The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised

Jackson County 1924

    Two things only loom large in life. One is good health, and the other is a happy home. Yet tens of thousands have poor health, and just as many are dissatisfied with their homes. To have good health, you must live where the climate is ideal, where the air is sweet and where the water is pure. And to have a happy home, you must locate where the scenery is lovely, where Nature shows her finest handiwork, and where it is a never-ending joy just to look at the mountains, the stately forests, the running rivers and the fertile valleys.
    Both good health and a happy home go together when you locate where the people are glad to have you come and live among them, where there are many ways to make a good living, where your children can be educated in progressive schools, and where the whole environment contributes to the pursuit of happiness.
    Everywhere in this country are found many people who live where the climate is a constant source of discomfort. They live where the sun parches them in summer, and where the blasts of winter chill the white marrow of their bones. Month after month they go on accumulating birthdays without getting any real pleasure out of it all. Just why they are content to do this is past explanation.
    There are laws forbidding nearly everything nowadays, but there is as yet no law that denies us the right to move from a poor climate into a good climate. If the scenery where you live does not make you feel glad you have a pair of eyes, you can go where there are mountains, forests, rivers, canyons and valleys as fine as the Creator ever made.
    Jackson County, Oregon, is considered by travelers to possess more natural advantages in the way of climate, scenery, soil and water than any other one spot on the maps of the world. This is a sweeping statement to make, but it is so, and when a thing is true it should be emphasized.
    If you are a good carpenter where you now live, you can come to Jackson County, Oregon, and be just as good a carpenter here. If you know how to run a farm, a dairy or a truck garden in your present home, you can also run one here, where all Nature works 24 hours a day to make human beings happy. If you are a good doctor, a good grocer, a good chicken-raiser, a good fruit-grower, a good day laborer or a good anything else, you will find the opportunities in Jackson County just as promising as they are back where you are unhappily located now.
    The point is this: Why be content with your present dissatisfaction? Why continue to live where you do not have the many advantages that Jackson County offers? You have just one life to live on earth, and if you don't get out of this life all the joy and happiness that belong to you, it is your own fault.
    Jackson County is largely populated by people who have come here from other states. Most of our people are actively employed in some useful pursuit, but we have among us many retired men who have settled here where they can spend their last days amid surroundings which will keep them on earth much longer than living where Nature was less kindly in apportioning her favors.
    Men of wealth, who want summer lodges and retreats, where they can rest and recuperate, will find many beautiful spots in Jackson County for sites to build. Jesse Winburn, well-known New York capitalist, is one of the men who love and appreciate our climate and scenery, and he has created a wonderful lodge up the Ashland Creek Canyon, a picture of which is shown in this book.
    We have many ex-residents of California, who changed to Oregon because Oregon surpasses California in climate, scenery, air, water and all else. You have heard much about the wonders and opportunities of California, and it surely is a great state, but Jackson County, Oregon, has a more equable climate, more beautiful scenery, better air and water and just as many opportunities.
    Our population is made up of the progressive class, being almost wholly native American. It is hospitable, kindly and always extends the welcome hand. When new folks come here to settle down, we appreciate their presence, and try to make them feel altogether at home.
    In this pamphlet some of our natural advantages are briefly set down. No attempt has been made to cover any one subject thoroughly, it being impossible to do so in the limited space. If you want full information on any particular subject, simply address your inquiries to any Chamber of Commerce in the cities of the county as given later in this book.
    First let it be said that Jackson County is as big physically as it is big in opportunities. Its land area is 1,788,100 acres. The county is three times as large as the state of Rhode Island. It is half the size of Connecticut. Three Jackson Counties would make a Massachusetts, a Vermont or a New Hampshire.
    Our county lies in the extreme southern part of western Oregon, being separated from northern California by the famed Siskiyou Mountains. At the base of the Siskiyous on the Oregon side the great Rogue River Valley begins, and extends for miles to the north. Along its highways are thriving cities, towns and villages.
    On the east the county is bordered by the rugged Cascade Mountains, and on the west by the Coast Range. While surrounded practically by mountains, the elevation of the Rogue River Valley varies from 1,000 to 2,500 feet. Within these elevations is found the ideal altitude which the average person requires for good health.
    The surrounding mountain ranges are heavily wooded with pines, firs, cedars, oak and ash. This uncut timber, covering more than half the county, is a most valuable asset.
    Jackson County has vast mineral deposits, largely undeveloped. We have gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, coal, iron, asbestos, marble, limestone, granite and clay. Great fortunes lie here in the virgin rocks, awaiting two things--capital and labor.
    Our chief pursuits are fruit-growing, agriculture, lumber production, stock-raising, mining, market gardening and various branches of manufacture, all of which are briefly touched upon in this book under appropriate headings.
    The county is located about halfway between San Francisco and Portland, Oregon. The paved Pacific Highway connects us with those important cities, as does the main line of the Southern Pacific railroad.
    Trips by auto to San Francisco and Portland afford a constant delight. Many people go through in one day.
    The last census gave Jackson County a population of 20,405. Since that time the increase has been rapid. The total area devoted to farms is 312,936 acres, the value of which is given by the United States Census Bureau as $23,925,385.
    Jackson County's especial pride is its climate, its scenery, its fertile soil, its schools and its homes. Here we are healthy and happy. Here we have everything that contributes to the progress and uplift of the human family.
    This county does not want more people so much as it wants better people. It wants men and women who are successful, industrious and appreciative of the advantages we can offer them. It particularly wants people who will take an interest in maintaining the desirable class of citizenship already here, of whom we are so proud. Our aim is to get successful people to come among us. We know that if they have succeeded elsewhere, they can succeed even better here.
    When the world was created, Jackson County seems to have been allotted more favors by Nature than any other place in it. Among these favors was a climate
as near ideal as anyone can imagine. As a rule, wherever you go, the weather is either too hot or too cold for comfort. You swelter in the summer, and in winter you put in your time trying to keep from freezing. A tropical climate is just one blistering day after another, while in the so-called "temperate zone'' the temperature is rarely temperate.
    Here in Jackson County the climate is as near perfect as such a thing can be. Our winters are never severe, and while in summer we have an occasional day when it is rather warm, the nights are deliciously and delightfully cool. In an entire summer it is rare indeed when blankets are not needed to ensure comfort after retiring. Such a thing as heat prostration is unknown.
    These cool summer nights in Oregon are a blessing and a benediction. While you sleep you store up the energy and pep so necessary to human accomplishment. In many parts of the Middle West and East a hot, blistering day is usually followed by a torrid, sweltering night, making sleep impossible. People living there get up in the morning with "that tired feeling,'' only to face another day and night of the same kind. The energy and inspiration that sleep should supply are absent, because there can be no restful sleep when the mercury is trying to climb out of the top of the tube.
    In winter our average minimum temperature is around the freezing point, 31 degrees. Destructive winds are so rare as to be practically unknown. Now and then we have light snowfalls in the valleys, but the snow melts quickly. Up in the mountains and in the high timber belts the snowfalls are heavy, and on the lofty peaks the snow remains about eight months of the year, supplying the clear, cold and pure waters that we drink.
    Most of the precipitation in the valleys is in the form of rain. The rainy season comes during the fall, winter and spring months. In the summer we get occasional showers at a time when many parts of California are parched and dry.
