Medford in 1914

    Medford, with an estimated population of 10,500, is located near the center of the Rogue River Valley, on the main line of the Southern Pacific railroad. It is also the terminus of the Pacific & Eastern railroad, which extends about thirty-five miles northeast through fruit and farming and irrigated land to the edge of a large timber belt. Likewise, Medford is the terminus of the Rogue River Valley Railroad extending five and one-half miles west across the Rogue River Valley to Jacksonville, the county seat of Jackson County. Medford is the largest city, and the most important financial, trade, and shipping center of the county. The chief developed industry of the territory immediately tributary to Medford is fruit raising, and some of the most highly developed orchards of the valley are nearby. Besides pears, apples and peaches, a variety of smaller fruits, berries and market garden products are grown, and large yields of alfalfa. The 1910 census credits Medford with the most rapid growth, with two exceptions, of any city in the United States, during the past census decade. The population increase during the period was 393 percent, the record being exceeded only by two cities in Oklahoma. Medford is credited with being one of the most important railroad shipping points in Oregon, outside of Portland; and Medford has gained importance as a jobbing center.
    Medford receives an annual average rainfall of 27.21 inches, and the altitude is 1377 feet. Medford is directly located on Bear Creek, which is a tributary of the Rogue River and which drains the greater part of the tillable area of the valley. A considerable area of land near Medford is under irrigation, and another portion is under projected irrigation ditches. Few if any cities the size of Medford have a greater length of first-class paved streets, there being a total of twenty-two miles of paved streets. The city has more than twenty-nine miles of sanitary and storm sewers; twenty-eight miles of cast iron water mains, twenty-eight miles of cement sidewalks, and a twenty-three-mile gravity water system costing $275,000. The water is brought from a natural lake reservoir in the Cascade Mountains, the source of Little Butte Creek, the supply being sufficient for perhaps three times the present population. The city is supplied with gas and electric light and power, has two four-story concrete and brick office buildings, a public park, a $20,000 public library, a new $140,000 hospital, a natatorium costing $75,000, a $50,000 passenger depot, several hotels including one five-story hotel erected at a cost of $125,000 which ranks with the best hotels of the state. Also, there are four banks, and a large new opera house.
    Medford is headquarters for the Crater Lake national forest service, and the office of the county pathologist is located here. The key station of the U.S. weather bureau for Southern Oregon is also located in Medford. The sum of $110,000 has been appropriated, and the site chosen for the erection of a federal building. Medford has a paid fire department, equipped with an auto fire truck. There is a music conservatory, business college, a Catholic school, and plans are under way for starting a university. There are eleven churches, twenty-three lodges, a college woman's club, a university club representing forty-three colleges in different parts of the world, a golf and country club with 100 acres of grounds, and an active women's civic improvement club.
    Medford is the first city in the state to establish a public market, the institution having proved very popular, working to the advantage of both the country producers and the city consumers. Medford is the chief outfitting point in the county for Crater Lake, automobiles making regular trips during the season. Two large fruit packing plants are located in Medford, being operated by two of the three cooperative fruit selling agencies of the valley. They are also supplemented by storage warehouses, one of the precooling warehouses having a capacity of 100 cars. Medford has four large public school buildings and a high school building. The high school is one of the most modern of the state, special courses being given in domestic science, art, manual training, agriculture, etc. At the Oregon State Industrial Fair in 1912 the Medford high school was given the first prize and the second prize for the best work done in manual arts, among all the high schools of the state. Also, the exhibits from the sewing department were awarded a first prize and a fifth prize. Two daily newspapers--the Mail Tribune and the Sun--are published in Medford, the former having a weekly edition.
Jackson County Oregon: An Official Summary/Resources and Opportunities, published by "Jackson County Court and Southern Pacific," 1914

    Members of the newly elected council and Councilman George Potter, all that remain of the old, will meet in the office of Mayor Purdin in the M.F.&H. building this afternoon at 3 o'clock and outline administration policies, legislation and discuss committee appointments. The meeting is the result of a call issued Wednesday by the mayor. The keynote of the session promises to be harmony.
    The first regular meeting of the new council will be next Tuesday night. The initial business of the council will be to curb unnecessary expense and eliminate the deadwood on the city council. Councilman Emerick has expressed himself as determined to secure a full day's work from each and every city employee. Ordinances will be framed following the suggestions offered for betterment by Professor Sowers of the U. of O. municipal bureau.
    The only name mentioned to date for president of the council is Mr. Emerick, there being no opposition to him for the second highest honor in the city's government.
Medford Mail Tribune, January 17, 1914, page 1

    City officials have received the survey of the city government compiled by Professor Don Sowers of the University of Oregon, and members of the city council were busy looking it over.
    The university expert recommends the changes already made by the present administration--a budget system, a purchasing department, amalgamation of street commission and city engineer departments, etc., etc., while the forms of order blanks [and] requisition papers suggested are made out in full.
    The present sinking fund is declared to be inadequate, attention being called to the fact that only $6000 has been set aside, when $25,000 at least should be in the treasury to redeem the first $65,000 bonds.
    An entirely new system of bookkeeping is advised and more direct responsibility is government is urged. Attention is called to one striking defect, there being no way under the present system of determining the expiration of saloon licenses except by reference to the minutes of the council meeting. Professor Sowers suggests that the recorder keep a license book so that the situation can be sized up at a glance.
Medford Mail Tribune, February 7, 1914, page 2

    Following is Professor Don Sowers' survey of the city government of Medford:
    The council committees are really responsible for the administration of the city's business and not the mayor or other administrative official, and yet it is almost impossible to lodge responsibility definitely with a board or committee or group of men. The definite location of responsibility is the first step in any reform. The mayor has little power to administer affairs and the present heads of departments exercise scarcely more power or authority than employees. Under either a commission government plan of organization or a city manager plan, each administrative official is given power and authority commensurate with the duties of his office. He is held to strict account for the work of his department; responsibility can be definitely located and lodged with one man, and the facts of public business become matters of common knowledge. Careful consideration should be given to the city manager type of city organization.
Passing Ordinances
    It is a common occurrence to put ordinances on their second reading and adopt them at the same meeting at which they are introduced. This is a dangerous policy in that it does not afford the public adequate notice of proposed legislation. It is suggested that the charter provide that all ordinances, before adoption, shall go over to the second meeting and be published in the interim and that at least three days shall elapse between the introduction and final passage of all ordinances except emergency measures.
Financial Methods
    (a) The Budget. The city has no budget. Under the present charter funds are raised by making mill levies for at least seven different funds, as follows: General fund, water fund, fire fund, street and road fund, park fund, general sewer fund and library fund. These levies are not based upon carefully prepared estimates of the needs of the various departments during the coming year. The charter does not provide for public hearings on the budget, and no information is published respecting proposed appropriations. The service which the city proposes to give the public during the year is largely left to one's imagination.
    In order to secure the adoption of scientific budget making, it is suggested that the code prepared as Appendix A to this report might be adopted and the charter provision regarding budget might follow closely the county budget law.
