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The Infamous Black Bird Southern Oregon History, Revised


Correspondence of the Oregon Superintendency
1875
Southern Oregon-related correspondence with the Oregon Superintendency for Indian Affairs.


Klamath Agency Or.
    Jan. 2 1875
Sir
    Your letter of [the] 18th ult, "E," referring to my letter to Hon. J. H. Mitchell relative to the school at this agency, is at hand.
    You repeat that I seem to misapprehend the case, and instruct me to reopen the school as soon as practicable. I think I understand the case fully, but thus far--although I have written you repeatedly upon the subject (see my letters of Aug. 9th, Sept. 19th & Oct. 1st and yours to me of July 20th, Aug. 6th and Sept. 3rd 1874)--you fail to understand me.
    You instruct me in these letters that I am limited to $9600 for pay of all employees and that the "law is specific." I cannot pay out more than that sum during the year for that purpose.
    Not at first comprehending the law, and supposing that the pay of teamster, matron, Indian laborers &c. would be allowed outside of the $9600--as formerly--I continued my usual number of such employees until nearly the close of the 1st quarter of this fiscal year, and thus used during that qr. of the employee fund $3,392.21, leaving a balance for the remaining three quarters of $6207.79 (see letters above referred to).
    I now have employed the following persons at the salaries given, viz.,
    Miller $1100 per year--for the three qrs. will be $825
Blacksmith $1100 per year--for the three qrs. will be $825
Wagon & P. Maker $1100 per year--for the three qrs. will be $825
Physician $1000 per year--for the three qrs. will be $750
Supt. of Fmg. $1100 per year--for the three qrs. will be $750
Teacher $600 per year--for the three qrs. will be $450
Mail Carriers $30 per month recd. Dec. 31st for one qr. $90
Commissary in Charge at Yainax $1100 per year--for the three qrs. will be $825
Blacksmith at Yainax $900 per year--for the three qrs. will be $625
Total for the three qrs.    $6015
    You will see by these figures that I cannot pay a matron and another teacher--which I must do if I reopen the school--unless I discharge some of the above employees, or greatly reduce their salaries, either of which is impracticable.
    The two last named, viz., commissary in charge and blacksmith, at Yainax, although not provided for by treaty, and heretofore paid from Shoshone and Bannock funds, must, as you say in your letter of Sept. 3rd 1874, be paid from the employee fund. Could some provision be made for the payment of those two persons from some other fund I could immediately employee the necessary teachers and reopen the school.
    You state that there are $2500 appropriated, a part of which can be applied to school purposes. I am aware of this, and do not ask for further means to feed & clothe, or to furnish books &c. for the scholars.
    The commissary in charge and blacksmith at Yainax cannot be dispensed with without abandoning that portion of the reservation and leaving the Snakes and Modocs to their own will, and I am sure Inspector Vandever will tell you that that cannot be done. I can designate them as "Carpenter" and "Farmer," and thus more fully conform to the letter of the treaty if that is any object.
    The letter addressed to Senator Mitchell, to which you refer, was written in the hope that he might get some provision made for the payment of these two persons, viz., commissary and blacksmith at Yainax, in some way outside of the employee fund, and thus enable me to hire the necessary teacher and matron.
    Can I in any way pay matron and one teacher out of the $2500 referred to in your letter, or from incidental funds?
    If I must reopen the school, please tell me when I shall get money to pay these persons.
    As I have before written you, the teacher now employed is engaged in giving general instruction in making clothing and housekeeping to the Indian women, and assisting in the labors of the office.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.

NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 619 Oregon Superintendency, 1874, frames 247-252.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Jan. 4th 1875
Sir
    In answer to your letter of [the] 23rd ult. "E" instructing me to send a farmer from Klamath Agency proper to relieve the present commissary at Yainax Station I would respectfully state that as I have no farmer employed at this time, and as I am entitled to one by treaty, I will continue the present commissary at Yainax and designate him as "farmer," with the same compensation as before. For fuller explanation see my letter of 2nd inst.
    Hon. O. C. Applegate, who until within about eighteen months [ago] has been connected with the agency ever since operations were commenced for the benefit of the Klamath and Modoc Indians, and who fully understands the peculiar condition of affairs here, will visit Washington in about one month, and he with Senator Mitchell will explain matters to you more clearly and fully than I can do by writing. I earnestly request that you allow the matter of employees to rest as it now is, after the change now above made, until you shall have seen and talked with Mr. Applegate.
Very truly
    Your obt. servt.
        L .S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 619 Oregon Superintendency, 1874, frames 255-257.



Grand Ronde Agency Oregon Jan. 11th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to request that you will inform me in regard to half breeds residing on this reservation and married to Indian women for a period of from 6 to 14 years, if they are entitled to the same privilege and annuity as Indians, if they are entitled to allotment of lands. When the land was allotted here there were none of the half breeds got land, only them that came in at the same time with the treaty Indians, also the most of them is married here to Indian women for a period of 6 to 14 years and got families. Their wives and children got land, the husbands got none. This I think was a bad idea. If any dispute arise between man and wife, the wife will claim all property as hers, "order of the late Supt. when the allotment was made."
Very respectfully your most
    Obedient servant
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. Indn. Agent
Hon. Commissioner of
    Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Grand Ronde Agency Oregon Jan. 11th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to inquire of you if the Indians have the right to sell saw logs or timber of the vacant timber land of this reservation or if white men residing outside the reservation can employ Indians to cut timber on the agency, paying the Indians by the thousand feet for cutting and the white men to haul the logs or timber of the agency.
    Several white men applied to me for the privilege.
Very respectfully your
    Most obedient servant
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. Indn. Agent
Hon. Commissioner of
    Indn. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Grand Ronde Jan. 11th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following question for you to decide. It's questioned here by the Indians whether marriages performed here by the Catholic priest or minister will hold good without first procuring a license. The Indians [were] told by bad white men that marriages performed by the priest here is of no account without a license. All marriages of Indians here by the priest is without license; the same rule applies to all agencies in Oregon. The laws of Oregon require a license. Please let me know if a license is required for marriages of Indians on the agency, or if former marriages will hold good or legal so as to settle the question. If the Indians have to get [a] license it will work a hardship amongst them.
Very respectfully your most
    Obedient servant
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. Commissioner of
    Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Office U.S. Dist .Atty. for Oregon
    Portland Oregon
        January 28th 1875
Sir:
    In the counties of Clatsop and Tillamook in this state are several tribes of Indians with whom no treaty has ever been made and who have never been placed on any reservation or under the care of any Indian agent. When Oregon was under the general charge of an Indian superintendent, these Indians were supposed to come under his control within the meaning of Sec. [blank] of the the Nonintercourse Act, but since that office is abolished, there is now no law in force to punish persons for selling or giving spirituous liquors to those Indians. In order to place them in such relation to the law as to make the sale or disposition of liquor to them punishable, as in other cases I would respectfully recommend that they be attached to some reservation. This will be necessary unless in the opinion of the Department they are now deemed to be under the charge of James Brown, who has lately been appointed. The extent of his jurisdiction, or of what Indians he to be deemed to be in charge, I am not aware. An early answer is respectfully requested.
Very respectfully
    Rufus Mallory
        U.S. Dist. Atty.
Hon. Edw. P. Smith
    Commissioner of Indian
        Affairs Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Department of the Interior
    General land office
        Washington D.C. February 6th 1875
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Sir:
            Senate Bill 1164, entitled A Bill to Adjust the Claim of the Owners of Lands Within the Limits of the Klamath Indian Reservation in the State of Oregon, has been referred to this office by the Hon. Chairman of the Committee on Public Lands of the U.S. Senate for report.
    An examination of the bill discloses the fact that in its essential features it relates to the interest of certain Indians who are under the supervision of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
    I have deemed it therefore proper, before submitting a report thereon, to inquire what if any action may have been had by you, or under your sanction, relative to the subject matter of the bill, and to request an expression of any views you may be at liberty to communicate respecting the same.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        S. S. Burdett
            Commissioner
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency Or.
    Feby. 12, 1875
Sir:
    Most of the buildings of this agency, erected nearly twenty years ago, are now worthless and untenantable. The late severe storms have rendered the house occupied by the school teacher unfit to live in, and immediate repairs are necessary. I desire to make this special requisition for $800.00 to be used in repair of agency buildings.
    I hope the same will be formally considered and if possible complied with.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. In. Agt,
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner  In. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    February 15th 1875
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
                Sir
                    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of instructions of date 14th Decr. 1874--this day received.
    I am directed by the U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon to secure some Indians as witnesses against some parties who have been selling liquors to Indians, and in obedience to such order, I start for the Siletz Agency on tomorrow. On the completion of this business, and the return of the Indians to their agency, I will make out my report for the two months, January and February, and after report monthly as per instructions.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 945-947.



T. CUNNINGHAM & CO.
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS
Hardware and Agricultural Implements
Salem, Oregon March 6th 1875
Hon. Edward P. Smith
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.    Sir, Your favor of 30th December last relating to our a/c was duly received, and would have been promptly answered had we not been anxious to afford Mr. Palmer time to communicate with you and furnish the missing vouchers, which he positively affirms never were issued.
    Hon. Mr. Nesmith has written to say that he kindly offered to sign an indemnifying bond for any sum that you would name but that his offer was rejected. We regard this as exceedingly singular, to say the least. We think it unjust to authorize Indian agents to purchase goods at net cash rates with the assurance that they would be honorably and promptly paid for, and then for the Department to delay the payment for years on account of some technical informality of which we are entirely innocent and in no way responsible.
    Pardon us for taking the liberty of suggesting that nations ought to be as just as individuals and that a Department which professes to represent the humane and Christian policy of this government should be a consistent representative of commercial honesty. Our capital is worth twelve percent per annum. We are paying interest at this rate at present. We sold goods to Mr. Palmer on a coin basis and received therefor currency vouchers. The a/c has been standing nearly three years, so that we shall not receive 50% of their value unless interest be allowed.
    We write now to request you to send the form of bond which you demand to Mr. Palmer's successor or any other person and we shall sign it on payment of the a/c. Regretting that we have such an unpleasant subject on which to address you, we are
Your obedient servants
    T. Cunningham & Co.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1159-1161.



Grand Ronde Indian Agency, Or.
    March 10th 1875
Sir:
    I have the honor to enclose for approval [a] contract made by me for the supply of seed wheat, oats & potatoes for the Indians of this agency.
    The location of the agency makes it impracticable to advertise by publication in the newspapers for these articles, twenty-five miles being the nearest place where one is published and the articles being raised in the immediate vicinity. The prices are lower than they could be supplied by any other party. They are also 25 percent less than have ruled in this section of the country for the past ten years, for which reason I shall issue to the Indians a larger quantity than heretofore, believing as referred to in my communication of the 3rd inst. that no expenditure that can be made will yield so large and valuable returns.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. svt.
        P. B. Sinnott
            U.S. Ind. Agt,
Hon. Commissioner Ind. Affairs
     Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Mar. 13, 1875
Sir
    In answer to your letter of 26th ult. "F," I have to say that in my letter to you of Jan. 21st 1875 giving notice of change of interpreters the name of Davis Hill was written by mistake. Tecumseh and David Hill were both working at the agency and were both being paid from the interpreter fund (and both acting as interpreter), i.e., the amount allowed for one interpreter during the winter months as a matter of economy, and also as an advantage to them as well as to the service, both of them having large families which were receiving instruction from the teacher, and as Davis Hill has heretofore generally acted in that capacity and so become associated in my mind with that position the mistake very naturally occurred.
    I enclose herewith a correct statement
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Mar. 24, 1875
Sir
    I enclose herewith "estimate of annuity goods and supplies" required for Klamath, Modoc and Snake Indians of this agency for the year ending June 30, 1876.
    These figures and estimates in no way include Ocheho's band of Piute Snakes, and should they be brought to this reservation they will need to be otherwise provided for.
    These estimates are made with the supposition that I am to receive $5000.00 of funds appropriated for support &c. of Shoshone & Bannocks and other Inds. in S.E. Oregon, the same as last year.
    It is quite probable that beef, flour and wheat may be somewhat higher this year than last, as there is a great mining excitement in this region. If so, the quantity purchased must be less. I think it would be well to advertise for wheat to be delivered in Rogue River and Goose Lake valleys, as the Indians would gladly pack it to the agency, thereby saving the cost of freight, which is more than the original cost of the wheat. By so doing more than twice the amount of wheat can be purchased than if contracted for to be delivered at the agency. I think it will be for the interest of the service if I am allowed to attend to the beef, flour and wheat purchased by advertisement, as heretofore, as if notified soon that I will be allowed to do so, I can take advantage of circumstances and probably buy cheaper than anyone else.
    These Indians, especially the Snakes and Modocs, will stand greatly in need of clothing, as none was supplied them last year, and the "soldier clothing" would give great satisfaction. The amount of money provided by treaty for annuity for Klamaths and Modocs is $5000.00--for Walpahpe Snakes $1200.00, which with the $5000.00 Shoshone & Bannock fund makes $11,200.00, and according to after deducting the amt. of my enclosed estimate there still remains about $1600.00, a part of which might be expended in such clothing, say from $600.00 to $1000.00.
    I have not made an estimate of material etc. for shops, as at this early day it is impossible for me to do so intelligently. If consistent, I should very much prefer to make such purchases next fall, when my present stock shall have run low, and I can know just what is needed. There is so much competition both in Portland and San Francisco that without doubt I can purchase in open market advantageously to the service, as I can then get just what I need, and will be sure to get good articles. The cost of transportation to this agency is generally less from San Francisco than from Portland, and I should prefer to purchase in the former place. Should you not approve of this course please notify me at once, and I will immediately forward to you an estimate for those articles, made out as best I can.
    The amount allowed me for incidental expenses for the present year is $2000.00. if possible I hope it may be more next year so that more clothing may be bought for these Indians, as they very much need it. If 275 suits of soldier clothes could be furnished it would be a grand thing.
    If grey blankets can be furnished cheaper than blue it had better be done.
    The groceries can be purchased to better advantage on this coast than in New York.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Apr. 1st 1875
Sir
    By my request Capt. O. C. Applegate called upon you a short time since for the purpose of representing to you fully and clearly some of the special wants of this agency and particularly those of Yainax Station.
    As I have before written you, the treaty appropriation for "Pay of Employees" is not sufficient to properly carry on the business at the two stations--i.e., Klamath Agency proper, and Yainax Station--and until the present fiscal year the employees at Yainax have been paid from funds appropriated for "Settlement and Support of Shoshones and Bannocks and Other Indians in S.E. Oregon and Idaho."
    In a letter of Hon. H. R. Clum, Acting Commissioner, dated Sept. 3rd 1874, I was instructed that all the employees at Yainax must be paid from the Klamath and Modoc "Employee" fund and no other, and in consequence I have been obliged to dispense with some of the regular employees at Klamath Agency proper; greatly to the detriment of the service, in order to pay the persons employed at Yainax, which are indispensable.
    I think I failed to make you understand that the Walpahpe Snakes and Piute Snakes were brought upon the reservation some years after the treaty was made with the Klamaths, Modocs and Yahooskin Snakes; that Yainax Station was established especially for the Walpahpe and Piute Snakes, and that those Indians really have no claim upon any of the Klamath and Modoc appropriations, and consequently the employees at Yainax Station who are there especially to care for those Indians should be paid from funds especially appropriated for their support, viz., Walpahpe appropriations, Shoshone and Bannock appropriations, and perhaps incidental funds.
    Mr. Applegate writes me that he understands from his conversation with you that I might properly be allowed to pay the employees at Yainax as above shown. I am very anxious to do so at once, so that I can immediately change the present day school at this place into a Manual Labor Boarding School, and also employ other necessary labor.
    I should be thankful for immediate instruction in this matter.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Office Siletz Agency, Or.
    April 6, 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith in duplicate statement of medicines &c. required at this agency during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1875 and ending June 30, 1876. The medical supplies are required for all Indians belonging to the agency, consisting of Tututnis, eighty souls; Shasta Costas, one hundred souls; Coquilles, seventy-nine souls; Sixes, sixty-one souls; 
Naltunnetunnes, seventy-seven souls; Euchres, seventy-five souls; Rogue Rivers, ninety-one souls; Joshuas, one hundred & twelve souls; Chetcoes, seventy-six souls; Mikonotunnes, forty-one souls; Klamaths, sixty-five souls. Stragglers estimated at about one hundred & forty. The figures above are taken from the census taken of these Indians previous to my assuming charge of the agency, but I think they are not far from correct. Should the Department conclude to locate the Alsea Indians upon this agency during the present summer, the quantities of medicines would require to be one fourth greater than at present estimated for.
    The safest route in sending the medicines estimated for would be, in my opinion, through Wells Fargo & Co. Express, addressed to Portland, Oregon.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Ind. Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner
        Indian Affairs
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or. Apr. 7, 1875
Sir
    Previous to July 1st 1874 the employees at this agency were paid subsistence allowance of 75 cts. per day--in addition to their salaries. Several of them now here were employed and came here with the distinct understanding that they were to receive $1000 per annum and the above-named subsistence allowance, making in all about $1272 per annum. On the 1st of July last, by your order, this subsistence allowance was cut off--since which time the highest salary paid has been $1100 per annum, and this reduction is a positive injustice to those persons who have brought their families to this distant country at large expense.
    Mr. W. S. Moore, who is employed as miller, and who runs both saw and grist mills, is a very valuable person upon the agency. He not only thoroughly understands running and keeping in repair both mills, but he is as thorough a millwright as can be found in the state of Oregon. In fact, he stands at the head of the trade. When not employed in the mills, his services are very valuable in assisting the carpenter and wagon & plow maker in their respective labors. He first came here in the capacity of millwright to complete the flouring mill. When the mill was finished he consented to remain in the capacity of miller at the aforesaid salary of $1272 per annum, although this was much less than his services would command "outside." Since the 1st of July last he has been receiving only $1100 per annum, and he feels that he is doing injustice to himself and family (which is large and expensive) in remaining longer for this compensation.
    The requirements of the service, and justice to the other employees, forbid my paying him any more from the fund appropriated for "Pay of Employees," yet I know that his resignation will be a great loss to the service.
    Under these circumstances, I most respectfully request that I be allowed to pay him, in addition to his present salary, the sum of $150.00 per annum from the proceeds of lumber which I think I may be able to sell during the year.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Office of
    United States Surveyor General
        Portland, Oregon
            April 16th 1875
My Dear Senator
    I wrote to you some time ago in regard to Siletz Reservation. I had expected that no trouble would exist in relation to the settlement of the country north of Salmon River. I fear however that I was mistaken. I learn that fifteen Indians are living on that portion of the former reservation who will have to be consulted according to the law opening it to settlement. I learn from Mr. Sinnott, the present agent at Grand Ronde, that those Indians above referred to can be easily removed to Grand Ronde and that he will do it if authorized to do so. I wish you would see the Commissioner and have him instruct him at once to move them. The people of Yamhill and Polk are highly pleased with your action in that matter; don't lose the benefit of it; see to it at once.
Yours respectfully
    Ben Simpson
Hon. J. H. Mitchell
    U.S.S., Washington
        D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.




U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz April 22nd 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 30th ult. in reference to George Harney, one of our Siletz Indians. Permit me to thank you for the interest you take in him, and for the high opinion you were so good as to express concerning him. Harney is in many respects a remarkable young man.
    He has manifested a great desire to profit by the instructions we have tried to give him, and has learned much, though much remains for him to learn. In some respects he is hardly what I could wish, but he has improved so fast, and is really so anxious to improve, that I do not doubt but he will soon become all I could wish.
    I have tried to stimulate his ambition and induce him to learn to read and write by pointing out to him that it was my desire to bring these Indians to such a self-supporting condition that when I should leave no white man would be required as agent, and if he was properly qualified, his position as chief would naturally make him the first man among them, and place him at the head of affairs. Harney is by no means the only man among the Siletz Indians capable of striking out for himself, without help from the government.
    When our mills are completed there are several who would speedily become comparatively wealthy. The suggestion respecting sheep needs consideration. Many white settlers on the Yaquina some years ago tried it, bringing in large flocks, but have all abandoned it. Panthers, wolves &c. destroyed large numbers. Still, it might be well to make the experiment, carefully watching the flocks. The suggestions relative to the Alsea and other Indians shall be attended to. The present season I have informed the Indians that they must depend upon themselves, as I had issued them so many horses and cattle. Heretofore it has been customary to plow and harrow for many of them with the government teams. This year I desired them to do for themselves.
    Many have accordingly went to work and will raise larger crops than ever before.
    Some will make little or no effort, saying, "Oh, the agent will see that we do not go hungry."
    I have told those who refuse to put in a crop that they need not look to the agent for food next winter, if they will not work now. Some who really have not the means to put in a crop will have to be helped by the government teams, but as a general thing I desire to accustom them to depend on themselves alone. I enclose a letter of George Harney, which I respectfully ask you to forward.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz April 29th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication calling my attention to the fact that $7000.00 of the Indian appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30th 1876 was available immediately for the purpose of erecting mills on Siletz Reservation, and directing me at the earliest practicable period to forward estimates of cost of machinery, together with the newspapers most proper to advertise for proposals, either to furnish the machinery, or to erect the mills and furnish machinery &c. I am now in this city for the purpose of making such estimates, but have not yet entirely completed them. I would suggest the Bulletin of Portland and the Oregon Statesman of Salem, both daily and weekly papers, as most suitable for advertising. In this connection I would respectfully suggest that there are several saw mills, having been run from one to three years, as good in every particular as if new, whose owners for various reasons are anxious to sell and have offered to deliver the mills with engine, boiler and all machinery complete, at Corvallis or such other point as I might name, for a sum much less than half what the machinery would cost new. Evidently the saw mill should be erected soon, that it might saw lumber for the grist mill. I have carefully examined the several streams on the reservation within reasonable distance of the agency, and find none affording sufficient water to run either saw or grist mill during the summer months, except Siletz River, and the character of this stream is such that to dam it is out of the question, and to secure sufficient fall by fluming would require a flume one and a half miles long, costing much more than an engine and boiler. I have now in my mind an offer I have received from a thoroughly responsible party of a saw mill, engine &c. built specially for such timber as we have at Siletz, complete in every particular, and which has been run not to exceed two years for a price, less probably than ½ the cost. The timber in the vicinity has been sawed and the owner is anxious to dispose of the mill, as it is dead property to him as it is.
    I would recommend therefore that I be permitted to include a steam engine of not less than twenty-five horsepower in the proposals, though it is my opinion that the saw mill could be bought on better terms at private sale. I also respectfully ask if a sum additional to the $7000.00 will be allotted to these mills. Probably with the greatest economy either a saw or grist mill, of sufficient capacity to supply the wants of the Indians at Siletz, could be completed for $7000.00, but both saw and grist mills will cost not less than $15,000.00.
    I regret that it is necessary to purchase machinery &c. by advertisement, as if I were permitted to purchase at private sale I am satisfied a better article would be furnished at a cost not in excess of the lowest bid. The owner of the mill mentioned above, if invited to bid for furnishing machinery for the saw mill, could make his bid $800 or $1000 more than he offers at private sale, and know nobody could compete with him unless someone similarly circumstanced.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    May 8th 1875
Sir,
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 16th ulto., this day received. In justice to myself I would respectfully call your attention to the fact that my report spoke of the past and not of the future as regards the required reports. It was and is the least of my thoughts to attempt to evade any part of the duties as laid down in your letter of instructions.
    My report for April should be well on [its way] to your city by this time.
    My absence from the office sometimes may render it impossible to be as prompt to the day as I would wish.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Indian Agent
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 965-966.



