Jackson County 1885

Below is  the text of a pamphlet published for prospective emigrants by the Ashland Tidings in 1885. It was apparently written by Ashland merchant E. P. Branch, and if the Jacksonville Democratic Times' sentiments are any indication (as expressed in its March 13, 1885 issue) it was not well received in some local circles.



The object of this little pamphlet is to call the attention of immigrants and those who contemplate a change of residence to the special advantages offered by the valley of the Rogue River in Southern Oregon. It is not offered as a "boomer," and it is  no part of its design to hold out any false inducements in order to draw any person away from a home where he is already doing well, and where he is measurably satisfied with his present condition. At the same time we cannot overlook the fact that thousands of persons are already on the way, or will be with the opening of spring, to the Pacific Coast; and thousands of others are seriously contemplating a removal to some portion of the vast domain lying west of the Rocky Mountains. The states of California and Oregon and the territory of Washington form within themselves a great empire with a sea coast of about two thousand miles, and embracing probably a greater variety of topography, soil, climate and productions than can be found within the same extent of country anywhere on the earth's surface. To know just where in this vast empire is the particular combination of advantages best suited to his requirements is the problem which confronts the intending immigrant. No section is without its advantages, and none without its disadvantages. The perfect country, where every day in the year is one of absolute comfort, where nobody is ever sick and nothing is found to interfere with the pleasure and comfort of the fortunate inhabitants, is not to be found in any section of America that has as yet been opened for settlement. The man who is in search of Utopia need not waste any time in coming to Oregon.
    Is situated in Jackson County in the southern part of Oregon, a little more than three hundred miles south of Portland not far from the California line. Its western border is perhaps sixty miles from the Pacific coast. It is bounded on all sides by mountain ranges. To the eastward are the Cascades. On the west is the Coast Range, shutting off the clouds of fog that the Pacific Ocean sends shoreward almost daily during the year. On the north are the Rogue River Mountains separating the valley which bears their name from the Umpqua Valley. To complete the environment the Siskiyou Mountains range themselves along the boundary between Oregon and California. In this delightfully sheltered spot, protected alike from the fogs and rains of the Coast and the Willamette Valley, from the cold winds of Eastern Oregon and the hot breath of the Sacramento, may be found the valley of the Rogue River. The valley proper is about forty-five miles in length and from ten to twenty-five miles in width. But into this valley open several smaller ones all of which are included in the general name of Rogue River Valley. It is said that the river owes its name to the roguish, thieving and quarrelsome propensities of the Indians who were so fortunate as to have pitched their wigwams in this favored place.
    The valley has been settled for thirty years, but owing to its complete isolation has made but slow progress. However, many pleasant homes may be found here and the greater portion of the valley is under cultivation. The surface of the country is comparatively level, gradually sloping on all sides towards the foothills, where it is more broken and generally uncultivated. The general appearance of the country is pleasing. It is dotted here and there by little groves of short, spreading oaks that resemble so many old orchards, and add very much to the picturesqueness of the valley. On the hills firs and small pines are mingled with the oak, and the intervening ground is covered with manzanita, chaparral and other species of brush.
    Rogue River is a rapid, rocky stream, and runs near the northern boundary of the valley. Bear Creek, Applegate and Butte Creek are tributaries of the main stream.
    One of the most important characteristics to the homeseeker is the matter of climate. In this respect the Rogue River country is by far the most favored portion of Oregon, if indeed it will not take rank with any region on the Pacific coast. Owing to its sheltered location the climate is free from extremes of any description. Two ranges of mountains, covered with timber, separate it from the rainy winters of the Willamette. In fact the climate is a mean between that of Western Oregon and that of California, being not so wet as the one nor so dry as the other. The summers are as near perfect as they can be found anywhere. There are very few days when the heat is oppressive, and the nights invariably furnish refreshing sleep, being always cool and comfortable. Even when the thermometer during the middle of the day indicates ninety in the shade the heat is no more oppressive than in the East at eighty, owing to the peculiar dryness and purity of the atmosphere, the altitude of the valley being from 1500 to 2000 feet above the sea level. Occasional showers during most of the summer keep the soil from getting as dry and parched as in the greater portion of California. The autumns are usually delightful. The present season, the clear fine days lasted until the 15th of December, with scarcely any intermission, accompanied during the latter part of November and the forepart of December with white frosts nearly every morning. Roses frequently bloom until the holidays, and tomato vines sometimes keep green until near Christmas. While the winters are not as mild as those of Southern California, they bear no comparison with those of the states east of the Rocky Mountains, nor even with that portion of Oregon east of the Cascade Range. Snow seldom lies upon the ground for more than a few hours. The mercury drops below 20º rarely during the night, even in the coldest weather, and most of the days range from 40º to 50º and even warmer during the middle of the day. Early vegetables are usually put into the ground in February or the first of March. Plowing and sowing for wheat are done during the winter months, at any time after the rains have softened the ground. During April and May the country wears its brightest, gayest robes, and is marvelously beautiful. Hill and valley alike are covered with the freshest green, interspersed with gay flowers, that in many places form solid masses of color acres in extent, the yellow and purple predominating. The ride from Portland to Ashland about the 1st of May is an unalloyed pleasure, and for variety and beauty of scenery cannot be excelled.
    One very prominent characteristic of the weather in the valley, at any season of the year, is its remarkable evenness. Day after day, observations taken at the same hour will show a variation of scarcely a single degree. A good idea of the steadiness of the climate may be gathered by a study of the following table showing the condition of the weather and temperature during the three most variable months--December, January and February--of the winter of 1883-4. The observations were taken by Dr. E. L. Townsend at his residence in Ashland, at sunrise, noon and sunset of each day, and are reliable:

