork in the right ear, and crop and slit in the left ear. Also, one yearling calf, light red, white back and tail, some white in the face.
JOSEPH ROBINSON.
April 14, 1859.
"Found," Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 26, 1859, page 3


    DROWNED.--Stephen Hayden and an Indian woman were recently drowned by the upsetting of a canoe in Rogue River.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, April 16, 1859, page 1


    In an abolition precinct in Jackson Co. (Gasburg, or Eden) where three-fourths of the voters are rank abolitionists, they have seen something in the Statesman (which they must have borrowed, as none of them ever subscribed for it) that did not please them. At Jacksonville, too, a little meeting probably engineered by a man who never voted the Democratic ticket (and who last year offered to betray and sell out one man upon it for three hundred dollars), was not entirely pleased. In the proceedings of the meeting out of six names appear two who only last June voted the opposition ticket. We hope never to see the day when such men approve of the course of the Statesman.
"Clackamas County Convention," Oregon Statesman, Salem, April 19, 1859, page 1


ESTRAYS TAKEN UP.
On Bear Creek, about six miles east of Jacksonville, in Jackson Co., a brown Indian horse, white legs, a white spot on his left stifle and white face, the white ending around the lower end of the upper jaw; he is about 14 hands high and is supposed to be at least ten years old.
O. D. HOXIE.
March 21, 1859.
Oregon Statesman,
Salem, April 19, 1859, page 3


    I learn by a private letter recently received from Curry County in this state that Mr. Stephen Hidden was drowned in Rogue River, on 27th March last. Mr.Hidden was a relation of Captain William Tickerson [Tichenor?], who was in company with Mr. H. when the accident happened.
"Letter from Portland, Oregon," San Francisco Bulletin, April 29, 1859, page 1


    FOUR MEN DROWNED IN ROGUE RIVER.--On Sunday evening, April 17th, McPhearson, Thomas McCormick, Dr. H. W. McMillan and T. B. McCullough attempted to cross Rogue River, at its mouth, with some goods, when, unfortunately, says a correspondent of the Crescent City Herald, there was a heavy gale blowing from the north, together with a strong current setting out to sea. It would seem, from the circumstances, that McPhearson, who had charge of the boat, and in fact owned the ferry, being desirous to show his skill as an oarsman, let the boat too far down the river, until all their efforts to gain the shore were unavailing, and they were carried out into the surf. The body of McPhearson had been recovered; of the others nothing had been seen.
Sacramento Daily Union, May 2, 1859, page 1


    The California stage company have commenced running their stages between Yreka and Jacksonville. The snow has been deeper on Siskiyou Mountain this winter than ever before known.
Weekly Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, May 7, 1859, page 2


    On the 17th ult., Messrs. McPearson, Thomas McCormick, Dr. H. W. McMillan and T. B. McCullough were drowned while attempting to cross Rogue River.
"Latest State Events," Trinity Journal, Weaverville, California, March 7, 1859, page 3


BY THE NORTHERN TELEGRAPH LINE.
Stabbing Affray in Jacksonville, Oregon--Reported Indian Massacre.
Yreka, May 10th.
    In Jacksonville, Oregon, on Saturday last, Abel George killed a man named McCasson by stabbing him in the breast with a bowie knife, from the effects of which he died instantly. No just cause is assigned. George is notorious as an Indian hunter. He is now in jail at Jacksonville. He was intoxicated at the time of the affray.
    Five men are reported to have been killed by Indians near Klamath Lake. A party of thirty men, with provisions, have started from Jacksonville in pursuit.
Sacramento Daily Union, May 11, 1859, page 1


    
THE LATE MURDERS BY INDIANS IN THE NORTH.--A telegram from Yreka, dated 14th May, says:
    James Clugage has returned from the scene of recent Indian murders on the trail leading to Klamath Lake about sixty miles from Jacksonville. He reports that the party have found the bodies of four of the murdered men, and the jaw of the fifth; they were buried in a thicket and the graves covered over with brush. Mr. Teal is in Yreka in search of an Indian chief by name of LaLake, to act as guide in search of the offending parties; all the Indians in Jacksonville were arrested yesterday.
    Abel George has been committed for trail on charge of the murder of McCasson. There is great excitement in Jacksonville, and the populace would certainly have hung George had the result of the examination been otherwise.
San Francisco Bulletin, May 16, 1859, page 1


    Judge Lynch has been operating in Southern Oregon. A man by the name of McPherson was recently hung there, as will be noticed by a telegraphic dispatch.
"News of the Morning," Sacramento Daily Union, May 16, 1859, page 2


    MURDEROUS AFFRAY AND LYNCHING IN 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--At Roseburg, on the 7th May, the sheriff of Douglas County attempted to arrest a desperado named McPherson, for shooting a man in the hand. McPherson resisted, and the sheriff ordered several citizens to assist him. McPherson then drew his pistol and fired several shots, killing Brad Robinson and wounding two other men. On 9th May, during the examination before the Justice of the Peace, the prisoner attempted to wrest a knife from the witness who was testifying against him and to escape. This so exasperated the populace that they hung him without further ceremony.
----
    I. O. of K.--The Supreme Council of the Independent Order of Knighthood, in session at Sacramento, elected on 13th May the following officers, who were duly installed by the Past Master Worthy Ruler, George Johnson, of Volcano: W. S. Kendall, M.W.R., Folsom; W. V. Rinehart, M.W.D.R., Napoleon, Or.; S. W. Prothero, M. W. Secretary, Michigan Bar; E. A. Rice, M.W.L., Jacksonville, Or.; H. B. Meredith, M. W. Treasurer, Folsom; E. B. Manny, M.W.P., San Jose; C. Hall, M. W. Herald, H. H. Fellows, M.W.G., Sacramento.
San Francisco Bulletin, May 18, 1859, supplement page 1


    ANOTHER INDIAN MASSACRE 
NORTH--THE LATE PARTY OF FIVE.--James Miller and one Parrish recently left Butte Creek (near Jacksonville) on horseback, with a pack mule, for a hunt in the mountains. On the 14th of May, the mule returned to Miller's house alone, with its pack on, and as nothing has been heard of the men, it is supposed that they have been killed by the Indian murderers from Rancheria Prairie. They were hunting on the same route taken by the Indians. The party of five who were killed several days ago were attacked while lying in bed, as was evident from their wounds. Two men were shot through the head, one cut in the head with an ax, and one shot and also stabbed in the head. The fifth was burned, either alive or after having been killed along with the others.
San Francisco Bulletin, May 20, 1859, page 1


    TROUBLE WITH THE INDIANS IN OREGON.--A few days since, we published by telegraph the news of the massacre of five men by the Indians, near Klamath Lake. A correspondent of the Siskiyou Chronicle, writing from Jacksonville on May 9th, says that the company which started in pursuit of the Indians was commanded by John Hillman and Henry Klippel, the former Captain, and the latter Lieutenant. He also says:
    News has just reached town that a small party of Indians were seen this morning on Rogue River, dancing the war dance. The person who saw them approached within about two hundred yards of them, when becoming a little suspicious of their movements, he halted. The Indians asked him to come over, at the same time some of them showing their guns and using vulgar expressions in regard to the white race generally. He, not caring to comply with their invitation to come to their camp, turned and proceeded immediately to this place and reported the above.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, May 21, 1859, page 3


    MULES WANTED.--There is now, and will be for some time to come, a great demand here for pack mules. The road and trail are both open, and the former probably will be in order for wagons on the 15th June. There is a very large amount of freight here waiting transportation to different portions of the interior, and prices of packing are very high, higher than ever before at this season. There is no point at this time in Northern or Southern Oregon that it would pay packers to visit so well as this one.--C.C. Herald, 25th inst.
Daily Alta California,
May 27, 1859, page 1


Southern Oregon. 
    The Crescent City Herald gives the following items from Southern Oregon:
    A man named Wilson was arrested at Jacksonville on 2nd May, charged with incest with his child, a girl about fourteen. There was great prejudice, says the Jacksonville Sentinel, existing against the prosecuting witness, and at the close of the examination he would have suffered violence from the people but for the protection of the officers. Wilson was held over in the sum of $1,000, and the bond was signed by no less than fourteen men, among whom were some of the most substantial citizens of the place, such as John Anderson, James Clugage, Brunner and others.
    A man named McKesson was killed lately, at Jacksonville, by Abel George. It seems that George was on a spree and continued jumping up behind McKesson, who was on horseback. McKesson finally dismounted and asked George "if it was him or his horse he wanted to ride?" when George killed him instantly with a knife. George was examined and committed for trial.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, May 28, 1859, page 3


    A NEW TOWN IN OREGON.--The San Francisco Times
says a small schooner is about to sail from that port for the mouth of Rogue River, in Oregon, having on board twelve families and about twenty mechanics, who are sent out by a mercantile firm in the city for the purpose of locating a town from which to prosecute sea otter hunting and salmon fishing. The place is to be named Ellensburg. The schooner will make monthly trips between San Francisco and the new town henceforth.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 4, 1859, page 8


    INDIANS BEHEADED 
NORTH.--Three weeks ago a party of white men were killed by Indians on the trail between Jacksonville and the Klamath country. The murderers were an old man and the four remaining warriors of his tribe, the rest having perished in wars. The old man's son went to the white men's camp and stole a box of matches, in which he was detected, and suffered indignity. Returning to camp the boy related his insult, and after counciling all night the Indians attacked the campers at daylight, shot four of them dead, pursued the other till nearly night, and killed him in the mountains. A squaw related the affair to the Klamath Indians, who sent for the old man and his party, extorted confession of the murder and then shot him twice in the face. Thus wounded, he shot a Klamath Indian mortally, and then fell with six more shots in his breast. His son was also shot, after which the remaining four fled, but the Klamaths pursued and killed another. The heads of the dead were cut off and brought to town on Sunday by La Lakes and some of his men, as evidence that three of the murderers had been killed. The other three, La Lakes says, will suffer the same fate. The chief killed was a most ferocious fellow; he had never been friendly with white men and with his six warriors had waged relentless war. The Klamaths feared that his murders would bring resentment on themselves, and accordingly determined to destroy his party, but the ghastly trophies exhibited here were not obtained without a most savage battle.--Yreka Union, June 2nd.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 7, 1859, page 2