Siletz Indian Agency
    May 7th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to submit as an estimate for cost of machinery for saw and grist mill at this reservation the sum of $5000.00 coin at present rates, equal to about $5714.30 currency. To make an estimate giving all the different prices of machinery would consume considerable time. The figures given above are made after careful consultation with a competent millwright and are necessarily mere estimates. After the drawings and specifications are completed, the amount may be--and probably will be--very materially reduced. The most competent authorities on the subject assure me that to ensure good mills (and we want no other) the person selected to superintend the building of the mills should have the selection of the machinery. This seems reasonable. In my opinion, it is inadvisable to advertise for the machinery, castings &c. for several reasons--
    1st--The season is already so far advanced that no time should be lost in commencing the work. During the wet season, nothing can be done to advantage, and if the mills are built this season, it must be done before the rains commence.
    2nd--In addition to the delay caused by advertising, there are great opportunities for frauds, by substituting iron where steel is required, by furnishing castings of greater weight than is necessary (they are sold by weight), by furnishing bolts, iron, castings &c. of inferior quality, thus rendering the mill when completed much less valuable, and in many other ways of substituting second- or third-quality iron where the very best is required. It is almost impossible to guard all these points so completely in an advertisement that no deception can take place.
    The machinery, iron, bolts &c. are worth the market price, which is easily ascertained, and any offer to furnish them at much lower rates will be likely to cover some sinister design.
    3rd--There are three foundries in Portland, the competition between which is so lively that machinery can be purchased on private contract at fully as low rates as a good article can be furnished. In my letter of the 30th ultimo I stated my belief that no stream existed near the agency of sufficient size to afford water power. Since then I have had the different streams examined by a competent millwright, who reports one as affording ample water for all purposes.
    There will be no necessity for a steam engine as I had anticipated.
    I strongly recommend the purchase of the machinery at private contract, taking care of course to secure the lowest rates, in order to enable the millwright to see to the selection of the different parts--and that the Inspector of Indian Agencies for the district be present at the making [of] the contracts.
    So many grist mills are rendered worthless by defective machinery, and have to be rebuilt, that I am extremely anxious that every part of these mills shall be of first quality, as I do not expect another appropriation could be secured to rebuild these mills if for any reason they should prove failures.
    Properly constructed, of proper materials, they should last twenty years with little cost for repairs--if inferior material is used, the cost for repairs will soon amount to nearly so much as the original cost. In making the estimate above given, and in the examination of water power, as well as the reasons for purchase by private contract, I have had the assistance of Mr. H. W. Shipley, a competent millwright, who erected the flouring mills at the Yakima, Warm Springs and Umatilla reservations, and who is highly recommended by many leading citizens of Oregon as thoroughly competent to superintend the work. He refers to the Hon. C. Delano, Sec. of Interior, to whom he is well known. I certainly think his opinions [are] entitled to much weight, and cannot too strongly impress upon the Hon. Commissioner the necessity of immediate action, if it [is] expected to complete the work the present season.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Siletz Indian Agency
    May 17th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of March 30th directing me to "take an early opportunity of proceeding to the Alsea Reservation and conferring with the agent and Indians on the subject of their removal to Siletz &c."
    The letter only reached me about the 25th April, at which time all were busily engaged putting in their spring crops. As instructions received at the same time relative to the mill seemed to require attention to that matter first, I deferred action with regard to the trip to Alsea till my return from Portland, more especially as the season was so far advanced that the removal of the Alsea Indians would be impracticable before fall.
    On my return I addressed a letter to Agent Litchfield, informing him of my instructions, and requesting him to assemble his Indians as soon as practicable for the purpose of a council. Mr. Litchfield informs me that the Alsea Indians have now completed planting their crops, and it will of course be impracticable for them to remove before fall. In addition to this they have many of them good comfortable houses, which it would be hardly just to require them to abandon till they can be provided with others to replace them. As we have no mill we cannot hope to do this before fall, and their removal previous to that time seems to be impracticable. Many of them live at points somewhat remote from Alsea Agency, and it is hardly practicable to assemble them together for council before the early part of June unless specially required.
    With regard to their disposition to remove, there will probably be diversity of opinion. Some will readily consent, while others will be unwilling. It seems to me therefore desirable that as full an expression of opinion be had as possible, and, unless otherwise directed, I have decided to wait till the first week in June before proceeding to Alsea.
    In the meantime, as soon as I can leave my agency I will proceed to the mouth of Salmon River and confer with the Indians living north of that point as directed.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Ind. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    May 31st 1875
Sir
    In obedience to the instructions of your office, for the past month I have the honor to report that during the first part of the same I visited parts of Benton and Polk counties in attention to complaints of some farmers. On investigation I found that they were complaining of the Indians because the Indians wanted their pay for work they had done. In one instance the farmer owed the Indian for work done 18 months ago. I succeeded in getting everything satisfactorily arranged and the Indians paid, except in once instance, and feel quite confident that I will persuade him to pay the Indian what is justly due him.
    On my return on or about the 15th inst. I got on track of parties who were furnishing liquor to Indians who are camped some two miles south of this town. The Indians have passes from the agent and are industriously working on a contract of 400 cords of wood. Most all farmers prefer to have them for wood choppers and grubbers than white men. During the night of Saturday the 29 [I] succeeded in arresting four persons in and around the Indian camp. They had been cohabiting with the Indians for several weeks, for which they gave them whisky. One of the parties proved himself innocent in the matter of furnishing the Indians with whisky. The other three were found guilty before the U.S. Commissioner, and in default of bail were lodged in jail at Portland to await the action of the next grand jury, which convenes in about three weeks, and in this transaction I succeeded in discovering five others who are sure to be convicted of the same offense. As it is impossible that they can become aware of my knowledge of their guilt, and consequently no danger of their absenting themselves, I concluded not to have them arrested, but let their case come before the grand jury, as this way will be far less expensive. When this nest is completely broken up (which I am satisfied is a fixed fact), I feel quite sure there will be no further trouble in the whisky furnishing question.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Indian Agent
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 977-979.



    Minutes of council held with the Tillamook and other bands of Indians residing north of Siletz Reservation June 1st 1875.
   

    The council was opened by Agent Fairchild, who said:
    "I have come here by direction of the Great Chief in Washington to make certain propositions to you. I want to talk straight to you. You made a treaty with the govt. many years ago when Mr. Dart was Supt. That treaty was never ratified by the Senate (the Great Council of the whites), and you have never received anything from the government. The country where you live is now open for settlement by the whites, as you have heard. If you continue to reside there, they will trouble you continually. You know this is true, for you have seen it. It is true there is a way by which you can each secure land in your own country. Of this I will speak presently. But even if you each take a homestead you will be almost sure to suffer from the near proximity of the whites.
    "You know yourselves that bad white men will debauch your women and bring in bad diseases among you, and in many other ways work evil to you. It would be much better for you to be by yourselves. You have seen the country between here and the mouth of Salmon River. It is good land and will bring large crops. There are also plenty of fish in the rivers. Now if you choose to come to this country you can settle on that land and the govt. will give each head of family as much land as he can cultivate. It will also help you to teams, plows, agricultural implements &c., and try to place you in a position where you can earn a comfortable living. Perhaps they may also give you a school for your children. We expect a mill at Siletz this season, and lumber can be rafted down the river and hauled to your land.
    "Each summer large numbers of white people come to visit the sea coast at the mouth of Salmon River. They will buy of you oats, potatoes, garden vegetables, fish &c., and you can in this way dispose of all your surplus produce in cash.
    "Then the land will be your own and no one can drive you away or trouble you. If you think you would rather settle on some other part of Siletz Reservation, you can select any land that is unoccupied. If you do not like this proposition, and prefer to go to Grand Ronde Reservation, you can do so and I presume you will receive help from the government the same as you would at the Siletz. If I remain as agent at Siletz, I intend to make a good road to the head of tidewater on Siletz River, which will make it easy for you to come to the agency and return. If however you do not like to come to Siletz or Grand Ronde Reservation I am instructed to tell you that you can take land as homesteads under the laws of the United States. To do this, however, you must renounce your tribal relations and prepare to pay taxes and become like the whites around you. You must also give up all thoughts of further assistance from the government and prepare to bear a share of the burdens, and become subject to the laws the same as the whites.
    "Some of your people have told me last night how the whites sometimes trouble you. At Siletz, no whites trouble the Indians. The country belongs to the Indians, and they are doing well. Many have large crops in and have good teams, plows, wagons &c. with cows and other stock. I see before me now (pointing to two of the Siletz Indians present), two Siletz Indians who have more land in crops, and are better off than any white man between Blodgetts Valley and the ocean. A few years ago they had nothing; now they are comfortably well off.
    "This matter is now left to yourselves. The government is sincerely desirous of your welfare and anxious that all the Indians become so situated that they can live comfortably, support themselves, and in time become capable of exercising all the rights and duties of citizens.
    "My own opinion is that it would be much better for you to settle on the land between here and the mouth of Salmon River & go to Grand Ronde Agency. How much good land is available I do not know at the Grand Ronde and therefore I cannot speak so confidently of the chances there. I see some of the Nestuccas are here. I want to speak a few words to them" (to the Nestuccas present). "I am very sorry that Bill, your chief, did not come here today. I wanted to talk good to him and tell him the truth. I did not come to take away his land or anybody else's land. I came to tell you what my chief and your chief told me to say to you, and I say to you now, I think it will be best for you to come and settle at the mouth of Salmon River. What I have said is intended for all the Indians living north of the mouth of Salmon River. Now I want to know your minds on this matter."
    Joseph Duncan, chief of the Tillamooks, said, "There are only seven of us come from the Tillamooks. These other Indians do not belong to our tribe, but are Nestuccas and others. We seven know the mind of our people and have been commissioned to speak for them. We all want to stay in our own country and take up land like the whites. Our people all think alike on this subject."
    Agent: "Is there anybody else who wishes to speak. I see Gen. Palmer here. He has long had dealings with the Indians; perhaps he would like to speak a few words."
    Gen. Palmer said:
    "I do not know as I ought to say anything. I have no official position and no right to speak in this council, yet I would like to say a few words to this people. I have been among Indians a long time and know that many Indians do not understand the whites. Suppose you get your land in your own country by homestead entry like the whites. They will cheat you out of it. If you get a good claim they will offer you a horse or something much less than it is worth or give you whiskey and get it from you for nothing. Many of you do not understand the whites. Your Chief Joseph probably would understand, but the most of you would soon have nothing. I have long been a good friend to the Indians, and I tell you I am afraid if you persist in taking homesteads among the whites, they will cheat and wrong you. This is a good country, and I am certain you can do much better here, where the govt. will give you each a farm and protect you in your rights and help you cultivate it, than you can do if you remain in your own country. I tell you this is so. For 25 years I have been among the Indians, and am known as a good friend to them, and I know I now tell you true. If you refuse to accept the terms offered by the govt. through Mr. Fairchild, you will someday be very sorry. Do not think I speak so because I have an interest in your coming here. My interest would be the contrary. Some time ago I leased his very land to graze stock, but because the govt. wanted to bring you here, they refused to confirm it, and I lost much money from having to move my cattle. I tell you that you are foolish if you do not accept this offer."
    Joseph Duncan: "There are many old people at Tillamook who all say they do not wish to leave. They want to die and be buried where their fathers were before them. We have good friends among the whites there, old settlers, who have told us about this homestead law, and who want us to stay, and we had made up our minds what to say at this council."
    Agent: "If such is your final determination I will give you a letter to Maj. Boyle in Portland, who will tell you just what steps you must take to secure your homesteads so that no white man can take it from you. I want however to say a few words more, and I want you to tell your people all I say. If you go to the Siletz or Grand Ronde, or Yakima, or Umatilla, or any Indian reservation, you will find many Indians comparatively rich. They have large, well-cultivated farms, plenty of cattle and horses, and are far better off than the majority of the whites. Their children go to school and learn to read and write. Joseph Duncan, you have lived much with the whites, you have learned their languages, and I am told can read and write. You have traveled a good deal, and have seen many Indians who never lived on reservations, but have lived many years among the whites. Did you ever see one of these Indians who was not very poor?"
    Joseph Duncan (much struck): "No, sir."
    Agent: "Did you ever see a family of Indians who had never lived on reservations, but always among the whites, whose women were not prostitutes, and the men little better than slaves?"
    Joseph Duncan: "Never."
    Agent: "Then for the sake of your women and children, for the sake of your future well being and prosperity, I ask you to consider well what I have told you, and the offers I am authorized to make. I have no personal interest in the matter, but I do sincerely desire your welfare, and I know, and you know, that you can do much better on the land I pointed out to you, with the help the govt. will give you, than you can do if you persist in remaining in your country. I know it is hard for your old people to leave their homes, and the graves of their people, but I ask you to think of your children. Think well what I have said, and if you conclude to accept the propositions I have made, send someone to Siletz Agency to notify me and I shall be glad to see him. I also want to say to the Nestuccas present: Tell Bill that perhaps he thinks himself a great chief, but he is not. He has acted very foolishly, and I think the best thing he can do is to come to Siletz to see me. I will remain there a week, and shall be glad for him to come and tell me his mind. But let him be careful. The orders of the Great Chief in Washington cannot be disobeyed with impunity. He was made chief by Mr. Sinnott, an Indian agent like myself, and it is very foolish for him to talk as though he was some important personage."
    Joseph Duncan: "We have heard all you have said and will faithfully report to our people. If they conclude to accept the propositions you have made we will send a deputation to visit you. We were only authorized to say what we have said, i.e., that our people prefer taking land in their own country by homestead entry. We understand that to do so we must renounce our tribal relations and become like the whites. It may be that when our people hear what you have said they will change their minds and conclude to come to the mouth of Salmon River. We will look more closely at the land as we return to our homes."
    The council here terminated, the Indians from Tillamook being evidently much impressed with the remarks of Gen. Palmer and the last remarks of the agent.
    I certify that the foregoing is a true record of the proceedings at a council held with the Tillamooks and other bands of Indians living north of the mouth [of] Salmon River, held on the 1st day of June A.D. 1875.
J. H. Fairchild
    U.S. Indian Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    June 1st 1875
Sir
    Your letter of 3rd ult., in which my request to pay the miller at this agency $150 in addition to the present salary from proceeds of the mill is denied--is recd.
    The Indians, understanding the circumstances and being very desirous that Mr. Moore should be retained, have decided to pay him the extra amount themselves in such way as they may be able. Consequently Mr. Moore will remain for the present.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz June 4th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to submit the following report of a counci, held with the Tillamooks and other bands of Indians living north of the mouth of Salmon River, as per your instructions of March 30th (marked L).
    On the 24th of May, I dispatched an express to these bands, requesting them to meet me at the mouth of Siletz River on the 1st of June. At the time appointed, I met at that place representatives of the Tillamook and three men from the band of Nestucca Indians, though without authority to speak for the tribe. The Chief of the Nestuccas refused to come, declaring that he would die before he would leave his country, and that Agent Sinnott, of Grand Ronde Agency, had told him no one had the right to remove him, and that he had better refuse to appear at my council or pay any attention to my requests. This was undoubtedly a falsehood, though. I have no doubt but someone has been tampering with him. The Nestuccas number 24 all told, the Tillamooks 33 men and 29 women, total 62 besides children. There are also two families of Clatsop Indians living near Clatsop Plains at the mouth of the Columbia River, so that the whole number of Indians living north of the boundaries of this reservation is not far from 130.
    I represented to the Indians the great advantages they would derive form a removal to a reservation, where the govt. would assist them, giving each one enough land to make a good farm, and helping them to plows &c. They replied that they had formerly made a treaty with Supt. Dart (a copy of which dated in 1851 they produced), by which their right to a tract of land at Tillamook was secured, and that it was the unanimous desire of all their people to live and die in their own country. I told them they would have the right to settle on Grand Ronde Reservation if they preferred, or if they were determined to remain in their country they could do so by renouncing their tribal relations and securing homestead claims.
    This they declared they all desired to do, and I gave them a letter to Maj. W. H. Boyle of Portland, Oregon (Inspector of Indian Supplies) requesting him to inform them just what steps were necessary to take to secure their homesteads according to law.
    I also told them that if after a full consultation with the members of this tribe they should conclude to embrace my offer of land at Siletz or Grand Ronde, they could visit me at the agency.
    Between the mouth of Salmon and Siletz rivers is a considerable tract of excellent land, adapted to cultivation or grazing; the rivers teem with fish, and it is much to be regretted that these Indians did not conclude to settle there. A road could be constructed with comparatively little expense from the agency to tidewater on the Siletz, making a safe and rapid means of communication between the agency and this part of the reservation. At present the journey has to be made in canoes, and from tidewater to the present landing are many rapids difficult to be surmounted in coming from the coast.
    During the summer many of the Siletz Indians reside at the mouth of Siletz engaged in laying [in] their winter supply of fish. Some are located there permanently.
    I have the honor to transmit herewith the minutes of the council above referred, to by which a more perfect knowledge of the wishes of these Indians may be had.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Siletz Agency, Oregon
    June 5th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit the following report of a consultation with Wm. Eskia, or Bill, Chief of the Nestuccas, held at this agency today. In my report of council held at the mouth of Siletz River June 1st I stated that this chief had refused to come to the council, and that I had sent word to him through his people to visit me at Siletz Agency. He came this 
morning, accompanied by three of his head men.
    I represented to him as strongly as I could the advantages of accepting the offers of the government, pointing out to them that should they decline to come to the reservation they could expect no aid from govt., that the whites would settle on all sides of them, securing the best tracts of land, and that if they determined to remain in their country and enter homesteads they must all commence an entirely new life. They must expect to take their axes and go to the forests to fell trees for their houses, to be always at work on their claims, and that I was afraid if they persisted in their resolution, many of them would neglect to work, would become idle and worthless, till the whites would insist on their removal, that they must renounce forever all their tribal relations, and in short must commence an entirely new life.
    It was evident, however, that their minds were fully made up--they repeatedly declared that they should always talk as they did now, and in short, that they were determined under no circumstances to leave their homes unless forced to do so. They said they were aware they must become like the whites, and that their intention was to try and become worthy members of society.
    All my representations were of no avail to change their determination, and I gave them the address of the Register of the Land Office in Oregon City, where they declared they would go immediately and secure a tract of land for each one.
    Without doubt someone interested in their remaining has tampered with them. They all seemed well acquainted with the provisions of the law, that they could not be removed without their consent previously had, and evidently came with one thing, and only one thing, to say. It is without doubt a most unfortunate thing for these Indians that they are so resolute in remaining in their country, as it is not difficult to imagine what their fate will be.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
         Washington
             D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



OREGON AND CALIFORNIA RAILROAD COMPANY.
LAND DEPARTMENT,
Portland, Oregon, June 5, 1875
Hon. A. C. Barstow
    Indian Commissioner
        I will deliver a sawmill--complete and in good running order with an engine of 45 horsepower, with a capacity of 12 to 15,000 feet-inch lumber per day of 11 hours--has sawed 32,000 feet of bridge timber in same time--with two 54-in. saws, with belting--blacksmith tools &c. &c.--in fact everything to set the mill to work without delay--on the following terms: On the cars of the Northern Pacific R.R. 40 miles north of Kalama for the sum of four thousand dollars in gold coin or its equivalent, or deliver same at Kalama where it can be loaded on vessel for seventy-five dollars additional. I refer for further particulars as to mill &c. to Father Wilbur, agent.
Very respectfully
    J. R. Moores
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1089-1096.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz June 7th 1875
Sir
    I have just received a letter from Hon. A. B. Meacham requesting me to forward money to pay expenses of Geo. Harney and Maggie, his wife, two of our Siletz Indians, who accompanied him on his trip to the East, to their homes. Mr. Meacham expressly informed me that he not only had the hearty approval of the Indian Department for his contemplated enterprise, but had given bonds to return to their reservations all Indians entrusted to his care. As these two considerations were mainly instrumental in inducing me to consent to Harney accompanying him, I never contemplated any call for money to pay any part of their expenses home. I respectfully ask if I am authorized to advance what money may be needed for this purpose, and bring it into my regular accounts.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
P.S. To save expenses I shall be compelled to forward this money before I can receive an answer to this communication, as they have already started and are somewhere on the road. What amount will be required. I am unable to say till I learn the stage and R.R. fares.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    June 9, 1875
Sir
    In answer to your letter of 28th ulto. I have to say that for reasons which have been fully and repeatedly explained in my letters to you I have been forced to simply a day school during a large portion of the present fiscal year, and although I have done the best I could the average attendance has been small, which will inevitably be the case with a day school at this agency.
    On the 1st of next month (July) I shall reopen the boarding school--if appointments of employees already made are approved by you--when the number of scholars will be increased at once to at least 20, and afterward gradually increased to from 30 to 40.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Siletz Indian Agency
    June 11th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 27th ult., in which I am informed that but $10,000 can be made available for the purpose of building mills at this agency.
    It is impossible to express the regret I feel at this information. The one great obstacle to entire success here has seemed to me to be the want of a mill. The annual appropriations of the government for this agency have--I have thought--accomplished much less than could reasonably have been expected, because so large a sum must each year be paid for flour and lumber.
    About the middle of winter the supplies of fish and vegetables provided by the Indians are usually exhausted, and from that time, till after the crops are in, and the people gone outside for their summer labor, there is a constant demand for food. Scores are each day begging for flour, many with tales of suffering and hunger, which I must in justice say I have found on investigation to be well founded. Thus the funds that ought to purchase teams, stock, tools &c. are used to provide food, and the agency seems little nearer self-support than two years ago.
    In my letter of May 7th giving estimate of cost of machinery for grist and saw mill I estimated for the best quality of material, for mills of sufficient capacity to supply, not only the Indians, but the white settlers in the vicinity, from whom considerable sums might be realized for tolls.
    It is possible that by dispensing with everything not absolutely essential, and by prosecuting the work with the utmost possible economy, I may be able to advance the mills so that they will be capable of doing work for $10,000, and complete them at our leisure. I have decided to advertise for the machinery, as directed in your letter of the 27th ult., and if the bids received indicate the cost of the mills as more than $10,000 suspend operations till further orders.
    If, however, from the cost of the machinery, competent mechanics judge that the mill, or one of them, can be put in good running order, and the other well advanced, I will proceed to build as rapidly as possible.
    I forward by this mail an advertisement for proposals in the Portland Bulletin and the Salem Statesman, the papers recommended in my letter of the 7th May.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        June 16th 1875.
Sir:
    The claim of Frank Riddle for services as messenger &c. for the Modoc Indian Peace Commission in February, March and April, 1873, amounting to $205.00, received from your office on the 26th ultimo, is herewith respectfully returned.
    The Second Comptroller's Office desires information upon the following points, viz.: Distance from "camp" to headquarters, and such other information as will justify the charge of $25 which is made for a trip between the points named, on Febry. 24th and again on March 4th 1873, also the reasons for charging extra for horse. It is also suggested that $5 per day is a somewhat exorbitant charge for services as messenger, and should be explained, while the fact that Mr. Frank Riddle was paid $10 for services on April 11th as interpreter precludes his receiving pay as now charged on that day for services as messenger.
Very respectfully
    E. B. French
        Auditor
Hon. Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 921-923.




    Proceedings of a council held June 17th 1875 by J. H. Fairchild and Geo. P. Litchfield, U.S. Indian Agents, with the tribes of Alsea, Coos, Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians residing on Alsea Indian Reservation.
   