    Another feature of this climate that cannot fail to be noticed at once by an Eastern person is the absence of wind. A large majority of the days, summer and winter, are perfectly calm except for the tip end of a sea breeze that reaches the valley sometimes during the day, just sufficient to move the leaves. What would be called a fresh breeze in the Atlantic Coast or Western states is very rare here, and cyclones, or anything approaching a gale, are absolutely unknown. A thunderstorm is of rare occurrence in the valley, what there are of them usually following the mountain summits. Pouring or driving rains are seldom experienced, showers being usually very mild and gentle and unaccompanied by any wind. While the winters are not so delightfully mild as those of Southern California, the summers are not so dry and hot, and it is confidently asserted that, taking the year through, especially for persons reared in the northern and central states, there is no better climate on the continent than that of the Rogue River Valley. This is not an empty boast but is generally conceded by those who have been in the country long enough to be familiar with the seasons.
    There is quite a variety of soil in the valley. Along the western slope and on the foothills the soil is a decomposed granite. A portion of the valley proper is composed of the same soil. A part of it is more of a sandy loam, and a portion of it, together with a part of the eastern slope is a strong adobe soil. This land is decidedly sticky in the rainy season. It is the strongest soil in the valley, but needs to be worked at the right time. It seems to be almost inexhaustible, and will yield fine crops of grain year after year without the use of any fertilizer. The granite soil is especially adapted to fruit growing, and when properly manured is excellent for garden purposes. Near the center of the valley is a tract about six miles square called "The Desert." It is composed of a gravelly loam, with quantities of small rock in the bottoms. It is covered with grass in the early spring, but otherwise is destitute of vegetation. Experiments recently made seem to indicate that it is adapted to fruit growing, and it will probably be utilized sooner or later for that purpose.
    Hitherto the principal products of the valley have been wheat and livestock. The complete isolation of the country, it having been 150 miles from the nearest railroad station, and over a range of mountains at that, was a practical embargo upon the exportation of all produce, except such as could be driven. Farmers could raise whatever was necessary for the sustenance of the miners and the residents of the valley. There was no encouragement for anything further. Thousands of bushels of the finest fruit have rotted annually for lack of a market. But the advent of the locomotive has inaugurated a new era for Southern Oregon, and the surplus products of the field and orchard can now find their way to the markets of the world.
    Wheat will doubtless continue to be one of the principal products of the Rogue River Valley for some years to come. Forty bushels to the acre is by no means an uncommon yield, and the [wheat] berry is usually of superior quality. Anything like a failure of crops has never been known since the valley was settled.
    This is the only section of the North Pacific country where corn can be raised with any degree of success. Here the crop is usually a good one, although not equal to the yield per acre of the corn growing regions of Illinois or Iowa. Elsewhere in Oregon and Washington the nights are too cool for the successful cultivation of this grain. Oats and other small grains are usually a good crop. But little timothy has been raised so far, and that principally along the creek bottoms. Alfalfa is grown to some extent, and in some locations does well. A large portion of the hay is made from wheat or oats cut green. The adaptability of the valley to the growth of tame grasses is still an open question.
    The rapidly advancing price of land will probably tend to discourage stock raising, except for thoroughbreds [thoroughbred cattle, that is]. Farmers having a range upon the hills can raise cattle to advantage, but most of the large ranges are now east of the mountains.
    Hogs pay well and find a ready market, indeed bacon is regularly brought into Oregon from the Eastern states in order to supply the demand. Hundreds of hogs are annually grown and fatted on the mast [acorns]. A company has recently been formed in Ashland to engage in pork packing, and there will be no difficulty in making money out of hogs.
    This portion of Southern Oregon is a paradise for sheep, whenever the price of wool again reaches a paying figure. Sheep are remarkably healthy, and with the mild winter there is no danger of loss from exposure.
    But little attention has thus far been paid to dairying or poultry raising. Butter, eggs and chickens have always commanded good prices, but their production has been entirely neglected. Either of these industries ought to be profitable if properly managed.
    The culture of hops is becoming a prominent industry on this coast, and there is no reason why they should not thrive in this valley. Within the past two or three years several hop yards have been planted in the valley, and the yield, both in quantity and quality, is reported as first-class. Very limited experiments indicate that sweet potatoes and peanuts will do well on the granite soil. In fact the capabilities of the valley have not been half tested as yet.
    There seems to be no reason to doubt that the leading industry of the Rogue River Valley in the near future will be fruit raising. All the fruits of the temperate zone grow here in such perfection as they are never seen east of the Rockies. Apples, pears, peaches, plums, prunes, apricots, cherries, nectarines, grapes and all the small fruits seem to be to the manor born. Almond trees also flourish, and English walnuts have been raised to a very limited extent. The fruit of this valley has long been noted for its abundance and perfection. A wormy apple or plum or cherry cannot be found, and any kind of fruit can be eaten in the dark with impunity. Apples keep easily until the next crop begins to ripen, and there is no trouble in having good fruit fruit every day in the year. The curculio and even the potato bug are entire strangers to this region and it is earnestly hoped that they will always remain so. Strawberries 10 and 11 inches in circumference were produced in Ashland last season, and peaches 13 inches or more in circumference and weighing as many ounces were not uncommon. At this writing--Jan. 1st--there are hundreds of trees in the valley still covered with sound apples. One secret of the perfection of the fruit, and its keeping properties, is doubtless the purity and dryness of the atmosphere. This seems to be just as essential to the growth of perfect fruit as it is to the healthfulness of mankind.
    It is confidently anticipated that the fruit growers of Southern Oregon will never be without a market, so soon as fruit enough is raised to give the valley distinction as a fruit region. The greater part of Oregon and Washington, together with Idaho, Montana and Dakota, are not adapted to fruit raising, and must always look this way for their supply. Canneries will doubtless be established in the valley as the increase in the production of fruit will warrant such a move, and they will furnish a market for all the surplus of the valley. The business is yet in its infancy, and farmers have yet to ascertain what varieties are best adapted to the climate, what will pay the best and what methods of cultivation are to be the most successful. Every foot of land in the valley and on the hills will raise good fruit when properly cared for, and the experience of California fruit growers would lead to the conclusion that ten acres of land set out with peaches, prunes and other fruits, and taken care of, will in a very few years furnish a good income for the support of a family. As a rule, no country is more prosperous, more beautiful in appearance, and filled with more cultured, comfortable homes than one devoted to horticulture.
    The mountains of Southern Oregon are generally covered with a fine growth of timber, consisting principally of sugar pine, yellow pine, white and yellow fir, and cedar. The Cascade Range has a belt of timber twenty-five miles wide along its summit. Trees are not difficult to find that are eight or ten feet in diameter. The sugar pine is as soft as the Michigan white pine and makes excellent finishing lumber. Fir, oak and manzanita are used as fuel. This large body of timber will sooner or later be wanted to supply the markets of the vast treeless region lying east of the Cascades, as well as more remote portions of the country. Most of the timber is still owned by the government, and will be open for preemption as soon as the question relative to the forfeiture of railroad land grants is finally settled.
    The mineral wealth of Jackson and Josephine counties is almost undeveloped, but enough is known to warrant the assertion that it will someday contribute very largely to the wealth of the state. Gold has been mined more or less for thirty years, with such appliances as can be had in regions remote from railroads. Copper, cinnabar, iron, marble and coal have been found and there are doubtless rich deposits of mineral wealth awaiting the arrival of capital and energy to develop them. If a railroad is ever built through Southern Oregon to the coast it will pierce the heart of the timber and mineral region, and lay bare some of the treasure that the ages have been storing for the use of men.
    If Southern Oregon is not the sportsman's paradise, it has plenty of game well worthy of his prowess. Grouse, pheasants and quail are found in all the valley. Squirrels and rabbits are abundant. Deer are still quite numerous on the mountains, and the grizzly, black and cinnamon bear are frequently met with by the hunter. Rogue River and its tributaries abound in fish. The salmon trout and brook trout are the leading varieties. The latter are too well known to need any description, and are found in all the little streams leading down from the mountains. The salmon trout is a splendid fish. They are quite numerous in Rogue River, and are frequently caught weighing ten pounds. The flesh is of the same color as the Oregon salmon, and is considered by many to be superior in flavor to the celebrated king of fishes. The Klamath country, on the east side of the Cascades, is wonderfully supplied with fish, at some seasons of the year the run being simply immense. A true statement of the number of fish running in some of the streams emptying into Klamath River, on certain days in April, would be utterly discredited by those who are not conversant with the facts.
    Any treatise on Southern Oregon that should fail to notice the grand scenery everywhere to be found would be forgetful of one of the greatest attractions the country has to offer, not only to residents, but to tourists and pleasure seekers. From the Calapooia Mountains south to the California line, it is impossible to get away from fine scenery. The traveler from Portland after riding the entire length of the great Willamette Valley, with its flourishing towns and immense grain fields, crosses the Calapooias and enters the Umpqua Valley. This is rather a series of narrow, winding valleys bounded on either side by beautifully rounded hills that in the spring of the year are covered with the freshest green and furnish excellent pasturage for thousands of sheep. The soft outlines of the hills, with the scattered groves of oaks, make up a succession of delightfully picturesque views that cannot fail to impress the visitor with their beauty. After crossing the Umpqua the road climbs another range of mountains through Cow Creek Canyon, a wild, picturesque mountain gorge, at the bottom of which tumbles and foams a mountain stream. Within a comparatively short distance the road pierces nine tunnels, the longest of them being nearly half a mile in length. Gliding along down the southern slope of the mountains the train crosses Rogue River, and after following for awhile its tortuous rocky channel comes out into the middle of the valley. On the east Mt. Pitt is always an object of interest to the tourist, covered as it is for most of the year with snow. Table Rock will also be pointed out, being remarkable for its flat top which is said to have been at one time an Indian fortification. [The "fortification" were actually at the foot of the basalt escarpment.] It is a large rocky eminence with precipitous walls on three sides, and can only be approached from the rear. If the traveler continues on into northern California he will find the Siskiyou Mountains to abound in wild picturesque views among which is Mt. Shasta, clad in eternal snow from base to summit and without doubt the most magnificent mountain on the Pacific coast if not on the continent.