    (b) Bonded Debt. The charter limits the indebtedness of the city to $100,000, but in the succeeding sections of the same act, by means of amendments, the limit is increased to $423,000. For retiring these bonds, it provides for a tax of not less than one-half mill and 5 percent of the gross receipts of the water plant, a sum which is woefully inadequate to retire an indebtedness of over half a million dollars. These two sources yielded $4411.57 for the year 1913, which would not be sufficient to retire more than $130,000 of twenty-year bonds, and thus there is at the present time over $350,000 of indebtedness for which no provision whatever has been made.
    It is suggested that chapter IX of the present charter be so amended as to provide that the total indebtedness for any and all purposes shall never exceed ten percent of the assessed valuation, and that all future bond issues shall be serial bonds.
City Departments
    The charter does not establish any framework of government. It simply gives the council power and authority over all municipal activities without establishing any administrative machinery for performing the various municipal functions. It does not even create departments for carrying out the work of the city, nor does it provide that heads of departments may appoint subordinates.
    In order to secure economy and efficiency in the administration of public affairs it is suggested that definite city departments be created by the charter, that heads of these departments shall be appointed solely on merit, and that they shall be held to strict accountability for the work of their departments.
    Significant facts disclosing situations which may be easily corrected by order or resolution of the council or by the action of city officials.
Financial Methods
    a. Accounting system.
    The accounting system is inadequate. It does not provide for showing current abilities in respect to invoices, when they become due, or contingent liabilities on account of contracts let and open market orders issued. It is, therefore, impossible to ascertain the true condition of the city's finances.
    In order that the accounting records of the city may furnish all of the information desired and protect the interests of the city and the officials, there is attached to this report in Appendix B a complete system of accounting procedure based upon the best practices now in use in other cities.
    b. Audit and payment of claims.
    1. Although the council passes upon all claims against the city, it is not supplied with the information and documents necessary to a proper auditing of bills. An adequate system should be adopted as outlined in Appendix B.
    2. Orders have been issued and debts incurred against appropriations without ascertaining whether there was a balance remaining in the fund to meet such expenditure. The appropriation ledger (form 6) would make it possible to ascertain this information before the order was issued.
    c. Purchasing supplies and materials
    1. Each department or official buys its own supplies--naturally in small quantities and at retail prices. A saving might be effected by
    a. Standardizing all equipment and supplies.
    b. Establishing a central purchasing agency.
    c. Letting all orders and contracts to the lowest bidders.
    d. Treasurer's office
    In spite of the charter provision (sec. 38) requiring: "depositories to furnish sufficient bond to indemnify the city against loss," the city depositories furnish no bond whatever.
    They should be required to furnish surety company bonds, in amount equal to the amount on deposit with them. The amount of city funds which may be deposited with any bank should be limited to 25 percent of the capital and surplus of that bank.
    e. Bonded debt
    Adequate provision is not being made for retiring the bonded indebtedness. Each year the budget should contain an amount sufficient to pay the interest and provide a sinking fund for the payment of the principal when it becomes due.
Police Department
    1. Records are lacking to show how each policeman spends his time while on duty, the number of calls received each day, and the number of times a vehicle has to be hired to visit outlying sections of the city.
    2. The possibility of transferring the automobile from the city engineer's office to the police department should be considered.
    3. A record of the number of homeless men lodged in jail would reveal the need for a municipal lodging house.
Fire Department and Fire Prevention
    1. Inspection by firemen of every building in the city should be inaugurated.
    2. The local department has not sought the cooperation of the schools in instructing the people in methods of fire prevention.
    3. There is a need for cost records showing the cost of maintenance of the new fire engine.
    4. The work of the electrical inspector might be enlarged to include that of the inspection of buildings under construction. This is badly needed.
    5. A complete new building code should be adopted.
Health Department
    1. Out of a total payroll expenditure for the year of $35,000, less than $1000 is spent on health protection.
    2. There is urgent need for a sanitary and food inspector.
    3. The health code needs to be modernized in several important ways. Food dealers should be obliged to take out a license.
    4. Garbage collection should be undertaken by the city.
Public Works
    1. A possible reorganization, combining the functions of the city engineer and street commissioner, is suggested.
    2. Daily time reports should be installed in the department to eliminate waste time and to assist in securing more accurate accounting.
    3. Assignment routes of the street cleaning forces should be mapped. It would then be easy to trace complaints and fix responsibility. The daily reports of streets flushed or swept should be made on standard forms and filed.
    4. Adequate equipment for the maintenance of streets should be provided.
    5. The cost of supervision, plans, inspection and tools has not been properly included with direct expense in charging private individuals for work done by city labor.
    6. The equipment of the department, including steam roller and street flushers, should be properly housed and not be exposed to the weather.
    7. An effort should be made to purchase all supplies in quantities after competitive bidding.
    8. There is need for subsurface maps showing the exact location of every water main, sewer, pipe or conduit.
    9. The annual report should be considerably extended to show in work and cost units what has been accomplished during the year, and it should be published.
Water Department
    1. The city's departments should pay for the water used by them the same as other consumers. The present arrangement is unfair to consumers.
    2. Every service in the city should be metered, and the city should own the meters. The metering of large users should be undertaken at once.
    3. Greater attention should be paid to the classification and distribution of expenditures.
    4. A profit and loss statement should be issued as a part of the annual report.
    5. The cost of extensions and additions should at least not be a charge against water rates until after provision has been made for retiring outstanding bonds.
    1. Instead of publishing assessment notices in detail, provision might be made for notifying each property owner affected by serving notices in the manner provided for serving summons in civil action. The money saved thereby might be profitably spent in publishing the annual reports of the city departments so that the citizens who are the stockholders of the City of Medford might know how their money is being spent.
Overhead Wires
    The city has made a good start toward keeping the city from being disfigured by unsightly poles. All additions to present systems and all new systems should be required to be placed in underground conduits.
Railroad Crossings
    Although the Southern Pacific tracks run through the heart of the city, no signal, warning bell, or gates are in use to protect the public.
    The establishment of a quarterly date for the payment of licenses, similar to the system of water collections, would make it possible to exercise greater administrative control over this important branch of revenue.
Value of Complaints
    Each department should keep a record of all complaints received. They show where the machinery of government is failing or breaking down and where to direct attention in planning the work of the department. If the mayor would see that complaints which come to him reach the proper administrative official, they would serve an important administrative purpose. A record of the number of applications for charity and poor relief would reveal the need for some organized agency to deal with this problem.
