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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Beach Sands
For more on the beach diggings, see the Mining Notes pages.

    THE PORT ORFORD GOLD QUEST.--A sort of resurrection of the Gold Bluff excitement has been apparent since the receipt of late accounts from Port Orford. A variety of reports brought by passengers on the Cecil have found currency, with different degrees of credence. Some specimens of gold found in Center St. in the town have been shown us by Capt. Tichenor. The dust obtained from the "tom" is very fine. He has also a large quantity obtained from the blankets at the foot of the machine, containing visible particles of gold, but so small as not to be separated by washing. A gentleman in town has a process for amalgamating the gold thus found, and has taken four dollars worth from a pound of sand. Capt. T. states that this new gold deposit reaches along the coast to the north of Port Orford, twenty-five miles, and twenty miles in a southerly direction to Cape Gregory, and expresses the opinion that nearly the whole extent will pay $5 a day to the man. In some sections the water is difficult to get, and pumps will be required to take it from the ocean. The original prospectors in these washings made $300 each per day from the claim they selected, which was the first choice of course, and others are not expected to do as well as that. Very rich diggings are found just north of Coquille River, 20 miles above Port Orford. It is here, as we understand the story, that the big lifts of $1000 each per day were taken out by five men, who must have been very foolish to let their good luck be known. The day before Capt. T. left, coarse gold was found near the back skirts of the town by a party of Indians. The tablelands at the mouth of Rogue River, 18 miles south of Port Orford, are also reported "rich diggings," paying one dollar to the pan. Capt. Smith accompanied Capt. Tichenor on the expedition to Cape Gregory, the road to which point is described as horrible beyond comparison.
    It seems upon inquiry into the matter that the reports which look so highly colored are substantiated by the testimony of witnesses, who cannot be discredited, although due allowances should be made for the enthusiasm of the occasion. No doubt the gold is found in most tempting exposure, commingled among the sands of the seashore. 1t may still be very difficult to bag, and while it is everyone's own business to look before he leaps, a word of advice and caution will not be despised by the newcomer, although it might appear superfluous to one who has passed through the "prospect" mill. For the information of such as desire to "see the elephant," or rather the "Gyascutus," it is proper to mention that the schooner Cecil sails for Port Orford on Monday, July 23rd. A large lot of provisions will probably find their way up, so that those that migrate can be sure of finding something pretty good to eat, which was not the case with the early explorers of the new field of enterprise, who had to put up with salt pork and hard bread, and very hard work they had to get enough of that.--Times and Transcript.
San Joaquin Republican, Stockton, California, July 23, 1853, page 2


    THE GOLD DISCOVERIES AT PORT ORFORD.--From information of a private nature which we have received, by a late arrival from Port Orford, we are led to believe that the stories of rich gold discoveries on the seashore at that place are by no means unfounded. We are positively assured that diggings have been commenced and carried on with the most satisfactory results in the sand of the beach at the foot of a bluff near Port Orford. Two men took out seventy-five dollars on the day before our information was posted. The gold is extremely fine, and mixed with platina. How far the diggings extend is not yet ascertained. It appears that several parties are endeavoring to keep down excitement on the subject in this city, in order to prevent goods being shipped until a large stock on hand, at last accounts, could be disposed of.

"Later from California," Albany Evening Journal, Albany, New York, August 24, 1853, page 2


The Port Orford Gold Diggings.
    For the accuracy of the annexed statements we cannot vouch, the name of the author not accompanying the communication. If the writer furnishes this information for no interested purposes, and it certainly has the appearance of truth, it will be valuable to persons who may have projected a trip to the mines in question.
    Messrs. Editors:--As statements in relation to the gold at Port Orford continue to appear in the papers, it may save those who cannot afford the expense of the price of passage there and back by describing things as they actually exist.
    The writer returned from the above port on the steamer Columbia, and having resided there about a month, has had a good opportunity of understanding the capabilities of the place.
    At the town of Port Orford there are only four or five available claims, and these are already taken up. Gold has been found at Hubbard's Creek, three-quarters of a mile distant. A company of six persons built a dam and turned the stream, but owing to the sandy nature of the soil they were unable to manage the water, and consequently have failed in taking out anything.
    The principal diggings are thirty-five miles beyond Port Orford, and six miles above the Coquille River. Seven sluices were at work at the time of my visit, and several more in preparation. Some of these sluices were yielding two hundred dollars a day per man; others as low as thirty or forty dollars. The whole were supplied by one stream of water. The claims on either side of this stream were richest, and of course worked at least expense. The gold diminishes in proportion to the distance from the stream, and the expense of working increases, owing to the necessity of making ditches or troughs to conduct water to the sluices. In this vicinity "the color of gold" has been found several miles along the beach, but there is great scarcity of water. About twenty miners are settled there. They pack their provisions up from Port Orford, on mules, at a cost of ten cents per pound, which, added to the high prices charged at Port Orford, makes living very expensive. A few hired laborers were receiving one hundred and fifty dollars per month, "and found." Cowan Bay is fifteen miles further north, and it would be an advantage to the miners if goods could be landed there instead of at P.O., thus saving twenty miles of land carriage.
    There are other diggings twenty miles below Port Orford, near the mouth of Rogue River. Until within two weeks there has been only one sluice at work there, belonging to a man named "French Joe." I retorted twenty ounces of gold for him, which he had "taken out" in nine days, a result so flattering as to cause several persons to go down, packing their provisions upon Indians, but they complain much of want of water, and were about to try the "Jenny Lind rocker," instead of sluices--with what success has not been heard.
    A party had also gone out to search for placer diggings. They returned the day the steamer Columbia left, and if they found anything, were very silent about it.
    Most of the miners who left San Francisco per Cecil and Thos. Hunt have been disappointed; some have returned. If any others intend going up, I should advise them to take their own provisions. The beach diggings will not be good for more than two months more, after which time the high tides prevent labor.
Yours respectfully,                W.W.W.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, September 1, 1853, page 3


    At Crescent City there is new excitement about the "beach diggings" from the mouth of Rogue River to Port Orford. Big strikes are reported--from $25 to $100 per day, all out of the black sand. Quicksilver, is, of course, in great demand.
"Mining Intelligence,"
Sacramento Daily Union, October 22, 1853, page 2