    In the extreme northeastern corner of Jackson County is the justly celebrated Crater Lake. It is situated among the summits of the Cascade Range, 7500 feet above the ocean, and looks like a tremendous hole in the top of the earth. It is about twelve miles long by six or seven in width, and is surrounded on all sides by most precipitous walls from 1500 to 2000 feet high. There are only one or two places where it is possible for a man with careful climbing to reach the water. In this immense, yawning pit slumbers in silent majesty the bluest of blue lakes, with cold, clear waters that reach down to unfathomable depths. The weird beauty and strange quiet of the lake make a lasting impression upon the beholder. The view of the Klamath Basin with its lakes and mountains is a grand one, and on a clear day the white outlines of Mt. Shasta are visible a hundred miles to the southward. Crater Lake is the greatest natural curiosity on the Pacific coast, filled as it is with natural wonders. At present it can only be reached by private conveyance from Ashland or Linkville, the county seat of Klamath County.
    The Rogue River Falls, on the route from Ashland to Crater Lake, are also noted for their beauty and charming surroundings. Crater Lake is some seventy-five miles distant from Ashland.
    Jackson County contains a population of about ten thousand. It is estimated that one-fourth of this number have arrived here within the last two years. Many of the first settlers came from Missouri and Kentucky. A large portion of the pioneers were brought here in the first place in search of gold. The proportion of foreign born inhabitants is very small. Ohio, Iowa, Kansas and Minnesota are contributing largely to the present influx, and the prospect is good for large delegations from Dakota of those who have tired of the hard winters in that region. Letters of inquiry are coming from every state in the Union, and there is certain to be a large immigration the coming season. A current is now setting in from California, which bids fair to become a flood tide as soon as the railroad shall be completed to that state. Many Californians who visited the valley during the past season fall were astonished at the display of fruit, and fully admitted the superiority of this valley to California for fruit growing. In fact the Golden State is expected to furnish a fine market for Rogue River apples as soon as through connection is had with San Francisco.
    The leading town of the valley and of Southern Oregon is Ashland. It is the present terminus of the Oregon & California Railroad, is 340 miles distant from Portland, the other terminus. It is very picturesquely located on Ashland Creek near its confluence with Bear Creek, and about midway between the head of Bear Creek Valley and its junction with the Rogue River Valley proper. It has a background of high hills covered with fir and pines. Ashland Creek furnishes excellent water power which is utilized by a woolen mill, two flouring mills, two planing mills and a sawmill. The stream also furnishes a supply of excellent water for the use of the inhabitants, coming straight from the ever-present snow of a mountain about ten miles away. The fall is so rapid that with a comparatively small expense ample pressure can be secured for a most perfect fire protection. Ashland enjoys the reputation of being the prettiest town in Oregon, and the stranger visiting the place during the spring and summer months cannot fail to be favorably impressed with its numerous cottages embowered in fruit trees and flowers. The streets are some of them narrow and have a delightful irregularity, giving the town a decidedly romantic and unique appearance. The population is about 1600. During the year 1884 there were erected a total of 89 dwelling houses, two churches and a fine school building, together with stores, shops, etc., to the number altogether of 122, at a cost of $100,000. Ashland is the base of supplies for the extensive stock ranges east of the Cascades, and with the development of this country cannot fail to make a thriving town. The scenery in the vicinity is very fine. The completion of the railroad to California will make an all-rail line from San Francisco to Portland that will be one of the most important railroad lines on the coast. Ashland has two good school buildings, one of them just completed, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist and Dunkard churches. There are in the vicinity a number of very fine mineral springs, both of sulfur and soda. A daily stage line connects the railroad at Ashland with the northern end of the California & Oregon road at Delta near the head of the Sacramento Valley.
    Ashland contains 4 general merchandise stores, 4 grocery and provisions, 2 hardware and tinware, 2 drugs and jewelry, 1 clothing, 1 gents' furnishing, 2 millinery, 2 agricultural implements, 1 harness shop, 2 bakeries, 2 news and variety, 3 shoe shops, 2 furniture rooms, 1 second-hand store, 2 meat markets, 5 hotels, 1 photograph gallery, 4 blacksmith shops, a newspaper and job printing office and a liberal supply of physicians, attorneys, etc.
    The county seat of Jackson County is situated near the western end of the Rogue River Valley. It has a population of perhaps 1200 and is the center of quite a mining district. It is five miles from the railroad.
    Is a new railroad town near the center of the valley. Although only a year old it has a population of about 400, and considerable trade.
--Grants Pass.--
    Some miles farther north is another new town, with a growing trade. The railroad repair shops are located here and there is a large sawmill in the immediate vicinity.
    Jackson County has recently completed a fine courthouse at an expense of forty-five thousand dollars. The schools of the county are rapidly growing in number and efficiency. A seminary at Ashland is under the care of the Methodists. The Catholics have a school and convent at Jacksonville.
    The following questions and answers have been prepared in response to numerous letters of inquiry and are intended to be a correct statement of values, etc., as they are at the beginning of the year 1885.
    Is there any government land in the Rogue River Valley?
    But very little, and that on the foothills. The lands in the valley were nearly all taken up years ago.
    What is the value of farming lands?
    Improved farms being from 15 to 50 dollars per acre, according to location and improvements. Unimproved lands, mostly on the hills, may be had at from five to ten dollars per acre.
    What is the market value of the different products?
    Wheat 50, oats 33, potatoes 60, corn 70 cts, grain hay $12 per ton.
    What are the prevailing prices for horses, cattle and sheep?
    Good horses for farm use bring from $100 to $175 each, common cows from $40 to $50, calves $10 to $15, sheep $1.25.
    What are the wages of mechanics and farm laborers?
    Carpenters' wages during the past season ruled at $2.50 to $3.50 per day, brick masons and plasterers $4 to $5, farm laborers $20 to $25 per month and board.
    What kind of schools do you have?
    Fair to good. In many places a small quarterly tax is charged each scholar in attendance to make, with the amount received from the state, enough to maintain the schools through the year.
    What is the cost of lumber, lime and brick?
    Common building lumber $16 per M, flooring, rustic and finished lumber 24 to $30, lime $3 per bu., brick $8.50 to $9.00 per M.
    What are room rents in Ashland?
    Ordinary rooms bring from five to fifteen dollars per month.
    Are there any farms for rent?
    A few. They bring from $2.50 to $3.00 per acre.
    What are the prevailing diseases?
    There are not diseases that can be said to be prevalent here. Such diseases as are common to all sections are met with here, such as fevers, rheumatism, etc., Occasionally a case of pneumonia is found, but the country can be truly said to be a very healthful one when ordinary precautions for the prevention of diseases are taken. Pulmonary complaints, such as asthma, consumption, etc., are not nearly so common as in the East. Many persons coming here with asthma have been greatly benefited by the pure air of the valley and mountains.
    What is the cost of fuel, furniture, &c.?
    Fir wood brings from $1.50 to $2.00 per tier, or cord of stovewood. Oak or manzanita $2.00 to $2.50. Chairs, $5.50 to $15 per set of six. Bedsteads, $4 to $10. Ash chamber sets, $40 and upwards. Fall-leaf tables, $4.50 to $6.50. Extension tables in ash, $13, walnut $18. Carpets are but little higher than in the East.
    The retail prices of leading articles of groceries and provisions are at present as follows: Flour, 90 cts. per sack of 49 lbs. Meat--Steaks, 12 to 15 cts. Granulated sugar, 10 cts. Brown sugar, 9 cts. Rio coffee, 20 cts.
    What is the usual rainfall?
    From 15 to 25 inches.
    Is irrigation essential to the production of crops?
    No irrigation is needed for grain of any kind. Gardens and small fruits are better for irrigation wherever practicable. Whether peaches, prunes, &c. are better for irrigation or not is still an open question. California fruit growers say no, provided the ground is kept well cultivated.
    What are the disadvantages of Southern Oregon?
    That is a hard question to answer, because what one person will consider a disadvantage, another will not notice at all. No one expects, or ought to expect, to find the condition of roads, schools and society as good in a new country as in the older settled states. And yet in all of these respects Southern Oregon is better off than many new countries. During most of the year the roads are good. In the wet season wherever the adobe soil prevails there will be mud, and that of a very sticky nature. Indeed it may be said of it that it "sticketh closer than a friend." At present in some portions of Oregon there is a small per capita tax charged each scholar to make up the school fund. This custom, however, cannot survive much longer. While new settlers will find many things different from what they have been accustomed to, this fact remains that scarcely any man can be found who has lived in this country long enough to get thoroughly acquainted with it who has the least desire to return to the East for a residence.
        Wherever it is possible to do so families will find that it is a good plan to come in little colonies. Then a large tract of land can be found and divided among them. As most of the farms consist of 160 to 300 acres there is liable to be a scarcity of small places suitable for fruit growing, unless they can be secured by some such plan as colonizing. When a number of families come together they do not feel the absence of old friends and acquaintances so much as where they settle among entire strangers.
    The all-rail routes from the east to Southern Oregon are the Northern Pacific from St. Paul to Portland and the Union Pacific Short Line from Omaha to Portland. From Portland to Ashland via Oregon & California Railroad. The third-class or emigrant fare from Chicago to Portland by either the Northern Pacific or Short Line is $53.50. Passengers traveling on emigrant tickets may be assured of good company and comfortable accommodations. In fact many persons of means prefer traveling by emigrant trains. Persons coming in this way should provide themselves with blanket and pillow and a liberal lunch basket. From Portland to Ashland the fare is $20, but those seeking homes, under a new arrangement, can secure tickets at half-fare by procuring certificates from the Immigration Agent at Portland.
The Rogue River Valley, Ashland, 1885