    A dispatch of the 10th ult. from Yreka days:
    Five men are reported to have been killed by the Indians, near Klamath Lake. Thirty men have started from Jacksonville in pursuit, to Jacksonville in Oregon [sic].
    On Saturday last a man named Abel George, a notorious Indian hunter, killed a man named McCasson by stabbing him in the breast with a bowie knife, from the effects of which he died instantly.
"Later from California, New Orleans Daily Crescent, June 13, 1859, page 3


ESTRAYS TAKEN UP.
By the subscriber, living one mile and a half north of Jacksonville, Jackson Co., a black horse, branded K Λ on the right hip, and K I on the left shoulder, has a star in his forehead.
GEO T. LEDFORD.
June 8, 1859.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, June 28, 1859, page 3


    
JACKSONVILLE, OREGON.--We notice the following in the Sentinel, of June 18th:
    The miners in the different mining localities where water is to be obtained are doing well. Thomas, Gregory & Co. are and have been for a long time making good wages, say from eight to ten dollars per day to the hand. Their claims are on the flat adjoining the town. The Sterling, Applegate, Williams Creek and Willow Springs diggings continue to pay good wages.
    On Monday night, June 16th, two men, named George M. Brown and John Wilson, attempted to rob a Chinese house situate about half a mile from John O'Brien's, on Applegate. The Chinamen succeeded in arresting Brown while in the act of committing the robbery. Wilson made his escape. The miners held a mock trial and found Brown guilty of the crime of attempting to rob.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 29, 1859, page 2


    A native of some one of the German states named Adam Numerich, about 25 years of age, and lately from Jacksonville, Oregon, was drowned in the river while bathing, on Sunday morning, at the upper landing. A certificate of deposit, given by Pierce, Church  Co., for 24 3/16 oz. gold dust, was found in the pockets of his clothes on shore. An inquest was held by Coroner Bettis, and a verdict rendered in accordance with the above.

"General Matters in Tehama," Sacramento Daily Union, July 1, 1859, page 3



    COURT SCENE IN OREGON.--We are informed, says the Jacksonville (O.T.) Sentinel, of June 25th, that on Thursday last, when the Circuit Court was in session at Kerbyville, a regular fisticuff fight came off between R. Haydon, Prosecuting Attorney, and C. P. Sprague. The cause of the difficulty we have not learned, nor which was the victor. We are told that the judge fined the young limbs of the law fifty dollars each--just half what it should be.

Sacramento Daily Union,
July 2, 1859, page 4



Indian Massacre.
    Mr. George W. Brown, of this place, handed us, on last Saturday, a copy of the Sentinel, published in Jacksonville, Oregon, containing an account of the murder of his brother, A. J. Brown, and four other persons, by the Indians, about the first of May. He also gave us a letter from his brother, F. M. Brown, containing all the particulars.
    It seems the party left their homes, in Jacksonville or vicinity, for the purpose of selecting stock farms in a region of country as yet uninhabited. As they had no intentions of intruding on Indian territory, they, of course, entertained no apprehensions of an attack, but were well armed. After the day had passed on which the party was expected to return, their friends began to fear that they had fallen into the hands of the Indians. A party was immediately organized for the purpose of searching for them. They immediately started on the trail of the missing party. The first expedition failed in discovering any clue to their fate, except that two or three dead horses, shot with bullets, were discovered; they were identified as belonging to the missing men. A new expedition was organized, which finally succeeded in discovering the dead bodies of four of the party just as the search was about to be abandoned as hopeless. F. M. Brown and Indian Agent Abbott made the discovery. A correspondent of the Sentinel says:
    "The men had been assailed while lying in bed, as was very evident from their wounds. One was shot in the head, one had his head split open with an axe, one was shot in the breast and stabbed, and the other was shot through the breast. The throats of all were cut."
    Mr. Brown in his letter says: "I found our brother in the grave. He had his throat cut, and a gash on the side of the head made by an axe. The wound extended from the back of his ear to the middle of his forehead." The following are the names of the murdered men: A. J. Brown, Eli Ledford, Samuel Probst, James Crow and S. F. Conger. The body of Mr. Ledford had not been discovered, but doubtless he shared the fate of his companions. A volunteer company had started in pursuit of the Indians, but with what degree of success we have not learned.
    Mr. Brown had on his person about three hundred dollars in money at the time of his murder. Of course, the Indians appropriated it to their own use before burying his remains. He was born and reared in Butler County, in this state, and was, we understand, about 24 years of age at the time of his death.
Democrat & Sentinel, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, July 6, 1859, page 2


    CROPS IN THE NORTH.--Every report that has been received from the farming section north of us, and also Southern Oregon, confirm us in the belief that there will not be a third of a crop raised in those localities. The Jacksonville Sentinel, speaking of the crops, says--"The farmers are in low spirits. It seems that everything combines against them to prevent the production of good crops. The dry weather, the grasshopper, the cricket, and locust, all are proving destructive to the crops. Not half a crop will he produced on Rogue River Valley." If this turns out to be the fact, the entire northern mines will have to receive their supply of flour from this section of country, and will probably cause wheat to be higher than it otherwise would be.
Red Bluff Beacon, Red Bluff, California, July 6, 1859, page 1


    In Jacksonville, Abel George (who killed Hugh H. McCasson), has applied for a change of venue.
Weekly California Express, Marysville, July 9, 1859, page 2


    DROWNED.--On Sunday, June 25th, a German, aged 23 years, named Adam Numerick, was drowned while bathing in the river at Red Bluff. He was lately from Jacksonville, Oregon.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, July 9, 1859, page 1


    FAILURE OF CROPS IN THE NORTH.--The Northern Californian says that the crops at Scott Valley have failed this season in consequence of the drought. The Jacksonville Sentinel says that in Rogue River Valley the dry weather, the grasshoppers, the crickets and locusts are proving destructive to the crops. The Humboldt Times says:
    But few good crops of either grain or grass will be raised in this county this season. In the vicinity of Union this week we noticed fields of wheat, all headed out, not over twelve inches high. In that vicinity but few farmers will reap more than one half the yield of last year, and we are informed by some of the most extensive farmers below this place that their fields will not yield more than one fourth the grain that was produced on the same ground last year.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, July 13, 1859, page 3


    FAILURE OF CROPS IN THE 
NORTH.--The Jacksonville Sentinel says that the farmers of Rogue River Valley are in low spirits. It seems that everything combines against them to prevent the production of good crops. The dry weather, the grasshopper, the cricket and the locust, all are proving destructive to the crops. Not half a crop will be produced in Rogue River Valley.
    The Humboldt Times, of July 2nd, says that the crops in its section are suffering greatly for want of rain. It adds: Last winter being unprecedentedly severe, it was quite late before grain crops could be got in. Since then the weather, as a general thing, has been dry and warm, we not even being visited with our usual amount of fogs and heavy dews. For the past two weeks we have not had a single drop of rain, and the days, instead of being foggy and shedding a heavy moisture over the earth as is usual at this season, have been fearfully dry, and, for this latitude, excessively hot. Grain that was sown early will fare best, as it got a good start before the dry, warm weather set in. But few good crops of either grain or grass will be raised in this county this season. In the vicinity of Union this week we noticed fields of wheat, all headed out, not over twelve inches high. In that vicinity but few farmers will reap more than one half the yield of last year, and we are informed by some of the most extensive farmers below this place that their fields will not yield more than one fourth the grain that was produced on the same ground last year. The last few days have given indications of rain, but unless it comes soon it will be too late for this season. A good shower would be a godsend just now.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 13, 1859, page 4


    MIGRATION FROM OREGON TO CALIFORNIA.--The traveling correspondent of the Christian Advocate, writing about what he lately saw on the road between Yreka and Jacksonville, says:
    We met several droves of neat cattle on the way to California, and a number of families, with stock, moving into our state. They had crossed the plains, among the pioneers of western civilization, and now were backward journeying, too much cramped in Oregon, or didn't like the climate, or were restless, and must go somewhere.
Weekly California Express, Marysville, July 23, 1859, page 2


    We find in the Crescent City Herald of July 20th a paragraph to the following effect: Stout, Democrat, has been elected, according to the Sentinel (Jacksonville) of Saturday last, July 16th, by a majority of sixteen votes. Our last advices from Portland are to July 14th.

"Later from the North," Sacramento Daily Union, July 25, 1859, page 4


    ROAD AND TRAVEL TO THE INTERIOR.--The wagon road is now in first-rate order, although Mr. Hall has not, as yet, completed all the work to be done on it. Even at present, however, it is better than ever before, and said to be at least an hour faster than last year. The stages are running regularly three times a week, and the time occupied from Crescent City to Yreka is but sixty hours.--C. C. Herald.
San Francisco Bulletin,
July 25, 1859, page 3



    ANOTHER CONVICT.--Last week, Deputy Sheriff S. R. Taylor, of Jackson County,passed through this place with a man named Smith, convicted at the last term of court in Jacksonville of larceny, and sentenced to the penitentiary for three years. It is to be hoped that, while mending the ways in the city of Portland, he will find leisure to mend his own ways.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, July 26, 1859, page 2


    ROAD AND TRAVEL TO THE INTERIOR.--The wagon road is now in first-rate order, although Hall has not as yet completed all the work to be done on it. Even at present, however, it is better than ever before, and said to be at least an hour faster than last year. The stages are running regularly three times a week, and the time occupied from Crescent City to Yreka is but sixty hours. Crescent City Herald.