    The beach diggings between Crescent City and Port Orford are reported to be extensive and profitable. A number of prospectors have gone into new districts about Rogue River, and the reports of their discoveries are favorable, but we have no positive information.
"California Intelligence," Washington Sentinel, Washington, D.C., December 15, 1853, page 1


    THE GOLD BEACH DIGGINGS.--
We have some interesting intelligence from these diggings, through a gentleman who arrived here last Sunday in the steamer Peytona, from up the coast. The Gold Beach diggings are situate at the mouth of the Rogue River, and extend on both sides about six miles along the coast. The gold is washed out from the sand on the beach, and is found in very fine particles. There are 300 men at present engaged in washing out the gold along the line of the beach, and all are doing most remarkably well. The average to the hand is not less than an ounce a day. The big strikes that have been made are truly astonishing at this period in the mining chronicles of California. Three or four men of Jordan's company had taken out from twenty to forty ounces apiece in one day. On one occasion, Capt. Riggen, just after a high surf had been blown upon the beach, scraped out eight pounds of gold in an hour. This is the account given us, although our readers will doubtless feel disposed to take the latter statement with many grains of allowance.
    The gold has been discovered principally in the sands of the beach. It is said, however, that a prospecting party had discovered rich diggings on the south fork of the Coquille River. Gold was found by them at various points, arguing an extensive distribution of the metal in that locality.
    The lands bordering on Gold Beach are described as most excellent for agriculture and grazing. Farming operations, however, had been limited, owing to the great yield in the diggings. Some three or four persons only had located claims and commenced farming.--Commercial Advertiser.
Sacramento Daily Union, February 25, 1854, page 1


    GOLD ON THE COAST.-- The following is from the San Francisco Evening News, and was furnished by James Johnson, Esq., who recently arrived from the mines mentioned:
    We learn from Mr. Johnson that the gold mines lying along the coast, commencing fifty miles north of Crescent City and extending north to the Coquille River, have been remarkably productive the past season. Near the Coquille, two miners cleared during a few months $40,000. At Rogue River, a party composed of Wm. Riggin, S. Z. Pierce and John Creen took from their claim in one week 328 ounces of dust. Another party, consisting of four persons, are said to clear $1,000 per week.
    The miners in all the mines described are doing remarkably well. Those who own claims and work them on their own account average from $10 to $16 per day. The richest diggings are said to be those near the Coquille River.
    The deposit of gold in the district of country described is quite different from that of any other section of this state. Unlike the deposit at Gold Bluff, which is found on the surface of the earth in a black sand between high and low water mark, these deposits lie in a layer of crushed quartz, upon a bedrock which is found quite near the surface in some places, and quite deep under the surface in others. Miners have worked in some places to the depth of 15 feet. Some claims are worked between high and low water mark, and others as far as forty feet into the sea.
    The gold is secured by a process of amalgamation.
    The greatest difficulty the miners have had to encounter was the scarcity of water. So far they have used the water conducted from the neighboring gulches. The quantity of this, however, has been limited, and no means have yet been adopted to raise the water of the sea and render it available, so the miners at many points have been very much inconvenienced.
Sacramento Daily Union, March 27, 1854, page 3


    THE GOLD DISCOVERIES AT PORT ORFORD.--We published on Wednesday a brief account of reported valuable discoveries in the neighborhood of Port Orford. A correspondent of the Alta, under date of May 31st, gives the following confirmation of the rumor:
    "It will be remembered that much excitement was created, during the last fall and winter, in relation to the "beach diggings" in this vicinity. Many came here with high anticipations of amassing sudden fortunes, but in few instances were these expectations realized. There are undeniably large deposits of gold all along the beach, extending from Rogue River to within fifteen miles of Cape Arago, but the great and only difficulty in collecting the gold has heretofore arisen from the scarcity of the water, there being, perhaps, on a beach four miles in extent not water sufficient to run more than six or eight machines. Within a short time, however, the experiment of using sea water has been tried with great success. This is done by the application of horse power to a common pump, raising the water into a reservoir, and distributing it along the beach as required. The mines at the Coquille and Rogue rivers are paying not less than ten dollars to the man, while in many instances "big strikes" are made of ten to fifteen ounces of pure gold. At Cape Blanco, which is eight miles north of Port Orford, three men have taken out of one claim over twenty-five thousand dollars since last November. After paying all expenses, they divided, a few days since, twenty-three thousand dollars. There are about one hundred men at work there at the present time, and all of them doing well.
Sacramento Daily Union, June 8, 1854, page 3