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And the Famous Rogue River Valley.

    An OREGONIAN representative had the pleasure of spending several days during the latter part of January at Ashland, a thriving little city in Southern Oregon, located in the far-famed Rogue River Valley, and in Jackson County. All of the counties of Southern Oregon have their peculiar advantages, and in any of them the settler can find a good home and beautiful returns for his labors; but there are superior advantages and attractions in Jackson County, which make it almost a young paradise. It is located in the extreme southern portion of the state and is hemmed in by the Cascade Mountains on the east, the Coast Range on the west, the Siskiyou range on the south, and the Rogue River Range on the north, forming the watersheds which supply the waters of Rogue River and its various tributaries, conditions to which this famed valley owes its beauty and almost tropical fertility. The valley proper is about forty-five miles in length, and from ten to twenty-five miles in width. But into this valley open several smaller ones, all of which are included under the general name of Rogue River Valley. It is said that the river owes its name to the roguish, thieving and quarrelsome propensities of the Indians who were so fortunate as to have pitched their wigwams in this favored place.
    The valley has been settled for thirty years, but owing to its complete isolation has made but slow progress. However, many pleasant homes may be found here, and the greater portion of the valley is under cultivation. The surface of the country is comparatively level, gradually sloping on all sides towards the foothills, where it is more broken and generally uncultivated. The general appearance of the country is pleasing. It is dotted here and there by little groves of short, spreading oaks that resemble so many old orchards, and add very much to the picturesqueness of the valley. On the hills firs and small pines are mingled with the oak, and the intervening ground is covered with manzanita, chaparral and other species of brush.
    Rogue River is a rapid, rocky stream, and runs near the northern boundary of the valley. Bear Creek, Applegate, and Butte Creek are tributaries of the main stream.
    The climate is almost perfection. The winters are very mild and the summers cool and pleasant, and the rainfall more evenly distributed throughout the year than in most of the coast country.
    Before the era of railroads agricultural and horticultural ventures were necessarily limited, but recently the farmers with their increased numbers and advantages have begun to launch out, and no one is more surprised than the "old Oregonian" himself at the wonderful capabilities of the soil. Wheat, oats, barley, corn, rye, potatoes, both Irish and sweet, and all kinds of vegetables, are produced in the greatest abundance. And judging from present indications it is more than probable that in the near future the Rogue River Valley and adjacent foothills will become one vast fruit garden. Men who have interests in Southern California frankly confess on visiting this section that in point of soil and climate the Rogue River Valley carries off the prize. Apples, sometimes of enormous size, and always perfect in every respect, are here produced in the greatest abundance. Peaches of the choicest kinds are grown with little care and expense. Pears, prunes, apricots, nectarines, plums, cherries, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, etc., grow so abundantly as to give promise of handsome profits to the fruit-growers. Almonds, English walnuts, black walnuts, chestnuts also thrive here.
    To encourage fruit-growing, the Oregon and California Railroad have made special rates on fruit to Portland. The following are the rates fixed for this season: 30 cents per hundred by the carload; 40 cents in quantities less than a carload.
    Stock raising and wool growing are profitable industries throughout the valley, the mild climate and abundance of natural pasturage near at hand making it possible to produce fine stock at but little expense.
Is located at the southern terminus of the Oregon and California Railroad and near the head of the Bear Creek arm of the Rogue River Valley, being 315 miles from Portland and about twenty miles from the California line. The present population is estimated at 1700 and is rapidly increasing. The business establishments may be generally summarized as follows: Three general merchandise stores, four groceries and provisions, three hardware and tinware, two drugs and jewelry, two furniture, two millinery, two planing mills, two flouring mills, one woolen factory, one bank, one photograph gallery, one second-hand store, five hotels, two agricultural implements, two variety stores, two meat markets, four blacksmith and wagon shops, five physicians, three lawyers, three real estate agents. There is a free reading room well supplied, and four churches--Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist and Dunkard; and one weekly newspaper. There are two public schools, one of the buildings for which was completed only a few weeks ago at a cost of $1000, besides a flourishing normal school, which is about to be taken charge of by the state, as will be seen by the following report of a meeting of the college board:
    At a meeting of the board of Ashland college and normal school held January 26 a resolution was passed tendering the property of said college and normal school to the state of Oregon, subject to the ratification of the Oregon annual conference of the M.E. Church, on condition that the state of Oregon establish and maintain therein a creditable normal school. But in case the state fails to maintain such school the property is to revert to the said M.E. Church. The property is valued at $10,000.
    The Ashland woolen factory is quite an extensive establishment, employing from thirty to thirty-five people, using over 200,000 pounds of wool per year and turning out about $50,000 worth of flannels, blankets, yarns, socks, etc. annually. The concern is operated by a company and is under the management of W. H. Atkinson. Miller & Co. are wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, stoves, tinware, farming implements, builders' hardware, etc., and also forwarding agents for Wells, Fargo & Co. and the United States government at this point. This extensive business is all under the able management of Mr. George M. Willard, who is also the mayor of the city, and who is not only a successful business man, but a very clever and popular gentleman. E. P. Branch is proprietor of an extensive furniture store, also handling carpets, wall paper and house furnishing goods, etc. Mr. Branch takes great interest in developing the town and surrounding country, and has done much to that end. The pioneer store of the place is that of Alford & Eubanks, successors to  Butler & Drake, dealers in general merchandise. The Bank of Ashland is a solid institution with a capital stock of $50,000, with W. H. Atkinson president, J. M. McCall vice president and E. V. Carter cashier, doing a general banking business. The late firm of Fountain & Wilshire has been dissolved, J. B. Fountain succeeding to the business. He carries a large stock of general merchandise. A new institution for this part of the country is the Ashland Packing Company, composed of F. Roper, J. H. Mayfield, Geo. B. Landers and Geo. M. Willard. They started in November, 1881, and have been quite successful so far. J. M. McCall is proprietor of the old Ashland store, and is one of the pioneer merchants and leading business men of the place. He deals in general merchandise of all kinds, and is also interested in various manufacturing and other enterprises. G. F. Billings, the enterprising real estate agent, has a fine line of city and county property for sale at reasonable pries. Mr. B. is not one of your "booming" land agents, but tries in giving the advantages of the Rogue River Valley to underestimate, instead of overestimating, its advantages. Having resided in the county for years, one can easily find out his business reputation. He has the agency for some of the best insurance companies represented on this coast. George W. Stephenson is a stock dealer, and also owns a large livery and sale stable.
    One mile north of Ashland is the farm of W. C. Myer, who has handled purebred stock for many years and whose numerous customers have been more than satisfied with stock bought of him. At present he has one of the best studs of horses to be found in the United States. As draft horses he finds there is no equal to the Percheron family, combining, as they do, size, action, form, docility and finding ready buyers at good prices. His Arabian bay needs only to be seen to be admitted. In striking contrast to these large Percherons are the Shetland ponies--a great favorite with all children. Doubtless Mr. Myer has the finest herd of Jerseys (all A.J.C.C.H.R. of the best strains) on the Pacific Coast. As a family cow the Jersey has no equal. Mr. M. bases his success on three things: Extra quality of stock, low prices and representing, when selling, each animal's true merits.
    Houck, at the Ashland House, will feed and talk to the multitude, and he acknowledges no rival. While High & Taylor, proprietors of the Alhambra sample rooms, can furnish spiritual consolation in any quantities desired. They keep a neat, quiet place, and are noted for the excellent quality of their liquors, cigars, etc., and the artistic manner in which they dish them up.
    Burkhalter & Hasty, corner of Main and Grant streets, have a neat little store, in which one can buy almost anything outside of dry goods or steam engines, for they have canned goods, fruits, nuts, cigars and tobacco, stationery, etc., and also sell the OREGONIAN.
Oregonian, Portland, February 2, 1885, page 3

Rogue River Valley, Oregon.
    To the Editor of the Chronicle--SIR: Knowing that information concerning Southern Oregon is in demand just now, I take the liberty of sending you a few notes concerning Rogue River Valley. This valley lies very near the California line, and mainly on the south side of Rogue River. The valley proper is about forty-five miles in length and twenty-five in breadth at its greatest width. Several smaller valleys lying along the tributaries of Rogue River open into and are all included under the general name of Rogue River Valley. Some sixty miles or so from the ocean the hills close in on each side of the river and it cuts its way through a continuous network of mountains until it finally reaches the sea.
    There are four things concerning this region that cannot fail to impress the newcomer most favorably--its climate, fruit, water and scenery. They are all vital considerations to the home-seeker, and taken together they make a very desirable country in which to live. The old residents of this valley claim that taking the year through, there is no better climate on the Pacific Coast. During two or three months in the winter Southern California offers more inducements in the way of weather than Southern Oregon, but from April to December the advantage is probably with the latter section. In April and May the country is usually at its best so far as appearance is concerned. There is really but little weather during the summer that is oppressively warm and the autumns are simply glorious in sunshine and tonic.
    But it is as a fruit country that the valley is destined to become famous. Apples, pears, peaches, prunes, apricots, almonds, cherries and all the small fruits seem to find a natural home in Jackson County. Peaches, pears and prunes are exceedingly fine, both as regards size and flavor. As for grapes I am persuaded that the day is approaching when the eastern and northern slopes of the hills in the vicinity of Ashland will be covered with vineyards.
    Ashland and Bear creeks furnish an abundant supply of excellent water for this end of the valley. Ashland Creek comes straight from Ashland Butte, some ten or twelve miles away and its sources are fed by perpetual snow. As the canyon through which it makes its way down to the valley is a narrow mountain gorge, abundantly shaded, the water is cold even in midsummer when it reaches the town. Its volume is sufficient to furnish plenty of water for irrigation and all other purposes, including power for a woolen mill, two flouring mills, two planing mills and a sawmill.
    Not the least of the attractions pertaining to a life on the Pacific Coast is the great variety of scenery within easy reach from any given location. Southern Oregon is in no wise behind other portions of the Pacific Slope in this respect. Crater Lake, in the northeastern portion of the county, is one of the greatest natural wonders among the multitude that are found on this coast, and well repays the visitor for the ride over the mountains that is necessary in order to reach it. Mount Pitt keeps silent watch over the Rogue River Valley from its eastern border, and Ashland Butte and Wagner Butte lift their snowy heads above the chain of mountains on the west. Table Rock is an object of interest at the lower end of the valley.
    The inhabitants of the Rogue River Valley are waiting anxiously for the completion of the railroad line from here to San Francisco. When the line is an accomplished fact the ride from San Francisco to Portland will be one of infinite variety of scenery. Ashland is nearly midway between the two cities, and is anxious for the benefit of competing markets. I am glad to notice that the merchants of San Francisco are not insensible to the advantages that will accrue to this city from the completion of the California and Oregon Railroad into this valley.
    ASHLAND (Or.), February 6, 1885.
San Francisco Chronicle, March 3, 1885, page 6