    The council was opened by Mr. Litchfield, who said, "My friends, I have come today in consequence of orders from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who has directed Mr. Fairchild, the agent at Siletz, to come and in company with myself make you certain propositions. These propositions we now come to make. The Commissioner thinks it would be better for you to remove to Siletz, where you can have certain advantages you cannot have here. You can there have help to cultivate farms that will be given you, and will also have the advantages of a mill they expect to build this summer. I have been with you now about two years and you know I never promised anything unless I knew I was going to be able to fulfill that promise. I will not now talk much but will let Mr. Fairchild talk to you, as he can better inform you of the advantages he will be prepared to offer you there. I will now introduce to you Mr. Fairchild,the agent at Siletz."
    Mr. Fairchild said, "My friends, I have not come here on my own business today. I have heard good accounts of you from your agent and others, and have long wished to see you. I have heard that you were among the best Indians on the coast and I am glad to meet you now. But today I have come to say to you what your Great Father, who is my chief, told me to say. You know that the whites have long desired your country, and I have been told they have troubled you very much on this account. They have also wanted the land at Siletz, and my Indians have long had sick hearts fearing they would have to remove from their country. These white people said, 'The Alsea Indians are only a few, yet they occupy very much land. They cannot cultivate this land--it is much more than they need.'
    "They also said, 'The Siletz Indians are not more than one thousand in number, yet they have all the land from Cape Foulweather to near the Tillamook. Why should the Indians hold so much land when there are so many white people who cannot get farms?' I am now telling you what these people said. Well, they said all these things to Congress. The Congress is the Great Council of the Whites. Congress makes the laws; everybody must obey the laws of Congress. The President, great and powerful as he is, your agent, Mr. Litchfield, myself, all the whites, and all Indians must obey the laws of Congress. Well, these people made all these complaints, year after year, to Congress and last winter Congress made a law on the subject. Congress said, 'Yes, it is true the Alsea and Siletz Indians occupy much more land than they can cultivate. It is true there are many whites who want farms and would like a part of these reservations. We have been for years paying thousands of dollars for blankets, food &c. for these Indians. Now we will make the Siletz Reservation extend from Cape Foulweather to the mouth of Salmon River and from the ocean to the Coast Range of mountains. There will be enough good land for all the Siletz and all the Alsea Indians. We will give them all that country, and no one shall trouble them anymore and we will give each head of family and each single man a farm, for his own property, of as much land as he can cultivate, and will help them to teams, plows, harrows and agricultural implements to till the soil, and we will make all the rest of Siletz and Alsea reservations public land open to settlement by the whites.' They also said, 'We will not drive these Indians. We will send men to talk straight and true to them, and before we move them will get their consent.'
    "Now, my friends, I have come to see and talk with you in consequence of this law. The Comr. of Ind. Affairs wrote to me, 'Mr. Litchfield is agent of the Alseas, you are agent at Siletz. This law affects both your people. Do you go to Alsea and with Mr. Litchfield have a talk with these people. Tell them these things and tell them what you are prepared to do for them at Siletz. Tell them the government desires them to go, and that all the money appropriated for them will be expended at Siletz for their benefit.' My friends, I presume you have heard of this law from white people. I have been told that you have heard that I would offer you a large sum of money to move to Siletz. From Mr. Litchfield you have heard the truth. Whether other white men have told you the truth I do not know. We have not come to offer you money, but to say to you that if you will come to Siletz, I will give each man of you a good farm which will always be his own property. You see white people anxious to secure farms. Why is this? Because the whites know the value of land. They know that if a man gets a piece of land as his own property, and works and improves it, he will soon become well off. Each man of you can get a piece of land for a farm if you come there. Further, the government will help you to teams, harness, plows, harrows, cows and other stock, and there is no reason why you should not soon be comfortably well off.
    "If the whites come and settle around you here what chance will you have? Now, I have told you what I was instructed to tell you, and that is all I have to say, except that if you come to Siletz you can do well. Many of our Indians are well off. There is no reason why you should not do as well.
    "I have seen many Indians who always lived among the whites. They are poor. I have seen on many reservations Indians well off. Why is [there] this difference? I will tell you. The government helps the Indians who come to reservations but does not help those who live among the whites.
    "This is a matter of great importance to you, and I hope you will carefully consider your words and come to such conclusions that you will not afterwards be sorry. You have a good agent and some good country. If you decide to remain I cannot tell what the result will be. If you come to Siletz I think I can promise you good treatment, each one a good farm, and help to cultivate the land. Also schools for your children.
    "There is another thing I may mention--At Siletz we have an organized church of God. Your agent has had no opportunity of organizing one here, but there we have one, and you and your children can learn how you may be enabled to live right in this life, and have eternal life in the world to come. The government has also promised this season to build a saw and grist mill at Siletz, and you would have the benefit of that also. That is all I will say now."
    Mr. Litchfield: "I will talk a little more. The Commissioner sent me a letter in which he instructed me to say to you that he thought it would be well for you to move this summer. He also suggested that Pres. Grant was probably more favorably disposed towards the Indians than a future President might be, on which account he thought it would be better for you to move now. Should you move you would doubtless have many advantages. You would have an interest in the mills they expect to build there this summer and would doubtless do well. Now we have only to hear what you have to say."
    Watson, chief of Alseas, said: "This thing I will talk right. Long time ago the Great Chief made two Indian countries. He made the Yaquina (or Siletz) Reservation and the Alsea Reservation. About this thing you have told us I will talk straight. I do not wish to leave my country. I want to live and die there."
    Albert, chief of Alseas: "I very much want to tell this man my heart. This is my heart. I very much want to remain in my country. I want all these old people to speak today. If the Chief in Washington says work your land well, that is right to me. If we live on our land it will be well. It is our country and we want it. When we die we want it to go to our children and for them to give it to their children. We live on our own land. It was the land of our fathers and we want our children to live there." (The Alseas are living in their old country.) "We have houses which we built ourselves--have little farms and places, and we do not want to give them up even if our land is not all fenced."
    William, another Alsea chief: "This thing I want to say to you two men. This is our own land. "We live on our own land. Our children live there. If we die our children will get it. We want to tell the Chief in Washington our mind through these two men. If an agent comes to us he looks after us. He wants to look closely to us and see that we live on our land and do right. We have houses. There are two mills up the Alsea River. We bought our lumber there. We saw logs and take [them] to the mills and thus get lumber for our houses. All our stock we keep on our own land. Never have we done wrong to the whites. Never have we killed a white man. Why do the whites have sick hearts for our land. They have long wanted to drive us off. We have remained quiet. We are afraid of the whites. We are now comfortably fixed."
    John, head man of Alseas: "I want you to know my mind. Two of our old chiefs, Albert and Watson, were afraid to speak. They said they did not want to leave. They said, 'We bought the lumber for our houses ourselves. No agent bought it for us.' I want to say the same thing. I am not afraid to live at Alsea. That is my country. I have nothing to fear if the whites come here. We have no horses, sheep or cattle for them to get. We have nothing to fear if they do come. I do not want to leave. I want to stay. I do not want to be moved like the Coos and Umpquas. Long ago Gen. Palmer came to their country. He said to those people, 'Suppose you leave your country; before long you will become like the whites.' Some time ago I went to Siletz and saw Mr. Fairchild." (reported to Commissioner in letter of Jan. 24th 1874) "I said I did not want to be like the Coos and Umpquas. They live here now. Many years they have been dying off. Their women have suffered from exposure gathering mussels on the rocks. Palmer did not tell them they must live on mussels when they were brought here. They were told they would get sugar, coffee and flour. For that reason I do not want to take any more of the white man's promises. I am afraid to go to another country. I have no money. Where would I get flour at Siletz. I saw at Siletz those who had money had provisions. You know some time since I said I could not improve without help. I have seen many Coos and Umpqua chiefs at Alsea without food. I never saw them get much from the agent. I want to die where I live. By and by when I die I want my children to get my house. I have a strong heart to live in my house, which I built myself, of lumber that I bought without help from the agent. All our people got their houses the same way. That is all."
    Doctor John (leading man of the Alseas): "I live in my house. I have two little places. One is where I catch fish. These are mine. I want to keep them. It is my house. No white man gave it to me. I built it myself. That is all."
    Alsea Jack: "You know me. I am a poor man. I know the hearts of the whites. I am straight with all. People say I am bad. That is not so. I live on my land. I have a sick heart. Once in a while a bad white man does wrong to us. Not all the whites are so. I want to keep my land. All have said they want their land. That is my heart. If all are of my mind no one will get our land. I raise my own potatoes. I have worked my land and intend to improve it more and build me a new house. Every summer I want to clear more land. I want all my people to do as I do--work. If they do they will not be hungry. I don't want to be like the old people who have nothing planted. The whites have made us like themselves. That is why we work our land. By and by all will do so. They all make fences and houses. Now we want to stay where we are. We want to fix everything right around us. That is all."
    Siuslaw John, chief of Siuslaws: "I do not know you, Mr. Fairchild. I know you, Mr. Litchfield. I will give you my mind. You understand our language. I will not talk much. Ever since you have been here I have talked to you. I have always wanted you to send my words to Washington. I do not want to hear any more about this thing. A long time I have heard it. I thought it was all settled long ago. As long as I live on my land I am not sorry if I have nothing. My people have all the same mind as I have on this point. I don't want you to help the Chief in Washington get our land. I understand the Washington Chief wants to send us money. What for? I know the mind of my people. They do not want money. It is long since we had money, and we no longer care for it. I have only a little place and no money, yet my heart is not sick. The Great Chief sends money to the Indians but does not understand their hearts. At first, the whites promised many things. The people will never do again as they once did--sell their land. If I was to talk many days, I should say the same thing. It was not my wish to come here at first, but the Great Chief desired it. This thing I will not give up. Gen. Palmer gave us this country and I will never give it up. That is all."
    Siuslaw Dick, head man: "I do not want to talk long. Long time this has been my country. My heart has been heavy on that account. It was never my wish to give up my country. This is the first time I ever saw Mr. Fairchild. It is not my mind to leave my country. I have a strong heart to stay there. I will never move a step from my country. It is like they were trying to haul me to Siletz by telling me of fine things they will give me there. I shall always be of the same mind. I will not receive a dollar of their money. If they should say there was plenty of money at Siletz I would not go. I will not go under any circumstances. In my country I want to die. I will not change my mind. I will not go to another country to die. Before I ever saw a white man I raised produce on my land. I wish the whites would let us alone. That is all my heart. We are very poor now. Let us alone. It will be better to stop talking about our country."
    Siuslaw George--head man: "I do not want to put myself ahead of the old people here, but I will talk a little. What makes the whites think our people no better than dogs. Let them talk as much as they please. How can the whites believe in a just God and try and drive the Indians off their land. It would be well if they would make our country better by helping us here. Long ago when I was a boy I heard of this driving Indians. That is the way they did and now the Indians are nearly gone. My father died on my land. Well for us to die there. If our children grow up it will be good for them to take our country and be buried there. There are but few of us and we do not want to go to another country to die."
    Joe Scott--chief of Umpquas: "This day it is as if we were all on the same road. I have long had a sick heart on account of Mr. Fairchild coming today. Long the Great Chief has not understood our minds. Today I am in good heart because I see my words written down. I don't want to do as Mr. Fairchild advised.
    "Perhaps the Great Chief will make us poor, but we don't want to do this thing. We don't want it even talked about. This was not always my country. I am a driven man. I will not give up my land on that account. This is my country now and no one has any right here. It is true we are nearly all gone. When we first came here I understood the Great Chief to make us certain promises. We made a treaty. We never received the things promised, but our heart is not heavy on that account. The Great Chief may say now, 'I will give you many good things,' but I don't want to hear such talk. I have heard too many promises now. Long the Great Chief has said, 'I will give you many good things and you will grow upwards,' but we have never got them and are sick of hearing such talk. We have had different agents here but it seems as if we had only now got an agency. If Litchfield remains with us we will continue to improve, as we now do. We did not ask for things long ago, but the Great Chief promised them. Agent after agent has made promises, but till Litchfield came we got nothing."
    Sopeny--head man Umpquas: "I want to talk one way always. My mind is the same now that it was when Inspector Kemble was here. if I was in my old country, the Umpqua, I should say the same. The Great Chief gave us this land. I have long lived here and have improved my land. Once I lived in another country which the whites got. It is all right now. No whites live here and I am satisfied. I am growing old here. Why do these people all have heavy hearts? Because they fear being driven away. They have long feared this. All these young men when they grow up will talk the same. We will not give up our land. I know the whites have much money, but I want none of it, though I am poor. Many have died here every winter. All the agents say, 'This is your land.' My father lived always at Siuslaw. We don't want anybody to say any more. 'You will grow up at Siletz.' In our old country we left good houses which made my heart heavy. They said we would grow up if we came here."
    Umpqua Tom--leading man: "I have but little to say. I say as the others have said--the same as my Chief Scott has said. I am not afraid to live here. The Great Chief knows this is our land. He knows it. It is a just thing for us, about our land. This is a good country for us. I was young when we came. Now this is our home. They may try to drive us off many years but we will never give it up. They got our fathers' land. The Great Chief got the better of us long ago. We don't want to hear a thing about this. The Great Chief got the better of us long ago with the same promises we hear today. This is our land, and we are doing well here."
    Coos Jeff, head man of the Cooses: "I am glad to see Mr. Fairchild in my country today. I have long heard of this thing. It is like we were not living right. We are in trouble. I was ashamed when one man said he 'did not want to be driven like the Coos.' Yes it is like the whites had made us poor by driving us from our old country. I have a heavy heart on account of the treaty we made with Gen. Palmer" (unratified). "We came a long distance from that country. It was not a small country we gave the whites. It was a large country. You see me, Mr. Fairchild, today. You do not see me have much property. When we sold our land we never received any pay. You do not see me with team or wagon. I do not owe anybody anything, but the Great Chief owes me a great deal for the country we sold. We have left two countries now. I think on that account the Great Chief will not insist on our leaving this country. We have not received much help, yet we do very well."
    Pumley--Coos Indian: "I am almost an old man now. Long ago our Chief had a good heart to the whites. Long ago the Great Chief traded for our old country and gave us this country from the Yaquina to the Siuslaw. We have long lived here, though it seems as if we had only just now got an agent. We are determined not to give up our country. We came here from a distance and strongly desire to keep our country. The Great Chief owes us a great deal now. The agent from Siletz has come to see us now. No one came to see us and find out how much the Great Chief owes us. How long will it be before we get it. We are nearly all dead now and it is a great thing for us. They told us at first, 'You will all get wagons, the Umpquas, the Coos, the Alseas,' so they told us. We are all determined we will never give up this land. We are firmly determined to keep it. All of us, men, women and children, are decided on that point. I know all their minds."
    Geo. Cameron--Coos Indian: "My heart is full of this matter. It is like bad whites had taken us from our old country and brought us here. I do not want it that way now. How long will it be before we become like the whites. Long since the Great Chief gave us this country. Long ago Gen. Palmer made a treaty with us which was never carried out. The whites do not lie to each other. If they owe each other, they pay. Why did they not pay us as they agreed when we made the treaty. I do not want them to make any more promises of what they will do if we will leave our country. One chief who helped make the treaty died and got nothing from Washington. I do not want to give up my country like that anymore. I am doing well here, and mean to stay. It will be well if the Great Chief will hear what we say."
    Buchanan--Coos: "I have heard for a long time that Mr. Fairchild was coming here to talk to us. I think the Coos are as good as any Indians. The first time our fathers saw the whites they regarded them as friends. I was a boy then. They drove us here. We gave a large and valuable country to the whites. There is coal there. We have never received a dollar for our land. We are doing well and it is best for us to remain here now. We have made this a good country ourselves. If the govt. would help us a little here it would be well. We have long been told there was money coming for us, but we have never seen a cent. We have no teams. You will not see many teams here. If you send a good paper to Washington our hearts will be glad. We would be glad if we could increase our numbers here."
    Robert Burns--Coos: "If I was a big man I would not be ashamed to speak. I wish to say one thing to you two agents. I want you to have good hearts toward the Coos Indians. If you will help us in this matter with the Great Chief we shall be glad. You are paid to look out for Indians, and now we want you to look out for our interests. Long ago the whites told us they wanted us to grow and improve, and they would help us to become like themselves. If a good agent is here we improve. One thing: They try to help the Indians and keep moving them. That is wrong. If one should put down $500,000.00 we would not take it for our country. If the whites get land they improve it and desire to keep it. So it is with us. We have improved this land and like it. True we cannot read and write. When we speak, our words do not go straight to Washington. That is one thing that has kept us down, and another is that when our words do get there the answer does not come straight to us. If the Great Chief understands our minds it is well. We do not want to be hauled. We want to stay here. If we get a good agent it seems as if the Great Chief wanted to remove him. That is also a reason why we do not improve faster."
    Coos Tom--leading man: "I want to talk a little because a good man has come today. I don't want to be moved from here. We gave up a good country when we came here. I think the Great Chief understands that the Coos people are good. We will never give up this country. We want to live and die here. When we send word to Washington it seems as if it never reached there. We don't want the whites to feel bad if we live here and improve and come up. We have no thoughts of leaving this country. Our people are few and we don't want the whites to feel bad if we grow up and are helped a little. My heart is sad to think the Great Chief keeps taking about our giving up our land. I think we will improve this summer under our good agent and we want to be let alone."
    Jack Rodgers--chief of Coos Indians: "I did not at first understand what Mr. Fairchild said." (He was sick and not present at the beginning of the council.) "My people told me though I knew before they were talking about this country. My people do not want to leave here, neither do I. I think if my people do right they will improve and become like the whites. When the whites first saw us they gave us a few things. Afterwards they said, 'Let [us] have your land.' They talked one year and we then gave it up. Then we went to Umpqua. Today I am not like them. I am not hungry for blankets, shirts &c. This country looks good to me now. I would like to have the Washington chief help us to become like the whites. I have been absent at Coos Bay and return to find a good school in operation, and my people's children learning like the whites. Today I do not want you to push us on a bad road. If my people are hungry there are plenty of fish close at hand. It is a good country for fish and game. My people are very much afraid of the idea of moving. It seems as if since we left our old country we had no friends. Today we want our agent to write a strong paper to Washington and help us. Several have said today they did not want any money. How can they get along unless they are helped? My people the Coos and Umpquas are very much like the whites now. We only have a few houses. The Great Chief did not give them to us. We are like the whites in this. We do not wish to give up our country. The whites live at Yaquina and Umpqua, 25 miles distant. I think that is right. I think when we gave up the country between Yaquina and Alsea it was enough. Don't drive or haul us. It will be useless for any more agents to come and talk with us on this matter. We never will give up our country. We have a great variety of food which is produced here and that is the reason we do not wish to leave. Neither whites nor Indians made this country. God made it. We do not want to give it up."
    Mr. Fairchild: "My friends, I have heard all you have said. I have heard many men who all speak one way. I will faithfully send a copy of your words to the Great Chief in Washington. What the result will be, I am unable to say. I am glad you have a good agent in whom you have confidence and that you are improving. It is possible that Congress and the President have been misinformed respecting your wishes. I feel sure you will do what your agent tells you, and he will advise you right. One thing I wish to say: You seem to think the Great Chief does not pay attention to your wishes. Remember he has many Indians to look after and can spare but little time for each tribe."
    Mr. Litchfield: "I will say a few words more. Do not trouble yourselves about this matter. Do not get angry, and I want you to be careful and not give any of the whites cause for offense. If they talk bad, don't get angry, keep your temper, and by all means do nothing to offend them. I want you to take my word on this matter. Perhaps white people will come here to look at this land; treat them well. Do not be angry with them; do not be insolent or talk bad to them. Keep careful watch over your tongues, your hearts and your hands. This thing will all turn out for the best for you. The council will now close."
   

    I certify on honor that the above is a correct record of the proceedings of the council held at the Alsea Agency on the 17th of June with the tribes of the Alsea, Coos, Umpquas and Siuslaw Indians by J. H. Fairchild and Geo. P. Litchfield, U.S. Indian agents.
J. H. Fairchild
    U.S. Indian Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.  Compare with Litchfield's transcription of the council, below.



    Proceedings of a council held on the Alsea Indian Reservation, Oregon with the Alseas, Coos, Umpquas and Siuslaw tribes of Indians in regard to their removal to Siletz, Alsea Agency, June 17th 1875.
   