    And then consider this: During the year we have between 240 and 250 days of glorious sunshine, many of them coming during the winter when people elsewhere are contending with storms and blizzards.
    Jackson County's climate makes a strong appeal to women. It is a climate favorable to the raising of children, who can be out of doors most of the time. Flowers thrive here amazingly. Our roses are a revelation. Whatever flower is planted and cared for responds with its inherent beauty.
    Dahlia and gladiola bulbs can be left in the ground all winter, and plants like the snapdragon, mourning bride, calendula and pansy come up in the spring from last year's roots.
    Spring usually begins in February. During that month it is not unusual to have the manzanitas on the foothills in full bloom, tinting the landscape with their delicate pink blossoms.
    Let it be said again that but two things in life are really worthwhile--health and a happy home. To enjoy these things, a favorable climate is indispensable. Jackson County has that kind of climate. The Creator gave it to us, and no one can take it away. It is here eternally, and your share is waiting for you to come along and claim it.
    In Jackson County the scenery is so wonderful, so inspiring and so varied that travelers have called it "The Switzerland of America." Many have expressed the opinion that this scenery even surpasses that of Europe's smallest republic. It would, perhaps, be nearer the truth to name Switzerland "The Jackson County of Europe."
    No mountains anywhere surpass the Cascades, the Coast Range and the Siskiyous in scenic majesty and splendor. There are peaks elsewhere that rise higher than Mt. Pitt, Mt. Ashland and Mt. Wagner, but none is fitted into a natural picture that is more pleasing to the eye or that stirs up more deeply the finer human emotions.
    The Rogue River itself is as fine a stream of water as ever rushed down to the sea. And the various smaller rivers and creeks that empty into the Rogue are in degree counterparts of the big river itself. Their waters are as clear as the conscience of a saint, and as they flow, dash and tumble through the canyons and gorges they make scene after scene of wondrous charm.
    The Rogue River Valley, in which grow the luscious fruits that are famed the whole world over, is traversed by the great paved Pacific Highway, over which thousands and thousands of tourists pass every year. These tourists come many miles just to get a fleeting glance at this scenic splendor, but those who live here have all this grandeur spread before their eyes every day of the year.
    Our forests are just as wonderful as our mountains and streams. Two-thirds of Jackson County consists of land upon which grow these majestic pines, firs and cedars, which are green the whole year round. To those from states further east these trees are a revelation. Before seeing them, they had no idea what a real forest looked like.
    As the Pacific Highway is traversed, the countless homes of prosperous and happy fruit-growers, stock-raisers and farmers are striking testimony to the ideal life that Jackson County offers.
    To live in Jackson County means that all this beautiful scenery is yours as long as you live. This scenery doesn't wear out and grow shabby. It is eternal. It costs nothing to maintain. It is a gracious gift to our people by the Creator, and its mission is to contribute to the happiness of those who come here and settle down.
    No one should be content to live where the scenery is not inspiring, where the environment is not pleasing and where the opportunity to mix joy with labor is absent.
    Jackson County offers this wonderful scenery to the world without fee or charge. Come here and make your home, and the scenery is yours without price.
    Fruit raised in Jackson County is famed and favored the whole world over. Its pears have reached as high a degree of perfection as the oil of Smyrna or the honey
of Hymettus. No other section of this earth claims to raise better pears than ours, and but few lay claim to produce pears "just as good."
    This supremacy in pears comes from natural causes that seem to be practically limited to this county. Our elevation, temperature and the character of our soil are exactly what the pear requires to attain perfection. With these conditions supplied by Nature and utilized by our highly skilled pear-growers, Jackson County has become as inseparably identified with fine pears as Edison is identified with electricity. 
    The varieties that seem especially adapted to the soil and climate are the Bartlett, Bosc, Anjou, Comice and Winter Nelis. Our Bosc pears fetch the highest prices ever paid for such fruit. Consumers in the first-class hotels of New York and London and passengers on the big ocean-going liners often pay 75 cents for a single pear. In the fruit stores of New York and other big centers a Bosc sells for two bits or more.
    Apples of superior quality are grown here, the one variety that does best of all being the Newtown pippin, which is the most profitable to produce. Our soil appears to favor it above any other variety of apple. Its long-keeping. qualities and delicious flavor create a demand. that extends to the world's markets.
    The coming fruit for this county is apricots. They thrive here amazingly and are a profitable crop to grow, being hardier than peaches and standing a lower temperature.
    Many peaches of most excellent quality are grown in this county. Nearly every private home has a few peach trees, and in season their branches are loaded with this luscious fruit. Conditions in and around Ashland favor peach-growing, and in that neighborhood are many fine orchards of that fruit.
    Cherries grow in this soil seemingly as they never grew anywhere else. Some of them are so big as to almost pass belief. The fellow who said, "Don't make two bites of a cherry," surely knew nothing about the Jackson County product. Cherries are so plentiful in season that the small boy refuses to steal them when he has an opportunity. He considers picking cherries as work, and what boy works unless he has to do it?
    Some 15,000 acres are devoted to fruit-growing in the county. Much of this acreage is in pears and apples, with pears coming more and more into favor.
    Apple trees come into bearing about ten years after planting. Pears take seven to ten years, while peaches begin to produce in four or five years. It is a common practice to plant peach trees in between the apples and pears to produce a revenue while the orchard is coming to maturity.
    Crops of tomatoes are often grown in fruit orchards while the trees are coming to their productive age. Sweet corn and field corn are likewise planted for the same purpose.
    Bare land, suitable for orchards, can be bought for from $200 to $300 an acre. Orchards in bearing fetch from $400 to $1000 an acre.
    Ten to twenty acres constitute a good orchard, while the ideal unit is thirty acres. There are about the same general overhead costs on a smaller orchard as on a unit of thirty acres.
    These figures are intended for those who want to go into the business on a considerable scale. Smaller holdings can be made to produce a good living, of course, as is now being done by men who know the business and give their orchards proper care.
    There is always a good demand at profitable prices for fruits raised in Jackson County. The name "Rogue River Valley" on a box of fruit gives it a prestige that is recognized in all the fruit markets of the world, particularly in the case of pears.
    Our pears have taken so many prizes when in competition that to give a list of their winnings would run into dull history. Our apples have won in exhibits given in the heart of the fruit-growing districts of the Pacific Northwest, where this fruit is popularly supposed to be the finest that ever grew on trees. At the Canadian International Apple Show a carload of Newtowns from this valley won over all exhibits. The shipping quality of our Newtowns is so marked that they are sent regularly to New York, London and other markets.
    Fruit-growing is highly profitable when conducted on a business basis. Those who go into it should understand this. Fruit doesn't just grow and market itself automatically. It must have constant care and attention, and when given these things it responds liberally in dollars and cents.
    Even if you do not want to go into fruit-raising, it is an inspiration to live where these delicious fruits grow to perfection. It adds to life and joy and happiness to existence to ride along the Jackson County highways and see these miles and miles of trees. In the spring the roadside is bordered with millions of beautiful blossoms, and later on these blossoms develop into carloads of the most delicious fruits that a human being ever sank his teeth into. To people coming from sections where orchards are grim jokes the sight is especially wonderful.
    There are just two kinds of fruit orchards. One kind pays and the other doesn't. The kind depends absolutely upon the intelligence and industry of the man behind it. And this is true in every other avenue of human activity.