    Any treatise on Southern Oregon that would fail to notice Grants Pass and its grand scenery everywhere to be found, and in all directions, would be forgetful of one of the great attractions Southern Oregon has to offer, not only to residents but to tourists and pleasure seekers. The traveler from Portland, after riding the entire length of the great Willamette Valley, with its flourishing towns and immense grain fields, crosses the Calapooias and enters the Umpqua Valley. This is rather a series of narrow winding valleys. After crossing the Umpqua the road climbs another range of mountains through Cow Creek Canyon--a wild, picturesque mountain gorges, at the bottom of which tumbles and foams a mountain stream. Gliding along down the southern slope of the mountains, the train enters the Rogue River Valley and crosses the river just above Grants Pass.
    Grants Pass is a new town of almost 300 inhabitants, and is surrounded by a beautiful country and has the best climate in Southern Oregon. Grants Pass' future outlook seems at present to be wonderfully developing, if we may judge by the eastern flow of immigration that is locating here. There is in the near future a sash and door factory to be built, the cost of the machinery alone to be over $8,000; it is also the end of a division of the O.&C.R.R., including a small roundhouse, machine shops and large depot and warehouse. We have a large two-story school house with two teachers and over one hundred scholars in attendance. There is to be built this summer a brick block 44x80 feet, two stories, for store rooms and offices, and also many other improvements.
    The surrounding country is very fertile and produces any and all kinds of grain in abundance, such as wheat, oats, corn and hay. Vegetables are raised in great profusion anywhere in the valley. This soil is peculiarly adapted to raising fruit such as peaches, pears, plums, prunes, apples, grapes, etc.
    There are also several smaller valleys adjacent to this place of great richness in soil and productions, of which we will speak at length in succeeding issues.
    We think the advantages in and around Grants Pass warrant us in the near future a city and county unsurpassed by any on the Pacific Coast. The undeveloped mines of gold, silver, iron and copper that are known to be of great value are but in their infancy as yet. Eastern emigrants are cognizant of the fascinating facilities of this place and each train adds someone to our numbers.
Rogue River Courier, Grants Pass, April 3, 1885, page 3

    The winter played sad havoc in the Calapooia Mountains, and the passage over the divide between the Willamette and Umpqua valleys was to me anything but pleasant. While it snowed further north last winter, it sleeted in the Calapooias, and there is scarcely a tree that was not more or less dismantled by it. The tops of all the small firs were broken short off, and under each of the forest giants there is a wreck of fallen branches. The money damage is little or nothing, for the country is a wilderness, but there is something really distressing in a shorn forest, and I was glad when the train passed on to the lower ground about Drain's station and into the bright vale of Yoncalla. The Umpqua Valley has not had enough rain, and the fields show the effects of the continued dry weather. Late frosts, too, have hurt the gardens and to some extent damaged the fruit, but not to an extent likely to seriously limit production. The late showers were timely, but they need to be repeated once or twice over if the yield is to be all that has been hoped. Farmers are diligently at work in their fields, and much land heretofore given up to pasture has been sown in grain.
    Sheep came through the winter in good condition, and to the traveler there seems a thousand on every hill. And a pretty prospect it is to see a large flock of dusty-white ewes with two-thirds their number of pure-white little ones. Sheep husbandry must continue the chief support of the northern part of Douglas County. The land lies admirably for sheep pasture, but its heavily rolling surface is poorly adapted to grain.
    The fruit interest, always an important one in Douglas, is looking up. The season for small fruit is much earlier than in the Willamette Valley, and the producers are beginning to make profit of this advantage. In ten days more the Portland market will be supplied with Roseburg strawberries, and in a month we will have fresh vegetables from the same district.
    I did not stop at Roseburg, but I learn that it is slowly pulling out of the depression which had held it down for the past two years. The town had a peculiarly hard experience. Loss of its terminal business and the general season of hard times came together, and for a time the town actually lost population. But it is now surely reviving, and its revival is another assurance of the stability of the country. Forty percent of the business lost two years ago through extension of the Oregon and California road to Ashland has been made up by the general growth of its own local field. Roseburg has from time to time indulged hopes in great things from the opening of a railroad to Coos Bay and of another into Eastern Oregon, but these advantages, if they are to come at all, are far in the future and her best hope lies in the cultivation of her own local field.
    Douglas County is part of the great Southern Oregon country for which immigration is heading, and it is receiving more new people than any two of the Willamette Valley counties. They are bringing money into the country and every kind of business is being benefited.
    The passenger trains between Roseburg and Ashland run at night, and only the happy chance of moonlight gave me the opportunity of seeing again the grandeur of a region which I have many times viewed with delight from the top of a stage. Mindful of the advantages of "riding with the driver," I sought permission to ride on the engine, and was made very welcome in the "cab" by the engineer, Mr. Casey. A night ride on a locomotive is always fine, but through the grand desolation of the Rogue River Mountains it is something more than fine. Leaving Canyonville going south the road turns sharply to the right into Cow Creek Canyon and follows it into the very heart of the "howling wilderness." Nowhere else in the world, I reckon, is such a piece of country traversed by a railroad. The rails keep close along the level of the creek, always grading heavily upward but never approaching the summits which rise higher and higher before you. Indeed, there is height before, height behind, and height to the right and to the left. The windings of the canyon everywhere shut the train in as if in a deep and heavily walled gorge. But the "iron horse" goes onward with never a tremor, and always finds a path where to the passenger there seems only a defiant mountain. And how splendid a creature is a locomotive; I love its power as without a pause it drags its burden onward. I love the strength that fails not and the courage that shoots into black holes in the mountains and out on the dizzy stilt-works which span deep chasms--always leading the way and never faltering. I love its great eye whose glance pierces and lightens the dark night, and I love the docility of the creature of men which moves onward or halts at the mere touch of its master's hand. Nothing that man has made more honors his genius than the iron horse. It has the strength of a thousand giants, the speed of the wind, the voice of the torrent.
    The scenery of the canyon is majestic throughout, but there is a certain sense of relief in getting out into more open country. I am almost ashamed to say that I went through the Rogue River Valley without seeing it. The train passes through in the early morning hours, and it is a courageous traveler who can resist the attractions of the Pullman sleeper for the cold comfort of a night landscape view, particularly after having lived mostly on landscape for a week.
    Ashland sits at the southern extreme of the Rogue River Valley, on the eastern slope of a spur of the Siskiyou Mountains. It is protected by high ridges on all sides and enjoys a peculiarly equable climate, healthful, pleasant and favorable to the production of fruits, for which the soil and slope of the country is finely adapted. Ashland's population is about fifteen hundred, and besides the stores, saloons, repair shops, etc. usual to towns of its size, it has a woolen mill, a large grist mill, a saw mill and sash and door factory. It is an active, thrifty place, the center of a large mining district and also of considerable farming industry; fine dwelling houses, large and handsome school houses and a goodly number of brick stores, attest a general prosperity which has not halted under the hard times prevalent in other parts of the country. Indeed, the past two years have been a season of unexpected progress. The coming of the railroad which now halts here has been the moving impulse. Besides the local advantages afforded by railroad connection with Portland, Ashland now has the benefits of a terminal position formerly enjoyed by Roseburg. All the freighting to Northern California (Ashland is only twenty miles north of the state line) and the lower Eastern Oregon counties is done from here, and this traffic naturally brings with it a large general business.
    Ashland came to be where it is because of a fine stream which flows through it, affording water power for the mills. Its people in earlier days helped to open a wagon road into Lake County. The profits of manufacture in a small way, a share of the eastern trade and the local trade have up to the coming of the railroad formed the whole support of the town. The boom following the railroad construction continues, but largely as an effect of circumstances which will change with further progress of the road. Some of the people are, I think, deceiving themselves respecting the future of the town, hoping that it will always be a place of supply for Lake and Klamath counties. I cannot think this will be so. The road connecting Ashland with the counties named is a fairly good one, but its grades are heavy, and if it were possible, the people of Lake and Klamath would prefer to travel a leveler route. The Klamath Canyon running east and west affords a water-level thoroughfare. When the railroad is continued it will intersect this canyon a few miles south of the state line, and there, I think, will be the supply station for the lower Southern Oregon counties.
    There is a much more to say about Ashland, but this letter is already quite long enough, and I will finish the subject tomorrow.    A.H. [Al Holbrook]
"Further South," Oregonian, Portland, April 24, 1885, page 4

With Digressions on the California Trade and on the Nomenclature of Southern Oregon.