Accounting System
    The city's accounting system is woefully inadequate. The accounts are not kept in such a manner that one can tell at a glance daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly:
    1. How much the city owns.
    2. How much the city owes.
    3. The liability of the city on unfilled orders, contracts, etc.
    4. The balance of appropriations unexpended or the balance unencumbered.
    5. How much the city spends for salaries, supplies, equipment, repairs, debt service or fixed charges.
    6. How much the various city departments cost the city each year.
    7. Whether bills presented one month have been previously paid.
Need for a Complete Inventory of City Property
    At the present time there is no complete record showing how much property the city owns. The superintendent of the water department and the street commissioner keep a list of the tools used in their departments on a sheet of paper, but there is no property ledger maintained in the recorder's office by which to establish control over all other departments in which all new equipment and purchases of the city might be entered. The books of the city do not even show the number of street lights, classified as to kind, which the city maintains and pays for each month. The only record which the city has is found on the bill which the electric light company renders monthly. While the auditing committee of the council is supposed to check up the number of lights charged for on the bill by actual count each month, yet the city has no legal evidence whatever as to the number of lights for which it should pay monthly. The city should install a property ledger immediately and an inventory of all land, buildings, equipment, and personal property should be made. The inventory should show not only the cost of the equipment or property, and the date of purchase, but the estimated life of the property so that the cost of replacing it could be foreseen and allowed for in making up the financial program of the city.
Liability Accounting
    No charges are made against funds until goods have been delivered and a bill reaches the recorder's office. In many cases, the first information he has that a purchase has been made and a liability incurred against the city is when the bill is presented for payment. It is evident that then it is too late to exercise any control whatever over expenditures and thereby prevent officials from incurring debts in excesss of the annual appropriation.
Should Set Up Reserves
    Proper administration of appropriations demands that whenever a purchase order is issued or a contract certified, the actual or estimated amount thereof shall be charged immediately as an encumbrance on the appropriation against which it is issued. It then acts as a reserve to ensure the retention of a sufficient balance on the account to take care of the invoice or bill when rendered. This is the only system by which the exact condition of such authorizations may be correctly ascertained and departments prevented from overencumbering the amounts allowed them.
Departmental Accounts
    The books kept by the recorder do not show how much is spent for salaries, supplies, equipment, repairs, or debt service for each department of for all departments. Such information can only be obtained after long and tedious examination of every bill audited during the year. It is a fundamental principle of accounting that any account which has to be analyzed in order to arrive at its significance is worthless. The records should be so kept as to reveal at a glance information such as this which is of primary importance. In the absence of knowledge regarding the amount and character of supplies and equipment purchased during the year, there is no means of knowing the saving which might be effected by purchasing supplies and tools in quantities or under contract.
    The books do not show how much each department of the city costs, and hence it has no basis for comparing its expenditures with that of other cities of similar size. It is suggested that the council seriously consider departmentizing the work of the city, so as to conform to the grouping of functions adopted by the United States census in its report on the statistics of cities, and in this way it will be possible to make comparisons between the expenditures of Medford and other cities of similar size.
Need for a Claimant's Ledger
    At the present time the only way to find whether a bill presented one month has been previously paid is to look through all the audited claims or to rely upon the memory of the recorder. A ledger should be installed which would show the financial standing of every individual or firm with which the city engages in business, how much is due the firm, and when the account was paid. This would enable the city to pay its bills promptly and thus secure the usual trade discount. Since the installation of such a ledger in [the] auditor's office of Multnomah County the amount received by way of discounts was more than the auditor's annual salary. Furthermore it will prevent the city's paying the same bill twice, which might easily happen under the present arrangement.
Audit and Payment of Claims
    Bills against the city are passed upon by
    1. The financial committee of the council.
    2. The council.
    The evidence presented to both these bodies is insufficient as a basis for auditing claims. The bills presented by the vendors are marked O.K. by the department receiving the goods.
    With the exception of the water department, each department head relies solely upon his memory when he marks the bills O.K. The auditing committee is not furnished with written evidence to show (a) that the bills were incurred by a person authorized to incur indebtedness against city funds (requisitions); (b) that the articles or services were necessary for the proper transaction of the business of the department (requisition); (c) that it was incurred solely for the benefit of the city (requisition); (d) that the articles have been received or services rendered (tally slip); (e) that the claim is correct as to price and amount and that the extensions and calculations have been verified (purchase order); (f) that the amount of the claim does not exceed the unencumbered balance of the appropriation against which the bill is chargeable (voucher) and that the claim has not been previously paid (voucher).
    The council should immediately install a complete new system of controlling expenditures based upon requisitions, purchase orders, tally slips, invoices and vouchers, so that it can have presented to it the necessary information for making an intelligent audit of claims against the city.
    In Appendix B there has been prepared a code which gives in detail the forms and accounting procedure necessary to install an up-to-date accounting system.
Purchasing of Supplies and Materials
    The City of Medford might save considerable by the centralization of purchasing power in the hands of one man. Such official should be selected solely on merit and should have previous experience as a purchasing agent. Some arrangement might be made whereby this official could assist the recorder in keeping the city's books. The appointment of a man who could combine the duties of purchasing agent and bookkeeper would, without doubt, result in a saving to the city.
    The first step involved in the establishment of a central purchasing agent is the standardization of supplies and the preparation of standard specifications. This work might be started at once by the appointment of a small committee who should advise with all city officials to ascertain what supplies and equipment are purchased annually and in what amounts and to determine the kind, grade, style, etc., best adapted for each particular need.
    In order to secure economy in purchasing a yearly supply should be purchased in advance. This does not necessarily mean that all supplies must be delivered at once and kept in a central storeroom. Contracts may be based on unit costs without record to the quantity needed. Furthermore, contracts may be arranged whereby periodical deliveries may be made as needed.
Treasurer's Office
    Although no audit was made of the treasurer's accounts, the business methods of the office were examined and the office was found to be well administered.
    The funds of the city are deposited with four local banks which are selected by the council, and an effort is made to distribute the amount on deposit equally among the four banks. The rate of interest paid on city deposits is 2½ percent.
    The amount on deposit for the year 1913 varied from a minimum of $50,000 to a maximum of $100,000. This suggests the possibility of placing a definite amount on time deposit for a definite number of months and thus securing a higher rate of interest. It also raises the question whether the amount of the treasurer's bond which is at present fixed at $25,000 is sufficiently large.
    The chief criticism to be directed against the handling of the city's finances is that the city depositories are not required to furnish surety company bonds or to deposit with the treasurer bonds of municipalities, counties or school districts within the state of Oregon or other approved bonds, the face value of which shall at all times be equal to the amount of money on deposit by the city with the depositories.
    Business prudence would also suggest that the amount of the city's money which may be placed on deposit in any one bank be limited to a percentage of the capital and surplus of that bank and not be unlimited as at present.
Bonded Debts
No Provision for Payment
    On November 1, 1913, the city had a bonded debt of $513,000, for which practically no provision had been made for its payment. The total amount in the sinking funds amounted to only $7272.56. The following table shows the character of this debt, the amount in the sinking funds, the amount which should be in the funds if adequate provision had been made to pay off the debt and the amount of annual installments which should be annually included in the budget to retire the debt.
[The table was not printed by the newspaper.]
    It will be noted from this table that $30,000 of these bonds are refunding bonds and that inadequate provision is being made to retire the $45,000 of water bonds due in 1917 and the $25,000 of City Hall bonds due in 1918. If the present policy is pursued the only recourse open to the city will be to refund these bonds also. It is not fair to future taxpayers thus to throw the entire burden of debt payment on the future citizens of Medford when the present citizens have issued the bonds, spent the proceeds and are reaping the benefits of the expenditure. To neglect next year and each succeeding year to set aside a reserve to pay these bonds when they come due is not consonant with sound financing. It is false economy for the city to deceive itself by keeping down the present tax rate in such a manner.