    In writing about the fishing in Jackson County the temptation is strong to use big words and to paint a picture so alluring that its truthfulness would be questioned. But let this fact stand: The Rogue River in Jackson County supplies the finest fly-fishing in all this great big world. This isn't a local estimate, either. Folks who have flung the enticing fly in many parts of the earth have the same opinion as natives. When a thing is so, it's so. And that's that.
    The Rogue River's course through Jackson County covers some 75 or 80 miles. Its picturesqueness and rare natural beauty are beyond words. It dashes precipitately here, it ripples there, and in other spots it flows serenely smooth. It supplies every condition and environment that various species of fish find to their especial liking.
    Along its course is scenery as lovely as was ever conceived. As you fish, you not only get the fine thrill supplied by the boys that snap up the fly, but your eyes are feasted with sights that awaken the finer impulses of your being.
    The banks of the Rogue River are ideal for fishing and camping, there being little brush and undergrowth. In casting, you just cast, without danger of getting your line snagged on aggravating branches and brambles.
    The choice fishing spots on the Rogue are easily reached, there being good roads to traverse by auto to the many fishing grounds. Going out of Medford, for instance, in a car, you can, inside of twenty minutes, be casting the fly and often have a steelhead on your hook taking exceptions to your invasion.
    All-year-round fishing is permitted in the Rogue River. Trout and steelheads from ten inches up can be taken throughout the year. The climate being mild, many fishermen enjoy the sport during the whole winter.
    Many tributary streams empty into the Rogue, and these creeks and rivers are well stocked with the smaller species of trout. The waters of all streams in Jackson County are as clear as crystal, and come from springs and melting snows on the mountains.
    In the county are numerous lakes that are well stocked with fish, but these are not so easily reached as the Rogue River itself.
    The open season for fishing in the tributaries of the Rogue and in the lakes is from April 15 to Nov. 30.
    Steelheads (or seagoing rainbow trout) are the variety that supply the kind of thrills that make the blood flow fast. It is said that the steelheads in the Rogue are the only fish in the world of that variety that take the fly. These fish must have a
pedigree that traces straight to Ireland, for they are fighters to a finish. The little-mouthed black bass has a big reputation for putting up a real scrap, but these steelheads fight a little longer and a little harder. They run in size up to 20 pounds.
    The biggest fish of all in the Rogue River are the chinook and jack salmon, which come up from the Pacific at stated intervals to spawn. The record weight for a salmon taken with hook and line in the Rogue is 62 pounds. These fish rarely rise to the fly, and are usually taken with a spinner or spoon. They are plentiful at different seasons, and supply sport of a kind that makes you forget the income tax and grocery bills.
    And then we have the cutthroat trout, which know pretty near as much about putting up a protest as the steelheads. They run from 7 to 17 inches, and every inch is full of fight.
    In the mountain streams are found the cutthroats, the eastern brook and the native speckled trout, running from 7 to 14 inches. Many prefer to fish for these smaller varieties. Size doesn't matter much, for they all fight outside of their class. These smaller varieties possess a delicacy and flavor when cooked that make even a grouchy dyspeptic smack his lips.
    There is not room in this limited space to even begin to tell of the wonderful fishing ground that Jackson County supplies. When you are told it is the best there is anywhere, you simply have to come out here and get the rest of the story along the river banks with rod and reel and fly in hand.
    If any reader wants to ask specific questions about Jackson County fishing, he can simply address his inquiries to Toggery Bill, Medford, Ore. Bill knows more about fly-fishing here than Methuselah knew about accumulating birthdays.
    If fishing adds to the joys of your existence, the place to live is the place where the fish live, and Jackson County is IT.
    Listen to this, you men in whose veins flows the true sporting blood: There are  60,000 deer that winter in Jackson County. As a matter of fact, there are more deer in this county than cattle! In all these United States of America, there is just one county where the deer population is greater.
    Now, then, doesn't that give you a thrill the whole length of your backbone, and make you hungry to come out here and establish a home where game is so plentiful? Why come here simply to hunt? Why not settle here for good, with plenty of game practically in your back yard?
    Hunters often, during the open season, leave either Ashland or Medford in the morning, get a big buck and return home by dark. Two sportsmen, not long ago, left their city homes after daylight, bagged three bucks and got back home in time for supper. This isn't an isolated case by any means. It frequently happens. The automobile takes the hunter within reasonable distance of his game.
    At the heads of the streams are the good hunting grounds, particularly the heads of Rogue River, Emigrant Creek and Evans Creek.
    It is a rule in a day's hunt to see one to fifteen deer. One hunter told the writer that he never spent a day on the Umpqua Divide without seeing ten deer, not all bucks, of course. Very seldom indeed can a trip to the Cascade Range be taken without deer coming into view.
    In taking a hunting trip for deer, the sportsman nearly always runs across a bear. There are plenty of cougar signs to be seen, but these creatures are exceedingly cunning and usually keep out of sight. Anyone, however, in making a trip to the Cascade Range and taking a pack of hounds with him, can surely bag both cougars and wolves.
    There are so many beaver at the heads of streams that they have become a nuisance. Being protected by law, they are multiplying fast.
    Throughout the county gray squirrels are plentiful. One hunter, in a dry year, counted fifty in a single tree where they had gathered to feed on nuts. They were so easy to shoot that he failed to see any sport in it, and left them unmolested.
    In hunting for deer, mountain quail will be found plentiful in the woods. They are a fine game bird and considerably larger than the bobwhite. Near the quail will always be found native pheasant and blue grouse. Hunters after deer need never go hungry. These birds will supply them as fine food as ever went down the human throat.
    In grain fields and settlements California quail (smaller than the mountain variety) are plentiful. Where these quail congregate, there also will many Chinese pheasants be found. It is a common sight, in driving along the great Pacific Highway through Jackson County, over which thousands of cars pass daily, to see large numbers of both quail and Chinese pheasants along the roadside. Chinese pheasants are stocked by the state every year. Being great reproducers, they are increasing rapidly.
    Sportsmen from every section of the country come here to hunt, and more and more of them are settling down and making their homes somewhere in the county. No better place for a home can be found. Besides an ideal home in an ideal climate, an ideal hunting ground is always at hand.
    The County Fair Grounds are just a short distance south of Medford. Nearly $100,000 has so far been invested in the enterprise. Outside of the State Fair at Salem, the Jackson County Fair surpasses any other in Oregon, and is generally conceded to be one of the most prosperous and progressive county fair associations in the whole country. Its grounds are exceptionally well lighted, making night attractions a big drawing card.
    At the last fair there were 100 harness horses and 40 running horses entered in the races. Premiums and purses amounting to over $10,000 were given out. The attendance exceeded 25,000.
    Instead of being a regulation county fair, it is really an enterprise that takes in Southern Oregon and Northern California.
    Klamath County and Josephine County, Oregon, and Siskiyou County, California, had community displays in 1924, thus recognizing the fact that the Jackson County Fair is too big an institution to be restricted to our county alone.
    Elsewhere in this book is shown a picture of the winning community exhibit at the 1924 Fair.
    The timber resources of Jackson County are so colossal as to confuse the mind when reading the statistics. Just consider this one startling statement: One-fifth of all the standing timber of the United States is in Oregon, and one-third of all the pine timber in Oregon is in Jackson County.
    In this county today there are 20,000,000,000 feet of good lumber standing in living trees. Someone has figured out that this is enough lumber to rebuild every frame house now in the United States, and there would be plenty left to start in a second time.