ASHLAND, 22nd of April.
    If I remember rightly I left off yesterday in the middle of a discourse upon Ashland, and with a statement that the town was not likely to retain its Eastern Oregon business when the railroad goes on to its California connection, as it must go before a great while. The sooner Ashland gives up its hope of importance greater than that belonging to its situation as a local center and as a point of small manufacture, the better it will be for it. Eugene City, Roseburg and Jacksonville have each had a season of great expectations upon the same basis, and each in turn has learned the folly of hoping against fate. The experiences have been bitter and have only served to delay those projects of local enterprise in which alone there is a real prospect of advantage. The future of none of these towns, Ashland included, can be great. They will grow as the country grows, and prosper as their local fields prosper. Anything more than this is beyond reasonable expectation, and people who are not satisfied with this prospect should seek a new place to live. And this prospect, indeed, is quite good enough. The country surrounding any of the towns named is only half occupied, somewhat less than half tilled. With the increase of population there will be a growth of business, and so, advancement of every kind. There is abundant field for enterprise.
    It is not apparent to the stranger why Ashland was so called, unless because it is not in a region of ash trees. I was at the pains to inquire, and found that the name was given by one of the original settlers in honor of his native town of Ashland, Ohio. But the impropriety of the name is matched by many others throughout this southern country. Ashland, while a stupid misnomer, is respectable and convenient, which cannot be said of some others given in the early days with a shabby attempt at wit, and now permanently fixed by the usage and custom of many years. "Sams Valley," "Jackass Creek," "Sardine Creek," "Jumpoff Joe Creek," "Louse Creek," etc. are names which reflect positive discredit upon Southern Oregon. Just think of the inconvenience of these names. Imagine George Augustus pouring out his passionate sentiments to Cleopatra Jane and having to address them to "Louse," and imagine Cleopatra Jane's embarrassment in having to return her acknowledgments to "Jackass." [Jackass Creek's name was changed to Forest Creek.] And when Ann Maria's papa doesn't approve of the attentions of Reginald Joseph, think of the levity of addressing his pronunciamento to "Jumpoff Joe." But to return to the sober aspects of the matter, there is no excuse for these outlandish and half-decent names. There is no kind of excuse for it. Every locality had ready-made an appropriate Indian name, euphonious, easily spelled and suggestive of its local character or of some important fact in its history. To discard these for flippant or second-hand names is scarcely less than sacrilege. But Southern Oregon is not alone in this kind of vandalism. The state is covered over with names fully matching in impropriety those given above; for example, Amity, Salem, Muddy, Portland and many others. How much better are Tacoma, Seattle, Walla Walla, Umatilla and Spokane in comparison. Nothing so proves intellectual poverty as a want of good names, and the titles fixed to many localities in this state do little credit to the taste or intelligence of those who first applied them.
    Ashland as the terminal point of the Oregon and California road is also the terminus of the freighting business to the south. I think it is not generally known that Portland merchants supply a large trade in the northern counties of California. Yreka, Fort Jones, Etna and several smaller towns draw a share of their goods from the north and would be glad to deal exclusively with us if they could market their products here. The haul from Ashland to Yreka is fifty miles, just two-thirds of the distance between Yreka and Delta, the northern terminus of the California and Oregon road. But until recently the wool product of Northern California has gone to San Francisco, and the wagons which freighted it into Delta or Redding returned laden with merchandise. Now the freighting haul is in our favor, and if the wool of the country can be sold to Portland buyers at the same rate as to San Francisco buyers, we will get the general trade of the country. Last year the wool was marketed here, but San Francisco is offering extra inducements and we are in danger of losing the business. A little enterprise and cooperation will save it, and these it is to be hoped will not be wanting. In anticipation of a reciprocal trade, Portland merchants are already drumming the country for business. I met yesterday Mr. Charles Kohn of Kohn Bros., just coming out, and Mr. E. J. Harris of Fleckenstein & Meyer and Mr. James Friedman of H. Ackerman & Co., just starting in. The railroad company is doing a good deal to encourage the trade by making very cheap rates on all freights destined for Yreka and the towns thereabout. This is an instance where the "discrimination," so much railed against by Judge Boise and philosophers of his kindred, is an absolute advantage to all parties in interest. it gives the railroad company a traffic over that part of its line which does pay operating expenses; it gives the merchants of Portland a profitable trade, and it gives us the advantage of handling the wool of that section. The stupidity of a "reformer," who would not permit a discrimination whose only effect is to confer benefits, is too apparent for discussion, indeed, too dense for anything but contempt.
    In the consideration of general matters I have almost forgotten that I am on the soil of Jackson County and that I am expected to report upon it, not to discuss philology or the railroad question. Jackson is one of the southern border counties and is about seventy miles square. Its general character is mountainous, but it has one great central valley, that of the Rogue River, and many smaller ones. Its thousands of hillsides, too, are rich in soil and scarcely less valuable for general purposes of cultivation. Like all the other counties of Western and Southern Oregon, Jackson has long been settled, and pretty much all its tillable land has been long taken up. The chief productive business of the county has been gold mining, sheep husbandry being the next in importance. It is estimated that the annual output of gold is in the neighborhood of $800,000 per year and the value of the wool clip something less than one-third of that amount. General agriculture has been followed only to the extent of supplying the local demand, not an inconsiderable business when the military post in Klamath County, the mining camps in Jackson and in the adjoining county of Josephine, and the large demands for forage from the stage and freighting lines, are considered. Still the farming area of the country has never been worked to half its capacity, there being until now no means of getting any product less profitable than wool out to market.
    The farmers of Jackson County have been able to produce many things not possible to be grown in any other part of the state. Grapes, peaches, corn and other products of the class requiring a dry, warm climate and only produced in limited quantities and under pressure of extra care in the northern counties, here grow in beautiful luxuriance. The soil is a heavy granite sand on the mountainsides and a loam in the lower valleys.
    Southern Oregon is under a warmer sun than Western Oregon, and its products closely resemble those of California. Its climate, too, bears a close resemblance to that of California, but lacking its ill features of excessive dryness and occasional drought. Indeed, this climate is a happy halfway between the dry of California and the wet of Western Oregon. There is not, I believe, so good and equable a climate under the sun.
    The seasons of Southern Oregon are several weeks earlier than ours, and in certain protected slopes there is scarcely any winter at all, practically. Vegetables which do not, in the Willamette Valley, come into marketable state till late in May are here in good supply in early April. The country ought to supply the Portland market with early truck now brought by water from San Francisco, and it will soon do so. It has not been possible heretofore, owing to the entire lack of other than wagon transportation. But it is from its fruit that Southern Oregon will have the greatest profit. Everything grown in the temperate zones is produced here in amazing quantity and of matchless quality. It is a better country for the production of wine grapes than California, and three profitable vineyards at Jacksonville prove that great things may be done in the way of wine making. Southern Oregon, or the greater part of it, is a country where the greatest profit will result from the concentration of labor on small tracts. Ten times its present population could be profitably employed without extending the present area under cultivation.
    About half the immigration now coming into the country consists of people fairly off in worldly goods who have turned westward to avoid the severe extremes of climate in the states east of the Rocky Mountains. The cold winters of the western and middle states are driving out hundreds and thousands. Climate is naturally the first thought with immigrants of this class, and they find in Southern Oregon precisely what they most desire--a climate cool enough for comfort in summer, warm enough for comfort in winter, a climate in which a man can work in the open air without inconvenience three hundred days in the year. They find here, too, a community long established and well provided with schools but not asleep, a country astir with new impulses and eager for new enterprises. They find the conditions of life easy and the rewards of industry sure. The railroad, so long delayed, is making settlement of the country practicable. And the old population is making the newcomers welcome. The spirit which prompted the publication of a book recently ["The Rogue River Valley/Southern Oregon, transcribed above], setting forth the advantages of the country, is still in the people. It is no wonder the country is filling up. Such a country deserves it.
    Jacksonville, the county seat and the most important town of the county, unless, perhaps, it may now have a rival in Ashland, was left to one side by the railroad. It was passed, not from an arbitrary motive, but because it was not easy to build the road to it. The town was located as a mining camp and for the convenience of miners and quite without consideration of its possible future as a commercial town. The road passes it six miles to the west. The town has unquestionably suffered, but it is by no means dead or in the way of dying. It still has the large local trade it has always had, and will, I think, retain it. The new town of Medford, situated on the railroad at the point nearest Jacksonville, has grown in a few months to be a thriving place of about a hundred houses, but it has not, as many expected, robbed Jacksonville of its trade or of its importance as a general center.
    The railroad, which has come as a blessing to this country, is running its trains into it at a positive loss. It is not paying running expenses south of Eugene City, and for the section south of Roseburg it does not get in one dollar for every five which it costs to operate it. The road is in excellent condition. All the new part between Roseburg and Ashland is laid with steel rails, and the iron on the old section has been replaced with steel as far south from Portland as Jefferson, in Marion County. Of the attitude of the railroad company toward the country and of the country toward the company, I will write tomorrow.    A.H. [Al Holbrook]
Oregonian, Portland, April 25, 1885, page 4.  The next installment was printed on page one of the Oregonian of April 27, 1885.