Geological Researches on the Coast.
    The length of the following communication would preclude its appearance, did it not contain a vast amount of interesting information in relation to the coast north of us, which will render it valuable as a matter of study and of reference. The communication is furnished by N. Scholfield, Esq., a surveyor and geologist of well-known ability and scientific attainments:
    On returning from a few months residence at the Umpqua River and its vicinity, in Oregon, during which time I have traveled from two to three hundred miles along the coast, and have also made some incursions in the interior, I propose to give our readers a sketch of some of the geological and mineralogical features of the portion of the coast visited by me, as well as some practical observations relative to the beach gold washings, which occur along the shore in occasional deposits throughout the whole distance.
    I left San Francisco in February last, on board the steamer McKim, bound for Coos Bay, but, encountering very rough weather, and experiencing severe gales, we were tossed about for eight or ten days, and considered ourselves fortunate in reaching Crescent City, about one hundred and fifty miles south of our destination. Here a few of us procured mules, and proceeded up the coast by an unfrequented trail, through a country which, till recently, had been totally uninhabited except by Indians, and these were now in a state of excited hostility on some portions of the route. Here, then, our journey begins. I need not trouble you with the incidents of our travel, some of which were fully sufficient in interest and excitement for our own amusement, but will pass to the visible portrait of this "terra incognita."
    Crescent City is situated on the southerly side of a low promontory extending from the great Coast Range; the extremity of this promontory forms Cape St. George, and consists of table land, elevated some fifty or sixty feet from the surface of the ocean. This table is underlaid by igneous unstratified rock, which appears mostly in boulders, as shown by the bluffs where they have become denuded by the disintegrating action of the sea, and by boulders composing a reef extending outward. On the north side, this promontory consists of low sands, and in the interior is a shallow laguna of considerable size. The southerly side, at the site of the town, consists of low timber land, scarcely elevated above the possible reach of running tides, or such as are always remembered in old countries by the "oldest inhabitant."
    Looking southerly, we see the mountain gorge, where the Klamath debouches to the ocean, some ten or fifteen miles distant, and the "gold bluff," of notable memory, some ten miles further, while Trinidad Head, about forty-five miles, appears dimly in the distance.
    Traveling north, after leaving the low promontory, we pass along narrow borders of table land, with swelling hills in the rear, and occasionally mountain spurs and ridges come down to the shore, rendering some of the passes extremely difficult. Several large streams occur, which can only be passed by ferrying or swimming; rocky boulders occur all along in the bluffs, and frequently extend a considerable distance to sea. The rock is of an igneous character, basaltic trap and conglomerate occurring with little variation. In the beds of the streams which we passed are great varieties of pebbles, including quartz, gneiss, and many other varieties. This characteristic holds, with little variation, to Port Orford, about thirty miles northwest from the mouth of Rogue River, or, as it is now called, Gold River, by authority of the Oregon Legislature.
    From Port Orford reaching some ten miles and including Cape Blanco is mostly table land, some portions of which has rather an undulating surface; continuing north some twelve miles are low sands extending some miles inland, but from thence to the Coquille River about three miles is a recurrence of the table land; this also continues with a little variation about ten or twelve miles further or near to Cape Gregory. This is a high bold cape with reefs of rocks; the rocks in this vicinity are mostly stratified sandstone. After passing the Cape we arrive at Coos River or Bay, passing which the geological features are suddenly changed; a sand beach, with low sand formation back, extends twenty miles to the Umpqua River and continues twenty miles further to the Siuslaw, extending also about eight miles further to the high promontory whose western verge forms Cape Perpetua. Here then for a distance of about fifty miles we have passed by a hard sandy beach; unbroken, save by the rivers above named, with not a solitary rock on the shore or visible in the sea for the whole distance. This sand formation extends inland, varying from one-fourth of a mile to three miles.
    At Cape Perpetua is a recurrence of the igneous unstratified and conglomerate rock, which continues to a point about three miles north of the Alsea River, being about twenty miles north of Cape Perpetua. At this place the sand formation recurs and extends about twenty miles, beyond which another mountain range comes down and terminates at the sea shore, forming "Cape Foul Weather." The above is a hasty panoramic glance of the appearance along the shore; looking inland, these characteristics become all merged in one general confusion of mountains, peaks and ridges, whose only system or symmetry consists in their total irregularity. This feature holds through a width of from fifty to seventy-five miles, when the country becomes more open and is variously carved and chiseled into mountains and valleys, here exposing the bright color of the precious ore to the delving of the hardy miner, and these spreading a green carpet, profusely studded with fragrant flowers, inviting the repose of the industrious husbandman and careful herdsman.
    Where is a fitter place than this for the development of man's noble destiny? Where the peaks of the mountain, by his side, like the spires of a church point heavenward, directing thither his nobler aspirations. Let him but ascend to the summit of one and he sees in unmistakable characters in the next the word Excelsior! Let him ascend this also and he sees repeated beyond and around him Excelsior! Excelsior! With this motto photographically impressed on his soul his destiny is certain.
    Recurring to the Pacific shore we find at various places along the beach deposits of gold, commingled with gravel and sand; this gold is mostly in fine scales, and always accompanied by black sand. The richest deposits yet discovered are those in the vicinity of Gold River, the Coquille, and Cape Blanco, at which places especially the former two, for miles in extent along the beach, which in some localities yield liberally to the persevering efforts of the miner.
    And beside these localities gold in small quantities and in fine particles, technically called "the color" exists all along on the shore, from Cape St. George to the Alsea River. I have found it at the Coos, the Umpqua, and the Siuslaw rivers, and in the vicinity of the Alsea. It is known to exist further south than the limits of my examination, and I have no doubt they extend further north.
    These deposits are found from one to three feet below the surface of the bench between the ebb and flow of the tides, and are covered at such depth with refuse sand and gravel. The gold thus deposited exists in a stratum of sand and gravel of an inch or so, to one or two feet in thickness, underlaid by a bed of blue clay or of hard gravel.
    Much speculation has existed among miners and others relative to the source of this gold, and the manner of its deposit; some have supposed it to have been carried out of the adjacent rivers in fine scales, with the sand, and thrown on the shore by the upheaving of the waves; others, that it is thrown up in like manner from the bed of the ocean, where they suppose there exists an inexhaustible supply; others still, suppose it to be deposited in some way by the washing of the bluff, for these deposits are in nearly all cases found opposite such bluffs, which are the termini of disintegrating table land; but they have not been able to show why it should exist in such quantity in deposit, when it is known that although gold is found to be extensively dispersed through the different strata of the bluff, yet the deposit in any given area is many times greater than all which exists in an equal area through all the different strata of the bluff from the surface downward.
    The explanation I offered and theory I advanced some months ago, in a communication more ample than this, embracing a greater variety of detail, and designed for publication elsewhere, is substantially as follows:
    It being admitted, as observation shows, that fine gold, though sparsely scattered, exists in most or all the strata composing the bluffs, which in nearly all cases exist opposite the deposits; I imagine that by the action of the waves at the foot of the bluff; at extreme high tides, the bank is undermined, and the crumbling portions deposit the heavier particles of gold at the base; and by the agitation caused by the rolling surf the sand and gravel on the surface become disturbed, and the heavier particles of gold and black sand settle to the lowest accessible points among the lighter sand and gravel of the beach thus disturbed, which is usually in contact, or nearly so with some stratum too unyielding or too low to be thus disturbed by the waves; and as this process proceeds continually, that deposited at one period near the base of the bluff will after a lapse of ages, by the recession of the bluff, be found at considerable distance therefrom; which, on account of the slope of the beach, although at first deposited at some depth, is now become exposed to the direct action of the surf, which action forces it up again to extreme high water line, where the agitation again causes it to become embedded as before, and hence as this action continues through a long succession of ages, or during the destruction of a large extent of land, we have deposited the gathered wealth of all the disintegrated land for unknown ages, laved and accumulated by the rolling action of the waves; and that which was once scattered as the winds is in this manner collected by Nature's mechanical laboratory for the use of man. How grateful ought the successful miner to be, to the power which has thus so diligently collected and kept in store for him this deposit.