    Geo. P. Litchfield: "My friends, I have come to talk with you today in consequence of orders received from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who has directed the agent at Siletz, Mr. Fairchild, to come and in company with myself to make you certain propositions. These propositions we are now here to make you. The Commissioner thinks it would be best for you to remove to Siletz, where you can have certain advantages you cannot have here. You will there have help to cultivate your farms that will be given each one of you, and you will also have the advantage of a mill they expect to build there this summer, & no doubt would all do well. I have been with you now two years & you know I have never promised you anything unless I thought I should be able to fulfill my promise & you ought to know by this time whether you can depend upon my word. I will not talk much but let Mr. Fairchild talk to you, as he can better inform you of all the advantages he will be prepared to offer you at Siletz. I will now introduce Mr. Fairchild, the Siletz agent, to you."
    J. H. Fairchild: "My friends, I have not come here on my own business today. I have had good accounts of you from your agent and others. I have long wished to see you. I have heard that you were among the best of Indians on the Coast, and I am glad to see you now. But today I have come to say what my Great Father who is my Chief told me to say. You know that the whites have long desired your country & I am told they have troubled you very much on that account. The whites also wanted the land at Siletz, and my Indians have long had sick hearts, thinking they would be removed from their country. The white people say the Alsea Indians are only a few, yet they occupy much land. They cannot cultivate this land; it is more than they need. They also said the Siletz Indians are not more than 1000 in number, yet they have all the land from Cape Foulweather to near the Tillamook; why should the Indians hold so much land while there are so many whites that cannot get farms. I am now telling you what these people said. Well, they said all these things to Congress. The Congress is the grand council of the whites. Congress makes all the laws. Everybody must obey all the laws of Congress. Last winter Congress made a law on the subject. Congress said the Alsea and Siletz Indians have more land than they can cultivate; there are many whites who want farms and want a part of these reservations. We have been for years paying thousands of dollars for blankets, food & other necessaries for these Indians. Now we will make the Siletz Reservation extend from Cape Foulweather to the mouth of Salmon River and from the ocean to the Coast Range of mountains. There will be enough good land for all the Siletz and all the Alsea Indians. We will give them all that country so that they shall never be bothered about the land anymore, & we will give each man the head of a family or a single man as much land as he can cultivate & will help them for teams, plows, harrows and implements to till the soil, and we will make all the rest of the Siletz and Alsea reservations public land open for settlement by the whites. They also said we will not drive off any of these Indians. We will send men to talk straight & true to them & before they are moved we will get them to consent to it. The Commr. of Ind. Affairs instructed me as agent of the Siletz, with Mr. Litchfield as agent of the Alseas, to have a talk with you & to tell you of the advantages you will receive & what I am prepared to do for you, if you come to Siletz, and all money appropriated by Congress will be mutually expended for your individual benefits. What Mr. Litchfield, your agent, tells you is true. I have not come to offer you money. I have heard that you have been told I was coming here to offer you a large sum of money to move. Such is not the case. What I have to promise you if you come to Siletz is a farm for each man for his own property. Further the administration will help you to teams, harness, plows &c. with other stock, so that you will all be soon comfortably well off. Many of our Siletz Indians are well off. The government helps Indians who live on reservations, but not those who live with the whites. Take time to study this all over. You have a good country and a good agent. If you decide to remain I cannot tell what the result will be. If you come to Siletz, I think I can promise you good treatment, a good farm and good schools &c. At Siletz we have an organized church of God. Your agent has had no opportunity of organizing one at Siletz. You & your children can learn to worship god, to live right in this world & have an eternal life in the world to come. The government has promised to build a saw and grist mill this summer, and you would have the benefit of that. I am glad that you have a good agent in whom you all have confidence and that you improve. It is possible that the Administration has been misinformed respecting your wishes. You think it does not attend to you sufficiently; remember the government has a great many tribes of Indians to attend to, & has but a little time to spare for each tribe. A word more. Do not trouble yourselves, do not get angry, and avoid giving the whites any cause of offense. Perhaps white men will come here; do not be insolent & talk rude to them. Keep watch over your hearts, your tongues and your hands. We are now ready to hear all you have to say."
    Wadson, Alsea chief: "I want to talk straight what I have to say. The government gave us two places, the Yaquina and the Alsea. I live now at Alsea. I do not want to leave my country. I wish to live and die right here."
    Albert, Alsea head chief: "I wish to speak my mind today. If the government wishes me to work and improve my land I will do so. I want to keep my country and hand it down to my children. I am living in this country, (Alsea) where my father and grandfather lived, & want to live here, and my children too. We have houses built with our own hands, it is hard for us to give them up, even if our land is not fenced."
    William, head man (Alsea): "This thing I want to say to you two men today. We live on our own land; our children live there also. If we die, our children will get the land. We want to open our hearts to the Washington Chief. We have an agent here, he looks after us, & sees that we do right & live on our lands. We have our houses to live in. There are two mills on the Alsea, owned by white men; we get our lumber there. We get out logs and haul them to [the] mill & get the lumber to build with. What stock we have we keep on our land. We have never wronged the whites, we have never killed the first one. What makes the white man sick at heart for our land. We have remained quiet all the time. We are well situated and contented & desire to live where we are, and be let alone."
    John Yaquina: "The two old men Albert & Wadson acted as though they were afraid to speak. They got their own lumber; it was not bought for them by the agent. I am not afraid to live at Alsea; it is my country now. If our country is filled with whites I am not afraid. We have no cattle or sheep, but we have our homes, our houses & gardens. I am not afraid of being destitute if the whites live on the other side of the river. I do not want to leave my country & be driven like the Coos & the Umpquas. Genl. Palmer told the Coos & the Umpquas if they came here they would be like the whites. Some time ago I went to Siletz & saw Mr. Fairchild at his house. I told him I did not want to be like the Coos Indians. My people can live here now. A great many winters our women suffered severely from exposure getting food on the rocks, mussels & fish. Genl. Palmer did not bring them fish & mussels. He promised us we should get flour, sugar & coffee, but we did not get any; that is the reason we are afraid of the future, by judging by the past, & are afraid & do not want to go to another country. We have no money to buy flour in a new country. We see where men have plenty of money they can get plenty of food. We cannot improve much without money or help. I have no money. I have seen many Coos & Umpquas out of provisions; they have but little in their houses; the head men are in the same fix. I wish to live & die where I am & my children to get my house after me. I got the lumber for my house with my own labor, & our people have all got their houses the same way."
    Old Dr. John, Alsea: "I have got a house and two places; one is on the river where I have a fish trap, the other is back from water. I am very much attached to my country & do not want to leave it. No white man gave me my house. I built it with my own labor & want to keep it."
    Lame Jack, Alsea: "You know me. I am a poor man & I know the whites' mind. I am straight with everybody; my people say I am a bad man but I am not. I am on my own land. I have a sick heart; it is only the bad whites that have done wrong to us. The whites are not all that way. Once in a while a bad one comes along. This house is full today. The people all say they wish to keep their land & that is my heart. I have told the people if they were all of my mind no one would get their land. I have a crop of potatoes planted on my ground & am going to improve more land and build another house. I want my children to grow up on my place, & every summer I want to improve more land & build another house. I want my people to work more & do as I do; if they plant plenty, they will not be hungry. I don't want to be like the people used to be, have nothing planted & have to go hungry. The whites have made us like them, & that is the reason we have things planted now, & we will all plant & have something to eat. When we get our land fenced it will be very nice. If they all felt as I do, their hearts would be glad. I want all my people to stay where they are & improve their places as I will."
    John, Siuslaw chief: "I never saw Mr. Fairchild before; knows that he speaks Mr. Litchfield & that he speaks their language & does not want to speak long. Has talked with Mr. Litchfield every winter & summer, told Mr. L. to let his mind be known at Washington. I do not want to hear all the time about moving. I have heard it for a long time & thought it was all settled long ago. My mind has been made up about it for a long time. If I have nothing on my place I am not afraid of suffering for want of provisions. My heart is not sick. I do not want you to help the government get our lands away from us. I understand they want to send us money for our lands. I know the minds of our people & they do not want to sell their lands. It is a long time we have been without money, but we don't mind it now. I have a small place. I have no money, but have not a sick heart. I am told government sends money to every place for Indians, but we don't get any. When the whites first talked to Indians, they promised many things they did not perform, hopes they won't do so anymore.
    "If I was to talk several days, I should talk the same way all the time. It was not my mind to come where I am now living, but the will of the government. This country where I now live I will never give up. Genl. Palmer gave it to us."
    Dick, Siuslaw chief: "I don't want to talk much. Where I am living now was always my country. I have had a bad heart toward my country for a long time. I never intend to give it up. This is the first time I ever saw Mr. Fairchild. My heart is not with him in what he says about our moving. I have a big heart & will not move a step towards another country. It is the same as if they were trying to drag my heart out to Siletz with good things & promises. My mind is made up & will be the same all the time. I will not receive a dollar. Suppose they say there is plenty of money at Siletz. I will not go there. I want to live and die here on my land & in my country. My mind is made up that way. I don't want to go to any other place to die. I raised produce on my ground before the whites came here. I got seeds from the Hudson Bay Co. I wish the whites would let us alone & not try to get our country from us. This is all my mind what I have said. We are poor now. Leave us alone. We don't want to hear any more talk about leaving our country anymore."
    George, Siuslaw: "I don't want to place myself ahead of old people. I want to talk a little. What makes the whites think our people are no better than dogs. No matter how much they say we will talk a little after them. How can the white people believe in God & wish to drive the Indian off his land. If they wish to make us better they can do it here. A long time ago when I was a boy I heard of (driving Indians) that is the way they have done to this poor people & now they are nearly gone. Our fathers are buried here & it is best to die on the same ground & let our children grow up, die & be buried on our own land. There is only now a few of us left & we do not want to go to another place to die. Three old men came here with me & I never will take them to another country."
    Joe Scott: "Today all these people are gathered together with sad hearts & with the same sorrowful feeling to listen to Mr. Fairchild, who has come to talk to them about their leaving their country & their moving to Siletz. My heart rejoices to see my words written down. I do not want the change that Mr. Fairchild proposes, nor do I wish to hear that the Administration wants us to give up our country & go to Siletz. I was brought to this country a long time ago; it is my country now. My people are well nigh gone & I will never give up this country. I understand the government promises that were made us when we came here, & we were deceived. It is a long time we have been without money, but my heart is not sick on account of that. We have had promises a long time that we should have help from the Administration & improve & come up, but we have not had it. We have had different agents, but it seems that we never had one till now, & if the present agent continues we will keep on improving, as we are doing now. We do not ask the government to give us things, but to fulfill their promises made a long time ago. The old agents used to make us promises and not keep them."
    Sopeny, Umpqua head man: "I want to speak one way all the time. My heart is the same as it was when Inspector Kemble was here. My mind is the same today about this country as it would be if I was living on the Umpqua. I have lived here a lot time. I have improved my land. I left another country. White people got it from us. I came from a long way off. It is all right now; there are no whites here & we are all right here. I have grown older; my people have sad hearts & thoughts thinking of being forced to leave their country. I was a young man once myself & when I hear the young men talk, they all talk & feel the same about this matter. I know the white people have plenty of money, but we don't want this money, we want them to let us alone. We are poor; a great many of us have died since we came here every winter. The agents have told us for a long time this is your land. My father lived in Siuslaw. I don't want to hear any more talk about building up at Siletz. We left good houses in Umpqua; if we are forced to go to Siletz we will never build up or improve again."
    Tom, Umpqua: "I have but little to say; my mind is the same as my chief. I don't want to talk different to the rest. I am not afraid of living in this country. The government knows that we are here & that the country belongs to us. This country is a great thing to us, and we are much attached to it. I was quite a young man when I came here & this country is now the same as our home to us. No matter how many years you may try to drive us away we will never willingly give up this, our country. The whites got our fathers' country a long time ago when the Administration won our fathers. I don't want to hear of our giving up our country talked about anymore; we were won by the same talk we have heard today, years ago. This is our land here; we are all right here & we will always keep it."
    Jeff, Coos head man: "I feel glad to see Mr. Fairchild today. I have heard of this talk for a long time from the whites & I feel worried & bad about it. I feel bad about hearing Mr. Fairchild talk about our leaving our country. The whites have made us poorer by driving us from our original country (Coos Bay). My heart has been long sick about the original treaty made by Genl. Palmer not being ratified. We have come a good way from that country to this one. It was not a small country that we gave to the white people, but a large one. I have very little property. I never got anything for my country that I gave up. I have no horse, team nor wagon. I don't owe anything, but the government owes me a good deal. I have left two places already from Coos Bay to Umpqua & from Umpqua to Alsea. Where I now live, I wish to live and die. I think we have good reason not to want to give up our land anymore. We have not been helped much but we are doing very well."
    Pumley, Coos: "I am nearly an old man now. A long time ago my chief had a good heart towards the white people & traded with them for the country from Yaquina Bay to Siuslaw. We have been here a long time, but it seems as though we had just got an agent for the first time in the one we have now & commenced to improve. We are all determined not to give up this country; it suits us very well & we always want to live here. The government owes us a good deal. The Siletz agent Mr. Fairchild has come to see us & have a talk. He did not come before to see us, to know how much the government owes us. We are much in need; how long are we to wait before we get it. We have been promised wagons--to each tribe one wagon--by former Agent Case. We will never give up this country; we will keep it always. I know the minds of the people."
    Geo. Cameron, Coos: "My heart is full & sick with this talk of leaving this country. It seems as though bad white people took us away from our old homes & brought us to this country. Today I do not want to be removed again. How long is [it] to be before we are like the whites, to be improved as we have been promised. We received this country from the Washington Chief a long time ago. The treaty made with Genl. Palmer was never carried out, & that is one trouble with us today. The whites don't lie to each other when they make a treaty; why do they lie when they make a treaty with Indians. When they owe one another they pay; why don't they pay us. I want to hear no more of their promises, nor do I want to hear any more of our leaving our country. Our Chief never received any benefits from the treaty; he has been dead several years. I don't want to give up my country any more. I am comfortably fixed now. It would be good for us if the Washington Chief could hear what we have today."
    Buchanan, Coos: "I have heard for a long time that Mr. Fairchild was coming to talk with us. I think our tribe has behaved with the whites as well as any other Indians. When our fathers first saw the whites they thought they were our friends. I was a small boy at that time. When they brought us here, we gave up a large tract of country to the whites. There were a good many valuable things in that country, among them coal. We have never received anything for that country. We are well fixed here now & it is well for us to live here. We have improved this country with our own hands, & it would be well if the Administration would help us now so that we could make more improvements. The whites have told us that we would get money a long time ago, but we have received none. There are very few teams here. I want you to send good accounts of us to the Washington Chief & we will keep up a good heart. If we could increase in numbers among ourselves it would be good fur us."
    Rob. Burns, Coos: "If I was a big man I would not be afraid to talk. One thing I wish to say. I want you to have a good heart towards the Coos people. I wish you to help us with the Administration; by doing so you will make us happy. You get pay for looking after us & we want you to study our interests. The whites have promised to help us & make us like white people. When we have a good agent, as we now have, it seems as though we improve & get up. One mistake you make in trying to improve Indians, you keep moving them. If you were to put down $500,000 it would be no object to induce us to part with our lands & our homes. We would like to improve our lands like the whites do & live like them. We know you have the advantage in education & experience. We think that what we do & say is not taken straight to Washington & that is one reason why we are not treated better. We want the Administration to know our minds. We want to remain where we are & not be forced to leave. When we get a good man here it seems the government want to take him away & that stops us from improving."
    Tom, Coos: "The reason I want to talk is because there is a good man here. I don't want to be moved from here. We gave up a good country to come here. I think the Administration know the Coos to be good Indians. We will never give up this country; we want to live & die here. We think when we sent word to Washington it never went there. We don't want it to make the whites feel bad if we live here and improve & come up. We don't have the first thought about leaving this country. Our people are few & we don't want the white people to feel bad if we are helped. I feel bad to think that the Administration will keep talking about our leaving our country. I think we will improve this summer under our good agent, & we want to be let alone."
    Jack Rogers, Coos chief: "I was not here to hear what Mr. Fairchild said when he talked, but I have heard it from others. I knew what was to be talked about. My people do not want to give up this country; neither do I. I think if they are treated right they will improve here & be like the whites. When the whites first saw us they gave us a few articles of clothing; afterwards they said give us your land. After talking a year we gave up our country (Coos Bay) for the whites & went to Umpqua. I am not as I was then, hungry for a few articles of clothing &c. This country now looks good to me. I think it would be good to help us now, so that we could improve like the whites. I do not want you to push us on a bad road today so as to give our lands to the whites. We do not have to go far after fish & mussels when we get hungry. The elk, deer & fish are a great help to us here. My people are afraid to go to any other country & leave this one. It seemed as though we had no white friends to help us when we left our country. We want you to help us today. A good many men have said they did not want any money; if the agent has nothing to give us, how are we to get help. My people, the Coos and Umpquas, are very nearly like the whites today. We have no property but horses; we have a few of them. We got them ourselves. We did not have them given us by the government. We don't want to give up our country anymore. The whites live at the Yaquina & the Umpqua & I think the separating distance is about right. We gave up all the country from the Yaquina to the Alsea & we think that ought to be enough to satisfy all, and for you not to ask us to give up any more. We want you to give us help that we can improve our lands & not give us any trouble about leaving this country. We do not want any more agents to come & talk to us about our leaving this country, as we will never give up this our country. The reason that we like this country so well is that there are so many natural resources for food. Fish and game in abundance. We did not make this country; it was created by the Almighty God, & it suits us so well we cannot give it up."
    Geo. P. Litchfield: "I will talk a little. The Commissioner has sent me a letter. He has instructed me to say to you that he thought it would be well for you to leave this summer. He also suggested that the present Administration was probably more favorable towards the Indians than a future Administration might be, on which account it would be better for you to move now. Should you move you would doubtless have many advantages. You would have an interest in the mill they expect to put up there this summer & you would doubtless do well. Mr. Fairchild will now talk a little."
    J. H. Fairchild: "My friends, I have heard all you have said. I have heard many men who all speak one way. I will faithfully send a copy of your words to Washington. What will be the result I am unable to say. I am glad you have a good agent in whom you have confidence & that you all improve. It is possible that Congress and the Administration has been misinformed respecting your wishes. I felt sure you will do what your agent tells you & he will advise you right. You think the Administration does not sufficiently attend to you; remember they have a great many tribes of Indians to attend to, and therefore have but little time to devote to each tribe. A word more: Do not trouble yourselves; do not get angry & be careful not to give the whites any cause of offense. Perhaps white men may come here; treat them well. Do not be cross; do not be insolent & talk rude to them. Keep watch over your hearts, your tongues & your hands. This thing will turn out for the best for you.
    "The council will now close."
   

    I certify on honor that the foregoing is a true and correct report of all the proceedings had at the council held by J. H. Fairchild & Geo. P. Litchfield, U.S. Indian agents with the Coos, Umpquas, Siuslaw & Alsea Indians of Alsea Agency upon the 17th day of June 1875.
Geo. P. Litchfield
    Special U.S. Indian Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.  Compare with Fairchild's transcription of the council, above.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon June 21st 1875
Sir
    I have the pleasure of informing you of the safe arrival home of Geo. Harney and wife, who accompanied Hon. A. B. Meacham to the East. Harney and wife desire to express their gratitude for the many kindnesses they received at your hands, and especially to your lady. Permit me to add my thanks to theirs. Maggie looks much worn and reduced, but I am happy to say is improving rapidly. Their child is in good health.
    Again I desire to express my thanks for your kindness to them and remain
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon June 21st 1875
Sir
    Herewith I have the honor to transmit copy of minutes of council held with Indians on the Alsea Reservation June 17th in reference to their removal to Siletz Reservation as per instructions of March 8th (marked L). Perhaps the result attained would have been more satisfactory had the negotiation been conducted by an Inspector of Agencies or other authorized commissioner, though I offered every inducement the circumstances would warrant. The old people among the Indians have an invincible horror of changing their residence, believing that it will invariably cause their death. I do not yet entirely despair of inducing a part, at least, of the Alseas to change their determination. We have decided to invite them, as well as the Tillamooks, to our celebration of the 4th July, hoping that when they see the farms and improvements of our Indians, and understand they can only hope for assistance from the government by coming to Siletz, they may reconsider their determination. No doubt one principal reason of the utter failure of the negotiation was the unratified treaty they made with ex-Supt. of Indian Affairs in 1855.
    They had, it appears, built great expectations on the money they were to receive under these treaties, and the failure to receive anything has made them distrustful of the promises of the whites.
    Their present agent Mr. Litchfield seems to have acquired their entire confidence, and it cannot be doubted but they are, as themselves declare, making more rapid advancement than ever before. Sometime in the spring one of the head men of the Alseas, John, visited Siletz, and not only expressed himself favorable to a removal to Siletz, but declared his people, in his opinion, would offer no objections. His people it seems learned of this, and threatened to drive him from among them, declaring he had sold himself to the "Bostons." A referral to the minutes will show that his opinions have radically changed.
    The copy of minutes herewith transmitted was translated and taken from the speakers by myself (except my own remarks), while Mr. Litchfield's copy was written by his clerk from his translation.
    This may cause some verbal discrepancies between his copy and my own, though the general sense and meaning is the same in both I believe. From my own observation and the best intelligence I have been able to gather, it is my deliberate opinion that were the whole Alsea Reservation open to settlement today, not five claims would be located by white settlers in ten years, if the little spot of perhaps two acres, where the agency buildings are located, was excepted.
    Sand hills, scraggy brushy timber, and brush-covered mountains represent about the whole of it. The fisheries, however, are good, the game is plentiful, and little spots of from ½ to 5 acres, just suitable for Indian gardens, can be found.
    Were the Indians to remain, and were it thought desirable to avoid the expense of keeping up an agency for so few Indians, one employee--a farmer in addition to a teacher--would be all that would be required, and the Indians could be placed under the jurisdiction of the agent at Siletz. No extra expense would then be made, and both these employees would be needed over the Indians located on Siletz Reservation.
    I make these suggestions with extreme diffidence, as I do not forget that I once (before I had visited and talked with these Indians) held different opinions. Could their removal now be effected without trouble, it would doubtless be best for them in every point of view, but from their entire unanimity of sentiment, and strong feeling on the subject, I doubt the possibility of their peaceable removal.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Siletz Indian Agency
    June 21st 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of June 4th with instructions in regard to the Alsea Indians and those living north of the present Siletz Reservation. I regret that this did not reach me before the council with the Alseas held June 17th, the result of which I forward by this mail. That part of the instructions relating to the census of the Alseas I will forward to Agent Litchfield immediately.
    If the Alseas accept the invitation tendered them by the Siletz Indians to participate in the celebration of the Fourth of July, it is possible a portion of them may conclude to accept the offers of the government and come to this reservation.
    I am specially anxious that those Indians living north of the Siletz Reservation, and more particularly the Tillamooks, should avail themselves of the offers of the government, as if they persist in their present determination it is not difficult to foresee their fate.
    From my observation of the character of the Alsea Reservation, I do not entertain the same apprehensions with regard to them, as I regard it as extremely problematical whether white settlers will occupy any considerable portion of that reserve for years to come.
    The census of the Indians living on that portion of Siletz Reservation opened for settlement under the recent act of Congress I have already had the honor to forward in my letter of June 4th with proceedings of council with Tillamooks.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    June 30th 1875
Sir,
    In compliance with the instructions of your office, I have the honor to report that on the 6th inst. I accompanied Genl. Barstow, Commissioner, and Maj. Boyle to the Grand Ronde Agency and back.
    Herewith I send statement of Peter Petit, a half-breed, in relation to two old Indians and one young girl near Roseburg--about 200 miles from the agency. Agent Sinnott having no team nor money for such service, I will get an Indian of his (the old Indian) tribe, who has a wagon & team, to accompany me and go after them.
    On the 11th inst. I went to Oregon City on complaint of citizens. They complained of an Indian who has lived there for the past 14 years. At one time the citizens so respected him that they gave him 2 acres of land. He is a Columbia River Indian married to two Umpqua squaws. Of late he has become perfectly reckless. One year he cost the county near thirteen hundred dollars. I gave him a month to make up his mind whether he would prefer to be a good Indian or go to his tribe.
    On the 20th inst. I went to Albany on complaint of some citizens to induce an Indian to return to his reservation, from which he has absented himself for the past eight years. Some squaws who had been working for good families here for three or four months continuously, at wages of four dollars per week, were enticed by some white men who work on a steamboat (one the mate & one a deckhand) to get drunk. The men were arrested and bound over to appear before the U.S. grand jury.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Agent
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
   

Salem Oregon
    June 16th 1875
James Brown Esq.
    U.S. Indian Agent
        Salem Ogn.--Sir--
            There is at my place near Roseburg three Indians, one a very old man, nearly or quite 100 years old, perfectly blind, one old squaw, crippled of one leg and one arm, both perfectly helpless, and one young girl about 13 or 14 years old. They have been at my place for nearly two years, and I am not able to keep them, nor can I drive them off, for they are not able to go, and I am not able nor fixed so that I can take them to the Grand Ronde Agency, where they belong. They ran away from the agency 5 or 6 years ago, and have never been back to the agency. They are of the Umpqua tribe. I wrote you a letter about them three months ago, but it must have got lost. I hope if you can you will have these Indians taken away to their agency, where they will be better taken care of. Neither one of the old ones can live very many years, and the girl ought to be where she could go to school. I am poor, and it is a big tax on me to take care of them and feed them, much less send the girl to school. I am here on business but will go home in a few days.
Very respectfully
    Peter Petit
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 989-993.