    Speaking of the Redmen's dedication last week, when we closed, we now continue by saying that it was a success. The singing was most excellent all was performed in a most impressive manner.
    We have been over much of the valley since our last, and everywhere from the northern part to the southern extremity, beyond Ashland, we see signs of marked improvement in the last four years.
    Jackson County, with her rills and rivers, her fertile lands and prairies, her forests and her everglades, her grazing and agricultural lands, her fruits and flowers, her salubrious climate and gorgeous scenery, altogether make it almost paradisaical and second only to Old Douglas.
    Jacksonville, Ashland, Medford, and other towns in the county are making more headway than one would at first suppose.
    This part of Southern Oregon is securing some good immigration, and yet as in Douglas County we find some who are like the canine that slept in the manger, "he would not eat the hay, neither would he let the ox eat it." Some say "too many people here now," but if you could see the untilled lands lying in waste all over this vast territory, where many industrious hands could find profitable employment, certainly we are forced to conclude that this country ought to be, and will be, the heritage of homeless and landless in other states east of the Rockies.
    The hospitality of the citizens of this county has become proverbial, and this writer is in a situation to know beyond all doubt that it is most certainly true.
    The railroad on reaching this valley gave an unhealthy impulse to speculation,
and now some few who said some years ago "we must have a railroad," and became unduly excited over the prospects, and as one of Jackson County's representatives said in the legislature in the palmy days of Ben. Halliday, "give us about 150 miles of Halliday's monopoly and we will be satisfied." They have it, and the wisdom of that Solon has not yet been verified. A wealthy proprietor said the other day that the stage line was more beneficial to this county than the railroad. Of this we are not sure, but that everyone who expected to grow into better circumstances because of the railroad, some of them at least, have been sadly disappointed.
    The "Beall side track" trouble still continues, bat we are led to believe that the track will be laid, and remain intact, as it should be.
    We should be glad to to speak of personal friends, but we appreciate the fact that the undertaking would be too great.
    We had the pleasure of calling on all of the numerous newspaper men in the county. They all gave us a kindly greeting.
    At Eagle Point we had the very best entertainment at the house of our old friend Peter Simmons, who is now the proprietor of the Pioneer Hotel at that place. Travelers will do well to stop there.
    To read Mr. Holman's article in regard to Southern Oregon in the Oregonian of a recent issue a person would be led to suppose that nothing intervened between the Willamette and Rogue River valleys--or that Mr. H. had traveled a distance of about 150 miles on "thin air." The real facts are that the entire length of Douglas County lies between and is far in advance of either of the above mentioned localities in climate, natural resources and adaptability--with the single exception of growing wine grapes, and there is even room for a doubt in that particular. Our seasons are just as early, if not a little more so, and in the matter of early fruits and vegetables the Umpqua Valley is in the lead of all other localities in the state. We have never had even a partial failure of crops on account of drought, or from any other cause, and at the same time never have an excess of rain.
    The County Commissioners of Jackson County recently appropriated $250 to disseminate information concerning that county. Here is an example worthy of being followed by our commissioners. Douglas County with all its great resources must be advertised to the world and our valleys and hills will become the workshop of thousands. Let us give a strong pull this year and get out of the mire of hard times. People are flocking from all sections to Oregon. Let us show up our thrice-favored county--its climate, its bountiful soil and natural resources, and unite our own prosperity in the common advancement of all.
Roseburg Review, May 22, 1885, page 2

Letter from the Record-Union Correspondent at Ashland.

    Eds. Record-Union: The metropolis of Southern Oregon is getting ready to welcome a large influx of strangers from the East, who are fleeing from the ravages of the severe winters experienced there. It is estimated that our population was increased from three to five hundred people the past year, and all indications point to as large, if not larger, immigration the coming year. Ashland has a population of about 1,600 people, and is in every way a thriving little city. Its natural water works and its extremely healthful situation give it predominance over every other town in southern, or, I might say, any part of Oregon. It is situated at the extreme end of the Rogue River Valley and right close up to the foothills of the Coast Range mountains. Ashland Creek, a stream of wonderfully pure, clear water, comes tumbling down in beautiful cascades from Ashland Butte, fourteen miles [sic] above, and which is covered the year round with snow. The creek, besides furnishing power for two sawmills, a planing mill, a flouring and a woolen mill, supplies the town with plenty of pure, good water for house use and irrigating purposes. It is proposed, and the money already mostly raised, to lay a pipe a half mile up the creek, which will furnish Ashland with fire protection better than the best steam engines.
    The completion of the California and Oregon  Railroad between your city and Portland will give to us a market for our apples and fruits, and furnish competition with Portland as to supplying our merchants.
    Ashland expended over $100,000 in buildings and improvements in 1884, and a number of costly dwellings will be put up the coming season. Among the buildings erected last year is the Ashland Bank, a structure which we take considerable pride in, being the finest in Southern Oregon, and one that will compare very favorably with the banks in cities of more pretentions. The bank was organized last spring, with a paid-up capital of $50,000, and is doing a good business.
    While, in common with every place else, business at present is a little dull, yet our merchants in general have a good trade.
    Thousands of young fruit trees were planted here this spring, and in the near future we will have a mammoth cannery factory, it is hoped. Our peaches in this vicinity are superior to any others raised in Oregon, and find a ready market in Portland.
    The other towns of Southern Oregon, Jacksonville, Medford and Grants Pass, are also in flourishing condition. At Jacksonville, the county seat of Jackson County, a magnificent new courthouse was erected last year at a cost of $40,000. Although Medford is a town that came with the railroad about two years ago, it now boasts of some 500 people. Grants Pass also experienced a wonderful growth last year, and is a thriving place. More anon.
    Ashland, Or., May 31, 1885.
The Record-Union, Sacramento, June 4, 1885, page 1

Oregon Letter.
    We publish below a letter from W. H. Lofland, who left this place for Oregon, a few weeks since, for the benefit of his health. The letter bears the date of May 27th and was written at Jacksonville, Oregon. It will, no doubt, be interesting to many of his friends and neighbors:
    EDITOR JOURNAL:--I am here for the first time but not likely the last. My trip over the plains was pleasant, being the first time I had traveled so far from home. No one can describe, no one can conceive the grandeur and sublimity of the Rocky Mountains; but the Sierras of California eclipse anything I had ever seen or imagined. I cannot describe them, so I will not attempt. If anyone wants to see them, let them come and look. But this is not an account of Oregon. I saw so much more on my road here than I have since I have been here that I cannot refrain from digressing. I experienced my first stage riding from Delta, the northern terminus of the Central Pacific Railroad, and Ashland, the southern terminus of the Oregon & California Railroad. The distance is 126 miles, but the railroad maps represent that the railroad is completed, which discommodes many travelers. My ride was one of jolts, bumps and bruises. The road was extremely rough and crooked, winding around precipices that are hundreds of feet high. I shrank back with a shudder whenever I would look out and see the dizzy height I was [on] and the reckless speed we were going. We made it in 30 hours. I had formed a mental picture of Oregon, but I was disappointed in almost every particular. The mountains are higher--in fact I had a poor conception of what mountains really are--the valleys are narrower, the streams swifter, the towns smaller, the air is purer, the nights are cooler, the weather is dryer, the people less sociable, the churches scarcer and the school houses smaller, rougher and more ragged. Be it said that not one school house out of six is painted. There are but four or five schools in the county that have anything but old-fashioned wooden benches and a board with legs to it for a writing desk. The people are fully 60 years behind the balance of the world in educational matters. Teachers receive only, for male, about $50, and female $33 per month. As a general thing the old settlers are from the southern states, which accounts, in part, for their backwardness in educational matters. As a rule the people are unearthily lazy. The mild humid climate seems to affect the nervous system, at any rate they have little animation about them. They have been accustomed to live without much manual labor. They were nearly all gold diggers, and they became so infatuated with the business that they seldom quit until poverty drives them from it. Although many of the old-time miners made as high as $3.00 a day, yet they are poorer now than they were before they left their eastern home, 30 years ago. Not one out of a dozen of the "forty-niners" is worth anything. There are six or seven towns in this county, that is, they are called towns here, but they should scarcely receive that name. There is not a town in the county that has 1000 inhabitants. Jacksonville and Ashland are the most important. Jacksonville is not on the railroad as the maps represent, but is five miles from it. Rogue River Valley is a beautiful one. With the exception of a little chills and fever the country is perfectly healthy. For asthma, this climate is said to be a sure cure, especially in the foothills and mountains, where the fresh, pure running water abounds. There is a great deal of game here, such as bear, deer, elk, panthers, wildcats, wolves and all the smaller varieties. An abundance of fish fill the streams. With a small dip net a person can, sometimes, in an hour catch 150 pounds. Some of these trout weigh as high as 20 pounds, and 12 pounds is the average weight. There are plenty of apples of last year's crop. New cherries, strawberries, etc., have been in market a good while. The fruit of Rogue River Valley is unexcelled in variety and quality.
North Manchester Journal, North Manchester, Indiana, June 11, 1885, page 2