Sacramento Daily Union,
July 27, 1859, page 1


FROM OREGON.
Ashland Mills, Rogue River Valley,
    Oregon, July 27, 1859.
To the Editor of the National Era:
    We have just emerged from a warm and exciting political campaign. The candidates were David Logan, of Portland, the Republican nominee, and Lansing Stout, of the same place, the Democratic nominee. The latest news we have, and which claims to be official, gives Stout the bare majority of nine. The result is far beyond the expectations of the most sanguine. We had heavy odds against us, all the prestige of the Democratic Party, a majority of some 2,000 to overcome, and all the influence of the federal officers in the state.
    There were several causes united to produce this effect, and prominent among them was the great disaffection in the Democratic Party in Oregon. There has been a bitter war between the leaders of the party in Oregon, which are known as the Lane and Anti-Lane parties, and the breach has become so wide that it will never be healed. There is also a growing disposition on the part of the people to doubt the willingness of the Administration to do justice to us in relation to the adjustment of our war claims. This in fact is the paramount question in Oregon, and the party that does her justice--for that is all her people ask--will be supported, and none others need ask.
    The election will perhaps be contested on the part of Mr. Logan, as I understand, that at Walla Walla precinct, that gave Stout twenty-four majority, the judges of election were sworn in by officers from Washington Territory. And in another precinct that gave him a majority, the poll books were not certified to. The mail waits.
J.M.M. [probably J. M. McCall]
The National Era, Washington, D.C., September 1, 1859, page 139


    
JACKSONVILLE, OREGON.--The Sentinel, of July 16th, has the following intelligence:
    Allen Smith, who was convicted of larceny at the late term of the Circuit Court, and sentenced to three years' imprisonment in the state prison, started for Portland on the morning of the 13th, under the charge of Samuel Taylor, Deputy Sheriff.
    A man known at Yreka by the name of Post, at the Dalles by the name of Badger, and in Marion County, Oregon, by the name of Warren Cooly--we have not heard of any other alias, but suppose there are many--this Warren Cooly, as we shall call him, sold to Roberts, of Corvallis, three mules. Two were proven to be the property of Simms, at the Dalles. Sheriff Hendershott, of Josephine County, found the fellow on Wednesday last at Williams' Creek, and arrested him, when the nice little gentleman attempted to escape. Hendershott fired three shots at him, none taking effect. Cooly, in his anxiety to escape, made a desperate leap down a hill and fell. Before he could recover, Hendershott was upon him, knocked him down with his pistol, secured him and brought him to this place on the stage Wednesday evening, lodged the prisoner in jail, but left with him this morning, where he will be kept until he is conveyed to the Dalles, at which place he will be recognized as Badger.
Sacramento Daily Union, July 27, 1859, page 4


    The last Jacksonville Sentinel announces that Messrs. O'Meara and Freaner have purchased that paper, and will hereafter publish and conduct it.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, August 4, 1859, page 2


Marysville, July 23, 1859.
    Dear Sir: I have information of the most incontestable nature that orders have been issued by the Postmaster General to reduce the present daily mail between Marysville and Shasta to tri-weekly service, from and after the first day of August next. This very important mail supplies Southern Oregon, Del Norte, Siskiyou, Klamath, Trinity, Shasta, Tehama, Plumas and Butte counties, and a part of Humboldt. The mail from Marysville to Downieville, which ought from its importance to be carried daily, is to be reduced from tri-weekly to semi-weekly service from and after the same date. The mail from Marysville to Nevada is to be reduced after the same date, from daily, as at present, to tri-weekly service.
Quoted in "Speech of D. C. Broderick," Sacramento Daily Union, August 4, 1859, page 1


    New Indian difficulties had broken out in Southern Oregon, and the Governor asks for more troops.
Daily Free Press, Burlington, Vermont, August 9, 1859, page 1


    There is a rumor to the effect that the Indians on the Siletz Reservation, Southern Oregon, have broke and returned to Rogue River, their former abode. A requisition has been made on General Clarke by the Governor of Oregon for troops to keep the Indians under subjection, but the General has no troops to spare.
"Army News," New York Herald, August 11, 1859, page 2


Crescent City, Kerbyville, Jacksonville and Yreka.
    The relation that each of the towns mentioned in the above caption have to each other is of more importance to the inhabitants of the country surrounding each than many may imagine. That Crescent City is the nearest port at which goods can be landed to supply the demands of the counties of Josephine and Jackson in Oregon, and Del Norte, Klamath and Siskiyou counties in California, none will deny. The important question next to be solved is the landing of goods and the transporting [of] them to the interior. Up to the present time large quantities of goods have been landed without much difficulty. Only occasionally in case of a heavy blow have vessels been compelled to lay off or steamers continued their trips to the Columbia without landing their freight. In fact, few or no losses have been sustained at Crescent City in landing goods, and as the country improves and the quantity of goods necessary to meet the demand increases, the great necessity of a breakwater will become more manifest, and the states of California and Oregon, through their representatives in Congress, will unite and obtain an appropriation to erect a breakwater at Crescent City that will enable vessels to discharge their cargoes at all times.
    Next, as to the facilities for transporting the goods to and through the interior. It is no longer a question of doubt that the road to Crescent City is practicable. It is traveled daily with stages and the finest and heaviest of freight wagons, carrying four and five tons each. Our merchants at this place have [illegible line] Crescent City and by wagons. It is admitted that the arrival in our streets almost daily of six mule teams elegantly caparisoned, gently and handsomely rolling along a large two-story wagon freighted with four or five tons of the choices articles of merchandise is not so exciting as the arrival of a foreign mail steamer, particularly in time of war in Europe--but yet it has its excitement and interest. The price of freight is now so as to justify healthy competition and so low as to meet with no objections from the merchant and consumer. Goods have been brought for some time back from Crescent City to Jacksonville and vicinity for five cents per pound, but we have lately learned that only four cents is now paid; in fact, we understand the Messrs. Livingston, merchants of Yreka, have contracted for goods to be freighted from Crescent City to that place for five cents per pound. The entire distance, over a good wagon road, from Crescent City to Yreka, is about 175 miles, and most assuredly goods can be hauled that distance for five cents per pound.
    Can the merchants at Yreka get their goods as cheap any other way? We think not. A line of stages from Yreka to Crescent City will now carry passengers in three days from one place to the other, traveling the whole distance in the daytime, so that passengers can sleep and take their rest at night.
    As the country improves and the people of Southern Oregon and Northern California discuss their own interest, we are well satisfied that the merchants of Yreka and Jacksonville will ship their entire stock by way of Crescent City.
Oregon Sentinel, Jacksonville, August 13, 1859, page 2


    A FISHING COLONY.--A number of families have established a settlement at the mouth of Rogue River, and are doing a good business in catching and salting salmon and other fish. A short distance up the river are good mines, which yield a handsome remuneration to the laborer. The climate is very healthy, and the families are all contented with their new home.
Sonoma County Journal, Petaluma, California, August 26, 1859, page 2


JACKSON COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.
    The first annual Fair of the Jackson County Agricultural Society was held at the Courthouse in Jacksonville, on Tuesday and Wednesday, October 4th and 5th, 1859.
    A large and fine lot of horses were exhibited on the first day of the Fair, which were duly examined by the proper Awarding Committee, on the grounds adjoining the building.
    The display of the various products of the soil--the cereals, vegetables, fruits, grapes, grasses, plants, flowers etc. was ample and interesting.
    The specimens of dairy and household labor--butter, cheese and bread, were few, but of superior quality.
    Several articles of woman's handicraft--quilts, needlework, embroidery, crochet work, headdresses, ornaments made from human hair, etc., were placed on exhibition.
    Samples of superfine valley-made flour were placed in the exhibition room.
    Bottles of wine and liquors were contributed.
Tuesday, Oct. 4.
    At 1 o'clock the Society was called to order by the president.
    On motion, the election of officers for the ensuing year was proceeded with, which resulted as follows: President, W. C. Myer; vice president, John E. Ross; director, J. P. Walker; corresponding secretary, J. H. Reed; recording secretary, Jesse Robinson; treasurer, R. F. Maury.
    At 6 o'clock p.m. the Society adjourned to meet at the exhibition room at 9 o'clock on Wednesday morning.
Wednesday, Oct. 5
    Met pursuant to adjournment, the president in the chair.
    At 1 o'clock, the reports of the respective awarding committees were received, read and adopted, and the premiums and diplomas presented as follows:
List of Premiums Awarded at the Annual Fair
of the Jackson County Agricultural Society.

CLASS FIRST.

Award  
Best blooded stallion, 4 yrs. old and upward, J. Clugage (Black Satin) $10.00
2nd best, J. P. Walker (Hinkle) diploma
Best 3-year-old, W. C. Myer (Perfection) 7.00
Best 1-year-old, J. C. Tolman (Timoleon) 3.00
2nd best, J. C. Tolman (George) diploma
Best sucking colt, J. C. Tolman (Joe, by Hinkle) diploma
2nd best, W. C. Myer (by Perfection) diploma
Best blooded brood mare, 4 years old and upwards, Thos. Pyle 10.00
2nd best, J. C. Tolman (Flora) diploma
Best filly, 2 years old, W. C. Myer (Maria) 5.00
2nd best, Dr. J. Robinson (Fanny) diploma
Best sucking colt, Thos. Pyle diploma
2nd best, E. K. Anderson diploma
CLASS SECOND--HORSES FOR ALL WORK.
Best stallion, 4 years old and up, W. C. Myer (Lumox, by old Lumox) 10.00
2nd best, James Clugage diploma
Best 2-year-old, U. Ammerman (Tiger, raised by W. C. Myer)
Best 1-year-old, J. E. Ross 3.00
Best sucking colt, W. C. Myer diploma
2nd best, J. C. Tolman diploma
Best brood mare, 4 years old and upwards, J. C. Tolman 10.00
2nd best, Jas. Kilgore diploma
Best filly, 2 years old, J. P. Walker 5.00
2nd best, filly, E. A. Rice diploma
Best filly, 1 year old, L. A. Rice 3.00
CLASS THIRD.
Best span draft horses or plow team, James Kilgore 8.00
Best trotting horse in shafts or under saddle, Thos. Pyle 8.00
CLASS FOURTH.
Best improved bull, 4 years old and upwards, J. P. Walker 5.00
2nd best, Jas. Kilgore diploma
Best blooded cow, J. P. Walker 5.00
Best yearling heifer, Jas. Kilgore 2.00
Best sucking calf, Jas. Kilgore diploma
CLASS SIXTH.
Best 100 lbs. of flour, made from 130 lbs. wheat, Eagle Mill Co. 5.00
Best specimen wheat, Dr. J. Robinson diploma
Best specimen corn, E. K. Anderson diploma
Best specimen potatoes, Jas. Thornton diploma
Best specimen cabbage, F. Heber diploma
Best specimen beets, E. K. Anderson diploma
Best specimen squashes, X. Laclare diploma
Best specimen turnips, X. Laclare diploma
Best specimen rutabagas, F. Heber diploma
Best specimen tomatoes, Rockfellow's diploma
CLASS SEVENTH.
Best specimen apples, D. E. Stearns diploma
Best variety apples, Dr. J. Robinson diploma
Best specimen peaches, free stone, Dr. J. Robinson diploma
Best specimen peaches, cling stone, E. K. Anderson diploma
Best specimen grapes (Cal.), J. Beeson diploma
Best specimen grapes (Cal.), A. Brauns diploma
Best specimen native wines, Jno. Hillman diploma
CLASS EIGHTH.
Best 6 acres wheat, Dr. J. Robinson diploma
CLASS NINTH.
Best specimen butter, Mrs. A. D. Hellman 3.00
Best specimen cheese, Mrs. D. E. Stearns 3.00
2nd best specimen cheese, W. C. Myer diploma
CLASS TENTH.
Best bed quilt, Mrs. W. Merriman 5.00
2nd best bed quilt, Mrs. E. K. Anderson diploma
Best specimen needlework, Miss Minerva Gass 2.00
2nd best specimen needlework, Mrs. Mary Myer diploma
Best embroidered skirt, Miss Sarah Gass diploma
Best embroidered infant's shawl, Mrs. Sarah Rockfellow diploma
Best embroidered headdress, Mrs. E. Emery diploma
Finest Sunflower, Hon. J. Papaw, with Thanks.
Best vase of flowers, Mrs. D. E. Stearns diploma
Best specimen crochet work, Miss Sarah Jane Gass diploma
2nd best specimen crochet work, Miss M. Gass diploma
2 prs. Poland chickens, B. F. Myer diploma
    After the presentation of premiums and diplomas, the Jacksonville Brass Band played appropriate airs.
    James O'Meara then delivered an address on the subject of Agriculture and the Arts.
    At the conclusion of the address, the thanks of the Society were tendered to former and present proprietors of the Oregon Sentinel, for the kind aid given through the columns of that paper in behalf of the organization and inauguration of the Society.
    On motion, the thanks of the Society were also tendered to the Jacksonville Barss Band.
    On motion, it was
    Resolved. That the quality of the fabrics manufactured by the "Willamette Woolen Manufacturing Company" and presented by Messrs. Anderson & Glenn, are good and substantial cloths, well adapted to the market, and that the Willamette Woolen Manufacturing company deserve the patronage of the citizens of Jackson County.
    On motion the secretary was ordered to furnish a copy of the proceedings of the Society to the Oregon Sentinel for publication, with the request that the Oregon Farmer would copy.
    The Society then adjourned until the time to be appointed for their next Annual Exhibition.
W. C. MYER, Pres't.
Jesse Robinson, Sec'y.
Oregon Statesman, Salem, September 1, 1859, page 1