Charter Provision Inadequate
    The charter provision requiring the council to levy a tax of not less than one-half mill and to appropriate 5 percent of the gross receipts of the water department toward the establishment of a sinking fund is wholly inadequate to meet the situation. The total amount set aside from these two sources in 1913 amounted to only $4411.57, whereas from the table above it will be seen that in order to establish adequate sinking funds beginning in 1914 over $14,000 will be required.
Serial Method Better Than Sinking Fund
    Throughout the country sinking funds are becoming obsolete as a method of paying indebtedness. Both cities and states each year are becoming more committed to the serial method. Massachusetts has a state law which makes the serial method compulsory for all cities throughout the state. The sinking fund method is (a) cumbersome, complicated and difficult to administer; (b) in spite of express provision in the charter it is often disregarded with the result that funds are not available to retire the debt when it matures and refunding is the inevitable result (c) and it is more costly than the serial method.
    The following figures will show the saving to be effected by the adoption of the serial method over the sinking fund method on a million-dollar debt.
Sinking Fund Method
Interest at $1,000,000 at 4 percent for 20 years $     800,000
3½ percent basis     707,221
    Total cost $1, 507,221
Serial Bond Method
Interest at 4 percent $     420,000
Installments or payments   1, 000,000
    Total cost $1, 420,000
Saving in favor of serial method $       87,221
Constructive Suggestions
    (1) That the charter be so amended as to limit the total bonded indebtedness for any and all purposes to ten percent of the total assessed valuation, instead of the present arbitrarily fixed amounts.
    (2) That all future bond issues shall be serial bonds.
    (3) That each year the budget shall contain an amount sufficient to pay the interest on all outstanding indebtedness and to provide a sinking fund which will be sufficient to retire the present outstanding bonds at maturity.
Police Department
    The police force consists of four men divided into two shifts of twelve hours each, the hours being from 6 o'clock. By special arrangement with the telephone company, the telephone operator flashes red lights located near the police station, and at the corner of Library Park, whenever any citizen wishes a policeman. The men on duty thus remain within visible distance of these lights and go to the nearest telephone to inquire where they are wanted as soon as the red lights are turned on.
    No records of any kind are kept by the police department. For want of records which would show how many calls are received each day, the difficulties of getting to the scene of action, the number of times it is necessary to hire an automobile and for what purposes vehicles are hired, it is not possible to determine whether the number of policemen is adequate or inadequate. For want of records which would show how much the police department spends for auto hire during the year, it is not possible to determine whether it would be economical for the city to purchase a motorcycle for the police department. In view of the fact that there is little demand on the part of the city engineer for the automobile belonging to his department, since very little construction work is under way, the advisability of making this machine available for the police department should be carefully considered.
    Either the chief of police or the police judge should keep a record of the number of homeless men lodged in jail for the night in order to determine the need for a municipal lodging house.

Fire Department and Fire Prevention
    The fire department is well equipped and adequately manned. The plan which has been adopted of making use of the fire team on the street department is apparently working satisfactorily and might be followed by other cities.
    It was not learned whether or not hose is bought on a pressure test and time guarantee but the plan now adopted in several cities of buying on specifications approved by the National Board of Fire Underwriters is suggested for consideration.
    The chief makes periodic inspection of the downtown districts in the interest of fire prevention. This is an excellent plan and the inspection should be extended throughout the city and if necessary ordinances should be passed giving the firemen authority to inspect all buildings within the city limits. By a proper districting of the city and by assigning the firemen to this task a complete inspection might be made every month. Each inspection should be made on printed forms dated, signed by the inspector and filed in the office.
    The chief should send his men frequently through the buildings of the downtown district to familiarize them with conditions, the location of hydrants, exits, etc.
    Carefully kept cost records should be maintained showing the cost of supplies, new equipment and repairs needed on the new auto fire engine. This information is important in buying new engines.
    Out of a total of 55 fires in 1913, fifteen were started from defective flues and twelve were in residences. In other words, thirty-seven fires were in the residential part of the city, presumably outside the fire limits established for the city. This suggests the need for some inspection of buildings under construction.
Building Bureau
    At present the inspection of buildings under construction is confined to an examination of the electrical wiring and fixtures. The work done by the electrical inspector seemed to be efficiently performed and the suggestion is herein made that the scope of inspection work be enlarged to include line work and the inspection of buildings under construction or alteration.
    While a permit is required before the construction of a building can be undertaken, yet this serves no useful purpose other than to ascertain the amount of building that is being done. The ordinance does not require that plans shall be submitted and approved by a competent engineer or architect before the permit is granted, and there is no inspection to see that the building code is not violated. A complete modern building code is needed in Medford and a building inspector is essential to see that the code is enforced.
Health Department
    Out of a total payroll expenditure for the year of $35,000, the city of Medford spends less than $1,000 on health protection. This is no doubt the reason why the health officer has not enlarged his functions beyond exercising control over contagious diseases and making sanitary inspections. In most progressive cities the duties of the health officer have been enlarged to include the following important functions:
    1. Exercise control over communicable diseases.
    (a) By requiring prompt reports from physicians, heads of families, teachers, proprietors of hotels and lodging houses, etc., under penalty of prosecution.
    (b) By compelling druggists to report sales of diphtheria antitoxins.
    (c) By establishing quarantine in all cases of typhoid fever, whooping cough, mumps, chicken pox, and German measles. By isolating all cases of smallpox, scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, cerebrospinal meningitis and poliomyelitis.
    (d) By investigating all facts having a bearing on the source of infection, as unsanitary premises, learning the address of stores where milk and food are procured, water supply, presence of flies, etc.
    (e) By notifying schools of the presence of communicable diseases.
    (f) By keeping records of location and spread of diseases.
    (g) By disinfecting quarantine premises.
    (b) By not allowing a public funeral of any person dying of smallpox, diphtheria, membranous croup, measles, scarlet fever and cholera.
    2. Control over sanitary arrangements.
    (a) By inspecting all places to determine whether there are violation of the sanitary code governing nuisances, privies and cesspools, hotels, laundries, barbershops, spitting, smoke nuisance, common drinking cup, common towel, etc.
    (b) By issuing notices to abate nuisances within a stated time and prompt prosecution on failure to abate.
    (c) All plumbing to be passed upon by plumbing inspectors.
    3. Control over food:
    (a) By compelling all persons engaged in the sale of food to take out a permit and to keep food in a sanitary condition, screened from flies and insects.
    (b) By destroying impure, unclean or adulterated food.
    (c) By inspecting dairies, milk stores, ice cream factories, meat markets, bakeries, restaurants and candy factories, etc.
    4. Control over child welfare:
    (a) By requiring permit to practice midwifery.
    (b) Prompt investigation of all cases of still birth.
    5. Control over hospitals and clinics:
    (a) Provide hospitals for isolation of contagious diseases.