    What a reflection on our civilization to realize that there is a scarcity of homes everywhere, with all these boards and studding and rafters and shingles just standing there in these forests doing nothing!
     The varieties of trees most common are Douglas fir, white fir, sugar pine, yellow pine, noble fir, lodgepole pine, Engelman spruce, incense cedar and
western pine.
    In our forests are some of the largest bodies of sugar pine now standing in this country. The quality is unsurpassed anywhere else in the world, and this is true of most of the other varieties as well.
    Of the 20,000,000,000 feet of standing lumber in the county, 14,500,000,000 are privately owned. There are about 772,000 acres of commercial timber as yet uncut in the county.
    Outside of the national forests, the main body of timber is owned by large lumber companies. The best of the timber is situated in the north and east portions of the county, considering quality and accessibility.
    It seems quite likely that eventually all of this timber and that on the national forest lands adjacent will be taken out over the Pacific & Eastern Railroad. The northern terminus of this road is now at Butte Falls. A feasible route for extending the railroad can be made through the timbered areas between the present terminus and the Prospect country.
    At present there are about twenty-five sawmills in the county, some steam and others water power, the daily capacity running as high as 200,000 feet per day.
    Jackson County has the same freight rate as other large lumber centers, so that within a few years the successful exploitation of our timber resources will be developed on a large scale, thus giving employment to thousands of men.
    Arrangements can be made with the federal authorities whereby the purchase of timber land may be made at reasonable figures. Full information as to the purchase of government timber may be had by addressing the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
    Of course, everybody doesn't want to go into the lumber business and start a sawmill, but to everybody the sight of stately trees in the great forests is a revelation and a joy. Just to view these gigantic trees probably supplies as much pleasure as to actually possess them. If you own a forest, you see nothing but lumber, but if you don't own the trees you see the marvelous handiwork of Nature. As Emerson said: "My neighbor holds the title deed to the property, but the landscape belongs to me at no cost."
    Many of the trees lift up their heads 250 feet or more to the sun, ever climbing and climbing to reach the light. Diameters sometimes go as high as ten feet. While the redwoods further south acquire more bulk, they do not surpass in all-round natural beauty these pines and firs and cedars in the great Oregon forests.
    To live near the forests, with mountains and rivers and canyons as friendly neighbors, to be visited whenever fancy dictates, is surely a more ideal existence than being satisfied to pass your days where Nature was stingy in distributing scenery and health.
    All cereals do well in Jackson County, excepting oats, which do fairly well. The average production of wheat per acre is higher than elsewhere in Oregon. While the warm period in this section is rather short and the nights cool, corn is extensively raised in the Rogue River Valley. Varieties that mature quickly produce very satisfactory results.
    Alfalfa thrives especially well, and many acres are devoted to its culture.
    Potatoes are a profitable crop to raise, and yet we do not produce more than a third of our local requirements.
    For our grain we get Portland prices, plus freight charges.
    Floor land close in to the cities and towns is worth from $250 to $350 an acre, while good land lying a little further away can be bought for $50 an acre up. This land is part timber and pasture.
    Right now there are real bargains in Jackson County farm land. In some cases the improvements alone are worth the price asked.
    The tendency here is more and more in the direction of small farms of 15 to 30 acres, intensively cultivated and devoted to small fruits and vegetables. On these smaller farms cows, hogs and chickens can be profitably raised, and thus supply the owner something to do and something to sell every month of the year.
    Red raspberries are one of the most profitable things to grow on these small farms, with strawberries a close second choice. Jackson County strawberries are noted for their exceptional keeping qualities.
    Any man who will specialize in some small fruit or vegetable can make a fine living. The soil and natural conditions are here waiting for the right folks to come along and cash in on them.
    The specialist is today making the money, not alone in the professions, but on the farms. Anybody can be a specialist by simply specializing, and he can get big prices for what he produces. For some reason, however, most men are content to raise average things and get only average prices.
    More farmers are wanted in Jackson County, whether they farm on a big or a small scale. We offer them just as many chances to prosper as they now enjoy, and besides we offer them our many natural advantages.
    Farming is at the best hard work, but in Jackson County everything so contributes to human comfort and happiness that the routine labor on the farm is relieved of many of its trials.
    You farmer folks who are living where you are not getting much out of life, come out here where you can get all there is in it, and maybe a little bit more.
    There are five systems of irrigation in the county, supplying water to about 40,000 acres of land. Invested in these systems are several millions of dollars. Back East the farmer hopes and perhaps prays for rain, while out here we have moisture on tap whenever needed.
    We have many creeks and rivers from which to draw our supplies of water, and these sources of supply are considered the best in the state.
    Besides these public irrigation systems, many farmers have private water rights of their own, getting their supply from creeks near at hand.
    Four vital factors are involved in growing crops. They are soil, warmth, moisture and muscle. Jackson County supplies the first three. If you will come here with a reasonable degree of muscle and a willingness to hitch it up with our soil, warmth and water, things will surely come your way.
    Why be satisfied in a location where the uncertainty of rain is a constant menace? Why not come where you make your own rain whenever the soil calls for it?
    There is probably ten times as much garden produce shipped into Jackson County as our home gardeners ship out. And yet the soil in different parts of the  Rogue River Valley is peculiarly adapted to the growth of vegetables.
    The main considerations in entering this business are the proper soil and a good water supply. Those interested should decide what they want to raise, and then select land adapted to it.
    Good garden land, with irrigation rights, costs from $300 to $500 an acre. Ten acres are plenty for one man and his family to look after, and on this small tract a good living can be made if the owner is willing to work and knows his business. Ignorance and idleness are poor assets on a market garden.
    There is a constant local demand for all the stuff that is raised here. Klamath County and the northern counties of California buy many of their vegetables from us.
    Local wholesale prices on potatoes and other vegetables shipped here are the same as paid in Portland, plus freight.
    While nearly all kinds of vegetables thrive here to advantage, the principal crops are watermelons, cantaloupes, tomatoes, onions, potatoes and lettuce. These do especially well when planted in soil suited to their natural requirements.
    Sweet corn is also a profitable crop, the gardener getting from 25 to 30 cents a dozen for his product.
    One big advantage of gardening in Jackson County is our long season, beginning about February 1 and continuing until very late in the fall. Tomatoes have been picked from the vines here as late as Thanksgiving Day, but this is a little later than usual for tomatoes.
    The writer asked a successful gardener what the prospects were for entering this business, and he said:
    "A good gardener, with good soil to work, can make money here, but a lazy man on poor soil can't. To make money out of vegetables, a man has to take off his coat and pitch in. He has to raise good stuff and deliver it in good shape, and in addition has to play a fair game with the public and give folks a square deal."
    Of course, our climate, our scenery, our schools and our healthful surroundings make this county an especially inviting place for anyone to locate who wants to come here and go into market gardening. It's a fine thing to be happy while you work.
    Mild winters and light snowfalls make stock-raising an important industry in Jackson County. The short winters naturally call for a short feeding period only. A considerable part of the year green feed is found in the hills, while the adjacent mountain areas supply summer pasture.
    Sheep, hogs and cattle are the principal stock raised. There are particularly good opportunities in hogs and sheep. The local product of bacon, ham and lard does not equal the consumption, and a good market for those staples is supplied here at home.