    GRAIN IN OREGON.--We clip the following from the Red Bluff Beacon:
    Many people think we have injured the farmers' prospects in this section by saying that crops were very light in upper California and Southern Oregon, thereby causing many of them to hold on to their grain for better prices, and finally they will have to sell at present rates or lower still. The wholesale price of wheat in Jacksonville, Oregon is 3 cents to 3½; barley from 2½ to 3. Now does it look probable that section will be able to supply the Trinity County trade, as heretofore? We think not.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, September 8, 1859, page 3
    OREGON ELECTION.--A correspondent of The National Era, writing from Ashland Mills, Rogue River Valley, Oregon [above], says that the election of Stout will "perhaps be contested on the part of Mr. Logan, as at Walla Walla Precinct, that gave Stout twenty-four majority, the judges of election were sworn in by officers from Washington Territory. And in another precinct that gave him a majority, the poll-books were not certified to." The writer also adds that there "is a growing disposition on the part of the people to doubt the willingness of the Administration to do justice to us in relation to the adjustment of our war claims. This, in fact, is the paramount question in Oregon, and the party that does her justice--for that is all her people ask--will be supported, and none others need ask."
Portland Advertiser, Portland, Maine, September 13, 1859, page 1


LETTER FROM SOUTHERN OREGON.
(FROM AN OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENT.)
Illinois Valley,
    Josephine County, Oregon,
        September 3, 1859.
Waldo and Vicinity.
    Here I am, safely settled in this valley, after one of the roughest rides over one of the roughest roads on the Pacific Coast--I mean the stage road from Crescent City to Waldo or Sailor Diggings, the first town on the route to Jacksonville. The quality of the road is very bad, but very good time is made over it by the stages, which run from Crescent City to Waldo, seventy miles in a day; the fare also is very cheap. As I have said before, Waldo is the first stopping place on the route, and, I might say, the headquarters of those intending to go to the mines at Allen's Gulch, Butcher's Gulch, Althouse, Sucker Creek or Illinois Valley. The population of the town is about three hundred; it has two good boarding houses, two restaurants, three stores, saloons, blacksmith shops, shoemakers, butchers, a brewery, and everything to be expected in a prosperous mining town. Some of the buildings are really excellent. The stores are well filled with goods, and one in particular, McIlvaine's, who, by the way, is one of your old San Francisco merchants, has a stock that would not discredit your market, and is exemplifying the old adage that to buy for cash, and sell for cash and small profits, is the only way to succeed and make money in a mining community; he is like the rest of the old Californians, ready to crack a joke or a bottle of wine with an old acquaintance.
A Homicide.
    This town was thrown into an excitement on the 28th of last month, by one Chauncey Messenger coming to give himself up to the authorities, saying that he had killed a man. The coroner summoned a jury, and found his words true.
    It seems that Messenger and Cass (the murdered man) were living in Elk Valley, at Bassett's Rancho, both of them living with squaws. They had been the previous day at a raising, where some words passed between them. Cass swore he would kill Messenger. The latter went home. That same evening Cass entered Messenger's house, brandishing a large knife. Messenger picked up a hatchet, and retreated to the farther corner of the house. Cass followed Messenger, [who] struck him in the breast and on the head, inflicting wounds from which he died. The next day, the jury finding this to be the case, acquitted him, as he was acting in self-defense. It is said that he states the trouble was caused by the women (he deserves hanging for thus disgracing the sex) not being able to agree. On Wednesday, the 31st, he came into town with the squaw of the murdered man, and was married to her; the report is now that the case is not yet settled.
A Waldo Serenade.
    But this excitement was nothing to the excitement [occasioned] on the night of the 31st, about eleven o'clock, by the report that one of the proprietors of the Logan House, G. Logan, was about to be married to Mrs. Gilman, formerly of your city. The ceremony had not been commenced when might be seen creeping from almost every house in town the inmates, with such musical instruments in the shape of cans, frypans, tin kettles, bells, gongs &c., as a mining town only affords, to accompany him from the squire's to his own house, keeping up the noise until morning, but the best joke of all was on the squire who married them. He stood with downcast eyes to perform the ceremony, the personification of disappointed hopes, his conduct saying that the bride, the woman he loved, was now to be parted from him forever. But manfully he performed his duty, and in the twinkling of an eye the table in the room represented a battlefield, with all varieties of wine drawn up on one side, strong liquor on the other, and cigars for the temperate in the middle, although, I am sorry to say, there are no Dashaways here.
Mining About Althouse.
    It is about two miles from Waldo to Illinois River, one to Allen Gulch, one to Butcher Gulch. There are some of the best diggings in these gulches in the country. The claims are worked by water from the Sailor Digging Co.'s ditch, which is one of the greatest monopolies of the day. It is said that the ditch pays about $500 per month to the share, clear of all expenses.
    In leaving this place for Althouse, you travel about eight miles through some of the prettiest farming country in the valley. Althouse has been one of the richest creeks in Southern Oregon or Northern California. My eyes have been blessed with the sight of one piece $1,750, one $1,250, one $1,100 and one $700, all taken from one claim, and numerous claims paying well. There are some four or five hundred claims on this creek. Democrat Gulch, a small stream between Althouse and Sucker creeks, is paying well--the two claims now opened paying $10 per day to the hand.
    Sucker Creek and Boling Creek have both paid well. The Chinamen have bought up most of the creek, and are doing well. Some of your hill prospectors are needed to prospect this country. The miners are well supplied with vegetables, fresh every morning, by the farmers of the valley, of whom there are some twenty and odd, within five miles. Taking the road from the creeks to Jacksonville, we next come to Kerbyville, or Napoleon, another promising town, with some very fine buildings, stores, hotels, saloons etc. About six miles from this place is the noted Cañon Creek, in which many miners are at work, and most of them doing well. As you ride along in any direction, either by the creek route or by the stage route, you pass many good farms with, as a general thing, a good crop of vegetables, and not much grain (on account of the squirrels eating it down, sometimes whole fields being destroyed by them), schoolhouses, sawmills, tanneries and everything indicating a working and growing community, good mail facilities, expresses, and the farmers seem by the indications that they intend, as far as they are able, to be blessed with all the comfort to be obtained in this life. They give a good schooling to their children, and in my opinion this county of Josephine will soon vie with some of the counties of the older states for wealth, prosperity and everything which can make life happy.
VINCE.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 13, 1859, page 1


    IMMIGRANTS IN 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel, of Sept. 3rd, has the following in relation to recent immigration:
    "The emigrants are arriving daily. We are informed by Charles Hendere, who arrived here on Thursday last, that the emigration to Oregon will be large, that a number of disappointed 'Pikes' Peakers' were en route for the Pacific and bound for Oregon. H. traveled a good portion of the way almost alone, having a fine wagon and some good American horses--coming in what is called the Honey Lake and Pit River road. There was no trouble from Indians.
----
    MINING IN JACKSONVILLEOREGON.--The Sentinel, of Sept. 3rd, says:
    Many of the mining claims that are now worked pay from $8 to $20 per day to the hand, and we heard of one man who washed one pan of "dirt" yielding $14, and that a Spaniard owned a claim on the gulch immediately below Layton's claim that prospected one dollar to the pan. There is no longer a question of doubt about the Williamsburg diggings.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 14, 1859, page 4


    ELI JUDD.--The Jacksonville Sentinel says that Eli Judd was taken prisoner in that place on the 2nd inst., by John O'Brian, who arrested him at Applegate, near Walker's place.
Sacramento Daily Union, September 15, 1859, page 3


    The Jacksonville Sentinel says that Eli Judd was arrested on Applegate Creek by Mr. John O'Brian, and taken to Jacksonville. He is charged with horse stealing. Bill Judd, an accomplice, is supposed to be somewhere in that neighborhood.
Oregon Argus, Oregon City, September 17, 1859, page 2