    These deposits do in all cases, and, I imagine, can only exist consequent on the disintegration of a stratified formation; secondary, as composed to the primal range. For although it should be shown that gold exists among all the materials composing the hills and mountains; yet the accumulation could only be effected on a stratified bed of a sufficient consistence and uniformity, and at a suitable depression below the flow of the tide to receive and hold the current deposit and accumulations. These qualities cannot exist in an unstratified formation; for in such case, no uniform bed would be formed to receive and retain it, but the gold first deposited would become in a manner indefinitely commingled with the accompanying gravel; and if by continual agitation it should not at first be caused to descend too far, it would by the subsequent action--as it should be nearly exposed by the slope of the bank, become again so disturbed as to seek and acquire a lower station, and would so continue. Hence no accumulation could exist; and no more would exist in any given area on the beach than formerly existed in an equal area in the superior strata of the bluff. The stratum containing the gold deposit is usually found underlaid by a bed of blue clay, or gravel, or hard sand, which bed is always an original stratum and base of the bluff. The deposit seldom approaches nearer than eight or ten feet to the angle of the bluff; nor does it often continue fully to the line of ebb tide.
    The deposits in the vicinity of Gold River extend about two miles south and nearly eight miles north, with occasional interruptions by rocky bluffs intervening. The table bluff, on the south tide, is low, not exceeding ten or fifteen feet--the land being sandy for a mile or so back, and nearly destitute of soil; but that on the north side is from thirty to eighty feet high, and covered with a soil of rich vegetable mold two feet deep, underlaid by a substratum of clay. Below this is gravel and sand alternately, with occasional rocky boulders. On the beach are many large oval-shaped pebbles of gneiss, measuring from two to five inches across and from one to two inches thick, being originally deposited from the bluff. Some of the mining claims here yield rich returns. Evidence exists that a large extent of table land has here yielded to the encroachments of the sea; for extensive reefs of rocks, such as are exposed by the bluff, extend in some places many miles at sea.
    The deposits in the vicinity of the Coquille River are in many respects similar to those just described, and are of equal or greater richness. They commence about two miles south of the river, where the beach is considerably interrupted by rocks, and extends, with some few interruptions, for about twelve miles north. At a distance of five miles from the Coquille is Randolph City--a mining town of about one hundred houses. Here the bluff is about sixty feet high, and its stratification, observed by me, is as follows, viz:
1st Soil sandy loam   1 foot deep
2nd Clay and sand alternating 15 feet deep
3rd Sand and fine gravel, reddish and gray 15 feet deep
4th Sand with some gravel 12 feet deep
5th Peat, which could be divided in flakes like bark   2 feet deep
6th Sand, yellowish and bluish clay   2 feet deep
7th Hard indurated gravel, conglomerate with iron oxide   2 feet deep
    The peat bed or stratum No. 5 extends nearly a mile in the bluff, and in some places is three or four feet thick; and where the peat terminates it is replaced by blue clay, which is from four to eight feet thick.
    Here in the peat stratum, and in the blue clay are the remains of a forest, buried some fifty feet below the surface. These consist of the trunks and limbs of trees lying horizontally, the stumps and roots in their natural positions in the blue clay or peat, which was originally the soil on which they grew; large trees and stumps several feet in diameter, in a tolerable state of preservation, are numerous. On the beach are immense numbers of blocks of petrified wood, partly rounded by attrition. These I found, on examination, are the debris of the fourth and fifth strata in the bluff. A great variety of pebbles, including all the prismatic colors, and many of them translucent, are lying on the beach, also deposited from the bluff. The components of the bluff at Cape Blanco are mostly similar to those at Gold River, except that there is a stratum of sea shells high up in the bluff in some places. Some of the deposits here, though more limited, have yielded extremely well. The washings at Port Orford are of this formation.
    It is asked where was this fine gold derived, and how was it originally disposed in the bluff or table land where it is known to exist? We may ask, at the same time, how and when was this table land formed; what convulsions or what event caused whole forests, swamps, and hillocks to be buried at a depth of some fifty feet by alternating strata of gravel and sand? Was it at a certain period of the earth's history that these shores, that these mountains and hills were submerged, were lost in the ocean, and then by the hand of Omnipotence taken up and rinsed, as man would rinse a fleece, suffering the washings from a thousand hills to be gathered in horizontal strata, as planes in the valley? Was it by recurring surges of the great, the mighty deep that these shores, these hills, were submerged and reclaimed? Then, indeed, we may suppose the gold, as it may have had an anterior existence among the hills, should accompany the other disrupted integrals, and become a component of the table lands, and of the deposits thereby imposed.
    Our inquiry is no removed but one step further. How was it originally disposed among the hills? Did it originally exist in solution, or in combinations, as with quartz, distributing itself as other gross materials, and afterwards set free from its solvent or matrix? or was it thrown up by internal convulsions from the bowels of the earth, distributing itself in golden flakes, as snow on the hilltops and in the valleys? Each may answer according to his fancy, or may still remain in doubt.
    North of Cape Perpetua is a bluff and beach, similar in many of its features to that at Randolph. A forest is here, in like manner, buried some thirty feet beneath a superincumbent mass of gravel and sand; a stratum of peat, three or four feet thick is exposed in the bluff; black sand is abundant on the beach. Gold exists here, but it is extremely fine--scarcely more than microscopic. The accumulation has not taken place here as in other places referred to, either on account of its extreme fineness or the lack of a proper stratum for a bed. The gold, which was "prospected" by some experienced miners from the gold beach at Randolph, at my suggestion, is found more generally diffused in the sand, but is immensely finer. It was deemed to be impracticable to work the beach profitably at present; but with cheapened labor and improved machinery, it may be done. All the beach gold I have yet seen north of Cape Gregory is extremely fine like this above described. Let it not be supposed that because gold is so generally diffused along this part of the Pacific Coast that profitable washings exist „on all places on the beach, or that their occurrence is only accidental. These only occur at such locations where a stratified formation has been disintegrated, and a suitable substratum for a bed exists, and a beach is formed thereon. I would as soon look for gold at the foot at the table bluff at Cape St. George, or that at Point Conception in the south, as at Cape Blanco, if a proper beach and suitable circumstances for its collection existed at those former places.
    I have only glanced at subjects of geological and mineralogical interest of which this portion of the coast is fruitful. Copious indications of coal exist through all this section; a vein has recently been struck about three miles south of Gold River. Large fields of it exist between the Coquille and Coos rivers. Indications are abundant on the Umpqua and Siuslaw rivers. Lead ore is reported to exist at the Alsea River. Having been employed by residents of Empire City and Coos Bay to make a reconnaissance of their coal fields with a view of connecting them with the city and bay by a railway, I found the distance of the outcropping of one of the principal veins to be about three miles from the city, and at an elevation of about 249 feet above the wharf at that place, and moreover a highly practical route for a railroad with a descending grade to the bay. The coal veins, which vary from two to ten feet in thickness, run horizontally through the bluff, and are miles in extent. Some veins of the coal are immediately on the bay, but those referred to above are considered the most pure and valuable.
Daily Alta California, San Francisco, August 26, 1854, page 2