    Sheep are being more and more favored by the stockmen. They produce good profits when given the proper care and attention, combined with good business judgment.
    Stock-raising here is just like stock-raising anywhere. Success or failure depends altogether upon the man back of the enterprise. Good stockmen do well here; the other sort don't.
    We need more competent stock raisers in Jackson County. We have a good many now, but not enough. The chance is here to prosper, and while prospering the newcomer can enjoy all the blessings that our climate supplies.
    This is a pursuit that dovetails nicely into the natural resources of the county. Our mild climate and the fact that necessary feed can be grown here economically offer a distinct advantage over dairying further east.
    The best balanced feed is alfalfa, to which our soil and climate are peculiarly adapted. The corn makes a fine ensilage, and many acres are devoted to its cultivation. Barley does especially well here, and oats fairly well, and these make an ideal grain ration.
    Locally we get the same prices for dairy products as Portland, and last year we were paid a cent higher for butter fat. It is stated that dairy products in Oregon bring as high a price as any other state in the Union, with a single exception.
    Irrigation projects already completed and others under way will more than treble the hay yield in the future and make better pastures, thus lowering the cost of feed.
    Dairying is a business that no one should undertake without a good working knowledge of the pursuit. It calls for experience and a reasonable degree of plain work. No one can make money out of cream and milk without knowing what he is doing and being willing to roll up his sleeves and go to it.
    One man, with a herd of ten or twelve good cows, doing his own work and growing his own roughage, can make a comfortable living. Perhaps in no other branch of farm work is there a better profit, taking investment and all else into consideration.
    Dairying has this advantage: You get your money twice a month instead of once a year.
    Right now there is an unusual opportunity for milk evaporating plants and cheese factories. Anyone desiring to enter this field is invited to investigate the situation here. The thing to do with an opportunity is to grasp it when it comes along and turn it into money. That is about the only way known to achieve success and attain
    Dairymen who follow this business in other states where the natural conditions are not so favorable can come here and make a better living, besides establishing a home for their families where the climate is ideal, the scenery lovely and the chance to properly edueate their children is most inviting.
   The temperatures of Jackson County peculiarly favor the poultry business. The mild winters make the housing problem easy. Poultry raising is a highly technical pursuit, and should not be undertaken on a considerable scale without a knowledge of its details.
    Experienced Jackson County poultrymen recommend ten acres for each thousand hens, systematically yarded, so that the ground occupied by the flock can be regularly changed and the portable houses moved from point to point. Going into the chicken business on a small acreage is a hazardous undertaking, and newcomers are not encouraged to do so.
    Our poultrymen have a cooperative association, through which feed for their flocks is obtained at advantageous prices. This association also cooperates in marketing eggs, and in storing them when the prices are low.
    There are plenty of opportunities here for men who know the poultry business and are willing to do the proper detail work and give careful supervision to their flocks. Unless this is done, failure is inevitable.
    Good poultrymen who are successful elsewhere are invited to come here and go into the same line. They can do fully as well here as in their present locations, and have the added advantage of our climate, scenery and healthful environment. It is surely a mistake to live where you are not comfortable either in summer or winter. Here you can be happy 365 days in the year.
    An almost infallible token of any community's progress is its schools, and by that token Jackson County takes its place up near the top. Our schools are as much a matter of pride to us as our climate. They are kept in the forefront of educational progress, and children nowhere else have better opportunities to acquire a good education outside of the big universities.
    In the county there are thirteen high schools, those in Medford and Ashland coming under the state designation of First Class. We had 1167 high school pupils during the last school year.
    There are in the county seventy-six active school districts, all maintaining eight months of school each year. Some 250 teachers are employed.
    Consolidation of schools in outlying districts is constantly going on, so that in the less populous sections better curriculum can be supplied. In six districts public transportation of pupils is given.
    Just how much benefit boys and girls get from attending school depends to a very great extent upon the environment in which they live. If their schoolmates are not of a desirable class, if the climate is disagreeable, if the locality is not healthy, if the location does not supply them play places where they can fill their lungs with pure air and have beautiful scenes for a background, they cannot go ahead like children in more favored neighborhoods.
    Here in Jackson County parents will find every natural condition to favor their children in getting a good education. They will find the surroundings healthy, invigorating and exactly suited to the needs of youth. They will find as companions for their children the sons and daughters of native Americans, the proportion of foreign-born being practically nil.
    Mothers in particular should consider the opportunities here for bringing up strong, vigorous children. No handicap to a child is greater than passing its youth where the climate is severe and the location unhealthy.
    Bring your children to Jackson County and let them get an education where everything contributes to their well-being. Parents should consider themselves too. They can do well here if they can do well anywhere. While their boys and girls are getting health along with an education, the parents can be getting just as much benefit out of our climate and scenery.
    The boys and girls in Jackson County schools are as fine physical specimens of American youth as can be found anywhere on earth. They are living evidence of the natural advantages we enjoy. Once you see them, you will surely plan to come out here and settle down with your children.
    Jackson County is like all other communities. It wants more industries, because that means more people and more prosperity. The chief inducement it has to offer in competition with other communities is its desirability as a place to live. Whoever starts turning wheels here--whoever invests capital in any form of productive enterprise--always has this ideal climate, this beautiful scenery and this pure air to enjoy, and the same advantages are open to his employees.
    Industry has five basic factors in its problems. These are raw materials, labor, capital, transportation and a market.
    Jackson County has an abundant raw material supply of timber, minerals and agricultural products. To tell of them in detail would involve whole books. Under this heading comes the matter of power to drive the wheels. At this time there is probably no area on the Pacific Coast better supplied with continuous, uninterrupted electric power service than Jackson County. It is supplied at a cost well within reason. Our potential hydroelectric possibilities awaiting commercial application are most inviting.
    As to labor, nowhere else in the country can work be done in a more inviting environment, including winter and summer climate, living costs and comfort, educational opportunities, and all that contributes to human welfare and enjoyment. In spite of this fact, there is a shortage of labor in about the same ratio that the county square-mile population bears to the rest of the state and the nation. This is due to the simple fact that it is virgin territory.
    The supply of money for industrial operations does not seem to be any more difficult in Jackson County than elsewhere. As a matter of fact, millions of dollars of outside money has found its way into this county in all three branches of industry--minerals, timber and agriculture--and the future is bright from the standpoint of new and further investments.
    Transportation is by rail and highway. On the surface, it may appear that Jackson County, being located about half way between the built-up areas around San Francisco Bay and the Columbia River gateway country, would have a handicap of maximum freight rates without water competition. There is no evidence, however, that this community is prevented from growing by that handicap, since we have striking examples of lumber mills, box factories, fruit-packing plants, cement mills, etc., conducting highly profitable enterprises and growing as rapidly as similar institutions grow elsewhere. We enjoy the same rates on carload shipments to the East as any other point in the Pacific Northwest.
    Distribution or market is tied into transportation to a very marked degree in this territory. To reach consuming population considerable distances must be traversed. The products of Jackson County fruit-packing establishments must find their way not only to the San Francisco Bay region, but to the big Eastern centers. The same is true of lumber and mineral products. Local consumption has not yet reached a point where it will support a big payroll. But, since the payroll is already here and growing rapidly, we have abundant proof that distant markets are being reached.
    When investing capital is properly informed about these conditions and opportunities, more advantage will be taken of the big possibilities now lying dormant in timber, minerals and soil.