    EMIGRANTS.--The emigrants are arriving daily. We are informed by our old friend Charles Henderer, who arrived here on Thursday last, that the emigration to Oregon will be large, that a number of the disappointed "Pikes Peakers" were en route for the Pacific and bound for Oregon. Mr. H. traveled a good portion of the way almost alone, having a fine wagon and some good American horses--coming in what is called the Honey Lake and Pit River road. He had no difficulty with the Indians and informs us that he heard of none until the murder of four men at Pit River, that a company of volunteers had pursued the Indians and killed several, taking an Indian child prisoner. Mr. H. would have come into Oregon by the way of Goose and Klamath lakes, but when he passed the road none of the emigrants had traveled it, and it was difficult to get a company strong enough to come in that way on account of the Klamath and Pit River Indians.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, September 17, 1859, page 2


    HARVEY'S MINSTRELS.--This troupe of genuine Negro minstrels performed in this place during the week. They have returned from Southern Oregon. This trip up north has "paid" well. We are glad of it. Harvey is a most agreeable gentleman, and his troupe are really excellent performers. By the way, we will bet our hat that no printer will ever complain of Harvey for not paying his bill. On Thursday night he paid our bill twice. Now considering the fact that Harvey don't drink, this is a little remarkable. We were awfully tempted to retain the surplus $12 and procure a respectable hat. We would have done so, and treated all of Harvey's friends on the strength of it, but for the meanness of imposing on good nature.
Shasta Courier, Shasta City, California, September 24, 1859, page 2


    A colony of San Franciscans, including several families, has been for some time settled at the mouth of Rogue River in Southern Oregon, where a considerable business in catching and salting salmon is carried on, and a thriving village has sprung into existence. Gold is found in this river about thirty miles above in remunerative quantities, and the business of the young settlement is further increased by a trade in maple, myrtle, ash and oak.
"Miscellaneous News," New York Herald, September 27, 1859, page 10


     A LUCKY FRASER MAN.--A man named Palmer recently returned to Jacksonville, Oregon, from Fraser River, with 680 ounces of gold dust, or about $11,500. This amount was realized by him from the sale of goods taken from the Upper Fraser by a train of one hundred mules, in April last.
Columbia Weekly News, Columbia, California, September 29, 1859, page 3


    WAGON ROAD NORTH.--The Crescent City Herald, of September 28th, speaking of a new wagon road, says:
    The "Josephine Wagon Road" has been surveyed from Kerbyville to a point on the Jacksonville road, at Thompson's, on Applegate Creek, making the distance from Kerbyville to Jacksonville forty-four miles. The present road traveled by teams is fifty-two miles. A company is being organized by virtue of a charter granted January, 1859, by the Territory of Oregon to construct the road immediately. A preliminary organization has been effected, by selecting R. B. Morford, president, and Dr. Holton, secretary. The books are now opened for stock. Capital stock fixed at $6,000.
    The proposed route passes up Deer Creek Valley to its extreme eastern point, thence over the low ridge dividing Deer Creek from Murphy's Creek, thence up Applegate, south side, crossing Williams Creek, about two and a half miles below Williamsburg, to terminus of survey at Thompson's. The route is practicable for a good wagon road, the grade over the ridge being easier than the Crescent City road. A road is in contemplation from Sailor Diggings to intersect the aforesaid road, in Deer Creek Valley, passing over the ridge near Caldwell's, which will still shorten the distance six or seven miles, which, when completed, will shorten the distance from Crescent City to Jacksonville fifteen miles over the present traveled road.
----
    WOOL.--The steamer Columbia, which arrived from Southern Oregon on Saturday night, October 1st, brought, among other cargo, twenty-six bales of wool.
Sacramento Daily Union, October 5, 1859, page 2


    JAMES O'MEARA, formerly of San Francisco, and subsequently proprietor of the Portland Standard, has become editor and part owner of the Jacksonville Sentinel, in Southern Oregon.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, October 5, 1859, page 3


    A man named Ferdinand Patterson was shot, and supposed to have been mortally wounded, in an affray occurring at Sailor Diggings, Southern Oregon, on the 29th Sept.
    The Jacksonville (Southern Oregon) Sentinel of the 1st inst. states that Mr. G. H. Abbott, Indian agent, had just brought in the news of a fearful slaughter of immigrants at Tule Lake, which he had himself received from a trusty Klamath Lake Indian. The story of the latter is that somewhere about the middle of September a small band of immigrants, consisting of men, women and children, on their way to Southern Oregon, were attacked at Tule Lake by a party of [Modoc] Indians and all of them killed. Not a soul was left to tell the names of the sufferers, or to give any clue thereto.

"From the Pacific Coast," New York Times, November 10, 1859, page 5



    COUNTY FAIR AT JACKSON
SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jackson County Agricultural Society held their first annual Exhibition and Fair at the Courthouse in Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, on the 4th and 5th October.
San Francisco Bulletin, October 12, 1859, page 2



    
SOUTHERN OREGON.--From the Jacksonville Sentinel, October 1st, we gather the following items:
    News was brought us yesterday by G. H. Abbott, Indian agent, of a fearful slaughter of emigrants at Tule Lake. Mr. Abbott received information of this massacre from a trusty Klamath Lake Indian, who came to town yesterday noon. He states that the massacre was committed about two weeks ago. His story is that it was a small band of emigrants, consisting of men, women and children, who were on their way hither. At Tule Lake they were attacked by a party of Modoc Indians. The men and women were killed at once, the savages reserving the children for slavery. But, seeing other emigrant trains passing a day or two after, the Indians became apprehensive of the discovery by them of the slaughter, and dispatched the youthful victims. The animals were also killed, and the property seized taken to the island in Tule Lake, where it is still kept.
    A shooting affair occurred on Thursday evening, at Sailor's Diggings, between Fred. Patterson and a man known as "Fraser River George." Several shots were exchanged. Patterson is supposed to be mortally wounded; George was slightly wounded in the shoulder.
    G. H. Abbott, Indian agent, starts today for Klamath Lake, to arrest the Indians concerned in the massacre of Ledford and his party last spring. Mr. Abbott will be accompanied by ten picked men, citizens of the valley, to aid him in the desperate service.
    On Tuesday and Wednesday of next week, the Jackson County Agricultural Society will hold their first Exhibition and Fair at the Courthouse in this place.
    A correspondent at Gasburg informs us that the Ashland Hotel, at Ashland Mills, was destroyed by fire on Thursday night.
Sacramento Daily Union, October 12, 1859, page 1


    ROGUE RIVER SALMON.--Important among the resources of our state are the numerous fisheries springing up along its entire coast. This interest, however, has yet to be fully developed. Already limited enterprises of the kind have been well rewarded and encouragement given to the future investment of capital, skill and energy in this interesting and lucrative pursuit. Salmon, mackerel and many other descriptions of the finny tribe are found at appropriate seasons in great abundance, from San Diego to Puget Sound, and of a quality equal or superior to those caught on the Atlantic side. Particularly are our salmon, caught at or near the mouths of rivers or inlets of the sea, found to be of great superiority, whether in point of size, fatness or delicacy of flavor.
    Quite recently a salmon fishery has been established by C. L. Strong, at the mouth of Rogue River (or more properly Rouge River, the present name being a corruption from the French word rouge, red), in Southern Oregon, near our northern border. [The "rouge" derivation for the Rogue River's name is incorrect.] As packed for market by Strong, the fish is divested of all superfluous portions, and the curing and packing are so admirable that the article is peculiarly well adapted to exportation. This, in connection with the superiority of the fish itself, must render the article a favorite wherever it is introduced.
    Although the establishment of Strong is yet in its infancy, it has already assumed an importance second to that of no other of its kind on the coast. It possesses natural advantages perhaps superior to any other for this description of fishing. Rogue River, near its outlet to the sea, expands into a lake of considerable size, near the center of which a small island with shores like those of the lake itself, gradually receding, and presenting sandy beaches admirably adapted to the drawing of seines. The outlet to this lake is quite narrow, and the distance is but a few hundred paces from the foot of the lake to the sea. In front of the outlet are shifting sandbars, favorable to eliciting the run of the salmon inland, while offering no serious obstacle to the entrance of vessels of light draft. During appropriate seasons, myriads of salmon enter this pass and swarm the lake beyond.
    At the foot of this lake and along its southern border the necessary buildings of the fishery have been erected. A house for receiving and storing salt and packing materials extends into the lake, and vessels can lie directly at the doors of this building while discharging or receiving cargo. Adjacent to this is another, in which the fish are prepared for the market. Still other buildings are devoted to the accommodation of the men employed, and to the manufacture of barrels, etc., the material for which is furnished in great abundance, and of the requisite quality, by the well-timbered shores of the lake.
    Owing to the brief period which has elapsed since this establishment had a commencement, the product the present season will probably not be large. The fish are in almost inconceivable abundance, and are taken with the utmost facility, but the parties interested have not yet been able to manufacture a sufficient number of packages for their reception. The proprietor, however, is of the opinion that with the appliances which he will have accumulated by another season he can readily turn out 10,000 barrels as the result of the season's operations.
    It is well known that salmon caught near the sea are superior to those found further inland, owing to the more saline character of the water. In ascending rivers the quality of the fish deteriorates. To this fact perhaps the great superiority of the salmon from the fishery of Rogue River lake is mainly attributable.--S.F. Mercantile Gazette.
Sacramento Daily Union, October 15, 1859, page 1


    GOVERNOR CURRY ON THE STUMP.--This gentleman was recently at Jacksonville (Oregon), where he made a speech. The Sentinel, of October 15th, thus refers to it:
    "His remarks were confined principally to matters connected with the war debt, and the position the Democratic Party occupied upon the vexed, entangled subject of squatter or popular sovereignty in the territories. We are not aware that he shed any new light upon the former as to what was the best and speediest method to secure the payment, but what he did say was truthful of the past and correct of the present. His position upon the latter subject was not clearly defined, but we believe he favors the position assumed by Senator Douglas more than that promulgated by any other of the great party leaders. Governor Curry announced himself a candidate for United States Senator, and undertook to show that his elevation to that distinguished position would be more beneficial to our people in several aspects than would the election of any of the other known candidates. He barely alluded to the dissension existing in the ranks of the Democratic Party, and briefly counseled moderation and reconciliation, and expressed the hope that at an early day the party might be united upon a common basis in indissoluble compact and harmony. His remarks partook more of the nature of talk than a speech, and were attentively listened to."
Sacramento Daily Union, October 27, 1859, page 1