Siletz Indian Agency
    July 1st 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to report that I have just received a letter from Lieut. W. H. Boyle, Special Ind. Agt. at Portland, Or. enclosing copy of a dispatch from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, directing him to purchase a saw mill of Mr. J. R. Moores for use at this agency. I regret that I was not informed that this action was contemplated. I have some knowledge of the mill in question, and were my original estimates of $15,000 for both mills allowed, this would be the very mill we should want. If however only $10,000 can be spared for both the saw and grist mill, it will be absolutely necessary to build a saw mill of a less expensive character than the one purchased from Mr. Moores. I am not informed what amount has been paid for this mill. Mr. Moores has always assured me that $4000 coin (equal to about $4571.00 cy.) was the very least he could possibly take for it. I presume this is about the sum paid, as the original cost was nearly double that amount.
    The cost of transportation to this agency will be not less than $1000--indeed if it is delivered here for that figure, I shall esteem ourselves fortunate. To erect it and put it in running order will cost several hundred more, so that by the time the saw mill is completed, ⅔ of the $10,000 will have been exhausted. On receiving the letter of May 27th from the Hon. Commissioner informing me that only $10,000 could be allowed for mills here, I carefully revised my estimates, and selecting a saw mill of an inexpensive character (but fully capable of performing the work required) which would leave sufficient margin for the grist mill, advertised for machinery as directed. I allude to these matters to show that if we are to have a grist mill, it will be absolutely necessary to appropriate more than $10,000 for mills here. If both saw and grist mills cannot be allowed we can much better dispense with the saw mill. There are two saw mills within 10 miles. The nearest grist mill is from 50 to 60 miles. We can get along without a saw mill--a grist mill we must have, if the Indians are ever to do anything for themselves. If no grist mill is built, the government must go on, year after year, purchasing flour, or the Indians must reside a large part of the year outside the reservation. With a flouring mill there is the greatest incentive to labor, as each Indian knows all his surplus wheat can readily be converted into money. I therefore respectfully urge the necessity of a larger allowance than $10,000 for both mills, and respectfully ask authority to go on and build both mills with the assurance that the money will be allowed for that purpose to an amount not to exceed $15,000 currency.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
         Washington
             D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon July 12th 1875
Sir
    Under instructions from the Department in letter from the Hon. Commissioner, of the 27th May (marked F), I advertised for bids to furnish machinery for mills at this agency, the bids to be examined the 15th inst. The saw mill has since been purchased, by order direct from the Department, leaving only the bids for the grist mill to be considered. To get both mills in running order this season will render it necessary to commence work at once. Before anything can be done, it will be necessary to employ a millwright to make the drawings and specifications for the grist mill to enable me to select the machinery, as without this no one could tell what amount of shafting, belting &c. would be required. All the machinery is to be transported over a rough mountain road, where the utmost care must be constantly used. The site for the mills is to be cleared, the timbers got out, frames erected &c. It is now past the middle of the season, and if the mills are to run this year, no time should be lost. Nothing has been done, because I have had no funds in my hands that could be applied to that purpose.
    I would, therefore, respectfully urge that funds be placed at my disposal as soon as practicable to build these mills.
    I cannot too strongly urge the great importance of the completion of these mills before winter. All that was possible to do before I received funds I have done--but to procure drawings for the mill, clear the ground and get out the timbers all required money, which I did not have.
    The days in this latitude in winter are so short that not more than 6 to 7 hours are light enough to see to work.
    Therefore, the expense would be much increased if the work was not completed before winter fairly sets in.
    I most respectfully but earnestly urge immediate attention to this matter and ask that funds be placed to my credit at the earliest practicable moment to build these mills.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon July 14th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 29th June with information of a saw mill, purchased for use at this agency, in addition to $10,000 previously allotted for mills here. I cannot forbear expressing my sense of the very great favor shown to these Indians by this action. I shall now be enabled to build a grist mill capable of producing flour that will compete in quality with the Willamette Valley Mills, and these Indians will always be able to dispose of all their surplus wheat for cash.
    I had received information of the purchase of the saw mill and, under the impression that the sum paid was to be deducted from the $10,000 allotted for mills here, I had the honor to address you under date of July 1st on this subject.
    I respectfully ask leave to withdraw that letter.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Department of the Interior
    Office of Indian Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
            July 17th 1875
Sir:
    By authority of the Honorable Secretary [of the] Interior, you are appointed special agent to assist agents Fairchild and Litchfield in the removal and consolidation of the Alsea and Siletz Indians upon a portion of the Siletz Reservation, which by law of Congress has been made their permanent reservation.
    This removal is deemed by the Department to be very desirable both for its results upon the Indians and upon the citizens of Oregon. All the Indians thus consolidated can be more easily reached and benefited by the government. The grounds set apart for them are amply sufficient to afford a good opportunity for agriculture and herding, and can be allotted to each Indian family, thus promoting self-support and individuality and preparing the people for citizenship and an ultimate possession in fee-simple of their allotments.
    For the accomplishment of a purpose so desirable in itself it is undesirable that any force or influence should be used with the Indians which is likely to irritate them into a conflict, but they should be made acquainted with great clearness and accuracy of interpretation with the wishes of the government, and should be given distinctly to understand that they are expected to comply.
    If any of the Indians at Alsea have improved ground which they desire to retain and are ready for that purpose to separate themselves from the tribe and enter such lands under the Homestead Act, they should be encouraged and aided by all means so to do. Your careful attention is directed to this matter, and you will keep in mind that it is not sufficient merely to tell an Indian how to make the entry under the act, but he needs assistance and advice at every step until its full accomplishment.
    The same may be said respecting a portion of the Siletz Indians who are understood to occupy the part of their present undiminished reserve. If they prefer to remain where they are and be set up for themselves under the Homestead Act, give them every possible encouragement and aid in that direction. Or if they much prefer to go to the Grand Ronde they should not be coerced in their preference, but in the judgment of the Department the permanent Siletz Reservation offers them the best inducements for their future home and prosperity.
    You will proceed to the Siletz Reservation and in company with Agent Fairchild take further steps in such order or time as you may find best. It is not impossible that Agent Fairchild may himself be now at the Alsea Reservation in conference with Agent Litchfield upon the subject of removal.
    Respecting the removal you will refer to communications heretofore made to the respective agents by this office, which are on file at their agencies.
    You will make an early report and subsequently frequent, detailed accounts of your progress and difficulties in executing this commission.
    Your compensation will be at the rate of 8.00 per day and your actual and necessary traveling expenses. Great care should be used to sustain all accounts with sub-vouchers in the form of receipts for amounts paid out.
    Enclosed find Department circular of July 1st and circular letter of 
February 26 of the Honorable Second Comptroller.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        [unsigned]
            Commissioner
Ben. Simpson
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        July 19th, 1875.
Sir,
    In compliance with request by your letter of the 17th instant, I send herewith settlement No. 195 of the claim of N. B. Clough for fruit trees furnished for the Indian Service in Oregon--settlement dated February 22nd 1875. The settlement contains papers numbered from 1 to 43, both inclusive.
Very respectfully
    E. B. French
        Second Auditor
Hon. Commissioner
    Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 924-925.



Portland Oregon
    July 22nd 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to report that in presence of Maj. W. H. Boyle, U.S. Inspector of Indian Supplies, I have this day examined the proposals for furnishing machinery for grist mill at Siletz Agency.
    The only bid for grist mill complete and the most favorable of all the bids was that of H. W. Shipley, who proposes to furnish the machinery, nails, glass, turbine wheel &c. and erect a mill at the agency for $6000 currency. The Dept. is to furnish transportation for the machinery and lumber and timber for mill and assist in building the dam. The mill is to be strictly a first-class mill, capable of making flour that will compare favorably with any manufactured in the state. I had the honor of informing your office by telegraph, and asking authority to close contract &c. This is a most favorable offer, and I hope the Department will authorize its acceptance. The season is now so far advanced that not an hour should be lost in the erection of these mills. I therefore respectfully ask that funds be placed to my credit as soon as possible to go on with the work, as I can do nothing till funds are placed in my hands.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon July 27th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to report that I have made very favorable contracts for furnishing machinery and erecting the grist mill at this agency. I have also made a contract for hauling the machinery for the saw mill on very favorable terms. The season is already so far advanced that no time must be lost in getting the machinery here and erecting the mill. The freight charges on the machinery by steamboat will have to be placed before the freight leaves the wharf, and I have no means to pay them. I respectfully ask that funds may be placed to my credit as soon as possible for that purpose. I find myself considerably embarrassed in making arrangements to erect these mills by reports that are in circulation that I am to be removed for alleged lukewarmness towards the Republican Party.
    Although nothing could be more utterly false and groundless than this charge, it will readily be seen how much these reports must embarrass me in making contracts for the mills in advance of funds.
    As the reports come from politicians who profess to be well informed, there is always a doubt--should they prove correct--whether my successor would approve and ratify any action I might take. It has been, and is, my earnest desire to retire from the service as soon as these mills shall be completed, as my private affairs demand attention, and the salary of Indian agent will hardly support my family in this place.
    It is my belief that at that time, by the appointment of a practical farmer as agent, the salary of one employee may be saved to the govt. without detriment to the service.
    To complete the mills this season it is necessary that no time be lost as, at the best, it will be late in the fall before we can get fairly at work on them, and I fear high water and winter rains may come before they are finished.
    I most earnestly urge that funds be supplied me immediately to go on with this most important work.
    If I could add anything to impress the Department with the importance to the service, and the absolute necessity of immediate attention to this matter, I would do so. I firmly believe that $5000 now is worth $10,000 three months hence.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon July 29th 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your dispatch of the 24th inst. with information that only $24,000 can be allotted this agency the present fiscal year for all purposes, including payment for the saw mill purchased by the Dept. of Mr. J. R. Moores. The information surprised me, as the impression I gained from your communication of the 29th ultimo (marked F) was that the purchase of the saw mill from Mr. Moores was intended to be outside the $10,000 allotted for mills at this agency. In that letter after informing me that Lieut. W. H. Boyle had been instructed by telegraph to purchase the saw mill, the following language occurs: "After securing a saw mill for this price, it is believed that the amount ($10,000) set apart as above indicated will be sufficient to meet the entire cost incident to the erection of the necessary buildings, to furnish machinery for a grist mill, and to place the whole in working order." From this I inferred that ten thousand dollars was to be placed in my hands for "erection of necessary buildings, to furnish machinery for a grist mill and to place the whole in working order." If payment for the saw mill is to come from the $10,000, it will not be possible to transport the machinery, erect the buildings and build the grist mill.
    The cost of the saw mill at Albany, where it will be loaded on wagons, will be something over $4100 coin, equivalent to $4685.71 currency at present rates; from there it will cost at the least $35.00 per ton to deliver at the agency, and as the whole weight, Lieut. Boyle informs me, is 25 tons, the transportation will cost $375.00, making the saw mill cost when delivered at Siletz over $5500.00.
    To erect the mill and set it running will cost not less than $1000 so that more than ⅔ the amount allotted for both mills will have been absorbed by the saw mill alone when fully completed.
    I respectfully ask authority to go on with the work on the grist mill, so far as the funds will allow, suspending operations as soon as they are exhausted.
    The appropriation will probably permit building the dam, preparing the site, and perhaps erecting the building.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    August 4th 1875.
Sir,
    I have the honor to respectfully state that there is a case of surgical instruments at the Grand Ronde Agency that some years since cost the government one hundred dollars in currency. There being no doctor at the agency, of course the instruments are of no value to the Department.
    The Indians from Grand Ronde, Siletz and Alsea agencies that work in the vicinity of this place generally work for wagons, harness etc., with just enough money to get provisions. When they get sick by purchasing the medicines myself, I have been able therefore to get a doctor to visit and prescribe free. I know a good doctor at this place who will agree to doctor all the Indians who may need his services at or near this place for one year in consideration of the case of instruments. If not, contrary to the rules of the Dept. I would recommend that the arrangement be made, and on receipt of instructions for the turning over the instruments to me, I can complete the contract, with such safeguards for the faithful performance of agreement as the Dept. may direct.
    Within a few weeks past two ax wounds have demanded the physician's attention, besides numerous cases of sickness of woman and children.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Indian Agent
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1101-1103.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon
        Aug. 9th 1875

Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication of the 22nd ultimo, having reference to amount allotted this agency for mills and other purposes.
    On the 29th July I had the honor of addressing you on the subject, to which letter I respectfully refer.
    Soon after receiving your dispatch 24th ult. in answer to my telegram asking approval of the contract for furnishing machinery and erection of grist mill, I learned that the contractor, Mr. H. W. Shipley, after waiting some days to learn if the contract was approved, fearing the rains might set in before he could complete the dam, and from the circumstances of the case entertaining no doubt of the approval of the contract, entered into engagements with a foundry for certain machinery, from which he cannot now escape.
    His action was hasty and ill-advised, but prompted by a desire to complete the work before the winter rain should render it impossible to labor on the mill to advantage. Unless he shall be permitted to go on and finish the mill, he must lose heavily. Though in no way responsible for his action (he was informed that the approval of the Department must be received before work was commenced), yet I cannot forbear expressing the regret I feel that such should be the case. Should he be compelled to countermand the orders for machinery, to suspend all operations now it will provoke inquiry, excite much criticism, the purchase of Mr. Moores' mill will be misrepresented by the Democratic and Independent papers, and much unpleasant newspaper controversy evoked. I beg to be distinctly understood. I am in no way or manner responsible for Mr. Shipley's action in commencing operations on the grist mill before the Department had signified approval of the contract.
    He distinctly understood that no steps should be taken till the contract was approved in Washington. Still the fact of his having taken the contract for the mill is known, the fact that the machinery is being prepared is known, and if the work is now suspended much inquiry will be provoked, and by distorting and misrepresenting facts capital will be sought for the coming election in this state. He declares his entire willingness to complete the mill according to contract, receiving the amount I shall be able to pay from the $10,000 already allotted, and take his chances of securing the remainder from the next Congress.
    I make no recommendations on this subject, but leave the whole matter to the judgment of the Department. I have no words to express the regret I shall feel, or the bitter disappointment of these Indians, if they shall now fail to get a grist mill. I believe it is the one thing needful to enable them speedily to attain a condition of self-support.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Aug. 11, 1875
Sir
    Your circular dated July 22nd giving rates of salaries allowed to employees upon Ind. reservations is recd., and referring to the same I respectfully and urgently request that I be allowed to pay the maximum rates therein given, and that the salaries of all my employees be placed at those maximum figures, beginning with July 1st.
    This agency is one of the most remote on the Pacific Coast, and it is forcing the agent to the employment of poor and unprofitable workmen to limit him to any less than the highest figures. Although the salaries allowed are very unequal and disproportionate to the labor and required skill involved, yet if I am allowed the maximum I can so arrange the different duties and labors as to make it nearly equal.
    I know it to be for the good of the service that I should be allowed to pay salaries sufficiently large to secure good, faithful, competent persons, and I earnestly beg that my request be granted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Port Orford Ogn. Aug. 12th 1875
    To the Hon. Secretary of the Indian Department, Washington, D.C.
    Enclosed you will find a petition for the removal of the Indians to the reservations set apart for them. The day before yesterday, late in the afternoon, my family and I left my house to go to a neighbor's, distant about five miles, and did not return until about dark. While we were gone two Indians attempted to enter my dwelling and no doubt would have succeeded, had it not been that my hired man discovered them, being attracted by the fierce baying of the dog, and went to the house and ordered them off, and entering they attempted to force their way in after him but he closed and barred the door and got the arms ready for the defense, when they desisted. They then asked him where I was; he told them I was out burning logs, but they told him they knew better, that they had seen my family and myself leave by way of the road, showing that they came for some nefarious purpose because they knew we were absent, and supposed no one was there. In case such acts are repeated (which no doubt will be) a conflict will be precipitated between the whites and the Indians. Three years since no Indians were here, but now are as numerous as the whites; no telling what serious consequences will follow their further stay here. I commenced circulating a petition yesterday, and but three of the most low, degrading whites refused, but all of the balance expressed their earnest desire for their removal, for no man knows when his house will be pillaged and family outraged in his absence. Please do not delay, but have them removed and save difficulty and lives. If they remain until the rainy season sets in, which will be about the first of November, it will be more difficult to take them, but I hope they will be taken immediately and oblige many citizens.
C. Madden
P.S. Will send other petitions in the course of one or two weeks, but forward this to facilitate matters. Yesterday I wrote to Mr. Fairchild, the agent at the Siletz Reservation.
C.M.
   
To the Honorable Secretary of the Indian Department
    Washington
        D.C.
We, the undersigned citizens of Curry County, Oregon, would humbly represent to your honor that: Whereas, the Indians from the Siletz Reservation and other parts of Oregon have been collecting into this section of country for the last three years, until they have become a public nuisance, rendering it unsafe for citizens to leave their homes for a single day, and by their recent acts are liable to precipitate a conflict between the whites and Indians at any time;
    Therefore your petitioners humbly pray your honor to have the Indians remove immediately to their reservation.
C. H. Peirce
John Ballard
Charles Crew
M. Duffy
P. Hughes
Edward Wilson
Joseph Bates
George W. Bailey
John Vail
J. H. Deadmond
Wm. S. Winsor
Ed Bush
C. W. Zumwalt
Wm. Bateron
J. A. Cox
J. B. Tichenor
William Tichenor
Frank Daniels
E. J. Gould
Joseph Field
James C. Peters
Simeon Brown
H. C. Lorentzen
R. Mattison
Joe Sharp
R. W. Dunbar
Louis Knapp
W. H. Carleton
C. H. Crew
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Oswego August 16th 1875
Hon. C. Delano, Sec. of the Interior
    Sir
        I address a communication to you in relation to building a grist mill on Siletz Indian Reservation, Oregon.
    On the 22nd day of July 1875, I contracted with J. H. Fairchild, Indian agent for Siletz Reservation, to build a grist mill, water power.
    I agreed to furnish water wheel, buhrs, bolting cloth, gearing and shafting, smut machine, and all other necessary facilities for scouring and cleaning the grain. I agree to put up the mill structure and put in all the machinery in a workmanlike manner and guarantee the same to grind 10 to 12 bushels per hour and make good flour. All the above material to be of the best quality. As soon as the contracts with Mr. Fairchild was signed, I also entered in a contract with Smith brothers, foundry men of Portland, to make all the necessary machinery for the above-named mill, and had sent to Mount Vernon, Ohio for merchant grist mill, and sent an order to San Francisco for bolting cloth, given the order to the tinner to make the elevator buckets. After all my purchases of material were made, and work on machinery well advanced, I received telegraph dispatch from J. H. Fairchild through Lieut. H. W. Boyle, Inspector of Indian Supplies, from Portland, Oregon that he had suspended building of the grist mill, which leaves me with all my purchases on hand. I communicated immediately with J. H. Fairchild, asking an explanation of so unceremonious an interruption.
    In a few days I received a letter of some length, in which he refers to all his communication with Commissioner of Indian Affairs in relation to building the mills on Siletz Reservation. I quote from his letter:
    "A few days subsequent I received a letter from the Hon. Commissioner (through Acting Commissioner Clum) in which after acknowledging receipt of my communication of the 11th of June and further stating "that a telegram was sent to Lieut. W. H. Boyle, Inspector of Indian Supplies at Portland, Oregon on the 25th inst., directing him to accept a proposal made by J. R. Moores to furnish a saw mill, including an engine of 45 horsepower of sufficient capacity to turn out from 12 to 15 th. ft. of inch lumber in eleven hours, in complete running order, delivered at Kalama for the sum of $4000 gold coin. "After securing a saw mill for this price it is believed that the amount ($10,000) set apart as above indicated will be sufficient to meet the entire cost incident to the erection of the necessary buildings to furnish machinery for a grist mill and to place the whole in working order."
    Mr. J. H. Fairchild informs me that his understanding of the above copied letter from Acting Commissioner Clum. There was $10,000 legal tender remaining after the purchase of Moores mill, and with that understanding he came to Portland and contracted with me, as above indicated, to build the mill for six thousand dollars currency and left for his agency immediately. On his arrival at home I received this. "You know better than myself the extreme importance of hastening the work as much as possible, so as to get it under way before the fall rains set in. For it would be impossible to build the dam after" the rains commence, we would be unable to grind our present crop, and another heavy outlay of money would be required to buy flour for the Indians. We could get along much better without the saw mill than without a grist mill, for there are two saw mills within 15 miles, and lumber is cheap. It is 65 miles to the nearest grist mills, and a very bad road. We can cross the Siletz River during the rainy season only by swimming our horses, so you can see the great importance of completing the grist mill this fall. When I received this note I was doing all I could to have all the machinery and material completed ready for shipment when I received his dispatch saying he had suspended the grist mill. Mr. J. H. Fairchild informs me that after paying for Moores' mill $4000 coin, and the transportation, and the setting the mill to work, it will cost $6700 currency, leaving a balance of $3300, not one dollar of which he can pay me on grist mill, 1st because he could not pay for it, 2nd because he would be disobeying the law, and 3rd because such action would be canceled by government. Now it does seem hard for me to suffer all my loss when there is, or will be, $3300 unexpended out of $10,000 after the saw mill is set to work. I proposed to Mr. Fairchild if he would pay me the $3300 as soon as all the machinery was ready to ship from Portland, I would go on and complete the grist mill without any further delay, but he positively refused to do so. Now what I want you to do for me if you please is to instruct Mr. J. H. Fairchild to allow me to go on and finish the grist mill in accordance with my contract, and if there is not more money applicable to the building of mill at Siletz Indian Reservation you will do all you can to get a small incidental appropriation passed next session of Congress than to lose all that has been done and allow the balance of the appropriation to revert back to the Treasury and take the chances on ever getting another appropriation to build a grist mill.
    We are to have a special election for Representative to Congress soon, and if I am not allowed to go on and finish the mill, the Oregonian & Democratic Party will blow it over the state, making political capital out of it, and we will lose votes by it and perhaps our candidate defeated. If I could be allowed to go on, I could control some votes. I hold that it is right and proper to beat the Democrats and Independents every time we can. And from this fact alone I think I ought to be sustained in my contract.
    I am now at the mercy of the government and Indian Department. We read that "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy." I was a little in debt when I took this contract, and if the mill is suspended by your hon. body it will break me up, I fear. But after due deliberation in the premises, you can say to me go on and finish the govt. mill in accordance with the contract between Mr. J. H. Fairchild & myself. I can still live and vote Democracy & Independents so low down that it will require the thunders of the mountaintops to wake them up.
    As soon as your hon. body arrives at a conclusion in the premises, please advise me by telegraph to Portland care Smith Brothers. It takes from 8 to 12 days to go to Siletz and return to me. I wish to avoid that delay if I am allowed to go on. I have written to Senator Mitchell in relation to this business.
Yours truly
    H. W. Shipley
        Oswego
            Clackamas Co.
                Oregon
(Mr. Fairchild says there has not been any money placed to his credit to build the mills.)
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Jacksonville Aug. 23, 75
L. S. Dyar
    U.S. Ind. Agnt.
I will deliver on the 10th of December (in accordance with advertisement date Aug. 4, 1875) (70,000) seventy thousand pounds of beef (more or less) at Yainax for five 49/100 cent per M five and forty-nine one hundredth of a cent per pound 5 49/100 cent
per M.
Newman Fisher
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Jacksonville Aug. 23, 75
L. S. Dyar
    U.S. Ind. Agnt.
I will furnish at or near Ashland in accordance with advertisement date Aug. 4, 1875 100,000 M one hundred thousand pounds of wheat at one and fifty seventh of a hundredth of a cent per pound 1 57/100 of a cent per M, or at Linkville at three and one quarter of a cent per pound 3¼ per M.
Newman Fisher
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Newark N.J. Aug. 23rd / 75
    Sir:--Can you favor me with a brief statement as to the tribe from which the "Modocs" came, and how they ever obtained that name? I have made some references, but all are unsatisfactory. I trust the object will justify this liberty.
Yours respectfully
    Rev. Benj. F. Bowen
        c/o 9 Gouverneur St.
            Newark
                New Jersey
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1106-1107.