Rich Prospects of New Gold Diggings in Southern Oregon.
Beach and Interior Gold Deposits.
(FROM AN OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENT.)
Port Orford, O.T., Jan. 12, 1857.
    I have received intelligence from California, making inquiry concerning the probability of other and more extensive diggings than those recently discovered on Sixes River, and known as "Summers' diggings." In compliance with this request I have made considerable inquiry, and from the knowledge that I have obtained from different persons, together with my own experience, I can but arrive at a favorable conclusion.
    The section of country known as Southern Oregon, or that portion bordering on the coast, has hitherto been only slightly prospected, although, so far, with favorable results. This portion of Oregon has always been infested with belligerent bands of Indians until quite recently, rendering it exceeding hazardous for prospecting companies to make a thorough examination of the country. In August last, immediately after the removal of the Indians, a small prospecting company was fitted out for the purpose of prospecting Sixes River, which resulted in the discovery of Summers' diggings. This company was absent only four weeks when they returned with the neat little prospect of thirty-eight hundred dollars, or thereabouts.
    Sixes River rises in a range of mountains situated between the Coquille and Rogue rivers, and from the same range some six or eight other streams also rise and flow in different directions, and in every one of which gold in greater or less quantities has been found for several years past, but on account of the troublesome disposition of the Indians, a satisfactory prospect could not be had. In Elk River, a stream that empties into the coast some six miles north of this place, and only six hours' walk, twenty-five cents to the pan was found some three years since, but the stream was never thoroughly prospected for the same reasons that I have above spoken of in relation to other streams. Yet it may be found on a thorough examination of all the other streams flowing from the immediate vicinity of Sixes River, that more of them will be found to pay well, and judging from what has been found on Sixes River, a sufficient inducement is here offered for miners to prospect, and prospect thoroughly all the streams throughout the whole region between the Coquille and Rogue rivers.
    It is a fact, well established, that gold abounds in considerable quantities along the beach from Coos Bay to the line of California, and it is a fact nonetheless apparent that this gold has during the process of time all been washed from the interior, by the streams emptying into the coast, and by the action of the surf upon the deposits thus brought to the sea, the gold is distributed along the beach. It is easy to discover also the unmistakable appearance of volcanic action along this same locality which has changed the delta of rivers several miles distant from the position that they once occupied, which accounts in my opinion for the many rich deposits that have been formed along the beach several miles distant from streams of any magnitude. It has been argued by some, and that too quite logically, that the beach gold originates in the stratum of soil along the coast. I differ only in this argument on the gold originating in the vicinity of the coast: I am strongly of the opinion that the entire stratum of earth along the beach, where gold is found, is nothing more nor less than the deposits of streams flowing into the coast, and the gold together with other matter has come from the interior.
    All the gold found along the beach is excessively fine, and easily susceptible of being removed almost any distance by a rapid current of water. The gold in the interior, however, is of a much coarser grade, and would naturally find a deposit, or resting place, near its original formation. It is natural then to suppose that the beach gold, together with that found along the streams in the interior, once occupied the same locality when Nature completed its work of formation, but by the action of the water upon the fine gold, it has been separated from the coarse and deposited along the beach, together with the alluvion matter. Consequently, I am led to believe that other, and, perhaps, more extensive placer diggings will be found on other streams in the vicinity of Sixes River, during the coming summer. For there are several streams rising in the same locality, and upon which gold has been found, that empty into Rogue River, and at the mouth of which the celebrated Gold Beach diggings are situated, which run along the beach some four or five miles, north and south, from the mouth of the river.
FRANK.
    P.S. Since writing the above I have learned by two gentlemen just in from the mines that the snow has fallen to the depth of four or five feet on the mountains between here and the mines. They also report finding one man and his horse both frozen to death. The man's name is Andrew Hurbert.
    The winter thus far has been uncommonly severe, and snow has fallen several feet deep at intervals during the winter, within a few miles of the coast, but in this immediate vicinity Nature presents the beautiful aspect of spring.
F.
San Francisco Bulletin, February 4, 1857, page 1