    The county seat of Curry County, Oregon, is to be removed to Ellensburg, at the mouth of Rogue River.
"Oregon News," Daily True Delta, New Orleans, October 28, 1859, page 2


    GOLD FROM 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--Mr. R. H. Smith, late postmaster at Port Orford, yesterday exhibited to us, says the S.F. Times, a box of beautiful gold specimens and other curiosities from Southern Oregon, consisting of vials of gold from Pistol River, a small stream discharging into the ocean nine miles below Rogue River, and numerous specimens from Rogue River, Lobster Creek, Galice Creek, Port Orford beach, Randolph Creek, Sixes River, Coquille (seventy miles above its mouth), a variety of rubies found on the above beach, and also some beautiful specimens of platinum. These illustrate the quality of gold found in that part of the country, and are valuable for that reason--the Port Orford gold seldom finding its way here. There are also some fine specimens of amalgam from Cape Blanco, one of the most westerly places in the United States. Some of this assays at the rate of $13.40 the ounce.
Weekly California Express, Marysville, California, October 29, 1859, page 1



    FROM 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--We find the annexed intelligence in the Jacksonville Sentinel, of October 15th:
    We were shown at Maury & Davis' the other day several very rich specimens of quartz gold taken from the diggings at Williams' Creek. Some of this gold has assayed as high has 947 thousands--being far richer than the gold found in California, save in rare localities. The pieces were taken out by Mexicans. There were besides a few specimens of placer gold, of exceeding richness, and of most curious forms, the product of the diggings near town.
    A defaulting scoundrel, George W. Sharpe, has fraudulently disposed of a large quantity of jewelry, watches, etc. entrusted to him for sale by George C. Robbins, of Portland. The fellow had also a batch of bills due Robbins, and others due the Democratic Standard newspaper office, given to him for collection. Many of these he collected, and eloped with the amounts realized from them, and from the sale of the jewelry. Sharpe was at Canonville about five or six weeks ago, where, it is ascertained, he exchanged a quantity of jewelry for a pair of horses. He passed through Jacksonville about a month since.
Weekly California Express, Marysville, California, October 29, 1859, page 3


Southern Oregon as a Mining Country.
    A correspondent of the Echo du Pacifique, writing from Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, gives some interesting information, which we translate as follows:
    "When the Fraser River excitement arose, we all hoped here that there would be a great increase in the population of Oregon, and that we should finally see our mines developed--mines which, as compared with those of California, are scarcely prospected. Our hopes proved delusive; a multitude of miners passed through here, but they cast a disdainful look on our mines, and went back to the diggings which they had abandoned for Fraser. To tell the truth, our mines do not offer any grand prizes; it is probably more easy to find here than in California a claim paying two or three dollars per day--but there are few spots where great fortunes can be made; and two or three dollars per day was a small consolation to the extravagant wants of those who went to Fraser. Nevertheless, some stopped, and among them a number of Frenchmen. More than thirty French miners were present several days ago at a burial of a compatriot.
    "The miners are making little now at Jacksonville and vicinity for the want of water, which will not come for several months yet. Meantime the miners are preparing their flumes and cutting away the trees and brush which would be in the way of the sluices.
    "There is an excitement just now about Williams Creek, where a town has been laid out and styled Williamsburg. The ditch company has made a reservoir, and thus doubled its supply of water, and the miners are doing very well. Next winter it will be the most lively place in Southern Oregon, but its prosperity will probably be brief, for it is said that the gold is found only in shallow gulches or small flats.
    "New diggings have bean found on Applegate Creek, thirty or thirty-five miles from here, and some Germans are doing well there.
    "Little is to be said of our agriculture. The harvest has been a poor one, owing to the coldness of last spring, The wheat crop is poorer than in 1858, but it bears a double price now. Potatoes, cabbage, onions, etc., are worth six cents a pound, and we look forward to the winter not without anxiety. The time has passed when Oregon sent the surplus of her grain and vegetables to California, and now we should be glad to receive some supplies from the south."
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, October 31, 1859, page 1


    DIVORCES IN 
JACKSONVILLE.--Divorces were granted lately at Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, in the following cases: Betherny Hill vs. Legeran Hill; Emeline Grotts vs. William Grotts, and Sophia Snead vs. Finlay Snead.
Alta California, San Francisco, November 2, 1859, page 1


    RETURN OF ABBOTT'S PARTY.--On Thursday afternoon, October 20th, says the Jacksonville Sentinel, G. H. Abbott and the party who accompanied him returned from the Klamath Lake expedition. They were gone twenty days. Abbott failed to apprehend the Indians who were engaged in the massacre of Ledford and his party last spring, or to get any reliable information as to their whereabouts. That they were secreted by members of their tribe he is well satisfied, but the paucity of his force and the difficulties which would have to be encountered in pursuing and capturing them forbade him from making the effort.
Sacramento Daily Union, November 2, 1859, page 2


    RESULT OF THE KLAMATH LAKE EXPEDITION.--The Jacksonville (S.O.) Sentinel gives an account of the recent expedition by G. H. Abbott and others to Klamath Lake, in search of the Indians who were engaged in the massacre of Ledford and his party last spring. The expedition was gone twenty days. The Sentinel says:
    "That the Indians who had been engaged in the massacre were secreted by members of their tribe Mr. Abbott was well satisfied, but the paucity of his force, and the difficulty to be encountered in pursuing and capturing them, prevented him from making the effort. The Indians were peaceably disposed while the party were among them, although they evinced considerable dissatisfaction at not being furnished with goods and presents, but they were made to understand that until they delivered the murderers of the Ledford party over to the proper authorities, no such articles would be dispensed to the tribe.
    "Mr. Abbott made careful inquiry into the correctness of the report brought to town just before he left of the massacre of a party of emigrants by the Modoc Indians. The statements were conflicting--some declaring that there was a massacre, others as stoutly declaring that the rumor was without foundation. Among others, Mr. Abbott met the chief of the Modocs, who assured him it was the Pit River Indians who had committed the massacre upon the emigrants about the time specified, and that the Modocs had nothing to do with it, nor were they within several miles of the scene.
    "A broad, extensive valley of surpassing fertility, and thickly grown with luxuriant bunchgrass was discovered to the north of the lake, beyond the divide which separates the emigrant trail, some twenty miles. It is described to be larger than the Rogue River Valley, and admirably adapted to the grazing of numerous herds. By abandoning the old trail and striking over the northern slope of the great butte, the party obtained a full view of this delightful valley, with which they were very much charmed.
    "The whole party returned in first-rate health and in fine spirits. They found a superabundance of elk, deer, bear and other game during their absence, and brought in the saddles of three or four bucks. The rain prevented them from hunting two days, but they did not suffer any lack of game from this cause."
San Francisco Bulletin, November 3, 1859, page 3



Suicide in Yreka.
Yreka--7 p.m.
    A butcher, named Buck, hang[ed] himself in his own room at Kerbyville. Cause unknown.
    Abel George, who was arrested for killing Hugh McCassen, in Jacksonville, is acquitted.
    Fred Patterson, who was shot at Sailor Diggings, is in a critical condition.
Alta California, San Francisco, November 5, 1859, page 1


LETTER FROM SOUTHERN OREGON.
Waldo (Oregon), Oct. 25, 1859.
    The weather is yet fine, though the autumnal gloom is on the mountains and in the air. The nights are cool, and the days are such as are seen only in the mountains--warm, yet balmy and invigorating.
Business.
    The farmers are now reaping their harvest off the miners by supplying them with the products of their honest toil. The merchants also are feathering their nests by furnishing the honest miners with their winter stock, and the miners themselves, it is needless to say, are doing well, as they must, necessarily, to keep even.
Murder Trial--Acquittal of the Prisoner.
    At the late session of our Circuit Court, which has just closed, there was a great deal of excitement and feeling manifested in the trial of Abel George, for the murder of a man at Jacksonville last spring. George was acquitted upon the plea of temporary insanity, occasioned by delirium tremens. Gen. Crosby, of Yreka, and other distinguished attorneys, defended the criminal. C. P. Sprague and R. Hayden were for the prosecution.
    At the time the murder was committed, there was an overbearing prejudice against George at Jacksonville, and a change of venue was granted, allowing him to be brought home to be tried in his own county, where the general sympathy was in his behalf on account of his wife, who is said to be an excellent woman. The pleading in the case occupied one whole day; the examination, four days. Never was there a case tried in Southern Oregon in which the public seemed so deeply interested, or that elicited one-half the sympathy, though the plea on which he was acquitted was scanty, indeed.
Suicide.
    A man named Buck, a butcher in Kerbyville, committed suicide the night before last, by hanging himself to his windlass for raising beeves. The coroner's jury assign as the cause which led to the rash act, temporary derangement. He was buried yesterday by his friends at Kerbyville, and a brother is left to mourn his loss.
The New Ditch.
    The new water ditch which is being constructed in this place promises a fair reduction in the price of water, and miners are making preparations for a rich harvest here this winter. The mines here are inexhaustible, and the monopoly of water privilege once broken down, this will be one of the best mining sections in all Southern Oregon.
    There is an abundance of freight passing through our valley now. Every wagon and mule train is employed, lest the mountain road should close before all the freight can be brought over.
    Yours, &c.,        MINER.
Daily Alta California, November 10, 1859, page 1


    VALUE OF LAND ABOUT 
JACKSONVILLE, S.O.--James Pool has sold his claim on the borders of Jacksonville to John Bigham, for $18,000. The tract has somewhat over 500 acres of fine rolling and meadow land, with portions of it well timbered. There are but few improvements upon the claim. Both gentlemen are old residents. This sale will give to persons at a distance an idea of the valuation of property in the Valley (Rogue River) and show to them that there are few places in Oregon which offer equal inducements for settlers to come and take up the yet unoccupied lands. Mr. Pool located this claim in 1852, himself and James Clugage being the first to settle at Jacksonville.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
San Francisco Bulletin, November 10, 1859, page 2