    The biggest point of all is this: Labor and capital both thrive best where the living conditions are calculated to make existence worthwhile, and that is where Jackson County rises supreme.
    Millions of dollars have been taken out of Jackson County mines, and men whose judgment is trustworthy express the opinion that many millions more in precious metals lie here awaiting capital to dig them out. All indications point to that conclusion. As a matter of fact, Southern Oregon, where Jackson County is located, and Northern California are among the few mining territories in this country where quartz mining remains largely undeveloped.
    Geological formations here are precisely the same as in Idaho, Nevada and Arizona. In these formations are large bodies of gold, silver, copper, lead and almost every other form of mineral. We have the same high-grade copper that is found in Arizona.
    The real stuff is here all right, but the capital to get it out of the ground isn't. That is what Jackson County wants--men with money to develop these mines that hold untold wealth.
    Our natural advantages for successful mining are unsurpassed. We have abundant timber, and our rivers supply horsepower of tremendous volume.
    In addition to gold, silver, copper, lead, etc., we have fine lime belts, chrome belts, clays, coal, marbles and building stone that are well worth investigating.
    Mining isn't what it used to be. Wildcatting is played out, and the idea that the whole thing is a gamble no longer holds. Mining has come to be as legitimate a business as running a shoe factory or growing wheat.
    What Jackson County has to offer is the opportunity for capital to come here and investigate. We want men to visit us, look the ground over, and see exactly what Nature put into this particular spot when the earth was created.
    Particularly do we invite men who know all about mining to come and make a thorough examination of this vast mineral field. Fortunes lie here in the ground awaiting the day when men will be willing to put up thousands in order to take out millions.
    Money invested in developing the minerals of Jackson County would simultaneously develop the timber country, for the big need is transportation facilities to bring these riches to market.
    The future holds priceless rewards for men with capital who will come to Jackson County and help develop the resources that Nature has lavished upon us.
    A county can largely be judged by its roads. Good roads stand for progress, enterprise and prosperity, and Jackson County has them. We take as much pride in our rounds as we do in our climate, schools and citizenship.
    The great paved Pacific Highway runs completely through the county from north to south for a distance of about sixty miles. Practically every tourist who comes out to the Coast travels over this famed thoroughfare. It passes through our finest scenery.
    Next in importance is the highway running from Medford to the Crater Lake Park line, a distance of 69 miles. This entire stretch of highway has been macadamized or is under contract. A large percentage of tourists leave the Pacific Highway in Medford and make the run to Crater Lake over this fine highway. It passes through some of our best timber country.
    There is a splendid new graded and hard-surfaced highway, just completed, between Ashland and Klamath Falls. This opens up a new market for the interchange of products between the two counties, it being an all-year-round road.
    Various county roads, connecting the outlying territory with the cities, are kept in good condition, and give us an excellent system of trunk roads over which our producers can readily market their products.
    Good as our roads are, constructive plans for the future are being made. It is proposed to pave the Crater Lake Highway to the park line; also to pave the Ashland-Klamath Falls Highway. A movement is likewise under foot to connect our system of roads with the Redwood Highway.
    The most important proposed road is down the Rogue River to the Pacific Coast, thus supplying a direct outlet for our products to the seaboard. This would develop Southern Oregon to a degree beyond prediction. It would also add another wonderful scenic loop for the tourists.
    One of the joys of living in Jackson County is the opportunities we have for making automobile trips in every direction. No matter which way you go, you constantly pass through changing scenery that supplies surprise after surprise. The mountains, forests, gorges, canyons, valleys and streams make up a panorama of which the eye never tires.
    Nobody ever did justice to Crater Lake with ink and paper, and nobody ever will. Like the Grand Canyon, it is bigger than the English language. The eye only can grasp its colossal splendor, its vivid colors and its wondrous beauty.
    Somehow or other, Nature appears to have taken a dormant volcano in the Cascade Mountains, hollowed it out to a prodigious depth and filled it with 2000 feet of water. This lake is surrounded by a precipitous wall from 1000 to 2000 feet high. The wall is so steep that the only way to descend to the lake is by a trail laid out by the government.
    The lake itself is six miles in diameter. Around the rim of the great bowl there is a fine road, over which many automobilists ride to get the many startling views of this remarkable lake.
    Perhaps the most striking feature of Crater Lake is its colorings. The water is bluer than any other blue you ever saw, and reflects the reds and yellows of the rim in fascinating combinations of purple, orange and green. You will never know what fantasies Nature can create with her paintbrush until you see Crater Lake.
    While Crater Lake is not in Jackson County, still it is inseparably connected with it. The Crater National Forest, in which the lake is located, extends over into Jackson County, and most of the tourists who visit this wonder of the world fit out in the cities of Jackson County for the trip, these cities being the natural gateways to the lake. A fine highway runs from Medford and other valley points to it.
    Almost everybody in Jackson County goes to Crater Lake at least once a year. This is a rare privilege that belongs to all who live in the county, and is one of the reasons why a good many people settle down here to make their permanent homes.
   In the neighborhood of Ashland are numerous mineral springs, the waters of which have proved beneficial in many cases of illness. These waters are lithia, soda and sulfur. Our lithia water is widely known for its distinctive taste, and is used even more as a table water than as a medicinal agent. It is bottled and shipped to various parts of the country.
    This lithia water is found to give ready relief to distress in the stomach or a feeling of fullness after eating. It is recommended for rheumatism, gout, stomach disorders and kidney troubles. It keeps the stomach sweet and the intestinal tract healthful and clean. Many common ills are prevented by its constant use.
    The soda springs, some of them naturally carbonated, supply waters that are useful in digestive disorders.
    We have both hot and cold sulfur springs, which in many instances have been helpful in rheumatic and other uric acid conditions. These sulfur waters are utilized for public bathing purposes in and near Ashland.
    People whose health is not vigorous, and who want to locate where they can build up their vitality and their strength, are invited to locate in Jackson County. Here they will find these health-giving waters to drink daily, fresh from the springs. All these waters are free to everybody, and can be easily secured in Lithia Park, Ashland.
    Thousands passing through on the Southern Pacific trains stop for a drink of our wonderful waters at the Ashland depot. The fame and virtues of these waters are almost nationally known.
    If you are not feeling well in the place where you live, if you are dissatisfied with your surroundings, what wisdom is there in letting your existence just drag along from day to day? Come to Jackson County and locate. Here are waters and air and climate and scenery that will help you woo back your old-time health.
    Why live where you lack the many advantages that Jackson County supplies? You have but one life at your disposal. What you get out of it is altogether up to you.
    Medford, the "biggest little city" in Oregon, with a thriving population of 8500 people, is located in the heart of the Rogue River Valley on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad and the Pacific Highway. It is known from coast to coast as a "gateway to Crater Lake," being located sixty-nine miles from the Crater Lake National Park and eighty-one miles from that matchless gem of all scenic attractions. A splendid highway, skirting the banks of beautiful Rogue River, has been recently improved and it is traveled annually by thousands of Crater Lake tourists.
    Because of its location in the center of Southern Oregon, Medford is particularly fitted as a trading and financial center for the entire section. The foremost developed industry of this section is fruit raising, and on many of the orchards near Medford famous Bosc pears are grown, in addition to quantities of Bartlett, Comice, Anjou and other pears as well as apples, peaches and cherries. Small berries and garden products, produced from this locality, are supplied to regions east of the Cascades and to Northern California communities, where the elevation does not permit of their culture.