    MINING AT GOLD BEACH.--From gentlemen who arrived on the 18th of April from Gold Beach, we learn that there are about a hundred miners at work there, and that without exception they are all doing well--say an average of $8 to $10 per day to the hand.--Crescent City Herald.
Sacramento Daily Union, May 2, 1859, page 1


    A telegram from Jacksonville, Dec. 17th, says: The Red Beach diggings, near Randolph, have been found to be extensive. Some claims are paying one hundred dollars per day to the hand.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, December 29, 1866, page 407


    A correspondent at Ellensburg writes to the Jacksonville Sentinel: Do you know that in this neighborhood there are good diggings that pay $50 per day to the hand? At Randolph, at the mouth of the Coquille River, they have discovered the old ocean beach, some three hundred feet above the beach of the present day, and about three miles inland. At Randolph, the beach diggings of early days were very rich--$1,000 per day being made--no doubt fed by this older beach now found. It is most likely that the "streak" at Randolph is much older than the one at "Gold Beach," as the latter is only about 80 feet above the present beach, and the sand is not so plentiful nor so rich. We look for rich discoveries next summer. In prospecting for that "streak" at Randolph, they intend boring, as it is covered with 30 feet of earth and thickly set with timber. A creek cut through and exposed it.

"Oregon," Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, January 5, 1867, page 7


Gathering Gold on the Seashore.
    The mining of gold on the ocean beach has always been one of the leading productive industries of Curry County. These mines have been found to pay from the Coquille south to some distance below the mouth of Rogue River, and a large number of these claims are still good property. Dennis Cunniff not long since sold some claims of this kind near Ellensburg for $2,000, and much higher figures have been offered for some of the other beach mines in that vicinity, says the Coast Mail. Among these may be mentioned the Ophir Beach mine, a deposit of black sand on and near the beach about five miles north of Rogue River, Ore. Will Huntley, the present owner, has constructed dikes, etc. that supply water all the year for working the beach below high water mark. It pays from $3 to $10 per day, and sometimes more, to the hand--owing to the freaks of Neptune in throwing up the sand. The bluff mine is twenty-five feet above tide and is an old beach in which there is a stratum of sand, from ten to twenty feet thick, that assays from $1 to $50 to the cubic yard. Experts who have examined [the] black sand pronounced this the richest they have seen in Oregon or California. There is from thirty to forty feet of gray sand above the lead, forming a bluff of seventy-five to 100 feet above tide. During the winter season Mr. Huntley runs one hydraulic under forty feet pressure, using fifty inches of water five or six months in the year, doing all the work himself, and realizing from $5 to an ounce a day. If some enterprising Yankee were to take hold of this mine and construct a ditch from Euchre Creek, a distance of ten miles, it would afford 200 inches of water all the year.--Portland (Oregon) Bee.
Union County Courier,
Elk Point, Dakota Territory, November 26, 1879, page 1

Beach Mining.
    In 1853 gold was first discovered on the beach at the mouth of Rogue River, California, by a party of men who came up from Crescent City in a whaleboat.
Miners rushed in from Crescent City, Port Orford and Randolph, and in a short time the hitherto unknown shores were dotted with little villages of log cabins, where the miners congregated for safety, as the country was swarming with Indians who might have annihilated them were they less discreet. The mines extended along the beach for twelve miles on each side of Rogue River, and proved to be the most important beach mines ever found, and have well merited the name of "Gold Beach." No estimates, however, of the value of the precious metal extracted can be more than widely guessed at, but hundreds of thousands is the sum; nor is the beach yet "worked out;" but whenever it is sluiced by the ocean storms and tides it is still profitably worked--sometimes with results equal to the first, as if the gold were cast up from the sea. The primitive method of saving this gold, which is inconceivably finer than the beach sand, was by rough sluices and blankets, and drops in which were placed from fifty to one hundred pounds of quicksilver. But these were soon superceded by galvanized copper plates, the preparation and use of which were accidentally discovered by a miner at Cape Blanco. These copper plates by constant use became brittle and broken, and were thrown away by the wholesale for several years, when it was discovered that they were worth several dollars per pound for the gold that had "worked into them."
Daily Colonist, Victoria, B.C., April 27, 1882, page 6


Black Sand.
    At various points along the Pacific Coast from Gray's Harbor, Washington, on the north, to Point New Year, thirty miles below San Francisco, on the south, there are found heavy deposits of a heavy black sand, of about the fineness of ordinary beach sand, which contain more or less of finely divided but rather pure gold particles. This is called black sand, from its color, which is usually black, and sometimes iron sand, from the fact that chemically it is mainly iron. The deposits are of two kinds--the old beach sands, meaning those which lie considerably above the present water level, and the new or late sands, which form part of the present beaches, and, like the other beach sands, are moved back and forth by the waves.
    The gold-bearing sands along the present beaches are usually black in color and are composed mostly of particles of magnetic iron; that is to say, of the magnetic oxide of iron, called magnetite. In chemical constitution the substance is considered to be a mixture of the protoxide and sesquioxide of iron, having seventy-two parts metallic iron to twenty-eight of oxygen. It is hard, sometimes scratching glass; its specific gravity is about five. It is strongly magnetic and is infusible. It is found in nature disseminated through granite, gneiss, mica slate, syenite, hornblende slate, chlorite slate and limestone, and at other times forms extensive beds of ore suitable for making the finest qualities of iron and steel. It is the same as lodestone or native magnet, excepting that the latter possesses polarity. It is maintained by some that the magnetic ore in the shape of black sand is even better adapted for steel-making than that which occurs in beds. But why this should be so is not explained. With the iron, which usually amounts to half or three-fourths of the whole bulk, there are other substances which may be regarded as impurities. They are first, and most useless and deleterious, titanic iron, called ilmenite, a substance possessing the same hardness, color and specific gravity as magnetite, but of no use in the arts, although it is rich in oxide of iron, and is prejudicial in smelting. Rounded quartz sand forms a varying proportion of the beds, sometimes nearly the whole and sometimes being entirely absent. The gem called zircon, a silicate of zirconium, also exists in the beach sands, and is not rare, though too small to be noticed except mineralogically. These, with other and rarer substances, make up the black sands, with the exception of the contained gold which is supposed to be always free or unencumbered.
    During the time that experimenters have been dealing with the problem, a large number of people have been making a living and some few getting rich by working the sands in the simplest and cheapest possible way; namely, by sluicing or rocking. It was in 1852 that the first work of the sort was done; it commenced that year on the California coast at Gold Bluff, near Crescent City, and in Oregon at the beaches at the mouth of the Rogue and Coquille rivers. Over a thousand miners were engaged in the industry at various points along the Pacific shore in the following years, the most being congregated near the points named, where the sand was richest. Work has been kept up at those localities, and intermittently at many others. No close estimates of the number of miners engaged therein have ever been made, nor of their earnings; but estimates for particular years have often been published. Probably the average number of miners employed steadily at this work would not vary much from 500, taking the years together. There has been a gradual decrease from 1856, when the number was greatest. In that year the coast of Curry and Coos counties was the scene of very active operations, and the former county contained then and for several subsequent years more people than it has at present. Large camps were built up at various points, and some of them remain populated at this day. Randolph, at the mouth of the Coquille, the center of the "high" or old beach mining industry, was the principal camp. Still, the resources of gold are not by any means exhausted, nor are they exhaustible if judged by their present appearances. There is hardly any diminution of riches noticed in the moving sands of the lower beaches, while the high deposits have hardly been touched. Explorations continually reveal more of the latter, and the ocean is continually providing more of the former.
    The product of the Pioneer mine in Coos County, Or., was $18,600 in one year.
    The most important "old beach" deposits occur about the mouth of the Coquille River, Coos County, where there are beds of many feet in thickness, overlaid usually with barren sand and other debris to a greater or less extent, the principal bed being buried under such a thickness that it would require extensive mining operations to obtain the gold which is known to be disseminated therein. For working a deposit of this kind a system of drift mining is recommended, wherein the overlying mass of gravel is supported temporarily by timbering, while the auriferous materials are sluiced out and the gold recovered. An open cut might be run to the sea, in which cut a long line of sluices with riffles should be stationed. Working a block of gravel here several feet in depth, although lying under from twenty to forty feet of worthless material, might be expeditiously and safely performed this way. These deposits have a sameness of description; they lie 30, 60, 100 and even 300 feet above the present beach, and are referable to various periods of elevation of the shore line, probably not, geographically, very ancient in any case.
    In Tillamook, Or., a new process has been introduced by which it is claimed that fully ninety percent of the gold can be saved. The body of black sand is almost unlimited, as it is found nearly everywhere on the ancient beach which extends inland along the Coquille River about two miles and has been traced north and south to a considerable distance. A complete successful process would be hailed with joy all along the coast.
    Since the above was in type, the following was noticed in the current number of a Del Norte Co., Cal., paper, published close to a large deposit of this sand, and is here appended as illustrative of hundreds of similar items that have been published in this paper in the last thirty-four years, exemplifying the fact that the industry is a permanently paying one, and that there has been little change in the successful methods of securing the gold:
    The black sand mine of E. Yates, a couple of miles below Crescent City, is running in full blast, and indications are that it is a bonanza. The machine used for saving the fine particles of gold is similar to the "Old Tom," in use for many years in mining along the beaches. In this machine twenty-five square feet of corrugated copper plates are used, the usual mercury being put on. After the sand that contains the gold passes over the plates, it passes over a blanket. Should the plates fail to catch all the gold, the blanket does it. Mr. Yates believes that almost every particle of gold is saved. In a run of fifty hours about $100 was saved. The indications are that the other portions of the property are richer than this, as it is among the driftwood that he is now getting his sand.

Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco, September 1, 1894, page 130


GOLDEN SANDS.
    Gold is known to exist in sea and river sands of many parts of the world; and wandering miners, chiefly Chinese, on the North Pacific Slope of America, have contrived to make a precarious living by extracting it with the aid of primitive appliances; while in New Zealand companies have even succeeded in obtaining respectable returns by the use of powerful pumping and reducing apparatus. Recognizing that there are already quite sufficient concerns at work in New Zealand (which have moreover, scarcely fulfilled anticipations during the past year or two), the company promoter has for the present glued his eye upon the sands of California and Oregon, with the object of extracting gold therefrom, directly, if luck is good, and anyway indirectly, through the medium of fools, otherwise known as investors. Two companies have been formed quite recently to exploit the Fraser River--famed for salmon, king, silver and red, which last alone comes here--and several more have since been exploited, and will be heard of later, unless they are damned before birth by the kindly Providence which takes special care of fools and protects them (occasionally) against knaves. It is quite true that gold does exist in some of the sands of the Pacific Slope from San Francisco northward as far as Alaska; the trouble is that the quantity is very variable at best, and, at. worst, is not "pay dirt." It has not been reserved for the present generation to discover the metal. That was done forty years ago, when someone came across gold in what were supposed to be paying quantities among the sands of the coast near the Klamath River, at a point which from this fact came to be known as Gold Bluff. There were a number of Californian miners then idle, and they rushed to Gold Bluff only to go away cursing. The general results were unfavorable. The ordinary mode of washing and amalgamation was entirely inefficient for the purpose of saving the gold. At a later date more intelligent and less eager men searched the coast for similar deposits, and ascertained that the auriferous sands extended for a distance of over 200 miles, and reached from the 41st to the 44th parallel, with Trinidad Bay as the southern limit and the Umpqua River as the northern. Further investigations conducted within comparatively recent years have shown that they persist sporadically as far as Mount St. Elias, in latitude 60º north, where last year $19,000 worth of gold was recovered. Gold Bluff, the scene of the first rush, commences about twenty miles north of Trinidad Bay, and the golden sands stretch for another twenty miles. There is a company still working there, with, we understand, rather indifferent results. The sands are packed to the sluices on mules. Among the many other districts along the coast which have been tapped for their treasure, such as it is, are Rogue River (Oregon), Port Orford, and Whiskey Run, near Coos Bay. At this last place considerable mining has been done from time to time. The deposits were first worked by a wandering miner, who obtained gold of the value of $25,000 in two months by the ordinary mode of washing, which involves the loss of probably 75 percent of the gold passed through. Whiskey Run is still one of the best locations on all the coast. It is the place where the ancient ocean beach was discovered 190 ft. above the present sea level. As a general rule, in regard to beach sands, the gold is most plentiful a. short distance down the slope under the water, where the riffles are formed by the breaking of the waves as they near the shore. Most of the spasmodic work that has been done has been along the low-water line, where the sands are invariably the richest The waves, during heavy storms, seem to form new deposits along the beach, either by washing the sands up from the bed of the sea below the tides, or by concentrating the sands by their sluice-like action as the water advances and recedes on the sloping beach. Several processes of separation have been tried from time to time since it became apparent that nothing could be done in a large way with the primitive apparatus pathetically affected by the loafer-prospector. But no real success was secured until the adoption of the chlorination process. The great deterrent to work on sand-gold is the very uncertain nature of the ground. As we have said, the deposits have nowhere along the coast--either on the ocean beaches or on the banks of the rivers, which flow from the mountains of the inner land, and empty themselves into the Pacific--been shown to be so exceptionally rich as to warrant the investment of any money in limited companies designed to extract the yellow metal. Much fuss has been made of the earnings, as though all the sands were in equal degree auriferous. But they are not, and obviously the aggregate earnings of two or three hundred Chinamen would not go a very long way towards the payment of dividends on a capitalization of £150,000 or thereabouts. Some of the sands contain other minerals besides gold. A United States Geological Survey Expedition, which last year investigated the beaches of Oregon, found platinum, iridium, osmium, and other rare metals. The black sands up and down contain as much as 70 percent of the purest iron, and they might be more profitably worked for this metal than for the thin flakes of gold which occur in conjunction with it. But no machinery has yet been devised which will rescue for the use of man the rare metals referred to, and even in regard to gold the returns are seldom really satisfactory. Better results might follow by the general adoption of the methods in vogue on the Molyneux River and its two great feeders, the Kawaren and the Shotover, in New Zealand. There powerful suction dredgers are employed which put through an enormous quantity of sand and water in the course of a day. In this way, very good results have been secured on some of the claims taken up. It will be apparent that by the adoption of the Welman dredgers a small percentage of gold in the masses treated is sufficient to give profits. We gather that similar apparatus is to be used by the companies which propose to work the waters of the Pacific Slope of America. At present the best thing they have there is an amalgamator which treats 25 tons in a day. But even with dredgers of the most advanced type the business is exceedingly risky, and personally we should advise Englishmen to leave this source of wealth to Americans, who have a more immediate interest in it than we have.--Pall Mall Gazette.
Evening News,
Sydney, Australia, August 14, 1897, page 12