    KILLED IN 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--On Tuesday evening, October 25th, a Mexican named Viciente was shot dead at Applegate Creek in an affray with an American, whose name is not given. The latter has been examined and committed to the custody of the sheriff of Josephine County.
Sacramento Daily Union,
November 10, 1859, page 2


MARRIED.
    At Butte Creek, Southern Oregon, Oct. 20th, James D. Peterson to America Matthews.
DIED.
    At Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, Oct. 24th, Margaret S. Love, aged 72 years.
Sacramento Daily Union, November 12, 1859, page 2


    
OREGON POTATOES.--The Jacksonville Sentinel chronicles some large potatoes grown at Applegate, Southern Oregon. Two weighed a trifle over three pounds each, and these with thirty-six others, from the same seed, measured a good bushel.
San Francisco Bulletin, November 17, 1859, page 2


    SALMON FISHERY.--Messrs. Strong, Baldwin & Co. have established a salmon fishery at the mouth of Rogue River, in Curry County. They have taken as many as 1000 to 1,500 at a single haul. The salmon are said to be of excellent quality.--Oregon Statesman.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, November 18, 1859, page 3


    Divorces were granted lately at Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, in the following cases: Bethenia Hill agt. Legrand Hill, Emeline Grotts agt. Wm. Grotts, and Sophia Snead agt. Finlay Snead.
"Later from California," New York Daily Tribune, November 28, 1859, page 6


    HOMICIDE IN 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel chronicles the killing, on 15th November, at Williamsburg, Southern Oregon, of a man named Marion Dildine, by one Archibald Christman. It appears that the parties had been at enmity for some time past, growing out of an affair in which a woman was concerned. Dildine had seduced the woman from duty to her husband, and ran off with her to Yreka. At the time of this affair, some of the residents at Williamsburg threatened to inflict summary chastisement upon Dildine for his offense, and prominent among them was Christman. Nothing of the sort was attempted, however, and Dildine made off with the woman unmolested, save by a suit instituted by the husband, after giving bail for his appearance for trial of the case.
    On the 15th November, Dildine returned to Williamsburg alone, having left the woman at Yreka. Christmas was told that he had threatened to shoot him, and knowing Dildine to be a desperate man, he prepared himself in the event of meeting him. About half past 8 o'clock in the evening, the two men met in the street, in front of a public house. Dildine came towards Christman and offered to shake hands with him, but the latter, fearing some design against his life, refused, and drew his revolver. Dildine turned to run, and had got but a few steps off when Christmas fired at him. The ball took mortal effect, penetrating the back, and coming out in the lower part of the right breast. Dildine fell helpless, and was taken to a house nearby, where he died next morning. Christman gave himself into custody at once. Dildine had killed a Mexican a few months ago at Williamsburg, for which offense he was acquitted, and as he threatened to kill Christman on sight, from his known dangerous character, some persons think the latter was fully justified in shooting him, and that he did it in pure self-defense. Before his death, Dildine declared that the woman was in Yreka, although it was reported at Jacksonville that she died somewhere near Scotts Valley. Christman was arraigned before Justices Dunlap and Luther, at Williamsburg, on 17th November, and after a full examination into the facts of the case was discharged.
    This is the story as told by the Jacksonville Sentinel, Our readers can judge for themselves whether Christman was justified in shooting a man who was apparently unarmed, and was flying from him, because he had been told
to beware of him.
San Francisco Bulletin, December 2, 1859, page 3


Later from the North.
    The steamer Columbia arrived here this forenoon from ports on the northern coast. She brought papers from Jacksonville, Southern Oregon, to Nov. 26th; from Crescent City to Nov. 30th, and from Humboldt Bay to Dec. 3rd.
    On the night of Nov. 18th, a Mexican named Emanuel murdered a young man named Rogers at Williamsburg, Southern Oregon. It appears from a narrative in the Jacksonville Sentinel that the Mexican was engaged in a dispute with another person, who had lifted a pitcher to repel a demonstration made by Emanuel, and at that instant Rogers entered the room and passed, unwittingly, between the disputants. Before any of the bystanders could interpose, Emanuel jerked out a revolver and mortally shot Rogers. In the panic of the moment the murderer escaped.
Sacramento Daily Union, December 7, 1859, page 2


    EXPORTATION OF GRAPE VINES.--A large amount of grape vines are reported to be on their way from Los Angeles to Jacksonville, Oregon.

Sacramento Daily Union, December 8, 1859, page 2


    THE NORTH COUNTRY.--ln Southern Oregon on the 18th ult., a Mexican called Emmanuel shot and killed young Rogers, a white man, and fled. At Humboldt, Thomas Griffith and Armstrong engaged in a dreadful fight; they were both badly cut and shot but not fatally, perhaps. The difficulty originated with a squaw.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, December 8, 1859, page 2


    LATER FROM THE NORTH.--By the steamer Columbia, which arrived at San Francisco on Tuesday, later advices have been received from the North.
    The Judds have had their trial at Crescent City, for the murder of Rothenheim, in 1857, and have been discharged. The Crescent City Herald says they have almost bankrupted the county, and are now turned loose to again violate the laws of God and man. They are known to be notorious scoundrels and are fit subjects for Lynch law.
    A desperate fight about a squaw had taken place in Upper Mattole, Humboldt County, between Thomas Griffith and a man named Armstrong, in which both were severely wounded. They fought with pistols and knives.
    At Wilmington, Southern Oregon, on the 18th ult., a young man named Rogers, was shot and mortally wounded, by a Mexican named Emanuel. The murderer escaped.
    The Humboldt Times says: The sloops on the bay are now busy in bringing salmon from the fisheries to this place, whence it is shipped to San Francisco.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, December 8, 1859, page 2


    
OREGON RAINS.--The Jacksonville Sentinel gives the following description of the rains in Oregon:
    Some people may think that rain is not much of a subject to write about, and that newspaper folks practice imposition upon the reading public whenever they undertake to pour out their inky lucubration thereon, instead of giving other and desultory paragraphs of news. This idea will do very well for those who have never experienced an Oregon winter, who have never undergone soaking from the very wet and merciless peltings of Oregon rains, or never curled up to resist the penetrating, chilling assaults of Oregon mist. The fact is rain in Oregon is a peculiar institution, which enforces strictest conformity with the principle of nonintervention by Congress or federal authority, in every manner whatsoever. Politicians may rant about the dark clouds of Black Republicanism which hover and gather over the country, and patriot statesmen may with eloquent voice and potent hand dispel these ere they culminate and burst, to precipitate torrents of evil upon a no longer compact Union, and wash away the very foundation of our governmental fabric, but neither statesmen nor politicians can divert the rallying and blending of the expansive, threatening evercharged rainclouds which come with winter, nor cause to cease the discharge of their deluging contents. Rain in Oregon falls agreeably (no, it don't ) to the pure Saxon interpretation of the word--it rains.
    If any skeptic, be he Yahoo or philosopher, doubts this, just let him come here at the present writing (Thursday night), enveloped with all the India rubber, waterproof, storm-defying habiliments he can purchase, borrow, beg or steal, and wear, then stand out of doors one hour, and if at the expiration of the time he does not cry peccavi, we will avouch that he is more than human--that is a whale. Innocent Sancho Panza said that sleep was like a blanket--it covered one all over so. The distinguished island governor was never in Oregon, especially in the rainy season, else no such imperfect simile could have occurred to him. A blanket covers, or it may envelop, but Oregon rain does all this, and more--for like sleep, it penetrates and pervades the whole system; it saturates the raiment, drenches the skin, percolates the pores and flesh, and, like quicksilver, searches through the bones.
    Those who have visited or resided in tropical climes, where rain-charged clouds discharge their watery burdens in vertical torrents, are wont to boast of the terrible rainstorms they have seen. As well may they contrast the impetuous brief splurge of a little hillside brook to the never-ceasing majestic roar of old Ocean. A rainstorm with us is none of your inconstant, coquettish showerings, plunging down fiercely for half an hour or so, and then withholding for a while, to give a sportive sunbeam, lurking behind, a sly, roguish peep at drenched and dripping animated nature, and, thus alternating, until the last watery globule is shot from out the vapory nest, and stern old Sol plants his brilliant and irresistible gaze upon the remnant of cloudy sprinklers, and drives them, blanched and exhausted, scattering from the lower heavens. Oregon rain is a thing of substance--steadfast, enduring, almost inexhaustible, and remarkably downright in action.
Plumas Standard, Quincy, California, December 10, 1859, page 2


    SEVERELY PUNISHED.--A fellow named Otterbury was recently severely flogged in Jacksonville, Oregon, for selling liquor to Indians and also stealing a horse from them.

Sacramento Daily Union, December 15, 1859, page 2


    MINING IN 
SOUTHERN OREGON.--Recently, new and extensive placers have been discovered in the vicinity of Gasburg (Southern Oregon) which prospect quite equal to the richest gold mines in the country. The whole neighborhood is thrown into considerable excitement with the good news of these discoveries, and already an unusual number of persons from more remote localities has gathered there, to engage in mining operations. The rush has been so great, and the prospects so flattering, that the whole stock of mining implements [that] was in the hands of the Gasburg merchants was bought up by the eager operators, and a heavy additional draft was made upon houses in Jacksonville.
    The existence of gold placers about Gasburg has been known for the past two or three years, but they were not deemed sufficiently extensive to warrant the outlay of the amount of capital to bring in the necessary supply of water to successfully work them. The recent developments have entirely dissipated this belief, and already enough to known to assure parties, willing and ready to engage in such an enterprise, that the construction of a good ditch will prove a lucrative investment. Hitherto, we learn, that there were difficulties which prevented the building of a ditch. Farmers and mill owners in that section, whose lands and whose mills are supplied from Applegate Creek [Anderson Creek?], and who possess prior right to the water, feared that diversion of the stream by the miners would almost entirely exclude them from the benefit of it, and therefore interposed objection. But it is now satisfactorily ascertained that besides the quantity needed for both of these classes of citizens, enough and plenty can be furnished to facilitate mining operations, and consequently objections formerly maintained have been withdrawn. Steps are being taken to bring in a ditch of suitable capacity. Should this be true, and the work fairly prosecuted, these mines can be readily worked almost throughout every month in the year.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
San Francisco Bulletin, December 17, 1859, page 1