    (b) Provide hospitals for care of advanced tubercular patients.
    (c) Free vaccination of school children.
    (d) Free clinics for treatment of all defects found in school children.
    6. Control over registration of vital statistics.
    (a) By furnishing blanks for reporting of deaths, births, and marriages, and prosecution for failure to report.
    (b) By keeping records of geographical location.
    7. Publicity:
    (a) By informing the public through newspapers, bulletins, lectures or other methods upon public health subjects and to enlist the cooperation of the citizens.
    Either the salary of the health officer should be increased to such an amount as will enable him to devote all his time to the work or else a sanitary and food inspector should be appointed and paid a fixed salary, who should devote all his time to the work.
    In order to make the work effective a license should be required by every person intending to go into a business where food is kept, prepared for sale or sold, and a permit from the health officer should be required before the license is granted.
Garbage Collection
    Although no complaints were heard against the present system of garbage collection and disposal, yet the city should carefully consider the advantages of a comprehensive municipal service. Where local scavengers make collections and charge each family for the work, there are many families who do not consider the service sufficiently important to warrant the cost. They, therefore, often cause discomfort to their neighbors and endanger the health of the community by affording opportunities for flies to breed. This method is costly when compared with the annual cost of the service if the work is done by a city department when one considers that the collection service by local scavengers usually reaches only about one-fourth or one-third of the total population.
    The garbage is apt to be disposed of in unrestricted ways. Three common methods of disposal are now in use in small cities: (1) Burying the garbage; (3) feeding to pigs; (3) burning. Garbage crematories to burn garbage and rubbish are the commonest type of furnace in small communities. One ton per day per thousand inhabitants is a fair estimate for garbage and refuse, which would mean for Medford a plant of 10 tons daily capacity. The cost of construction will range from $600 to $1000 per ton daily capacity. The cost of operation will range from almost $1.00 to $1.50 per ton but local conditions may alter these limits.
Public Markets
    Medford is to be congratulated upon the success of its municipal market. The success of a municipal market depends in large measure upon the good judgment and business ability of the market master, and he should not be hampered by hard and fast rules. It must be continually kept in mind that the public patronizing the market must save money by doing so and hence the rents to tenants must be kept down as low as possible. A city can well afford to operate a market at cost. It is recommended that no leases be given to the various stall holders so that the market master can declare vacant the stall of any occupant who deals dishonestly with the public. The absence of telephones in the various stalls is also to be commended. The introduction of telephones would sooner or later result in patrons ordering supplies by telephone, with the increased cost of delivery service and the opening of a credit account. Good food inspection is also very essential to the success of a municipal market. The council should see that sufficient screening is supplied the market so that all doors and windows may be properly screened during the fly season.
Public Works
    The efficiency administration of the construction and maintenance of streets, sewers, and sidewalks, and the  cleaning of streets and sewers demands that a high-grade business executive be selected solely on merit. The head of this department should have technical engineering training, but he should, above all else, have an appreciation of the value and administrative use to be made of accurate and complete records. The present offices of city engineer and street commissioner should be combined into a public works department and bureaus created within the department, if needed to conduct the work. The two bureaus recommended would comprise the construction, maintenance and cleaning of streets and sidewalks and the construction and repair and cleaning [of] sewers.
Maintenance of Public Works
    Thus far the engineering problem of Medford has been one of construction, but from now on the chief factor will be that of maintenance. The problem of maintenance consists first of all of an adequate inspection service to ascertain where and what repairs are needed. Inspectors should make reports on standard forms which could be filled in and filed in the office and become the basis for issuing work orders.
    Complaints should also be recorded and promptly investigated. Definite work orders should be issued to the foreman of the repair squad; each work order should be given a number against which the labor and material used could be charged and thus would be laid the basis for a cost accounting system by which the cost of maintaining streets or sewers could be determined.
Need for Time Reports
    Individual time reports are essential in the public works department where the men are assigned to numerous duties during the day, in order to make up the proper charge against the proper accounts. Not even daily summary sheets are used by the present street commissioner, but all time reports are kept in a field memorandum book.
    The city forces very often do work for private individuals on sidewalks, cut repairs, sewers, etc., and the amount is collected by the tax collector. The basis for these charges are the reports showing labor cost. The charges for material are very crude and could be made more accurate by the introduction of proper job cost accounts. The distribution of overhead costs, such as tools, special equipment and supervision, is on a very loose basis and in many cases has been omitted entirely. The cost of cleaning streets per block is obtained by dividing the total number of blocks cleaned into the total payroll cost thus omitting the wear and tear of equipment altogether and making no charge whatever for the water consumed.
    The department keeps no ledger account to show the amount of equipment on hand or its location. Street flushers and road rollers are not properly protected from the weather. At small expense a shed could be built at the yard where they are now kept for housing this equipment.
Economy Disregarded in Purchases
    By letting contracts for the purchase of the principal materials used in the department such as lumber, cement, crushed rock, nails, etc., considerable economy might be effected during the course of the year. At present these materials are purchased on open market orders without inviting bids.
Maintenance Contracts
    Such future contracts as may be let for maintenance of pavements should be let on the basis of square yards laid rather than upon the basis of an annual maintenance of each square yard of pavement.
Need for Subsurface Maps
    The present is the only time when accurate maps can be prepared showing the size and exact location of all subsurface structures. The absence of such maps places serious difficulties in the way of future pavement administration and public utility control and may result in great cost to the city when unnecessary openings may have to be made in the pavement in order to try and locate a break in a sewer pipe or water main. The preparation of such maps should be authorized at once.
No Contract Summaries
    The engineer's monthly estimates of work done are not grouped together so that one may have the complete history of each contract. A contract register should be installed so that there would be a complete history of every contract.
Street Cleaning
    The method of cleaning streets which comprises a patrol system by day followed by washing with flushing wagons during the night is the most efficient and satisfactory method on well-paved streets. Owing to the large mileage of smooth surface pavements in Medford street cleaning is a simple problem.
Water Department
    The water department seems to be well managed. Water rents are collected quarterly in advance. This plan is good. Annual inspections are made to see that proper charges are made for the use of water. Water is turned off on failure to pay water rents. The forms used in the administrative work seem to be sufficient and the control over revenue collection seems to be adequate.
Every Service Should Be Metered
    Large cities generally throughout the country are more and more adopting the policy of metering each service connection. By a complete metering of the city, wastage can be prevented, rates equitably adjusted, and by comparing quantities distributed from reservoirs with quantities metered by consumers, the extent of leakage can be determined.
    Under the flat rate system the charge to consumers in based not upon the amount of water used, but upon the opportunity to use water. It is inexact and unscientific. A water closet in an office building pays $1.50 whereas a water closet in a hotel or store building pays 50 cents; one barber chair pays $1.00; such additional chair pays 50 cents; each bath tub in a barber shop pays 75 cents; in a hotel the first bath tub for general use pays 75 cents and each additional tub 50 cents. It costs just as much to deliver 1000 gallons of water to a large consumer as to a small one, yet a consumer using less than 5000 gallons pays at the rate of 30 cents per thousand gallons for quantities in excess of 5000 gallons.