    An industry which promises to even eclipse that of fruit raising in territory near Medford is lumbering, the Owen-Oregon Lumber Company having selected that city as a site for their gigantic $1,000,000 mill, which is already under construction. A thirty-five-mile railroad, extended to the heart of the Cascade forest near Butte Falls, has Medford as its terminus and will be operated by the Owens-Oregon interests. This company owns $3,000,000 worth of fir and pine in this section. The Tomlin Lumber & Box Company operates extensively near Medford. Another railroad connects Medford with a wealthy timber area five and one-half miles west through Jacksonville, one of the historic old cities of the early days.
    Alfalfa is grown extensively and is responsible for large herds of stock cattle and many high-bred dairy cows. An elaborate series of irrigation ditches, supplied by systems recently completed and new ones under construction, open vast sections of land in territory immediately adjacent to Medford for intensive farming and dairying, and is bringing her a steadily increasing prosperity.
    During the past ten years, Medford has had an average rainfall of 16.59 inches. The elevation is 1368 feet.
    Few, if any, cities of the size of Medford have a greater length of paved streets, there being a total of twenty-three miles here. The city has more than twenty-nine miles of sanitary and storm sewers; twenty-eight miles of cast-iron mains, thirty miles of cement sidewalks, and a twenty-three-mile gravity water system costing $275,000, with water supplied from a natural reservoir in the Cascade Mountains. The city is supplied with gas and electric light and power, has modern cement and brick office buildings, a public park, a $20,000 library, a $110,000 federal building, a $140,000 hospital, an $80,000 armory, a natatorium costing $75,000, a $50,000 passenger depot, several hotels, including one six-story hotel, erected at a cost of $200,000, which ranks with the best hotels in the state, while construction of another hotel is being contemplated.
    There are four banks with a combined deposit of over $4,000,000, and two motion picture theatres, one of which has been recently built and is recognized as one of the most beautiful on the Pacific Coast. It is splendidly equipped for high-class shows which appear on their tours of the coast.
    Medford is headquarters for the Crater Lake National Forest Service, the Crater Lake National Park Service, and the offices of the County Pathologist and County Agent are located here. The key station of the United States Weather Bureau for Southern Oregon is also located in Medford. Medford has a paid fire department, equipped with several auto fire trucks. There is a music conservatory, business college and Catholic school.
    Many beautiful churches, twenty lodges, a Chamber of Commerce and numerous civic organizations, a College Women's Club, University Club, Rotary and Kiwanis organizations and an active women's civic improvement club, as well as a Business and Professional Women's Club.
    A public market has proven popular in Medford and is working to the advantage of rural producers and city consumers. Many fruit packing plants are located at Medford, one of which is being operated as a cooperative fruit selling agency. These plants are supplemented by storage and precooling warehouses and a cannery operating throughout the year, also a fruit drying plant.
    Medford has five large public school buildings. The junior as well as the senior high school has special courses of study, including domestic science, art, manual training, agriculture, etc. In 1924 there were 458 high school students enrolled and 1,260 grade students in the Medford system.
    There is one daily newspaper, the Mail Tribune, with a Sunday morning issue, The Sun, and two weekly papers, the Jackson County News and the Pacific Record Herald.
    Because of its ideal climate, beautiful scenic surroundings and diversified industries Medford is enjoying a remarkable natural growth. New homes are being erected in large numbers and it is estimated that 150 will be constructed here during 1924.
    Building permits for the early part of 1924 far exceeded any corresponding period.
    Two golf courses are located near Medford while the surrounding country has a special lure for the hunter and the fisherman.

    Ashland, unique and different, has a charm and attractiveness which are difficult to describe, and which never fail to interest those who have time to tarry for a while, and breathe the healthful ozone of this mountain foothill city. Lofty peaks, with forests of pine and fir, winding canyons, with tumbling, rippling streams, create a background which makes Ashland stand out like a gem in its natural setting.
    With the construction of the paved Pacific Highway, and the great development of travel by automobile, which brings to our midst people from all over the world, Ashland is beginning to receive the attention to which she is entitled, and many natural resources will be opened up by people discovering for the first time that nearly everything may be found in this territory to support life and to found a high type of citizenship.
    The resources which Ashland shares with other cities of Southern Oregon and the Rogue River Valley are the wonderful expanse of virgin forests, the fertile soils which produce alfalfa and grains of extraordinary quality and yield, and fruits and vegetables which never fail to excel in competitive exhibits, the mineral resources scattered all through the mountains of this section, the climatic conditions, which combine many of the desirable features of California, with the bracing and healthful weather of the Northwest, and the fishing and hunting which are unsurpassed.
    The advantages which Ashland has distinctive and peculiar to herself are those which Nature has so lavishly provided, some of which are as yet only partially utilized and developed. In the first place is the water which comes from Mt. Ashland and furnishes to Ashland folks the purest and finest supply for domestic use. Secondly, mineral waters, which will one day be recognized the world over, as it is improbable that any other place excels in variety and quality the lithia, soda and sulfur waters and the cinnabar vapor and mud baths which are closely adjacent to this city. Thirdly, a natural park and playground of many acres, where tourists from every state and clime congregate for rest and recreation and to benefit from the health-giving climate and waters.
    Only in the last few years have the citizens of Ashland begun to think in terms of expansion and development, and great opportunity exists for men of vision and capital to wrest from the mountains monuments of granite such as has been found heretofore only in the East, as well as gold and other mineral wealth; to bottle and ship magic waters which have proved of great medicinal value to many people; to can and ship the wonderful pears, the product par excellence of the Rogue River Valley, as well as other fruits of superb quality.
    To make possible a longer sojourn of visitors seeking climate and advantages such as have been described above, the people of Ashland are building and equipping hotels and apartments of superior character, and the fact that Ashland, which is just twenty-two miles from the California line, is the front door, gives to Ashland the privilege of being first to welcome to this great state the traveler from the South.
    For those interested in stock-raising, opportunity offers much, as cattle, sheep and hogs flourish on the rich alfalfa feed. Dairying is a sure check producer, while poultry-raising is almost unlimited in its possibilities in districts near the city.
    Saw mills in the mountain territory adjacent to Ashland constitute an industry of no mean proportion, and a large factory for box and mill work will employ operatives the year round.
    Mining is an old-time industry in this territory, which is receiving increasing interest at present, and the shale oil extraction promises to eventually become a successful enterprise.
    Ashland's population is about 6000, a marked increase having been made since the last census, but with the inclusion of strictly Ashland territory which is outside the city limits this figure may be increased materially.
    Cannery, iron foundry, box factory, flour mill, creamery, granite works and car shops constitute the industrial equipment, many employees of the Southern Pacific Co. making this their home. Natural carbonic gas is shipped from the mineral springs in car lots. Well-equipped and successful fruit and produce and wholesale grocery establishments attend to their respective lines. Ashland schools are rated among the best on the Coast, and summer schools, including the state Normal, utilize the entire school equipment during the summer months.
    Jacksonville is picturesquely located on the western edge of the Rogue River Valley, and is the county seat of Jackson County. It is the oldest town in Southern Oregon, and one of the oldest in the state. It was settled in 1851 [sic], following the first discovery of gold in Oregon, and for several years after was one of the famous mining camps on the Coast.