    QUICK TRIP.--The P.M.S.S. Company's steamer Columbia arrived at San Francisco on the 6th, having completed the quickest trip (touching at all way ports) to Southern Oregon on record. She left San Francisco on the first instant, with a full cargo, and delivered cargo at Humboldt, Trinidad, Crescent City, Chetco, Port Orford and Umpqua; and returning, at Port Orford, Crescent City, Trinidad and Humboldt. The distance steamed is 650; the stoppages in port 21 hours; and the whole time consumed 4 days 21 hours. The Alta says the trip is the quickest on record by a day and a half.
Plumas Standard, Quincy, California, December 17, 1859, page 2


    A SAVAGE MURDER IN 
SOUTHERN OREGON. Near Roseburg, Southern Oregon, December 2nd, a man named Samuel Mooney was shot in the most unprovoked manner by one William Casterlin, formerly of Iowa. Casterlin has been committed to jail on the charge of murder.
Sacramento Daily Union, December 22, 1859, page 2


    TWO MORE MURDERS IN 
OREGON.--We learn from the Jacksonville Sentinel that Samuel Mooney, an old and well-known citizen of Jackson County, was recently shot by Wm. Casterlin. Mooney was shot in his own house, in the presence of two gentlemen. Casterlin was arrested, examined and committed to jail. Samuel Herod was also shot while standing in a saloon at Althouse, by some unknown person from the outside of the house. No arrests had been made at the last dates. Murders are becoming frequent in the southern portion of our state, as well as in the north. Life is held entirely too cheap on the Pacific Coast, and it requires at the hands of our courts the adoption of some means to prevent the destruction of human life.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, December 24, 1859, page 2


    MURDER AT ALTHOUSE
SOUTHERN OREGON.--A correspondent of the Jacksonville Sentinel says that at Althouse, Southern Oregon, on Sunday, Dec. 4th, some unknown person approached the window of a saloon in which Samuel Herod was standing, and with a yager of immense caliber shot him. The ball caused instant death. Two men had been arrested upon suspicion, one of whom had an altercation during the day with Herod; the other was supposed to be the owner of the yager.
Sacramento Daily Union, December 26, 1859, page 2


    SEVERELY PUNISHED.--A fellow named Otterbury was recently severely flogged in Jacksonville, Oregon, for selling liquor to Indians and also stealing a horse from them.

Sacramento Daily Union, December 15, 1859, page 2


"WAR DEBT."
    The Jacksonville Sentinel has a long editorial article under the above head, advocating the policy of scrip holders surrendering their scrip into the hands of an agent of Duncan, Sherman & Co., New York brokers and bankers, now visiting Oregon for that purpose as the best means to secure its future payment &c. We cannot see the propriety of the method proposed, or how its adoption will facilitate or secure to the scrip holder a more certain way of obtaining their money at an earlier period than if they keep it in their own possession. We cannot understand why it is that Duncan, Sherman & Co. can exercise more influence in the Congress of the United States than that claimed for Gen. Lane and Lansing Stout, our representatives. We cannot understand why it is that in case the war scrip passes out of the original holders into that of foreign brokers and speculators, that therefore its payment will be secured more readily or surely.
    If Gen. Lane and Lansing Stout, whom the Democracy of Oregon have delegated to represent the people in the councils of the nation, have not sufficient influence to obtain justice from a Democratic Administration and a Democratic Senate without the aid of Duncan, Sherman & Co., they had better be recalled at once. If Duncan, Sherman & Co. can, as they propose to do, secure the early payment of the war scrip at ten percent when General Lane and Stout cannot do it, the people of Oregon had better elect Duncan, Sherman & Co. their representatives in place of such men as have heretofore represented us.
    The proposition to surrender the scrip to these foreign capitalists upon the terms proposed--ten percent discount, provided it is paid--is a singular way of financiering for the benefit of original scrip holders in Oregon. If these bankers can afford to hold the scrip in their possession until Congress makes an appropriation to pay it, for ten percent discount, we think the holders can do the same.
    The question for the people of Oregon, who are all more or less interested in the payment of the war scrip, to decide is whether Congress will be influenced by the fact that New York banking houses are the custodians of our war scrip to the amount of two or more millions of dollars at ten percent discount to make an appropriation to pay it more readily or surely than they would if the scrip was in the hands of those who furnished the supplies and done the fighting against the Indians.
    It will not be forgotten that the late Indian war was made a Democratic war; that the Democracy had the entire management and control of it; that they made the debt; they examined and certified to a Democratic Congress and a Democratic Administration as to its justice; that Democrats only have been in position to urge the payment of our just dues, and that if there has been any injustice done to the scrip holders, the Democracy are to blame. They have kept Lane in Congress year after year; they have now elected Mr. Stout, and now they ask the people to discount ten percent as a fee to secure the payment of our war debt which if done will facilitate and secure it. It may be that Messrs. Duncan, Sherman & Co. have more influence in Congress than Lane and Stout, or it may be that the partners in this speculation with Duncan, Sherman & Co. are Lane and Stout.
    The amount of the war debt is about six millions; the ten percent claimed would amount to six hundred thousand dollars, or one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars each to four partners. If the majority of the present Congress are composed of such men as Lane and Stout, and if Duncan, Sherman & Co. could afford the same influence to that majority that they could to our representatives, their influence would be potent.
    Several of the newspapers in Oregon have received information recently of an encouraging character--that a portion of our war debt will be paid this winter. We have received no information upon the subject, except the proposition of Duncan & Sherman, as advocated by the Sentinel, which is the exclusive organ of Stout and a co-organ of Lane. If the Democratic newspapers in Oregon are encouraged by recent information received of a prospect of the early payment of our war debt, that information must come from Lane and Stout, and may be intended to prepare the way for Col. Stevens, the agent of Duncan, Sherman & Co., whom the Sentinel says is now in Oregon to receive and receipt for the war scrip.
    This is a strange proceeding, to say the least of it. Therefore we advise our scrip holders to keep their scrip in their own possession, as our forefathers did the Continental money. It is as safe there as in the hands of Duncan, Sherman & Co. If the present Administration and the present Congress will not do us justice and pay our war debt, let us try another Administration and another Congress, with another set of agents; perhaps we may by that means save the ten percent now asked by Duncan, Sherman & Co. to secure the payment of our war debt.
    Again, suppose, as has been intimated, the general government should only pay one and a half million dollars on the six million indebtedness, the scrip holders would realize, by adding the ten percent, about fifteen cents on the dollar. This would be a poor and most beggarly remuneration for stock and supplies furnished and services rendered to carry on the late Indian war. Better for the people of Oregon to retain their scrip than to run an additional risk of ten percent discount to secure the personal influence of Duncan, Sherman & Co. towards its payment.
Weekly Oregonian, Portland, December 24, 1859, page 2


A New Plan for Getting the Oregon War debt Through Congress.
    A reasonable hope is at length permitted us that favorable action will be had upon the Oregon and Washington war debt, before the close of the present session of Congress. We are led to entertain this hope from information which has been communicated to us during the week. Parties in New York and Washington who are interested in the payment of scrip have made an arrangement with the wealthy and influential banking house of Duncan, Sherman & Co., of New York City, to become the custodians of every dollar at the paper which can be obtained from holders, and to receipt therefor on their own responsibility. By thus collecting the scrip in bulk, and concentrating the influence required to secure the passage of a bill appropriating money to pay off the debt, the chances of success will be greatly augmented.
    In order to facilitate the good work, Messrs. Duncan, Sherman & Co. have dispatched to this coast Col. S. Stephens, a gentleman of high integrity and great business tact, who is authorized by the firm to receive and receipt for the war scrip entrusted to him. Col. Stevens does not purchase the scrip, but receives it as the empowered agent of Duncan, Sherman & Co., who, in turn, become the commissioned agents of the holders, and assume full responsibility for the amounts entrusted to their custody. In addition to this responsibility, they engage to use their powerful influence to procure the speedy payment of the debt, and, if successful, to immediately forward cash drafts or bonds, agreeably as Congress shall provide for the payment to the holders at certain stipulated points, less ten percent commission for their services.
    In furtherance of this plan, Col. Stevens is now making the tour of Oregon for the collection of scrip. He reached here last Saturday from San Francisco, via Crescent City. In order to show with what great favor the plan proposed is received by intelligent business men, it may be well to state that in San Francisco every dollar of scrip known to be held there by first-class merchants, bankers, brokers and others was delivered up to Col. Stevens. The same success was met with in Crescent City, in Josephine County, and, we believe, in Jackson County. Between $400,000 and $500,000 of scrip has already been collected. Col. S. left for the upper counties and the Willamette on Tuesday last, where he will, we hope, be equally successful. He feels confident that if by the first of February (at which time he desires to start for the East) he can collect $2,000,000 of this paper, the bill for the payment of the debt will be passed before the adjournment of the present session of Congress. For our own part, we believe this measure the very best devised to ensure the payment of our war debt, at an early day, and in full. Without wishing to impeach the integrity or assiduity of Congress, it is too well known that large claims against the government, no matter how just in themselves, nor how pressing the necessities of their holders, are deferred and reduced until fortune and patience are alike exhausted, and the needy sufferers are compelled to relinquish their claims into the hands of speculators and money sharpers, for a nominal sum. The payment of our war debt has thus far shared this fate, and to let it continue to rest merely upon the cold mercies of Congress, without having recourse to outside influence to facilitate action upon it, is virtually to aid in further postponing its payment. To decline to avail ourselves of the valuable influence offered by Duncan, Sherman & Co., or by any others similarly disposed, is simply to refuse the hand reached forth to extricate us from distress.--Jacksonville Sentinel.
Daily Alta California,
San Francisco, December 29, 1859, page 4


    PUTRID SORE THROAT.--This fatal disease is quite prevalent in Rogue River Valley. A number of children have died from it during the past few weeks.
Daily National Democrat, Marysville, California, December 30, 1859, page 3


    DEAR DEER KILLER.--The Sentinel of Jacksonville, Oregon, alludes to Miss Cartwright, aged eighteen years, as a "dear deer killer." A few years since she shot a deer near her father's house, "plumb through" the heart--just where the deer killers generally hit. This was the third time that Miss Cartwright has killed--she is evidently a girl of unquestionably good aims.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, December 31, 1859, page 4



Last revised April 2, 2021