City Should Own Meters
    Where every service is metered cities have recognized the principle that it is better for the city to own the meters than for the consumer to own them because they can be repaired with so much greater facility and hence at less cost. A separate meter history card should be maintained for each meter.
Serialized in the Medford Mail Tribune, February 9 through 18, 1914

Medford to Vote on Manager Form of Government.

    MEDFORD, Or., Dec. 4.--(Special.)--At a meeting of the city council last night, a committee was appointed to investigate the new city charter, and it is expected an election will be called before the end of the month, when the charter will be presented to the people.
    The new charter, which has been the result of nearly 10 months of work, provides for the city manager form of government, with a board of directors elected at large, serving without pay. A form of preferential voting also is included, as is a park commission and city improvement commission.
    More than 100 different city charters have been studied by the committee, and expert advice has been secured from Professor Don Sowers of the University of Oregon in the drafting of the proposed charter.
Oregonian, Portland, December 5, 1914, page 7

Rogue Valley Folk Are Ones in Thousands.
Farmers Go to Opera in Autos and Garbed in Full Dress.
David Swing Rlcker Finds All That Goes to Make Up Most Desirable Communities in Vicinities of Medford and Ashland.
    MEDFORD, Or., Feb. 25.--(Special.)--Few of us are self-steering men. We let others steer us. We sit among the cushions, contented, complacent or in a quarrel with our desires and our purposes and let other hands manipulate the steering gear.
    Usually our chauffeur is Circumstance. Sometimes Lack-of-Opportunity or Shortsightedness. Most often it's Poverty. But whatever his name--the name we blame so that we may hold ourselves blameless--we allow him to take us wherever he wants us to go.
Most People Followers.
    We surrender our right of self-command and our privilege to give direction. We are followers. We accept leadership. We mark time. Out of 20,000 of us one of us is able to steer himself. The rest of us are steered. That's because something is the matter with most of us.
    If we have initiative, we lack the ambition to use it. If we have the ambition, we are without the sand. If we have the sand, we haven't the money or the ingenuity to get it.
    We accept our destiny as we accept our baptism, without protestation, because of the selection of occupation as in the ejection of creed we are hampered by the expectations of our relatives, who won't live to suffer with us the grief that comes with the mistakes they gave to us when they asked us to keep in step with family traditions.
Jackson Folk Self-Steerers.
    To the casual reader the foregoing observations would seem to have little or nothing to do with the resources, the fruitfulness or the good roads of Jackson County and its one best bet--the Rogue River Valley. But they have. They have a lot to do with all of them.
    It is the self-steering man who has made Jackson County and its unequaled valley. The self-steering man lets nothing stand in his way. He fixes his destination. Then he slashes the bush and clears the path that leads to it. If blades and axes and saws fall him, he uses fire. If fire fails him he uses dollars. He destroys the barriers that stand in his way. He holds the steering wheel in his two hands. He has an instinct for self-leadership. He determines what kind of a life pleases him most; then he leads it. He doesn't say he would lead it if he could. He does lead it. He tears down every obstruction.
Rogue Valley Men Impress.
    The Rogue River Valley is crowded with men who ought to have been lawyers or doctors or politicians or publishers or bankers or brokers--ought to have been had they allowed family traditions to direct their lives. But they concluded to snap their fingers at ghosts and ancestral memories. Jeer at tradition, laugh at predestination's grip on society, tear loose from the harrowing narrowness and the stifling closeness of the occupations that had been marked down for them and go back to the land!
    That "back to the land" cry we have heard so much of lately has set most of us to thinking. That is the difference between us and the men down here. It set them to doing.
    Like most of us they dreamed of a bungalow-shelter set down among fruit-giving trees in a valley filled with soft air and sunshine, the rosy glow of exquisite dawns, the glare of richly colored evenings and wind-tossed, sun-painted, perfume-exhaling blossoms. Unlike most of us, they got up and did what they dreamed.
    And they are here--many of the ones in many twenty thousands, the men with the nerve, and the resolution back of the nerve, to steer themselves and to choose the sort of life that pleases them most.
Many States Represented.
    One group came from Chicago, one from Minneapolis, one from the Dakotas and smaller groups from New York and other places farther back East.
    One by one they settled in the Rogue River Valley. They believed they had found Paradise. They still believe it. They are surer now than they were then. And other groups are coming. And they believe they have found Paradise. And they are going to be surer of it tomorrow than they were yesterday. Whether it's self-hypnotism or just a feeling caught out of the air, everyone's got it and whatever else it has done or has not done, the feeling that "here is Paradise" has built up the most contented community I ever have discovered engaged in the occupation of farming or gathered together in a city of 10,000 people. And what have they done--these people who are so cock-sure they have found Paradise?
    They have set about their work as orchardists with an earnestness that has enabled them to produce several world's record yields of pears for the acre.
    They have gone about the work of producing for the markets with the same quality of zeal that their father and grandfathers went about the work of controlling the markets.
Civic Pride Created.
    They have helped to create the civic pride that has laid 20 miles of asphalt-paved streets in Medford.
    They have brought to their little "paradise" the life of the East. They have organized a University Club with more than a hundred members--graduates of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Cornell, from nearly every university of importance in America. They have established a country club with golf links and tennis courts; a drama league with an enthusiastic membership; a splendid theater, a hotel with metropolitan atmosphere and furnishings. And they dance the tango!
    The other day my wife and I were invited to the country club. We found 18 cars standing at the entrance--cars that belonged to the silk-stocking farmers and orchardists of "Paradise." Last night we strolled past a church where they were holding choir practice. There were seven cars standing at the curb.
    At night at the Medford theater both sides of the streets are lined with cars, standing two abreast. The farmers of Rogue River Valley come to town with their wives to see the "troupe" at the "opry-house."
Evening Clothes Farmers' Garb.
    The University Club gave a tango dance. The farmers came in evening clothes and their wives with bared shoulders. In the farmhouses you do not find embroidered towels thrown over chair backs, embroidered piano scarfs or Battenburg! You find Chippendale and Sheraton, Sheffield and Warsaw and old English prints. And it is by these impressions that Medford lets you take its measure.
    It was late in the afternoon that my wife and I swung into the main street of this miniature metropolis of a miniature empire and made our way to the hotel. As we pushed open the swinging doors and stepped into the hotel office, we got our first impression of Medford. Unconsciously my wife's hands tucked some stray hairs into place and adjusted a hatpin. To get rid of my pack I motioned to a bell boy and allowed my freed arm to drop carelessly over the patch in my khaki coat. I was conscious of my unshaved chin.
    We slipped away that night to a little cafe down by the railroad tracks and ate our supper behind the shielding curtains of a booth. Thus did we gain our first impression of Medford's atmosphere--an impression that faded like the chilling and unpleasant mists of morning long before the mists themselves next morning surrendered to the sun while we stood on top of Ben Sheldon's hill and found about us a gathering of friendly names.
Growing Instinct Shown.