J. M. McCALL & CO.
Dealers in General Merchandise
Ashland, Or., August 24, 1875
To L. S. Dyar
    U.S. Sub-Indian Agent
        Klamath
Sir
    We propose to furnish the wheat advertised by you for the Klamath Indian Agency, delivered at or near Ashland in accordance with the terms of the advertisement for one dollar and thirty-nine cents per hundred pounds in U.S. currency.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        J. M. McCall & Co.
P.O. Address
    Ashland
        Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Jacksonville Aug. 24th 1875
L. S. Dyar
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        I will deliver on the 10th day of Decr. next in accordance with advertisement dated Aug. 4th 1875 seventy thousand 70,000 pounds of beef more or less at Yainax for four dollars forty-nine cwt. $4.49 U.S. currency per hundred pounds.
Henry Blecher
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Copy.
Newport, Oregon
    August 26, 1875
My dear Senator
    I returned here today from the council ground at the mouth of Alsea River, and we were in council there with the Indians for two days. We then adjourned to take a rest. Of course, when an Indian knows you will not force him, he will take his own time.
    Agent Fairchild did not meet with us himself, but sent his clerk Mr. Chapman. Agent Litchfield would have but little to do with it; in fact, it was a terrible mistake making him one of the commissioners, as he is opposed to the removal of the Indians. He said he could not say to the Indians that it was best for them to go, when he did not believe it. I have been today making out my report to the Department in which I have recommended that Agent Fairchild be directed to remove all the government property from the Alsea Reservation and order Agent Litchfield to the Siletz to prepare houses for such Indians as are willing to go there, and I am sure when they find the government is in earnest, they will about all go. I regard that as the quietest and best way to accomplish it, and I am sure it can be done without any conflict between them and the whites. Of course I feel a deep interest in the early completion of this work, as the people in this county have so much anxiety about it. You can have but little idea of the feeling here in that direction and in fact it is not to be wondered at when you take a view of the whole situation. There is the Alsea tribe amounting to some sixty or seventy Indians all told, big and little, who control the Alsea River for some twenty miles from its mouth, and they have not today five acres of ground in cultivation, including gardens and everything else.
    Their houses are locked up, and they are roving around fishing and hunting, and some of them working out in the country among the whites. While this is their true situation, there is a number of poor white people in the country who are without homes that would be glad to take this land and work it. I tell you it is a hardship. I do not however wish to be understood as wishing to deprive the Indians of any of their rights; that should not be done. They can be well provided for on Siletz Reservation with land and permanent homes, and they should be forced to take it and work it. They can have just as good an opportunity there to fish and hunt as where they are. My object in writing this letter to you is to have you present this matter to the Department just as it is without exaggeration. I am sure if they can understand the matter correctly, the whole work can be done in short order. I am satisfied I can do it anyhow, but winter is coming on, and they should have their houses prepared for them on the reservation before winter sets in.
Yours respectfully
    Ben. Simpson
        Special Agent
Hon. J. H. Mitchell
    U.S. Senator
        Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Confidential.
Office Alsea Indian Agency Oregon
    August 27th 1875
Sir
    I take this opportunity to infringe upon your time with a private letter in regard to the situation of affairs at this agency respecting the removal of these Indians to Siletz.
    On the 17th June Agent Fairchild with myself held a council with these Indians, the proceedings of which we duly forwarded to you, and have not heard in relation up to date. And now two mos. after holding council, Surveyor General, late Agent Simpson comes with authority to sit with us in council. I inferred from reading his letter that it did not call for a new council, & it placed me in an unpleasant situation with the Indians, they wanting to know why we should call upon them so soon to talk without having heard from Washington from the other council, which I explained by saying that Mr. Simpson did not receive his instructions in time to meet with us first & came finally alone. I assisted & used my utmost endeavors to have a fair representation out to see Mr. Simpson & succeeded. Mr. Simpson is not a friend to the present Peace Policy. I refer you to his report of 1871, page 318, last 24 lines of such. He is a political demagogue & a strong friend of Senator Mitchell's & their very actions have helped to defeat the Republican Party in Oregon for the past two years. They treat the Indian Department as though they were out of the Republican Party & there is this and more which I can prove to your satisfaction if desired. If I could afford it financially I would ask your permission to go to Washington at my own expense during the session of Congress & present the situation of affairs to the Committee of Indian Affairs & yourself also. The Indians are desirous that I should; they would be willing that my expenses should be taken out of the funds of this agency to Washington & back if you would allow it & there was no other fund to draw from. These Indians have different claims upon government. The Coos & Umpquas have more claims than the others, as they have been brought here under treaty promises.
    I think with not an extravagant amount of funds I could get some of the Alsea tribe to move, and some of the others also, as I flatter myself I have gained their confidence & can approach them with more success than one with whom they have no faith in & accomplish more at a less cost. If I could see you & Secretary Delano together I would like to give you my views, & I think we could arrange matters to suit the Indians & appease the whites without calling upon outside politicians, for they are not our moral friends and would be glad to see the policy fail. I have noticed in Congress that the opposing element to us was from Republican opposition to the present policy. Much I could tell you that I cannot write officially, owing to the dangerous opponents we have to the Indian in Oregon. For an agent to express the situation of affairs adjoining the reservation, in relation to the Indians, his life would be almost in jeopardy. They consider that the Indian has no rights that they should respect, & it is hard and discouraging at times to think of the drawbacks to the Indian improving &c. I should like to give you my views about this coast country and the Indian problem that would be of service to you in handling this much-vexed question in Oregon, & might have some influence upon the eastern delegation in Congress, through my acquaintances in some of those states where the Indian has friends upon general principles and not selfish greed. I have heard it rumored that Mr. Simpson would go to Washington in the interest of this matter. I would like to be able to give you his history but refrain.
    This I will say: He is our opposer. I would like to hear from you soon upon this matter.

    Yours respectfully
        Geo. P. Litchfield
            U.S. Ind. Agent
                Drift Creek
                    Benton Co.
                        Oregon
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commr. of Ind. Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Copy.
Newport, Oregon
    August 27th 1875
Hon. Commissioner
    of Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                I have the honor to make this my first report under my appointment as special agent to act with agents Fairchild & Litchfield in the removal of the Alsea and a portion of Siletz Indians to the permanent Siletz Reservation. I left Portland on the 10th inst., called at Salem and stopped there two days waiting for James Brown, special Ind. agent, to accompany me on the expedition and to assist in collecting the Indians together at some suitable place for council. We left Salem on the 12st inst., arrived at Newport on the 15th & from there sent a messenger to Siletz Agency to Agent Fairchild requesting him to join me at that place for the purpose of visiting Alsea Agency. He arrived on the 17th and after consultation it was agreed to meet the Alsea Indians in council at the mouth of Alsea River on Tuesday 24th. I then went to the mouth of Alsea and met Agent Litchfield and informed him of the agreement between Agent Fairchild and myself, to which he consented. I then returned to Newport on the 20th where I met three of the Siletz Indians, Chief George Harney, Big Bill and Depot Charley, who had been sent by Agent Fairchild to assist in collecting the Indians together at the place designated. I directed them to proceed in company with Special Agent Brown to Alsea Agency and other points on the reservation to notify the Indians and prepare their minds for the coming council. On the 24th I proceeded to the mouth of Alsea River in company with M. W. Chapman, who was sent by Agent Fairchild to represent him in council. Arriving there about 1 o'clock, we met agents Litchfield and Brown with the three Siletz Indians and quite a number of Umpqua and Coos and Alsea Indians. About 4 o'clock the council met and was opened by a few remarks from Agent Litchfield. I then read to them my instructions and explained the object of my visit and also showed them the great benefits they derive by going to Siletz Reservation. I was followed by George Harney from Siletz Agency with a very interesting talk showing them the great importance of obeying the wishes of the Department and the benefits that would result to them if they accepted the proposition. A few remarks were then made by the Coos and Umpqua chiefs objecting to removal. I then informed them that the council would close until the next day, requesting them to remain on the ground, that we would furnish them with beef and tobacco, which was promptly complied [with].
    Met next day, Wednesday 25th at one o'clock, speeches were made by Siletz Indians Harney, Big Bill and Depot Charley and Tututni Dick, all insisting on their removal. Mr. Chapman, representing Agent Fairchild, then made a speech to them informing them that the agent was preparing mills for the benefit of the Indians and that they were included and that all money expended for their benefit in the future would be expended on Siletz permanent reservation. He was followed by remarks from the chiefs and head men of the different tribes on the reservation objecting to removal, though in a milder form than before. I then addressed [them] at length, reiterating all that had been said to them during the council, and read [and] explained to them the homestead law informing them that they could have the benefit of the law by complying with the instructions and regulations of the Secretary of [the] Interior, but that homesteads could only be taken on surveyed lands. I also informed them that I had, under direction of the Secretary of Interior and Commissioner of General Land Office, surveying parties on Siletz Reservation now at work laying off the land in twenty-acre lots to be given to them for their future and permanent homes. I then concluded by telling them that I should talk no more for the present and that I desired them to study well what had been said to them, and that I would report to the Department and when I received further instructions that I would come and see them again. The council was then closed by a prayer offered by Big Bill from Siletz Agency in the Indian language.
    I cannot close this communication without asking your indulgence in a few suggestions in reference to removal of those Indians as indicated in my instructions. As you [are] aware it is natural for Indians to like to talk a long time about very small matters. To avoid this delay I would suggest that Agent Fairchild be directed to remove all government [omission?] at once from Alsea Agency, and that Agent Litchfield be ordered to Siletz Reservation to prepare buildings for such of the Indians as may consent to go there. I am satisfied by taking that course that the most [of] them will go there before winter. So far as I could see there is nothing on Alsea Reservation to keep them there. The Alsea Indian tribe controls the south side of Alsea River for from fifteen to twenty miles from its mouth, and I am sure they have not five acres in cultivation including gardens and everything else, and I am fully satisfied from all that I could see and learn that there was not raised on the entire reservation one hundred dollars worth of subsistence the present season. Consequently I should think it a very good time to quit.
    I would further suggest that Agent Fairchild be furnished with funds to pay the expenses of removal.
    Want of funds has been an embarrassment to us in our negotiations, having no money to pay our traveling expenses. I shall now proceed to north of Salmon River to visit the Indians in that locality.
Yours respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben. Simpson
            Special Agent
Hon. Commissioner
    of Ind. Affairs
        Washington, D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    August 31st 1875
Sir,
    In obedience to orders from your office, I have the honor to report that my time was occupied in answering complaints from Oregon City and other places till the 11th, at which time on my arrival at this place I found Hon. Benj. Simpson, special commissioner, awaiting my arrival. Next day the 12th we started for the Alsea Agency. By request of Commissioner Simpson, I remained and assisted him as best I could during his stay. I arrived at home yesterday. On my arrival I found letters from Wallula, W.T., Canyon City, Oregon and the Dalles, Oregon, all bitterly complaining of the outrageous depredations of the Columbia River Indians. I would respectfully recommend that measures be taken to place those Indians in charge of someone of the contiguous agencies, that they may be kept under control. They rob the gardens and fields, and in one or two instances they have been seen running away from newly set fires to grain & hay stacks. They are continuously stealing cattle and sheep. Altogether their high-handed proceedings are a heavy loss to the settlers.
    Commissioner Simpson requests my assistance in his efforts to induce the Nestucca Indians to remove to the Siletz, after which I shall visit the Dalles and Canyon City and drive those Indians (if possible) across the state line. The last-named place is about 350 miles from here.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Indian Agent
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1118-1120.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Aug. 31, 1875
Sir
    Your letter of 19th inst. is recd. today, in which you advise me that I am authorized to advertise for proposals for wheat and beef in the Bulletin of Portland and the Salem Statesman. This letter is in reply to mine of July 31st asking permission to advertise for those supplies.
    After writing that letter I became impressed with the importance of advertising at once for the wheat for the following reasons.
    1st. The almost entire failure of the crops, both on agency and Indian farms, and the unusual small amount of wocus (their principal article of food) gathered by the Indians, render it absolutely necessary that as large [an] amount of wheat and beef should be purchased as the funds in my hands will allow.
    2nd. In order to obtain the greatest possible amount of wheat I proposed to have the Indians themselves haul and pack it to the agency from Rogue River Valley, thus saving freight, which has heretofore been about twice as much as the first cost of the wheat (or flour), and in this way I would be able to get nearly three times the amount for the Indians.
    3rd. If I were to wait until I should receive your answer to my request it would be too late to attempt to get it over the mtns. in this manner, as our storms usually commence soon after the middle of Oct., and were I to wait [for] your answer it would not be possible to commence hauling before Oct. 20th.
    Under these circumstances I assumed the responsibility to advertise on the 4th inst., trusting that when you should understand the circumstances my action would be approved.
    To save expense, and also knowing that beef was then held at a lower figure than it will probably be a little later, as is usually the case, I also advertised for beef together with the wheat.
    On the 27th inst. the bids were opened, and the lowest proposal for wheat was $1.39 per hundred, currency, in sacks, delivered at Ashland, Or. This is as low as it can possibly be afforded at the present price of wheat in the country. The sacks are needed by the Indians as much as anything which I could purchase for them.
    The lowest bid for beef on foot was 3 9/10 cents per lb. currency, which is 1/10 cent per lb. less than it has ever before been furnished for, and is less than beef was ever sold for in this section of country. The military at Ft. Klamath pay this year 8½ cents on the block.
    I advertised three weeks in the Oregon Sentinel, a paper published in Jacksonville, Jackson Co., Ogn., the same as I have done for the past two years.
    The wheat and beef must naturally be furnished from Jackson and Lake counties, as other localities cannot furnish it nearly as cheap, and the Sentinel probably has ten times the circulation in these counties that the Statesman and Bulletin
both have, and anyone outside of these counties wishing to bid on these contracts would naturally be watching for such advertisement in the Sentinel.
    I enclose a copy of advertisement.
    I earnestly hope that my action will be approved, as otherwise it will be too late to get the wheat, and I am very certain the bids for beef would be fully as high, or higher, were I to readvertise, as parties are already making arrangements to buy largely in this section of country, one person alone having given out word that he wishes to purchase 1000 large steers, and stock men are already expecting higher prices for beef.
    Please advise me of the decision of the Secty. of the Interior in this matter by telegram, briefly, at my individual expense if not consistent to charge it to the Dept.
    The amt. of beef purchased will be governed by the amt. of funds applicable.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Portland Oregon
    September 2nd 1875
Sir
    I have the honor to transmit the following Report of Council, held with the tribes of Indians inhabiting the Alsea Reservation August 24th, relative to their removal to Siletz Reservation.
    On the 17th Aug. I met Hon. Ben Simpson, Special Agent, at Newport, and with him concerted a plan for our future operations. Tuesday the 24th was selected as the day most convenient, and Special Agent James Brown was entrusted with the duty of gathering the Indians for a council. Several leading Siletz Indians, Geo. Harney, Head Chief; Depot Charley, Chief of Joshuas; Wm. Strong, Chief of Tututnis, and others, were sent in advance to sound the dispositions of the Alsea Indians and represent to them the advantages of a compliance with the wishes of the government. This duty was most creditably performed for them, as the reports of the council will show.
    Pressing duties at Siletz rendered it impossible for me to be present at the council on the day appointed, and with the concurrence of Special Agent Simpson I deputed my clerk, Mr. M. N. Chapman, who was fully informed of my views on the subject, to represent me at the council. They met the Indians at the place, and on the day appointed, and faithfully represented to them the wishes of the Department and the advantages to themselves from a compliance. For particulars of the council I respectfully refer to the reports of Special Agents Simpson and Chapman.
    The Siletz chiefs who had been sent to the Alsea Reservation to assist at the council returned and reported to me substantially as follows--They proceeded to Alsea Agency and reported, as instructed, to Agent Litchfield, as employed by Special Agent Simpson and myself, to represent to his Indians the benefits they were reaping at Siletz from the bounty of the government and the advantages that must accrue to the Alsea Indians from the proposed removal. To their surprise Agent Litchfield did not appear to sympathize with their mission. He declined to make any provision for the entertainment of themselves or their horses (there were three of them), so that they were compelled to apply to the Indians for hospitality. He seemed to manifest the utmost unwillingness to assist the proposed negotiation in any manner, and it was their opinion that were not the Indians at Alsea confident of the sympathy of their agent in their opposition to removal, and did they not believe that through his influence the agency would be continued at Alsea the same as heretofore, there would be no serious opposition to the measure; also, that from conversations with the various chiefs and head men at Alsea they were fully convinced that did the agent there enter heartily into the proposed removal, the Indians would willingly accept the offers of the government and locate themselves on the Siletz Reservation and that notwithstanding his opposition, expressed in many ways, though not perhaps in words, many were now convinced it would be greatly to their interest to remove, and in conversation after the council was dismissed so expressed themselves, saying that they expected to remove to Siletz, but only wanted time to prepare their minds for the change. In explanation, I may state that the Siletz Indians are possessed of far more individual wealth than the Alseas, and, having had the benefit of more extended intercourse with the whites, are much more intelligent.
    This the Alseas know and acknowledge and are themselves anxious to reach the same degree of prosperity.
    In the foregoing report I beg to be understood as giving the report of the Siletz chiefs who assisted at the council, and not my own opinion. Their statement of fact I would not hesitate to endorse; their opinion I give for what it may be worth, merely remarking that being of the same race and speaking the same language, their opportunities for forming correct conclusions are far greater than any white man could possibly have.
    If I might venture to suggest, I would say that a removal of the public property at Alsea to such point on Siletz Reservation as may be selected for the future residence of the Alsea Indians, and instructions to Agent Litchfield to accompany the government property and prepare houses for the Indians, would without doubt bring the greater number of his Indians to Siletz Reservation this fall, provided these instructions were given in time to complete all operations by the time the rainy season commences.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Department of the Interior
    Washington September 3rd, 1875
Sir:
    I return, herewith, the letter of Agent J. H. Fairchild upon the subject of increased compensation for the farmer and teacher at the Siletz Indian Agency in Oregon which accompanied your report of the 2nd instant.
    In accordance with your recommendation the agent will be allowed to pay to the farmer & teacher, respectively, $1000 per annum provided the amount set apart for carrying on his agency during the present fiscal year will admit of said increase, and the whole expense for employees at his agency shall not exceed $6000 per annum.
Very respectfully &c.
    B. R. Cowen
        Acting Secretary
The Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY.
Portland Oregon Sept. 4, 1875, 9:16 p.m.
To Comsr. Indian Affairs
    Wash.
        Have funds been sent to Fairchild to pay Moores for mill bought for Siletz by your telegram of June twenty-fifth. Telegraph authority to Fairchild's at this place to pay on receipt of funds. Answer by telegraph.
Lieut. Boyle
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1113-1114.



Siletz Agency
    Sept. 8, 1875
Sir,
    I have the honor to submit this, my report of the proceedings of the council held with the Indians belonging to Alsea Agency at Alsea River on the 24th & 25th days of August 1875.
    In accordance with your instructions I proceeded in company with Hon. Ben Simpson, special agent, to Alsea River on Tuesday the 24th day of August, there meeting with Agent Litchfield and Special Agent James Brown.
    Owing to a dead whale washing on shore near the council grounds, many of the Indians, being engaged in cutting up and carrying portions of the carcass for food, did not make their appearance until too late to accomplish much on the first day. Towards evening, however, Mr. Simpson opened the council by stating our business and asking the Indians to come to the grounds on the day following, at which time the wishes of the government would be more fully explained to them.
    On the following morning in company with Agent Litchfield I repaired to the grounds, there meeting with special agents Simpson and Brown and after an issue of beef and tobacco to the Indians the council was opened by Agent Litchfield, who said to the Indians present (some forty in number) that he had sent "their words," referring to the proceedings of the council previously held, to the Department at Washington, but that perhaps the Commissioner was absent and had not yet seen them, as he had received no reply. He then said to them that Mr. Simpson, who was Surveyor General of Oregon had come to talk to them on the subject of their removing to Siletz Agency.
    At Mr. Simpson's suggestion I made a few remarks to the Indians, the purport of which was as follows. Mr. Simpson, who as Mr. Litchfield has said is Surveyor General, has come to talk to you today, not on his own accord but to tell you what are the wishes of our government concerning you; the government has sent him here to say these things, and you must understand that they are true, as he will tell you nothing but the truth, and it will be well for you to consider well his remarks.
    I also told them of the condition and circumstances of those Indians at Siletz who had been industrious & by the aid of the government had acquired horses, cattle, plows, wagons &c. and had fields of growing grain and vegetables and were becoming like the whites, and that the government wished them to improve in the same way, and was willing to assist them if they would go to the Siletz and endeavor to help themselves. I also explained to them that the mills were being erected and would in a short time be ready to make flour and lumber for their use.
    I also told them of the amount [of] good land at the mouth of Siletz River, the abundance of fish and game in the immediate vicinity, and that farms would be given to each head of a family there if they preferred that locality to the agency proper, and then telling them that Mr. Simpson would now talk to them closed my remarks. Mr. Simpson then proceeded to tell them the wishes of the government as indicated in his and your instructions, fully, and urged upon them the necessity of complying, and also explained to them the act of Congress under which they might take land, if they desired to withdraw from the immediate protection of the government, and endeavored to impress upon their minds the many disadvantages and annoyances that would probably attend them in case they chose to avail themselves of the latter privilege, and after asking them to speak their minds closed his remarks.
    Quite a number of the Indians spoke, all mildly declining to make the proposed change and stating that they preferred to remain where they were, some remarking that their fathers had lived upon salmon and grown old and died and that they were content to do likewise, & altogether considering their circumstances and surroundings, their contentment.was remarkable.
    Mr. Simpson, after informing them that he would make a report to Department and perhaps come to see them again, closed the council, one of our Siletz Indians offering a prayer, which was apparently well received by the Indians.
    In conclusion I humbly submit as my opinion that should Agent G. P. Litchfield be transferred to the mouth of Siletz River, the government property removed and aid withdrawn, the greater portion of the Indians would before the coming spring leave the Alsea and more of their own accord without expense to the government.
    Hoping that my actions may meet with your approval, I am
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servant
        M. N. Chapman
Hon. J. H. Fairchild
    U.S. Ind. Agent
        Siletz Agency
    `        Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1212-1218.



U.S. Senate Chambers
    Sep. 9th 1875
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. of Indian Affairs
        Dear Sir
            Herewith I enclose to you extracts from a letter just recd. by me from Hon. Ben. Simpson, agent of the government appointed to negotiate with the Alsea and other Indians in Oregon with a view of procuring their assent to go on to the new permanent reservation recently established within the present limits of the Siletz Agency.
    I heartily concur in a suggestion contained in Mr. Simpson's letter and respectfully urge that action be taken in accordance with those suggestions as contained in the enclosed extracts.
Very respectfully
    John H. Mitchell
P.S. Please advise me of the action of your department and oblige.
Respy.
    J.H.M.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Klamath Agency Or.
    Sept. 10, 1875
Sir
    I respectfully request that an exception be made in favor of the Indians of this reservation in regard to Section 3 of the appropriation act approved March 3rd 1875, and that the agent be allowed to enforce the rule so far as in his judgment he deems best for the good of the Indians, and this request I make for the following reasons:
    1st. These Indians, Snakes excepted, are willing and know how to work, and do perform work during the year to nearly or quite the full value that they receive, and in a large measure support themselves, their annuities being small. This is a cold, frosty climate, and agriculture is a failure, consequently the Indians are obliged to be diligent all through the summer season in order to lay up food for winter, and what little help they get from the govt. should be gratuitous, and in addition to what they do for themselves.
    2nd. Many of the Indians are helpless and have no near relative able to labor for them, and it is to this class that much of the food furnished goes.
    3rd. These annuity goods and articles of subsistence are given out in the winter season mostly, as they are needed, and when it is impossible for them to labor to any advantage and it is impracticable to oblige them to labor during the summer season for what they are to receive the following winter.
    4th. These Inds. look upon the annuities which they receive as being their just due for the country which they sold to the govt. when they made the treaty, and they will consider it as obliging them to pay for that which is already theirs by right.
    In many instances I can conform to the rule as I have done during the past year, but it is impracticable to enforce that section to the letter upon this reservation.   

Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        L. S. Dyar
            U.S. Ind. Agt.
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Ind. Affrs.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon
        September 23rd 1875

Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 10th inst., in reference to the employment of Miss Hattie Fairchild as temporary teacher at Siletz Agency, desiring information as to her capacity, the circumstances under which she was employed &c.
    In reply I would say that previous experience had confirmed me in the opinion that to make the school a success here it was necessary to employ a male teacher. On the resignation of Mrs. Chambers April 10th I searched therefore for a suitable person to take permanent charge of the school, and selected the present teacher (Rev. T. F. Royal) as best qualified for the position. His engagement did not permit him to take charge before the beginning of the present month.
    In the meantime, the Indians were anxious for a school, especially for the smaller children (the older ones were generally employed on their parents' farms), and my daughter, who had just returned from the academy, gathered from twelve to fifteen of the younger children and opened school. I therefore employed her temporarily, till Mr. Royal was able to take charge, and was highly gratified at the results of her one and a half months teaching, much regretting that the funds at my command did not permit me to engage her permanently as asst. teacher. She was amply qualified to teach, and her school was a success.
    The school under Mr. Royal has now been in operation about three weeks and gives every promise of being a complete success.
    Not withstanding this is the busy season (harvest and threshing), the attendance is on some days as high as forty, who all manifest the greatest desire to learn. I am convinced the time has now come when the educational interests of this agency should be pushed forward by all means at our command. The Indians are now for the first time beginning to appreciate the advantages of education.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Grand Ronde Sept. 27th 1875
Hon. J. H. Mitchell U.S.S.
    My Dear Sir
        I received your welcome letter of Sept. 7th with the com. enclosed, for which I'm under many obligations to you for your kindness to me. About ten days ago at the request of Hon. B. Simpson I accompanied him to Nestucca River west of here on the coast to assist him in the removal of said Indians to Salmon River country. We succeeded in removing them all. They removed without costing the Dept. one cent. [They] removed by canoe to Salmon River. [They] gave their consent and removed to Salmon with the understanding [they] would be under the jurisdiction of this agency. On no account would [they] consent to be under the jurisdiction of Siletz Agency. [There] are quite a rush of people to Nestucca now to take up land. By this time it's all taken up or nearly so. Having this country thrown open to white settlement gives more general satisfaction than anything that happened in this part of [the] country for some time. It will also be a great benefit to the Indians, as [they] will now advance rapid[ly] in civilization, Christianize and agriculture [sic]. I acted unofficial[ly]. I told Simpson we would have no trouble in removing them, also Agent Fairchild of Siletz & Agent Litchfield of Alsea failed before us. [There] were three Alsea Indians here last week. I went with them to Salmon River country, which is only a few hours' ride over a good road, and showed them the country and the advantage it would be to them to remove there. [They] talked with me and the Indians who were removed. [They] gave their consent to remove to Salmon River and started for Alsea to meet B. Simpson there. So I think when he returns to Alsea he won't have much trouble to remove the majority of the Indians of Alsea to Salmon River. In my estimation and in the estimation of the people of Oregon you get more credit and praise for opening up for settlement such a vast tract of country than anything you caused to be done here to fore [sic] and should have a great influence with the Republican Party, yet I'm afraid the Democrats will elect Lane this fall. We have no newspaper here of any influence to work for the Party [illegible] very often mistaken in politics. It was also a great mistake to have Judge Taliaferro appointed as agent of Umatilla Agency. [There] should be a man from Oregon appointed and not to go to California for a Democrat. It injures the Party very much. When in Portland & Salem three weeks ago [there] were great complaints about the appointment, both from Catholics and non-Catholics. While in Portland I was requested by my Catholic friends to wait on Archbishop Blanchet & Father Fierens to ascertain if [they] had him appointed. I had to comply with their wishes, yet not wishing to have anything to do with the Bishop about the matter I told them to appoint two other men to accompany me and I'd open the subject with the Bishop & Father Fierens. The Bishop & Father Fierens denied having anything to do about Taliaferro's appointment; [they] said [they] did not even know him. This is all the information I can give you on the subject.
Your most obedient servant
    P. B. Sinnott
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.  Sinnott usually spelled "they" and "there" the same as "the." Oddly, he spelled "their" correctly.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Sept. 29th 1875
Sir
    On the 3rd inst. I had the honor of addressing you, tendering my resignation as Indian agent, and assigning as the reasons therefor the necessity of alteration to my private affairs and my belief that the change indicated would be of advantage to the service. In case it should be deemed impracticable to accept my resignation and appoint my successor prior to Nov. 1st. I asked leave of absence for two months to attend to private business in San Francisco, pledging myself to remain at my post of duty till the mills and other work was so far advanced that no injury to the service would result from my absence.
    I omitted to give as one of the most prominent reasons governing my action the state of my health.
    This has for some time been failing, and I fear a residence in this excessively damp climate another winter would prove fatal unless I am permitted two or three months' absence to visit some more favorable locality. This fact, and the necessity of attention to private affairs, makes me anxious to leave by or before the 1st of Nov. next, as the winter rains will probably set in by that time, and I am anxious to avoid their effects if possible.
    I therefore most respectfully but earnestly ask that my communication may receive immediate attention, and that I receive permission to leave as soon as affairs on this reservation are in a state that will admit of my absence without injury to the service. My own preference would be that my resignation be accepted and Mr. Wm. Bagley appointed as my successor. If, however, this be deemed inexpedient, then that the leave of absence be granted as applied for.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Com. Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Sept. 29th 1875
Sir
    On the 17th July last I addressed you a communication in reference to procuring articles for the Centennial.
    Many of these articles have been brought in by the Indians and are now in my possession.
    I respectfully ask that my letter above referred to may receive attention.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz September 30th 1875
Sir
    I am in receipt of a letter from Hon. Ben Simpson, Special Indian Agent, informing me of the terms of a treaty negotiated by him, Agent Sinnott of Grand Ronde and Special Agent Brown with the Tillamook and other bands of Indians living north of the mouth of Salmon River, in which they engage on certain terms to remove to the reduced Siletz Reservation. The terms of the treaty have doubtless been communicated to you long before this time. One of the provisions is that a white employee shall be allotted them to assist in the erection of houses, bringing the land under cultivation &c. As you are aware the tract selected for the future home of these Indians is at the mouth of Salmon River, at the extreme northern limit of the reserve.
    The only way at present of reaching this locality from this agency is by canoes from a point 7 miles below, 25 miles to the mouth of Siletz River, thence along the sea beach 7 miles to the place in question.
    As soon as I can get the time needed to explore the country, it is my intention to construct a wagon road from the agency to tidewater on Siletz River, which will render communication comparatively easy.
    Till this is done, it will be necessary to employ a man to reside permanently with them, and whether the road is constructed or not, there should be a white employee with them at all times. He should be a faithful, earnest Christian man, capable of overseeing farming operations, of doing enough carpenter and blacksmith work, one whose character will command respect, and to whom the Indians will confidently look for advice and assistance. As it takes from three to four days to communicate with the agency, many emergencies will arise where the employee in charge at the mouth of Siletz must act independent of the agent.
    If this provision of the treaty therefore is to be carried out, it will be absolutely necessary to authorize an increase of the number of employees at Siletz. As it is proposed to locate at the same point such of the Alsea Indians as choose to remove to this reservation, the same employees will do for both. There should be a teacher in addition to the farmer in charge. The employees located at this point will be isolated from all society except themselves.
    Doubtless men could be employed to fill these positions, for from $600 for teacher to $900 for farmer, but I doubt if the qualities needed in these employees would be possessed by any who would accept the positions on such terms. It is no slight thing for a man who is fit to fill such a position to take his family away from all the delight and advantages of social intercourse, the chances for educating his children, and locate among Indians, seeing no white face except their fellow employee, and experiencing the ingratitude of those he is honestly trying to serve. A man capable of filling the position as it should be filled cannot be engaged for less than $1200 per annum, and the teacher should receive $900. To those who have never tried it it may seem an easy thing to take a family away from home, friends and social intercourse and spend the long, dreary winter surrounded by a different race, compelled to be ever on the watch, called every hour of the day to prepare some delicacy for the sick, or to visit those who require extra attention, and to feel all the time that superstition [that] has been so ingrained in the very natures of the people that to make any appreciable progress towards eradicating it will require years of patient effort. One who accepts such a position with the view of elevating the race must "walk by faith." He must not expect to see immediate fruits of his labors--if he does, he will be likely to be disappointed. Still he knows the leaven is working, and someday--perhaps long after he is passed away--the effect of his work will be manifested.
    If this treaty is therefore to be carried into effect, I respectfully ask leave to increase the service at this agency by employing in addition to the force now on my papers one farmer to have charge at mouth of the Siletz River, @ $1200 per annum, and one teacher for the same place, @ $900 per annum.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Ind. Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Department of the Interior
    Washington September 30, 1875
Sir,
    By your reference I have received the resignation of James H. Fairchild, agent for the Indians of the Siletz Agency in Oregon.
    Be pleased to inform him that the same is accepted, to take effect November 1, 1875.
Respectfully &c.
    B. R. Cowen
        Acting Secretary
The Commr. of
    Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oct. 6th 1875
Sir
    As the saw mill at the agency is now approaching completion, I respectfully transmit the following, as near as can now be ascertained, actual cost when in running order. The frame and covering will remain to be completed.
    This, however, will be but little expense, as all timbers, lumber &c. can be sawed in the mill. I have used all the economy possible, and yet the cost will greatly exceed my expectations.
    This is due in great measure to the character of the mill, which is better fitted to manufacture lumber for shipment than for custom use.
    Much repairing was also found necessary of a character that could not well be detected till the machinery was set up. Probably when the mill shall be fully completed some additional expense will have been incurred.
Paid J. R. Moores for mill $4667.14
Paid for shovels, axes &c. 38.55
Paid for transportation to Portland 45.51
Paid for transportation to Albany 90.11
Paid for transportation to Siletz 880.68
Paid for rope, utensils &c. &c. 224.90
Paid for oil &c. 25.78
Paid for water gauges (lost) 10.90
Paid for traveling expenses to Portland about July 24th 48.28
Paid for advertising, 2 newspapers 45.50
Paid wages of machinist, 29 days 116.00
Paid white mechanics, erection of mill 1030.00
Paid Indian labor building dam about 550.00
Paid Indian labor basin for pond about 310.00
Paid Indian labor quarrying stone for furnace about 110.00
Paid Indian labor excavating for mill about     215.00
    Total cost of mill running $8399.30
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. Indian Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
In view of the necessity of pushing the work on the first mill as rapidly as possible before winter, I respectfully ask that the additional amount necessary to complete the same be placed to my credit as soon as practicable.
Very respectfully &c.
    J.H.S.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.


Treasury Department,
    Second Auditor's Office,
        October 6th 1875.
Sir:
    I am in receipt of a letter from your office of this date, making inquiry concerning present status of claim in favor of Frank Riddle for $205.00 and asking if any impediment exists to an immediate settlement of the same.
    In reply I would respectfully state that the said claim was settled by the accounting offices of the Treasury Department on July 31st 1875--settlement No. 770--but subsequently it was found that the appropriation--"Civilization of Indians"--was not available in payment of the same, and hence a letter returning the requisition (No. 8,884) was sent from this office, August 11th, to the Hon. Secretary of the Interior, suggesting that the appropriation be changed to to "Civilization Fund." The requisition was returned by Hon. B. R. Cowen, Actg. Secretary of the Interior, on the following day with the required alternation, whereupon the papers having been corrected in this and the Second Comptroller's Office, the requisition was sent on or about the 15th of August to the Warrant Division--Treasury Department.
Very respectfully
    E. B. French
        Auditor
Hon. Commissioner
    of Indian Affairs
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 930-932.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oct. 6th 1875
Sir
    As the saw mill at this agency is now approaching completion, I respectfully transmit the following, as near as can now be ascertained, actual cost when in running order. The frame and covering will remain to be completed. This, however, will be but little expense, as all the timbers, lumber &c. can be sawed in the mill. I have used all the economy possible, and yet the cost will greatly exceed my expectations.
    This is due in great measure to the character of the mill, which is better fitted to manufacture lumber for shipment than for custom use.
    Much repairing was also found necessary, of a character that could not well be detected till the machinery was set up. Probably when the mill shall be fully completed some additional expense will have been incurred.
  Paid J. R. Moores for mill $4657.14
Paid for shovels, axes &c. for mill 38.55
Paid for transportation to Portland 46.51
Paid for transportation to Albany 90.11
Paid for transportation to Siletz 880.68
Paid for rope, utensils &c. &c. 224.90
Paid for oil &c. 25.73
Paid for water gauges (lost) 10.90
Paid for traveling expenses to Portland about July 24th 42.28
Paid for advertising, 2 newspapers 45.50
Paid wages of machinist 29 days 116.00
Paid white mechanics erection of mill 1030.00
Paid Indian labor building dam 550.00
Paid Indian labor clearing basin for pond 310.00
Paid Indian labor quarrying stone for furnace 110.00
Paid Indian labor excavating for mill     215.00
$8399.30
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comr. of Indian Affrs.
        Washington
            D.C.
    In view of the necessity of pushing the work on the grist mill as rapidly as possible before winter, I respectfully ask that the additional amount necessary to complete the same be placed to my credit as soon as practicable.
Very respectfully &c.
    J.H.F.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon
        October 20th 1875
Senator
    I respectfully ask leave to call your attention to the necessity of immediate action relative to the treaty recently negotiated by Hon. Ben Simpson with the Tillamook and other bands of Indians.
    By the terms of that treaty the Indians were to remove to the reduced Siletz Reservation, south of the mouth of Salmon River, immediately, on condition that assistance should be rendered them in building houses for the winter &c. and that a white employee should reside on that portion of the reservation to assist them in preparing their future homes.
    The Indians, I am informed, have already complied with their part of the stipulations, and are now at the mouth of Salmon River, waiting for the promised assistance. Unless this is soon rendered they will probably return to their former homes, from which it might be difficult to remove them again. The funds at my disposal, having been largely reduced from the amount allotted heretofore, do not permit me to take any action in the matter without additional means. The present regulations of the Dept. prohibit the payment of more than $6000 per annum as salaries of employees at the agency, so that if that provision respecting a white employee is to be carried out, it will be necessary to procure authority to increase the service here. I have represented this matter to the Department, but received no answer.
    Some time since Hon. Ben Simpson forwarded me a copy of a telegram from the Comsr. of Indian Affairs directing him to instruct Agent Litchfield of Alsea to turn over to me all government funds and property in his hands, preparatory to removal of the same to Siletz Reservation. My intention was to locate the Alsea Indians with the Tillamooks at the mouth of Salmon River, where [there] is plenty of excellent land and unsurpassed fishing facilities for all these Indians and that portion of the Siletz now living there.
    I expected to remove the property at Alsea directly to that locality and employ a competent person to take charge and assist in preparing their winter quarters, presuming that the unexpected funds of Alsea Agency would be sufficient to meet all the expenses.
    Agent Litchfield, however, refused to recognize the telegram, and will not turn over the property and funds as directed without specific orders.
    From the best information I can gain, I consider it almost certain that were this measure adopted, most, if not all, [of] the Alsea Indians would remove to the locality selected for their future home.
    The matter should receive immediate attention. If it is intended to enforce the instructions to Agent Litchfield, it should be done immediately; if not--some other means should be provided to carry out the provisions of the treaty with the Tillamooks. If instructions were telegraphed to transfer the property and funds at Alsea immediately, there is time to effect the removal this season; if it is deferred, it must be abandoned till another year, and unless other provision is made, the Tillamooks will go back to their old country. I respectfully submit to your judgment the propriety of telegraphing the Department to ascertain what the intentions really are.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. J. H. Mitchell
    U.S. Senator
        Portland
            Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oct. 21st 1875
Sir
    It has been reported to me that efforts are being made to secure the appointment of Agent Litchfield of Alsea to this agency.
    For Mr. Litchfield personally I have always entertained a feeling of strong friendship, and exerted all my influence to procure his nomination to Alsea, yet I should regard his appointment as agent for these Indians an unqualified misfortune.
    I believe him to be a good man, with earnest desire to do right, and without doubt fully competent to manage a small agency like Alsea, but I doubt his capacity to take charge of the vastly more extended and important interests of Siletz. Were there no objections, however, on this point, his unpopularity with the Siletz Indians would, I think, render his appointment most unfortunate, and completely neutralize all his efforts for their advancement.
    With the kindest feelings toward Mr. Litchfield personally, and the most earnest wishes for his success and advancement in life, I should much regret his appointment as my successor.
    My attachment to, and earnest desire for the welfare and prosperity of, these Indians, is my only excuse for thus obtruding my views on a matter in which it may be thought I have ceased to have any concern. I remain
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



U.S. Indian Agency
    Siletz Oregon Oct. 21st 1875
Sir
    Referring to your communication of the 7th ult. (marked F), in which I am instructed to proceed with the contract for the erection of a grist mill at this agency, and that additional funds would be furnished for that purpose. I respectfully ask that such funds may be placed to the credit of the agent at Siletz as soon as possible to enable him to carry out said contract.
    In anticipation of the promised addition to the fund for erection of mills here, I have paid on this contract from the incidental funds in my hands for the 3rd and 4th quarters of 1875 till the means of this agency are now exhausted. In resigning my position and leaving the service, I earnestly desire to leave the agency in good financial condition.
    This can be done if the promised addition to the funds can be made without delay. I would respectfully remind the Hon. Commissioner that while the amount allotted for incidental expenses this year is much less than at any previous year, the expenses for harvesting have been fully as great as last year.
    The knowledge of the amount allotted this agency the present fiscal year came too late to enable me to make any material reduction in expenses during the 3rd and 4th quarters 1875 without serious detriment to the service, and consequently arrangements were made to reduce the expenses to the required limit during the 1st and 2nd qrs. of 1876.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.




State of Oregon
    Executive Office
        Salem, Oct. 22nd 1875
To the Secretary of the Interior
    Washington D.C.
Sir:
    By act of Congress approved July 2, 1864, certain public lands were granted to the state of Oregon "to aid in the construction of a military road from Eugene City to the eastern boundary of said state." By an Act of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Oregon, approved Oct. 24, 1864, this grant was conferred by the state upon the Oregon Central Military Road Company. The road contemplated by said act of Congress has been completed, and by my predecessor was examined and certified as constructed and completed throughout its entire length according to the terms of the grant, on January 12th 1870. The treaty with the Klamath Indians of 1864 was ratified February 17, 1870, Statutes 16, pr. 707. The line of the wagon road passes through Klamath Lake Basin, and the Klamath Indian Reservation as established subsequent to the listing of the wagon road lands to the state for the use of said wagon road company embraces 130.377 acres of said lands belonging to the wagon road company.
    The Klamath Indian Reservation was finally confirmed as such, without notifying the Indians for whose use it was set apart, that any portion of it was at that time the property of said wagon road company.
    The entire wagon road grant has been transferred by sale to a number of prominent capitalists, chiefly of the state of California, as I understand without notice that the Klamath Indians claimed to hold the lands of the grant listed to the state within said reservation, as belonging to them by virtue of the treaty.
    The wagon road company and their successors in interest have paid taxes upon said reservation lands from the time when they were segregated to said company. The present owners now desire to dispose of these lands to settlers, and persons are ready to become purchasers. But the Klamath Indians, lately discovering that said company claimed these lands by virtue of the grant mentioned, resist the claim and threaten to resist the occupancy of any portion of their reservation by settlers.
    I am informed that the owners of this grant are willing to take a money indemnity or lien lands on any just basis for the surrender of all of their lands falling within said reservation.
    I desire to make special presentation of the fact that the Klamath Indians occupy the same region of country which was the home of Captain Jack and his band of less than a hundred warriors, whose hostility cost the general government and this state so many lives and so much money, and to urge upon the attention of your department the vital importance of early action on the part of the general government in adjusting this matter.
    From my experience of nearly twenty-five years upon the Pacific borders, I do not hesitate to say that if this question of title to lands within the Klamath Reservation remains for any considerable period unadjusted the most serious Indian hostilities will occur disastrous to the settlements in Southern Oregon and Northern California, as well as expensive to the general government in an amount for exceeding any cost of present settlement of the matter.
    Could the reservation be vacated and the Klamath Indians be removed to other lands I presume it would be the most satisfactory solution of the question, as far as the owners of these lands are concerned, but if this cannot be done it would appear but common justice and fair dealing that other lands of equal value be given in release of these or that a fair money compensation be made for the same.
I have the honor to be, sir,
    Very respectfully
        Your obdt. servant
            L. F. Grover
                Governor of Oregon
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Portland Oregon
    Oct. 22nd 1875
Hon. Commissioner
    of Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Sir
                In consequence of my late illness by an injury received in the Coast Mountains while on my way to visit the Nestucca Indians, I have been unable to visit the Alsea Agency up to this time. A delegation of chiefs and head men of that agency came to Grand Ronde Agency a short time ago expecting to meet me there. I am informed by Mr. Sinnott, the agent, that they requested him to say to me that they were now willing to go to Salmon River on Siletz Reservation. That is where I proposed for them to go at first.
    I received a dispatch from the Hon. Commissioner of Ind. Affairs dated Sept. 9th instructing me to direct Agent Litchfield to turn over all government money and property in his hands to Agent Fairchild at Siletz Agency and to assist him in removing said property to said agency.
    The same dispatch also instructed me to direct Agent Fairchild to remove the property above referred to and to pay all expenses of removal &c. In compliance with your instructions I forwarded on the 11th of Sept. a copy of said dispatch to Agent Litchfield and requested him to prepare the minds of Indians for the event. I also informed him that on my return from Nestucca that I would visit his agency. In consequence of my severe illness I have been unable up to this time to do so. I therefore this day have directed him to turn over all government money and property in his hands to Agent Fairchild and to assist him in removal of said property to Siletz, a copy of which is herewith transmitted.
    I have also directed Agent Fairchild to remove all government property from Alsea Agency to Siletz and to pay all expenses of removal &c.
    A copy of which is herewith transmitted.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            Special Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Newport O.
    Oct. 23, 1875
E. P. Smith
    Com. Ind. Affairs
        Dear Sir
    I have located several Alsea & Siletz Inds. in homesteads under recent act of Congress & ruling [of the] Secy. of Int. I find some difficulty in obtaining parties to make oath as to "abandonment of tribal relations." Can you inform me what constitutes an "abandonment of tribal relations" as understood by the Dept. There are a good many Indians desiring to locate homesteads, but there is a great necessity for someone to instruct and assist them. The co. clerk seldom will take trouble to attend to them. The distance to land office is too great for them to incur expense. The land officers by reason of not understanding their language is at a loss how to act & generally the Indian becomes discouraged and gives up the idea of getting land. In the cases I assisted I paid some of the expense, secured the necessary affidavits and am perfectly satisfied that had they been left to themselves [they] could never have obtained a claim. The Indians need an instructor & assistant to help & instruct in the duties, forms &c. &c., that is if govt. really desires Indians to become citizens & freeholders.
Yours respy.
    R. A. Bensell
        Newport
            Benton Co.
                via Corvallis Oregon
To
    Hon. E. P. Smith
        Com. Ind. Affrs.
            Washington
                D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1128-1130.