LOS ANGELES, Cal., December 14, '98.
    EDITOR MINING REVIEW:--The last issue of your paper contained an article about the treatment of auriferous black sand in Colorado, somewhere, by the Stephens process. What that process is I have no means of knowing. It may prove successful in inland mining, but whether it will be so on the ocean beaches between here and the Alaskan boundary is something that yet remains to be tested.
    If it is a success on ocean sands as it is on those taken from freshwater streams it will augment the gold product of California and Oregon as much as any new quartz discoveries that have been made in the past two years. Indeed, speaking from my own personal observation, I do not know of any kind of mining on this coast where the return for capital invested has been as poor as it has been in this very matter of ocean beach work. The first beach discoveries were made near the mouth of the Klamath River in the old county of that name (now abolished and parceled out between Del Norte and Siskiyou) in 1852. The great stress laid upon its value was the extreme cheapness with which it could be worked, but the unlucky men who left good diggings on the tributaries of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers for experimental work at Trinidad, Crescent City and Gold Bluff were only too glad to get away from the latter localities and strike out for the headwaters of the Rogue River in Jackson County, Oregon. It was by disappointed beach miners that the rich diggings on Althouse, Sailor Diggings, Kerbyville and Evans Creek were found in the early spring of 1853. At that time I rode the express for Colonel Jack Garnbill between Crescent City and Sailor Diggings and can speak understandingly of all the suffering and destitution I saw among the disappointed beach miners.
    The gold was rusty and no plan could be devised to save it. The iron in the gold, of course, was acted upon by the sea water and that rusted it so as to defy amalgamation with mercury. There was a man who lived down at the south side of the bar at Crescent City, with a squaw that they called Minnie. She always reminded me of Miss Consistency in search of her lost jewel. This man, whose name I have forgotten, took a sledge hammer and beat out a lot of Mexican dollars to the size of an ordinary saucer and then drilled holes in them through which he nailed them down to the bottom boards of his sluiceboxes. He also scarified them with the sharp point of a chisel so they would hold minute globules of quicksilver and in that way he used to get about six dollars per ton from black sands that would go as high as twelve or fourteen by the fire assay.
    Up around Coos Bay and Coquille River the deposits of black sand are very extensive, but, if any man is a dollar ahead for working them, I have never yet heard of it. The Lockhart mine, near Randolph, was an extensive one, but Lockhart's wife supported him and educated a large family by keeping boarders, while his partner, Moody, staved off starvation by getting elected sheriff. Adam Pershbaker, one of the best men that ever lived, blew in $20,000 of his own and about $30,000 for his rich brother, and all he ever got out of it was a bare living. Not far from them was the Lane mine, run by John Lane, an ex-Confederate colonel, and a son of Joe Lane, the hero of Buena Vista. John supposed that, as the salt water rusted the gold, the only way to save it was to remove the salt, so he went to the Risdon iron works, San Francisco, and had five great iron kettles cast, with a capacity of five tons each, in which the sand was to be boiled with fresh water. Before he got through with it the whole Lane family (and the woods were full of them) went "stone broke" on the proposition. In none of these cases did the sand show less than $12 per ton by fire assay, and from that to $16. They simply could not save the gold.
    Up at the mouth of the Alsea, in Lane County, the deposits were not as extensive as on the Coquille, but the test showed a greater fire assay value, still nobody ever got rich out of them. Bush Wilson, who was the county clerk of Benton County "ever since the woods were burnt," invented a machine in 1888 to work black sands with the aid of electricity. He sent a man down to Australia to get out patents for it in that country, and the man came home in the steerage about four months later. There was no beach mining in that country, and hence the treatment was of no real value there.
    I am not sanguine over the Stephens process even yet, after all its good results in Colorado. But if it will work the black sands on the Pacific Ocean beaches, which extend all the way from Santa Barbara to the mouth of the Skeena in British Columbia, we will see more money in circulation in the small towns of the Pacific Coast than has been seen during the last thirty years. Doubtful as I am of its ability to cope with the action of salt water, I am praying earnest for its success. It means millions to the three states of California, Oregon and Washington.
THOS. B. MERRY.
"Voices from the Pacific," Salida Mail, Salida, Colorado, December 23, 1898, page 1


    Black sand deposits containing placer platinum and gold, adjacent to Wedderburn and Gold Beach, Oregon, are soon to be processed now that a suitable recovery has been made by experimentation on the deposits. The four concentration units will be installed on Macleay Beach.

The Mining Journal, Phoenix, Arizona, November 30, 1931




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