    Off under Wagner's Butte and the Grizzly Peak, nestled against the skirts of Roxy Anne, down in the valley, over toward Table Rock and the foothills of the Coast Range set down in natural snuggeries or looking out on the panorama of mountains, budding trees, bending river and well-kept city from the flattened tops of gently sloped hills were the shelters of folks from back home, city folks called to the country by the charm of an irresistible landscape or the natural impulse to make things grow--the impulse that causes the city-reared child to plant a peach stone or a watermelon seed and sprinkle the spot with water in the hope of prevailing upon a tiny tendril to break through the earth and open a leaf to the sun.
Morning Oregonian, Portland, February 26, 1914, page 1

Medford and Southern Oregon
(From the Portland Oregonian)
   June is perhaps the best month to visit Southern Oregon. The weather is balmy. Cool winds sweep gently across the landscape. The healthy green of foliage and grain harmonizes with the mild blue sky. Vegetation glistens in the sunlight with the vigor of its growth. The fruit trees, pruned to a sturdy framework of branches, have already put forth long shoots. Over the porches of the houses Virginia creepers fairly scramble upward, such is the energy of the life in them. Roses riot everywhere in color and fragrance. But, speaking of fragrance, nothing can compare with that of a clover field in bloom. Toward night as the air cools, the honeyed odor of the clover blossoms makes it almost cloyingly sweet so that a traveler on the gloaming highway might fancy without much difficulty that he was speeding through a paradise without any serpents.
    The alsike clover, as well as the great fields of vetches twining among thrifty oats, is for the dairy cows. All up the Willamette Valley, in every mountain vale between Cottage Grove and Grants Pass, and everywhere in the Rogue River section, the dairy cow is queen, and the whole country shows the blessings of her kindly reign. Western Oregon has been transformed magically in the last dozen years. Lumbering has helped in the change, perhaps mining has done something here and there and certainly fruit has played an important part, but to the dairy cow we must ascribe most of the miracle.
    The wonder of new life and creative energy shows everywhere. The farmhouses have shuffled off that forlorn aspect of contented shiftlessness which was once so disheartening to the traveler. Paint has made them bright and cheerful. Ambition speaks in the gay flower gardens, the sleek horses and cattle, the big new barns and the neat surroundings. The hapless motorist who begs a pail of cool water for his hot engine receives it, not from the old oaken bucket, germ-laden and backbreaking, but from a mountain stream through pipes that serve the farmer's kitchen and bedroom. The farmer himself bubbles over with interest in the great world. He is up to the minute upon the Mexican situation. He is alert to get the latest wisdom about the business situation. The good roads movement has become something more than a city fad to him, for he has bought an auto.
    All the way from Eugene to Ashland, Oregon is astir with a road making revolution. Just south of Eugene they are making a highway where for many years there has been a rack, for men and horses. Between Cottage Grove and Drain the good work is humming. The frightful grade through the Cow Creek Canyon has been made passable on the south side. On the north it still waits for the engineer's magic, but stakes have been stuck to show where work is soon to begin. The grades between Glendale and Grants Pass are now in fair condition on both side of the mountain, so that a car runs pleasantly where once a packhorse trod in momentarily peril of its life. The Pacific Highway from Ashland to Eugene is not a perfect road by any means, but it is improving so rapidly that last year's pilgrims would recognize it today.
    Next to the encouraging signs of good dairying, the young orchards along the road delight the eye of the attentive traveler. Walnuts are working their way into favor over an astonishing large territory. No big groves are in sight from the highway, but hundreds of tree have been planted, experimentally perhaps, among fruit trees, and they seem to thrive in all sorts of situations on the hillsides as well as on the valley floors. It is noticeable that the walnut flourishes particularly well where native oaks abound. Better than the mere planting of orchards is the tidy cultivation they are receiving. There are no neglected plantings to be seen between Portland and Ashland, from the Pacific Highway at least, of course the varieties are almost countless. Apples of many kinds, peaches, prunes, pears, walnuts, loganberries have been planted, and all seem to promise well.
    The peach, which begins at Eugene as a somewhat risky experiment, bursts into splendid vigor as one approaches Grants Pass. Apples thrive everywhere. But nowhere has the foliage that enchanting luster and the twigs that sturdy vigor which one observes in the Rogue River country. Perhaps the principal charm of travel through that favored region is the constant spectacle of growing orchards. There are many old plantings in full bearing, of course, but as hope delights us more than fulfillment, so the young trees with their promise of wealth and happiness to come give the traveler more pleasure than the old veterans which have done as well as they ever can.
    The modified delights of motoring over the Pacific Highway in Oregon are sweetened by the many good hotels which have sprung up in the towns along its course. No doubt these hotels, for the most part conducted by women, have been nourished, if not created, by the automobile. The traffic arising from this expensive toy is already considerable and its promise is large. It has transformed the standards of hotel keepers, diffused urban comforts through all the big Western Oregon towns, and encouraged a mode of entertaining travelers which has more of Switzerland than of local pioneer days in it. Except in small villages, where motorists rarely stop, the hideous hostelry of olden times is but a nightmare vanished from reality if not from memory.
    Nor are good hotels the only mark of the new and energetic Oregon city. It is curious to note the garages which have been called into being by the motorcar, one at least even in small places, half a dozen in bustling centers like Medford. Whoever wants proof that mechanical inventions change the lives and habits of men may profitably contemplate these shops which have sprung up like mushrooms in the last few years and now support a great army of workmen, too, well paid, intelligent and self-respecting. The garages are like Jonah's gourd for growth, and we need not fear that they will wither like that unfortunate vine.
    Nor will the new pavements in the Western Oregon towns be likely to disappear, for centuries to come. What a wonderful stretch the surfaced streets would make if they could be placed end to end! Salem, Albany, Eugene, Corvallis, Grants Pass, Medford, Ashland have all been spending money like water to pave and beautify their streets. And at the same time they have been building new stores, banks and churches faster even than the dairies and orchards roundabout have developed. A visitor who had not seen Eugene for ten years would not recognize the town. The pioneer buildings have been swept away. In their places stand solid and beautiful structures whose facades look calmly down on the smooth, gray pavements, all made to endure.
    No Western Oregon town has changed for the better more than Medford in the last few years. The streets are so wide that every building shows all its good points, the dwellings speak plainly of taste and the means to gratify it, and the stores cater evidently to patrons who know and desire the good things of the world. Medford seems singularly metropolitan to the passing traveler. Is it because the orchards have attracted colonists from all parts of the world?
Medford Sun, June 23, 1914, page 4

Medford Prosperous Despite Shortage of Fruit.
Bad Bills Are Few, Streets Well Laid Oat, New Buildings Under Way, Farm Exhibits Gathered for Jackson County Fair.

    MEDFORD, Or., Sept. 4.--(Special.)--Of the 10.000 or 12,000 comprising the population of Medford, all who are old enough to think believe that they live in the finest city in the world. They not only believe, but can prove that Medford is in the exact center of the earth, that the distance from here around the world and back to the starting point, say at the Southern Pacific depot, is just the same whether you start to the east or to the west. They will tell you that this central location is responsible for the Rogue River Valley having the finest climate in the world--I mean this particular part of the valley. I make this proviso for the reason that the Rogue is some river and has numerous valleys along its banks, some of which are claimed by other towns.