    The city is located five miles from the main line of the Southern Pacific railroad, and is connected therewith at Medford by the Medford Coast Railroad, a branch line of standard gauge.
    There is a fine paved highway between Jacksonville and Medford, a distance of five miles, making it easy to reach the latter place in a few minutes by auto. An efficient jitney service is maintained on this highway.
    Jacksonville has an estimated population of 700. It has a weekly newspaper, three churches, good schools, many brick business blocks, beautiful houses, cement sidewalks and pavements.
    The Jackson County Court House, located here, is a fine structure, substantially built of brick and stone.
    The city has a municipal water works, electric light and telephone service. The large trees and luxuriant foliage around the residences and the sheltered location in the foothills make it most attractive for a home. The climate is delightful.
    The resources of this section are numerous, principally fruit, hay, grain. timber, mining and stock-raising. Much of the best agricultural land in the valley joins Jacksonville on the east and northeast.
    In the Applegate Valley, which is tributary to and can only be reached via Jacksonville, is one of the finest farming and stock-raising districts in Oregon. In this section also are located the famous Blue Ledge mines, one of the largest copper deposits known.
    In the mining districts tributary to Jacksonville are situated many placer and quartz mines, some of the latter having been operated at a profit, but owing to the lack of cheap transportation and smelter facilities have not reached much more than the development stage. However, with the building of a smelter at Gold Hill, many of these mines offer favorable opportunities for the investment of capital.
    Jacksonville and surrounding country are situated in a so-called thermal belt, which causes the temperatures here to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than on the floor of the valley. Late spring frosts are very rare. Hence no smudging of orchards is required.
    The hundreds of acres of foothill land are especially adapted to the cultivation of grapes, which grow here to perfection and are unexcelled.
    Of historic interest is the oldest brick building in the state which is located in Jacksonville.
    Gold Hill, with an estimated population of 500, is located on the main line of the Southern Pacific and on the lower Rogue River. There are about 1500 acres of planted orchards within two and a half miles, large alfalfa fields and intensified farming tracts. The place is one of the oldest mining towns of the county.
    We have vast surrounding mineral wealth and considerable mercantile timber is tributary. A twenty-stamp quartz mill is within a few miles, and development work is being done at other mines. A large plant for the manufacture of Portland cement, employing between eighty and one hundred men, is in operation. The lime utilized tests especially high, the lime deposit being twenty miles long and four miles wide. There are also indications of large coal and iron deposits in the vicinity.
    Gold Hill has a municipal water system, stores, meat market, hotel, restaurant, bank, church and public schools offering four years of high school work, with special courses in domestic science and manual training.
    The weekly Gold Hill News is published here, and the town is an outfitting point for Crater Lake.
    Central Point, with an estimated population exceeding 1,000, is located near the center of the Rogue River Valley on the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Pacific Highway passes through four blocks on its main street.
    Surrounded by orchards, alfalfa and grain fields, intensively cultivated farming lands and irrigated tracts, Central Point produces enormous quantities of diversified crops. Total crop failures are unknown in this locality. Fruit-growing is the leading industry, including the famous Rogue River pears, apples, peaches, apricots, grapes and berries. Nearly all agricultural products are grown here to perfection, among the most important being alfalfa, grain, potatoes, melons and all varieties of vegetables.
    The town is well located for drainage, and boasts of having ten miles of the best combined sanitary and storm sewer in the state. Epidemics are unknown in Central Point. The elevation is 1290 feet, with an annual rainfall of from 16 to 25 inches. There are eighteen blocks of paved streets, including the Pacific Highway, electric lights and power, municipal water system, the water being supplied from two everlasting wells, and eight miles of water mains.
    The high school offers a four-year course, and a new gymnasium is now being completed.
    The town has several large mercantile establishments, one strong bank and a clay manufacturing plant. It is also an outfitting point for Crater Lake.
    We need more real farmers and gardeners, and extend to such an ideal place to live and an unexcelled climate.
    Eagle Point is not a "point," but a district. A spreading valley stretches out to the Rogue River on the west, and reaches about twenty-five miles up the Little Butte to the east beyond Lake Creek post office. All this section of Jackson County is known as Eagle Point, and the town is the distributing point for it all.
    The post office is the center of a net of Star Routes reaching out to Climax, Lake Creek, Prospect, Persist, Butte Falls, Trail and Brownsboro.
    Several irrigation projects are established here, the last and largest being the Eagle Point Irrigation District, which furnishes water for over 6,000 acres.
    Nobody wants to leave here, but many farmers have more land than they can operate, and they want to sell part of their holdings. Hence there is much desirable land offered for sale at extremely low figures.
    Governor Pierce and the State Engineer have stated publicly that Eagle Point has the best irrigation project in the state of Oregon as regards efficient system, cheap land and abundant water.
    Eagle Point has taken first prize at the Jackson County Fair for two years for the best community exhibit.
    The town of Rogue River is on the north bank of the Rogue River, and on the main line of the Southern Pacific railroad that traverses the famous Valley of the Rogue, and is close to the western boundary of Jackson County. We have a fine home town, where we can enjoy all that our glorious climate brings to us in the shape of luscious fruits, golden grain, herds and grazing. These are not empty words written to fill up space, but are real facts. Nature surely was good to Rogue
River. Under irrigation, the grass is green throughout the year.
    Our home town is the meeting place of four lesser valleys, each with more or less undeveloped resources in valuable timber, mines of gold, silver and copper and other precious metals; granite, marble, clay and farm lands.
    We point with pride to our schools, and are adding to our high school all the most approved courses, being especially strong on the industrial. We have a fine community hall, churches, stores, mills, and we have the Progressive Spirit.
    There is opportunity here for profitable investment in business enterprises and in almost any line of human effort. We want more people to come here and settle down, and if they come they will find an old-time welcome.
    The estimated population of Talent is 550. It is located in the upper Rogue River Valley on the main line of the Southern Pacific. The town is in the center of a highly developed portion of the Valley. Besides fruit raising, considerable local attention is given to market garden products and berries, these industries having been encouraged by the location here of a large cannery.
    The cannery represents an investment of about $12,000, the plant having a possible daily capacity of 6000 filled cans, 1200 pounds of dried fruit and 1000 gallons of cider. The Southern Oregon Experiment Farm is located nearby, as is also the county poor farm and county hospital.
    Talent has one of the best school buildings of Jackson County, costing $24,000, and offering four years of high school work, including household science. Talent has permanently built stores, a bank, two hotels, lumber yard, four churches, three lodges, electric light, gas and a city water system.
    Phoenix, with an estimated population of 350, is located in the upper Rogue River Valley, on the main line of the Southern Pacific. It is the center of a well-developed fruit-raising section and surrounded by intensified farms. Some of the best known orchards of the Valley are in the near vicinity. Phoenix has a $15,000 school building, which offers four years of high school work. The town is well lighted, has a good pure water system, has two stores, blacksmith shops, two churches, enjoys valuable irrigation rights and is an important fruit-shipping point of the Valley.
    After reading this book, please send it to some relative or friend who, you think, would be interested in the many advantages Jackson County offers.
    Good things should be passed along.
Bert Moses, Where Nature Lavished Her Bounties, Jackson County pub., 1924.  Cover art by Johnny Gruelle.

Last revised February 17, 2020