Portland Oregon
    Oct. 28th 1875
Hon. Comr. Indian Affairs
    Washington D.C.
Sir,
    In consequence of my recent illness I have been compelled to defer making this report of the success of my visit as special agent to the Nestucca Indians north of Salmon River.
    Leaving Portland Sept. 8th, I remained in Salem two days awaiting the arrival of Jas. Brown, whom I had requested to accompany me, and together we left Salem on the 10th, arriving at the Grand Ronde the same day, arranging for Agent Sinnott to meet me at the Nestucca camp on the 13th, resuming the journey on the 11th, accompanied by Agent Brown, and also by Mr. Folger, the clerk at that agency, whose company I had requested. We went by way of Salmon River by wagon road, a distance of thirty miles, thence by trail over a very rough and mountainous country a distance from [the] mouth of Salmon River of about twenty miles. We arrived at the mouth of the Nestucca River on the 13th, found the Nestucca Indians awaiting my arrival excepting the wife of the chief, who had left a day or two before for Tillamook. At request of the chief I sent Agent Brown after her, with whom she promptly returned. Mr. Sinnott, the agent at Grand Ronde, agreeable to his appointment, also arrived on the 13th. The council lasted for three days. The chief, who by the way is a very intelligent man and a genteel-looking fellow aged approximately about thirty years, contended that the country embracing forty miles along the coast and twenty miles back belong to him and his people, that they were born there and it was the burial place of their fathers.
    I explained to him the law of Congress establishing the permanent Siletz Agency and opening to settlement that section of country north of Salmon River. I also explained to him the homestead law and all its benefits and provisions. This failed to satisfy him. On the third day, however, after repeated meetings, they consented to abandon their country at once and locate on Siletz Reservation as defined by law at the mouth of Salmon River. To accomplish this result they were promised assistance from the government to locate them severally upon the unoccupied lands at that place. That each head of a family of two would be allotted forty acres of land and that each adult not head of a family would be apportioned twenty acres. Also that they would be furnished with lumber and nails for the erection of suitable houses, and also the aid of one white man to assist in the construction of this same. It was further promised that they should be provided with plows and teams to break and cultivate their land, and that they should have seed potatoes for the first year's planting. The whole number of men is fifteen. They have the appearance of being robust and able-bodied men, and seem willing to be advised in the pursuits of civilization and industry and if started right will soon adapt themselves to agricultural pursuits for a livelihood. The whole number of them I think will not exceed fifty souls. I will state to their credit in this connection that they did not wait for assistance to move, but sending their horses overland by a portion of the band, they started at once with their families and household effects by sea in their own boats and canoes, going out at the mouth of the Nestucca River and coming into the mouth of Salmon River, a distance of about forty miles. They are now at the mouth of Salmon River, waiting for assistance from the government through the agent at Siletz, which I am sorry to say up to the present writing has not been given.
    A large portion of the country opened to settlement by the removal of these Indians is very valuable for farming and grazing purposes, and is rapidly being settled by an industrious class of white people.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        Ben Simpson
            Special Agent
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Office Alsea Indian Agency Oregon
    October 30th 1875
Sir
    Some two months since I recd. a letter from Surveyor Genl. Simpson, requesting me to turn over the government property and funds to the Siletz Agency and that he would be here in a few days from that date to assist me in doing so; however, he did not come. I could not have endorsed this order without instructions from your office, as I presumed you would have notified me had you so desired. I have again within a few days recd. a notice purporting to have come from him without any signature to the letter to turn over the government property and funds immediately to Agent Fairchild. Now I desire to have information and instructions from your office direct knowing that Agent F. has resigned, and a successor appointed,. And also knowing Simpson's character as a man I thought there was something wrong, and by receiving an anonymous letter purporting to have come from him confirmed me in my belief. Now winter is upon us, we have had two weeks storm here already, there is no lumber yet at Siletz to build with, and can it be expected that we should go there and live out of doors this winter. And I think if forcible measures are to be used February or March would be a more suitable time to remove, as the Indians can be wintered here much cheaper, more comfortable and more satisfactory [in] every way than they would be there--those that would go--and by that time lumber ought to be plenty to build with and business could start with the spring. The funds that were allotted me to purchase goods with I have not used yet except a small amount, and the cattle that I purchased with your consent in June I have most of them. Thinking that with the cattle and the funds I could induce a great many to go and set them up in farming very easily. As I have informed you before that these Indians have good houses most of them, and it is unjust to ask them to live out of doors two or three winter months until they could get lumber. Judging from Mr. Simpson's newspaper reports here in Oregon I think likely your office is misinformed as to these Indians in regard to their willingness to remove. Please instruct me how to act in regard to allowing settlers on the reservation, before the removal of the Indians--there are none here at present--and also about the government buildings and what will be the plan adopted to dispose of the property &c. We have plenty of feed and accommodation for the stock here, better than they would get at Siletz. We have a fine lot of young cattle and cows which I proposed to give the Indians for work, but my later plan was if they would go to Siletz to give them some in lieu of their improvements and as inducement. How Mr. Simpson has represented me in connection with this matter I know not, but I am well aware that he is no friend of mine. The fact of my keeping the stock and funds on hand ought to be sufficient to guarantee my good faith in seconding the views and instructions received and of having all my official actions point in that direction since receiving your communications to that effect. It may appear to you that I am acting from selfish motives in wishing to continue this agency a few months longer, but I can assure you that I am entirely free from it, and act entirely in a conscientious and strictly faithful manner as regards my trust, as my efforts towards the willing removal of these Indians will by that time I sincerely believe be crowned with success as I have already gained some of those who were at first the most opposed, and will be continually gaining others. Hoping to hear from you soon in reply,
I remain
    Yours respectfully
        Geo. P. Litchfield
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner of Ind. Affairs
        Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Salem Oregon
    October 31st 1875
Sir
    In obedience to instructions from your office I have the honor to report that my time has been employed in a few instances of small troubles between Indians and whites as the former are principally on the reservation, and what few are not I am pleased to say are remarkably quiet. I have been expecting to be called upon by Special Commissioner Simpson to go to the Alsea to assist in removing those Indians to their new reservation as agreed upon in the treaty lately concluded by Commissioner Simpson.
    The Nestucca Indians that moved to their new reservation are quite uneasy, as the agreement on the part of the government has not been complied with. I know not where the blame lies, for Commissioner Simpson wrote immediately, on completion of the treaty, to Agent Fairchild to send a man to render the assistance as agreed upon.
    The country surrendered by the Nestucca has quite all been taken up by farmers and stock raisers. Why the Alseas have not moved to their ground is more than I am able to say, as they--the Indians--by delegates have visited the same and are well pleased with the location. The whites are anxiously awaiting the vacation; a sufficient number stand ready to locate almost the entire lands now occupied by the Alseas. Their detention there is working a hardship on both the Indians and industrious white settlers. I would respectfully recommend that immediate steps be taken to move them to their new homes, as a month or six weeks delay will necessitate their remaining till spring.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Indian Agent
Hon.
    E. P. Smith
        Commissioner of Indian Affairs
            Washington City D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1131-1133.




Portland Oregon
    November 1st 1875

Sir
    On preparing to take my final leave of the scene of my labors for the past two years I respectfully ask leave to offer a few suggestions relative to the interests of the people who have been under my charge.
    It has been reported to me today, by parties who professed to be well informed, that strong efforts are being made to defeat the appointment of Mr. Bagley as my successor as Indian agent at Siletz--that a remonstrance to that effect has been signed and sent forward by Geo. Harney, Chief of Siletz Indians &c. &c.
    I can hardly believe Harney would be guilty of such treachery, as he distinctly told me he would be pleased with the appointment of Mr. Bagley. Since his return from Washington, however, he has been much under the influence of his brother-in-law, one Jos. Howard, a half-breed keeper of a low liquor saloon at Newport, and if any such remonstrance has really been sent forward (which I can hardly believe), it has been the work of Howard. I have long been watching for evidence to convict this man of selling liquor to Indians, but have so far failed to secure anything certain to convict, and knowing his disposition and the influence he had acquired over Harney, I did not wish to provoke his enmity unless I had such evidence as would be certain to convict him. Harney has come from Newport once disgracefully drunk, and though I felt sure Howard had given him the liquor, he strenuously denied it.
    Harney's sister, the wife of Howard, came to the reservation a few days since so drunk she could not sit on her horse, and Harney and another Indian were compelled to hold her. This I did not learn till some days after. She was also seen in Salem drunk for several days in succession. Having been legally married to Howard, I could, of course, exercise no jurisdiction over her when not on the reservation, but being the sister of the head chief, the effect of the example has been bad. If any such remonstrance against Mr. Bagley's appointment has been forwarded, signed by Harney, I can assure the Commissioner that it is the work of this man Howard.
    I am certain no appointment of agent at Siletz could be made that would give greater satisfaction to the Indians, or that would give better results in their improvement and general welfare, than Wm. Bagley.
    If Geo. Harney has expressed any opposition, he is too treacherous to be worthy [of] the least attention. Had I had any idea any other appointment would be made, I certainly should have taken the risk of health, business and everything else rather than resign, because I feel too much interested in the well-being of the Siletz Indians to throw away any chance, or take any risk, when their interest is involved.
    I would therefore most earnestly urge the appointment of Mr. Bagley as my successor. I have known him several years. I know his integrity to be above suspicion. I know him to possess administrative ability far above the average. He has good business capacity, and if during my administration the Indians have improved, to Mr. Bagley more than any other is due the credit.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agt. at Siletz
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.




Portland Oregon
    November 3rd 1875

Sir
    I have the honor to transmit herewith my monthly report for October 1875.
    During the month the people have been generally engaged, securing their grain, repairing houses, barns &c. and preparing for the winter. Early in the month the threshing was completed, the general yield being extremely light. Work has been pushed forward on the saw mill, as rapidly as possible, but many obstacles have arisen which have retarded its completed.
    The weather from the 20th to the 31st was extremely stormy, rain fell in torrents, and raised all the streams to a height never before known at this season of the year.
    On the night of the 22nd the dam which had been constructed to form a basin for saw logs, unable to stand the immense pressure of the swollen stream, gave way, carrying off all the logs already hauled, and causing the loss of all the money expended in its construction. Such was the tremendous force of the current that it swept the ravine on which the mill and dam were located completed to the bedrock, carrying off all the earth, uprooting trees and sweeping the whole ravine bare to the bedrock the whole distance to the river. The loss of this dam at this juncture is particularly unfortunate, as it will delay the completion of both mills and involve a loss of at least $1000.
    It was something, however, that could neither be foreseen nor prevented.
    I am glad to be able to say that the school is a decided success. Had I searched the whole state, I am satisfied I could not have secured a better man for the position of teacher than Rev. T. F. Royal. The improvement going forward under his labors is indeed remarkable. Not only are the pupils learning the common branches of English education, but their whole deportment is continually improving. They are taught to be clean and neat in person and to be polite and obliging in their intercourse with each other.
    During the month the general health of the reservation has not been as good as in former months. For further particulars on this point I refer to Report of Agency Physician.
    In September a treaty was negotiated by Hon. Ben Simpson, Special Indian Agent with the Tillamook and other bands of Indians living north of the boundary of Siletz Reservation, by the terms of which the Indians agreed to remove to the Siletz Reservation south of the mouth of Salmon River, on condition that assistance be rendered them in building houses at their new locality to replace those abandoned. In compliance with their agreement the Indians over a month ago removed at their own expense to the country between the mouths of Salmon and Siletz rivers, and called on the agents of the government to fulfill their part of the stipulations and render the promised assistance in building houses &c. Having no funds in my hands applicable to this purpose, and being entirely without instructions from the Department, and ignorant whether the treaty would be approved, I could only ask the Indians to wait a little longer till a reply to my representations was received from Washington. On the 9th Sept. a telegram was sent from the Department to Hon. Ben Simpson, directing him to "instruct Agent Litchfield of Alsea to turn over to Agent Fairchild all government funds and property in his hands and assist Agent Fairchild to remove to Siletz such property as may be deemed expedient &c." This measure afforded the means of fulfilling the treaty with the Tillamooks and accomplishing the declared purpose of the Department, viz: to locate the Alsea Indians on the Siletz Reservation. I hastened to make arrangements to carry out this program before the winter rains should render it impossible. Agent Litchfield, however, refused to turn over money and property without special orders directed to himself.
    Knowing the importance of this measure and the necessity of immediate action, I hurried my clerk out to telegraph his refusal and ask for instructions. After waiting some time in vain for a reply, he returned to Siletz. As the measure was just what was needed, I entertained no doubt but the order to Agent Litchfield would be enforced, and waited patiently, making all arrangements to carry it into effect as soon as the necessary order should be issued. My intentions were as follows--
    Between the mouths of Siletz and Salmon rivers (7 miles) is a large body of first-class farming land open, covered with a rich growth of clover, well watered, with excellent timber convenient, and in sufficient quantity to make suitable farms for a large body of Indians. At the mouths of both rivers are first-class fishing stations, where at any time an Indian can in two hours secure food for his family for several days. Since I first saw this country, it has been a constant wonder to me why the Siletz Agency was not located there, where the Indians could at all times procure an abundance of the food to which they had ever been accustomed--instead of taking them inland and expending thousands of dollars to each them to farm, while the influence of the change of diet has caused them to die by hundreds. The Tillamooks, who under the provisions of the treaty made by Hon. Ben Simpson have already removed to this location, are relatives of the Alseas. My plan was therefore to remove the government property now at Alsea to the mouth of Salmon River, to locate the Alseas there, and place a competent man in charge as farmer, to allot each Indian family sufficient land for a small farm, to establish a school and encourage the Indians to raise vegetables and oats in sufficient quantity for their stock. There is a fine grazing country there and the Indians could be gradually supplied with stock cattle. Having been accustomed to a fish diet all their lives, there would be no necessity for any expenditure for their subsistence.
    A good wagon road would then be constructed (4 miles to cut) from the agency to the tide water on the Siletz River, by which lumber, stock, supplies &c. could be taken to this station at little expense and in from ½ to 1 day at the tide might serve.
    When this should be done all those Indians on the Siletz who have failed to secure and work forms, the greater number of the old and infirm, all those who now make their homes at the fishing station on Yaquina would remove to the Salmon River station, which would become of equal importance with Siletz Agency itself. As I am now out of the service, I can have no possible personal interest in the matter, and it is my earnest conviction that this measure is by all means best for the service and for the Indians. It is most unfortunate that it has been delayed so long.
    I understand the Tillamooks, tired of waiting and seeing no prospect of the promised help to build houses, are preparing to return to their old homes.
    They had very good houses which they left, the product of their own labor, which have now been occupied by whites who have taken claims there.
    It was to replace these houses that assistance was guaranteed them in building at their new homes. When they return, they will naturally want possession of their own property, which the whites who have taken the claims and know nothing of the circumstances will as naturally refuse.
    Bloodshed will probably result. At all events, one thing is certain--if they return they will never go to Siletz Reservation again alive. I cannot blame them. They have acted in good faith throughout. The government has failed to perform a single promise. I am fully persuaded of one thing--Agent Litchfield's opposition alone has prevented the Alsea Indians removing to Siletz. At any time since this negotiation for the removal of the Alseas has been going forward, if he had made the slightest effort to induce his Indians to consent to removal they would have done so. I once thought otherwise, now I feel sure of what I write. The Indians think if they hold firm they will have their agency continued as it has been. If a movement is made to remove the property and thus show them that the government means what it says, they will cheerfully go along with it. The delay in approving this treaty with the Tillamooks, the contradictory action regarding the Alseas, is having a very bad effect on the Indians, and is doing much to neutralize any efforts that may be made for their improvement.
    Let Agent Litchfield be peremptorily directed to turn over his funds and property at once, and if the Tillamooks have not already returned, I would guarantee the settlement of the whole matter satisfactorily in three weeks, the removal of the Alseas to Siletz without the least trouble of opposition, voluntarily and of their own accord.
    There cannot be the slightest doubt but it would be the best measure for the service and Indians that could be adopted, and I most earnestly recommend its immediate adoption.
Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agent
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner Indian Affairs
        Washington
            D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Portland Nov. 11th 1875
Hon. Ben Simpson
    Special Indian Agent
        Portland Oregon
            Sir
                In compliance with your request for an expression of my views relative to the policy proper to be pursued towards the bands of Indians now on the Alsea Indian Reservation and the Tillamook and other bands on the Siletz Reservation, I respectfully submit the following.
    The Coast Reservation as originally located embraced a tract of country lying from Cape Perpetua some 100 miles to the north and to the Coast Range of mountains some 25 miles from the Pacific, thus containing an area of about 2500 sq. miles. On this reservation it was intended to gather the various bands of fish-eating Indians, who lived at the mouths of the various streams that empty into the Pacific from the California line to the Columbia River. These bands of Indians were for the most part in a greater or less degree hostile to the whites, and to form a barrier between them and the settlements the peaceful tribes of the Willamette Valley were located between these wild Indians and the whites, on the Grand Ronde Reservation, which was set apart for that purpose. The agency for these wild tribes was unfortunately located on Siletz River some 25 miles from its mouth, and some 7 miles in a direct line from the ocean.
    Fifteen miles in a south westerly direction was the mouth of Yaquina, which like Siletz River at its mouth was an excellent fishing station. The impolicy of locating the agency so far inland will readily be seen when we remember that for untold generations the sole subsistence of these Indians had been fish, that they desired no other, and that they had thrived and increased on this diet.
    Located so far from the fishing station, they soon learned to depend for subsistence in great measure on the produce of the soil, a large proportion of which they expected the agent to supply. They built their houses and cultivated their little patches of land at the agency. There was their homes, and they were unwilling to abandon them to live at the fishing stations. Under the operation of this change of diet, the Indians died by scores and hundreds, till from a census of about 3500 they have dwindled to 1000.
    A few hundred of these coast tribes located at a point some 30 miles south of Siletz, on the coast, where a sub-agency was established, the Alsea. The discovery of oysters in Yaquina Bay, together with the advantages offered by that harbor as an outlet to the Pacific for the people of Benton Co., Oregon, induced Congress to open a strip 12 miles wide through the reservation to settlement, thus separating the Coast Reservation into two nearly equal parts, the Alsea on the south inhabited by some 300 Indians and the Siletz on the north with 1000. The advantages of consolidating these two reservations have long been seen, and the measure has been recommended by every Superintendent of Ind. Affrs. for Oregon, by the agents at Siletz and by both the inspectors of Indian agencies who have visited these reservations. The last Congress passed an act to define the boundaries of Siletz Reservation, by which all that portion north of the mouth of Salmon River was vacated and the reservation reduced to an area some 25 miles square. The same act provided for concentrating on Siletz Reservation all the Indians living north of the new boundaries, as well as those at the Alsea, provided their consent could be obtained. Councils were held with the Alsea Indians to procure such consent, but, as is believed, under the influence of their agent it was withheld. At the same time they expressed themselves willing to remove, should they see that the government was really in earnest. A treaty was soon after negotiated by yourself with the bands of Indians living north of the new line of the reservation, by which they removed to the county assigned them, between the mouths of Siletz and Salmon rivers.
    Having thus briefly sketched the history of these reservations, I proceed to consider the policy best adapted, in my judgment, to promote the welfare and improvement of the Indians.
    Between the mouths of Siletz and Salmon rivers, some 7 miles, and from ½ to 1½ miles back from the coast, is a body of open prairie land, covered with a rich growth of clover of the best quality for cultivation, well watered and with an abundance of the best timber convenient. It has been a source of wonder to me, ever since I first saw this country, why Siletz Agency was not originally located there. Both Siletz and Salmon rivers at their mouths are first-class fishing stations, where an Indian can at any time in 2 hours procure sufficient subsistence to last his family several days. The northern bands of Indians are already there, as provided by your treaty with them. The Alsea Indians, who are their relatives, should be removed to this location. The government property at Alsea should be removed to this point at once, and a wagon road cut from the agency at Siletz to the head of tidewater on Siletz River. This would enable supplies, lumber &c. to be taken to the Salmon River station without difficulty or delay. A trail for stock should be cut from Siletz Agency to the coast near the proposed station. Communication could thus be had with the agency in ½ day, and the cost of the road and trail would be but trifling. A competent man should be placed as farmer in charge, a good school should be established and the Indians encouraged to cultivate land enough to supply them with vegetables and oats for their horses. Cows should be purchased and issued to them, and the Indians at Siletz, who now make no efforts to farm, encouraged to remove to this location, where they can so readily procure their food. Should this measure be adopted at once, viz: removal of government property now at Alsea to the mouth of Salmon River on Siletz Reservation, place a competent farmer in charge of the station, establish a good school for the Indians, and construct a good wagon road from Siletz Agency to [the] head of tidewater on Siletz River, there is no doubt but the Alsea Indians would remove immediately. The Siletz chiefs have informed me that the Alsea chiefs had so informed them, and when away from the influence of their agent they have frequently expressed themselves to that effect. All the Indians at Siletz Agency who have not large farms would soon remove to the Salmon River station, and none would remain but those who are farming extensively. If ever it should be deemed advisable to still further curtail Siletz Reservation, patents could be issued to those Indians who are farming extensively, and the remainder having located themselves at the Salmon River station where they can procure fish. I apprehend little opposition would be made to opening up the larger portion of the reservation to white settlement. A telegraphic order was issued Sept. 9th '75 directing the agent at Alsea to turn over all government funds and property in his possession to the agent at Siletz and assist the latter in removing such as was deemed expedient to Siletz Reservation.
    This order should be enforced at once and the agent at Siletz instructed to establish the station at the mouth of Salmon River without delay, and to encourage the removal to that locality of all Siletz Indians not actively engaged in farming. The cost of establishing and continuing the station would be less than the present cost of the Alsea Agency.

Very respectfully
    Your obedient servant
        J. H. Fairchild
            U.S. Indian Agt. at Siletz
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 621 Oregon Superintendency, 1875.



Portland Oregon Nov. 29th 1875
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Comsr. of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
            Dear Sir
                About three weeks since a letter came to Siletz Agency addressed to James Bugley, and there being no one by that name in that vicinity, I, in presence of witnesses, opened it and found that it contained a notice of the appointment of an agent in place of James H. Fairchild, resigned. I knew the last name to be a clerical error (agent's name is Joseph H. [Fairchild]), and knowing that my name had been used in connection with that appointment, after a legal consultation I concluded to try to fill out the accompanying bonds and return them, to which please find enclosed. My reason for thus doing is the fact that there is a necessity for an active work with the Indians who have lately by the labors of Hon. Benj. Simpson been induced to leave their former homes and settle on the Siletz Reservation, as by a little help now they may be induced to embrace Christianity and remain. I will write you more fully of the condition of affairs when I reach home. Should the accompanying bond certificates &c. meet your approval, please make the correction in first name. I write in haste.
Yours very respectfully
    William Bagley
        Toledo
            Benton Co.
                Or.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1134-1136.



Salem Oregon
    December 13th 1875
Sir
    The late Supt. Odeneal informed me that he was ordered to forward all the paper and books of the Superintendency to Washington by express and suggested that I comply with the intent of the order. They are all the retaining papers of the office, together with the books. The express charges will be from $175 to $200 coin in advance. I did not feel justifiable in carrying out the directions without more direct orders from your office. The papers include all the papers belonging to the office, as retaining papers from 1855 to the abolishment of the office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Those papers have been stored in one of the rooms in the building last occupied by the Superintendent. Up to the first of January 1876 will be 2 5/12 years. Mr. T. McF. Patton claims rent for the room at the rate of seven dollars per month. Mr. Patton has made out vouchers for the amount and will send them to Washington.
Very respectfully
    Your obt. servt.
        James Brown
            U.S. Special Ind. Agent
The
    Hon. Commissioner
        of Indian Affairs
            Washington D.C.
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 1137-1139.



Siletz Agency Toledo Benton Co., Or. Dec. 14th 1875
Hon. E. P. Smith
    Commissioner of Indian Affairs
        Washington D.C.
Sir
    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of Nov. 19th, marked L, by last mail. Owing to its having been misdirected it was a long time on the way, having been remailed at Drift Creek for Toledo.
    My official bond was sent to you from Portland, Or. on the 28th Nov. and in all probability has reached you before this.
I am sir your obedient servant
    William Bagley
NARA Series M234 Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-81, Reel 620 Oregon Superintendency, 1874-1875, frames 936-937.




Last revised February 15, 2019