Town Beautifully Laid Out.
    I am free to admit that Medford is a city of great beauty. Fine buildings, wide and well-paved streets, kept scrupulously clean; splendid lawns and shade trees, with an abundance of water to maintain continual verdure and all under the fairest sunshine and in as pure and invigorating atmosphere as can be found in the world; all of these assets Medford seems to have.
    You will hear that the Medford country is going to be shy on fruit, particularly on apples and pears, this fall. Nobody knows just why the failure is to occur. It cannot be laid entirely to the drought. Even last spring before the blossoming began it was known that the yield would be short. All season the prospects have grown poorer and poorer, and now it is sure there will not be much more than an eighth of a crop.
Bad Bills Are Few.
    A drummer from Portland told me that he had booked larger orders here than he did a year ago, and that the collections in Medford would compare more than favorably with the other cities of about the same size in Oregon and Washington.
    And this drummer said his house had been selling goods to from three to ten houses in Medford continuously for more than 25 years, and the losses on bad bills would not sum up to a mill on the dollar. Indeed they had lost but two small bills, and that was during the panic of 1907.
    Secretary F. U. Streets says the area planted in corn this year was much larger in the valley than ever before, but it will be materially increased next year. As to hogs and dairy cows, the same story of increase is told.
    Medford has two daily newspapers, the Evening Mail Tribune and the Morning Sun. The Sun is run by S. S. Smith as manager and Robert Waldo Ruhl as editor. The Mail Tribune is responsible for George Putnam, one of the best-known editors in the state. Mr. Putnam is also fully responsible for the Mail Tribune. He is also responsible for a whole lot of other things. All of the candidates in the county are either for or against Putnam--for, if they land. That is, as a rule.
    The Farmers & Fruitgrowers' Bank has a capital of $50,000, surplus of $2031 and deposits of $158,800. Delroy Getchell is president, T. B. Lumsden cashier. The Jackson County Bank has a capital of $100,000, a surplus of $75,000, and undivided profits of $14,386, and deposits of $561,000. W. I. Vawter is president, C. W. McDonald cashier. The First National Bank has a capital of $100,000, a surplus of $30,000, undivided profits of $26,999, and deposits of $637,000. F. K. Deuel is president, W. L. Alford cashier. The Medford National Bank has a capital of $100,000, a surplus of $25,000, undivided profits of $22,656 and deposits of $617,000. W. H. Gore is president, John S. Orth cashier. These deposits total almost $2,000,000, which is mighty good when it is considered that deposits at this time of the year are at their very lowest ebb.
    The percentage of cash on hand and in reserve banks is not only far above the requirements of the law for the Medford banks, but for all of the 15 banks in the county, showing that the entire county of Jackson is in good financial condition.
New Elks' Temple Under Way.
    One of the finest of the new structures not yet quite completed is the magnificent Elks' Temple. The contract soon will be awarded for the erection of the Federal building, for which $110,000 is now available. When completed Medford will be in the front rank of Oregon cities for postal and other government quarters.
    The Medford Commercial Club has always been an organization of great merit. It never goes moribund, never sleeps, is always alert and active for the good of the valley.
County to Hold Fair.
    Jackson County is to hold the regular county fair September 9 to 12, and as usual it will probably be one of the best agricultural and fruit exhibits in Oregon; for the Jackson people seldom do anything by halves never in the way of exhibiting their products.
    One of the prime resources of Medford is the Crater Lake trade, for this is the logical place to come to to get to that great scenic wonder. There are daily autos from here, over 80 miles and return. The Southern Pacific Railway makes a special round-trip rate from Portland and Medford of $13; the stage fare is $18. Perhaps no one could find in the country a trip of equal grandeur at so low a price.
    The hotels here are exceedingly good. They are usually run by Emil Moore. At least he has three, the Medford being the finest. There is one independent of the Mohr trust, the Nash. One cannot be far amiss by taking the first one he reaches.

Sunday Oregonian, Portland, September 6, 1914, page 10

    MEDFORD (Mahlon Purdin, Mayor)--Incorporated in [1885]. Altitude, 1,377 feet; area, 2,080 acres; population, 11,500. Is 329 miles south of Portland, and 434 miles north of San Francisco, on the main line of the Southern Pacific railroad; five miles east of Jacksonville, the county seat, and is the present western terminus of the Pacific & Eastern railway, now in operation to Butte Falls, in the midst of the great timber belt in the Cascade foothills, 35 miles to the east. Is also the terminus of the Rogue River Valley railroad, in operation to Jacksonville, and junction point with the Southern Pacific. Assessed valuation of city property is $5,608,090; bonded indebtedness, $1,174,250. Four brick public school buildings and one brick high school building aggregate a value of $150,000; also a private school, St. Mary's Academy, managed by the Catholic sisters, and a business college. There are 12 churches, Adventists, Baptist, Catholic, Christian, Christian Science, Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal, German Lutheran, Free Methodist, Methodist (South) and Presbyterian. Skilled labor receives $4 per day and upward, and common labor $2.50 to $3 per day. Paid fire department with equipment, including auto fire truck, costing $15,000. Electric light plant is privately owned. Has a gas plant, privately owned. Gravity water system, installed at an expense of $450,000, and furnishing a water supply sufficient for a city of 25,000, is owned by the city. Fruit growing, diversified farming and mining are the principal industries of the surrounding country. Gold, copper, cinnabar, iron and asbestos mines exist in the county, but the mining industry, except gold mining, has been at a standstill for the past several years. There are two first-class hotels and several others, grocery stores, hardware stores, general merchandise stores, etc., sufficient for a city of its size, with planing mills, brick yards, lumber yard, blacksmith shop and garages, also sufficient; cigar factory, 11 saloons paying $1,000 license per year, two ice plants and pre-cooling station for fruit. Public library that cost $35,000, and the bids have been called for construction of federal building to house the post office, U.S. forestry and pathologist's offices and U.S. weather bureau, all located here, at a cost of $100,000. United States Court holds term of court here once a year. Public market built by the city; space furnished free to farmers, where splendid exhibits of varied products of the surrounding country may be seen. Has two daily newspapers and four banks, two national and two state. Also a fine public park in the heart of the city. Also a natatorium and amusement place, with plunge and tub baths, dancing floors, skating rinks, etc., under private ownership. Canning factory for fruits and vegetables has recently been built. Jackson County has voted $500,000 bonds for building of permanent highway which will pass through Medford. Crater Lake National Park, one of Nature's most marvelous scenic creations and situated about 80 miles northeast, at the summit of the Cascade Range of mountains in Klamath County, is within easy auto and other vehicle stages from Medford.
Sixth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspector of Factories and Workshops of the State of Oregon from October 1, 1912 to September 30, 1914,
Oregon State Printing Department, 1915, page 125

Last revised June 11, 2022