    Applegate with its tributaries covers the principal part of the southwestern part of this county. In it is much mining. There has been considerable gold taken out of quartz in the Steamboat mining district, and no doubt there will be much more taken out in the near future. Persons who are willing to go back into the mountains, and hew out homes in the woods and make wagon roads to get around, can find some vacant land in this region, as they can also in the mountains and other parts of our county, that will do to make homes on, but there is no valuable land near the valley or in the region where there are settlements and roads that are vacant.
    We will now turn our attention to the northwestern part of the county. Here we find mountains and small streams. First, Wolf Creek is a small stream, with but little agricultural land on it in our county. It flows westwardly into Grave Creek, in Josephine County. It has considerable good timber on it, and some good gold diggings. Next, south of this, is Grave Creek, which is similar to Wolf Creek, heading in the Rogue River Mountains, and flows westwardly a while, then bears southerly, emptying in Rogue River below the gigantic Yank quartz ledge in Josephine County. It has much timber, some gold mines, and some farming land on it. Next, south of this, is Jump-off Joe, a small stream that heads only a short distance east of the west line of our county and flows southwest, emptying into Rogue River eight or ten miles below Grants Pass. It has much timber, some farms and considerable lands unimproved yet, and some mining country on it. Next, south of this, are small rivulets flowing southwest into Rogue River above Grants Pass. There is considerable timber and some mines and a little farming land in our county north of Rogue River, before we get up to the mouth of Evans Creek, which is about six miles above Grants Pass. This creek heads far up towards Umpqua waters and flows southwest a distance of about thirty-five miles. It, with its tributaries, has much timber, some mines and considerable farming land, a portion of which is very good. Perhaps in the bounds of this section is to be found as good vacant land as is in our country. At the head of the west branch of Evans Creek are the salt works that from ten to fifteen years back furnished considerable salt. On the east branch is situated two sawmills that were built by Mr. Thomas, where much lumber has been cut. They are now opened by other parties and are doing considerable business. Down the main creek are other sawmills that have done considerable business. At the mouth of Evans Creek and on its east bank is located Woodville with its depot on the north bank of Rogue River. In this locality the hop-raising business bids fair to give employment to many persons. If it proves to be a success (and I see no reason why it should not), there will be hundreds of acres cultivated in hops along this stream soon, and no doubt other parts of our county are as well adapted to hops as this section. Following up on the north side of the river, we pass quite a number of farms which are cut in two by the railroad. Eight miles above Woodville is Rock Point. Here is situated the first bridge that was built on Rogue River, and here is the store of Haymond & Magruder Bros. They also own the bridge and have done much business in Rock Point. The mountains come down quite close to the river on each side for a considerable distance up and down from Rock Point. Two miles above here is Gold Hill station on the Oregon and California railway. Near here, on the south side of the river, is situated the famous Gold Hill, towering high up in the air, out of the top of which was taken the richest quartz ore that was ever mined in this region. One two-horse wagonload yielded $32,000, as I was informed by General Ross, who was one of the partners, and who hauled the gold quartz down to be crushed.
    Between Gold Hill station and Gold Hill proper the railroad crosses Rogue River just below Chavner's bridge, which is the second bridge across the river. This and the Rock Point bridge have both been rebuilt in the past ten years. They are toll bridges. Just below Gold Hill station is a lime kiln, where very fine lime is burnt from the marble and lime rock that abound in this region. A short distance above the station is the flouring mills owned by the Trimbles. This is a very fine water power. The race is about half a mile in length and taken out of Rogue River at the head of a rapids where a ledge of rocks crosses the river. By the enlargement of this race there could be a large amount of machinery run by the water. In the mountains on either side of the river in this section is an unlimited amount of iron ore, and we know not but think that there is quartz and other deposits--a sufficient amount of wealth, if we had it in sight, to make this one of the foremost counties in our state. But we must take a rest here for about a week, when we will proceed up Rogue River.
        Secretary of Board of Immigration.
Democratic Times, Jacksonville, June 19, 1885, page 2

    Supper having been taken at Oakland and Roseburg being passed soon after, the tired excursionists sought rest and sleep in their berths. Early next morning, Ashland, the end of the railway line in that direction, only about 20 miles from the California border, was reached. Here the whole population had united in giving us welcome. A breakfast had been prepared in the principal hall, which was appropriately decorated with specimens of the luxuriant growth of fruits and flowers of that region. Ashland is one of the prettiest and most healthful towns on the coast, elevated some 2,000 feet above the level of the sea. It is situated in the Rogue River Valley, so named from a warlike and pestiferous race of Indians originally inhabiting it. This valley is sometimes called the Italy of America. It is about fifty miles long by five to twenty-five miles wide, with numerous smaller valleys running up into the mountains. Its climate is claimed to be free from the excessive moisture of the Willamette Valley at the north and the scorching summer droughts of the California valleys on the south. The chief industries are farming and stock raising and fruit growing. Land for this purpose sells for $10 to $45 per acre. This part of Oregon as well as the Willamette Valley has been settled for more than thirty years, though there is still room for more settlers. The Ashland people boast of fine mineral springs--iron, sulfur and soda. A specimen of the latter was presented to the JOURNAL representatives by Jacob Wagner, who moved from the vicinity of Muscatine and settled at Ashland in 1852.
    After leaving Ashland on the return trip, a stop was made at Medway [Medford], where the citizens, reinforced by a long procession of people from Jacksonville in wagons headed by a finely caparisoned brass band, gave our party a magnificent welcome. A few miles further a stop was made at Grants Pass, where a collation prepared by fifteen ladies of the town was served to the entire party in a pine grove near the village. Here a very creditable display of grain, fruit and other productions of the region was made.
    No other event of importance occurred that day, but we must not forget to mention the fine mountain scenery, the numerous tunnels and winding grades around the mountainsides which indicated the great expense of building the railroad through that region.
"Beyond the Rockies," Muscatine Daily Journal, Muscatine, Iowa, July 1, 1885, page 1.  The writer was a participant in the excursion of the Iowa Press Association.

    Proceeding up Rogue River from Gold Hill station we pass around the base of Gold Hill and along the foot of the hills east of it. Around here for about five miles the railroad had to be cut most of the way through granite rock, some of which is of the finest quality for building purposes. On the north side of the river are a few small farms before you reach the mouth of Sams Creek, but the bottom land is narrow and the mountains high. From the mouth of Sams Creek the mountains recede and the valley begins to widen. Sams Creek rises in the Rogue River Mountains, flows in a southerly direction, emptying into the river about two miles below Bear Creek, it coming in on the north and Bear Creek on the south side. Sams Creek has come excellent land on it, but its valley is small, being only ten miles in length and from one to two and a half miles in width. All the valley land is taken up, but there is some hillside and mountain land vacant, with some good fir timber on its head. Proceeding from the beautiful little valley of Sams Creek eastward we pass the lower Table Rock, a magnificent landmark standing out in our valley in bold relief. We now come to Table Rock Creek. It rises in the mountains near the head of the east fork of Evans Creek. Between these two creeks the mountain is low, which makes a good way for people to pass from Evans Creek into the valley and a good road to haul lumber from the sawmills over on Evans Creek. Through this pass is where Jesse Applegate made his survey for the Oregon & California railway. Some good farms are found along Table Rock Creek and on the mountainsides. On the west of this little creek is some vacant land. On the east, extending a distance of from four to eight miles, is undulating land. It is mostly brushy and thin land, but some very good arable land lies in this section. Table Rock Creek rises in Rogue River Mountains and flows southwesterly and passes between the upper and lower Table Rocks and empties into Rogue River at the south end of the lower Table Rock. Proceeding up Rogue River on the north side we find some very fine land, but most of the land in this region is brushy and gravelly, and not fit for much but early pasture. About 12 miles from Table Rock we come to the mouth of Trail Creek, a small stream heading away up towards South Umpqua River, and flowing southwest. It is mostly hills and mountains in this part of our county, and better adapted to grazing than farming. There are very good spots for farming purposes, but they are mostly occupied. Next above Trail Creek is Elk Creek. There is but very little farming land along it. Further up on the north side of Rogue River, along the bottoms, is some very fine land, but it is all taken. There is some undulating land in this region that is good but mostly taken up. On the south side of the river along here it is mostly mountainous and heavily timbered. A few miles farther up the river we reach Aiken Bros.' sawmill, situated on the south side of the river. It is as fine water power as is to be found, and being situated at the large body of pine woods of which we have already spoken, it would be a very valuable property if there was a flume to bring this valuable lumber down to the valley. In former years there was considerable lumber hauled from here by teams on their return from Fort Klamath when taking supplies there, but now, as the supplies are sent from another direction to the fort, there has not been much hauled of late, except some parties who wish to find finishing lumber have had it hauled from there. This fine body of timber lies on comparatively level land and is easily taken to where there is plenty of water power to manufacture it into lumber. Union Creek, one of the head branches of Rogue River, rises in the Cascade Mountains and flows northwest, emptying into the river on the south. It runs a large body of water, and for several miles flows through this beautiful body of timber. The principal part of this land is vacant, and to persons with sufficient means to bring the elements into service could make money for themselves and benefit the county by making a flume from some point here to bring this fine timber to the valley, and then use the water for irrigating purposes. No doubt the day is not far distant when this will be done. Some may look upon this as visionary, but I look at it in the same light as I did the practicability of constructing a railroad across the plains from Missouri to the Pacific coast over thirty years ago. After my return to Missouri from California in 1854 I was frequently asked what I thought of the project of constructing a railroad across the plains. My reply was that it would soon be done. So I think in reference to the practicability of building this flume some fifty miles to utilize the timber and water of this region.

        Secretary of Board of Immigration.
"Letter No. Three," Democratic Times, Jacksonville, July 3, 1885, page 1    Rev. Peterson died before he could complete his overview of the Rogue Valley.

    The next morning after leaving Portland we awoke in Ashland, the present terminus of the Oregon & California R.R. This beautiful little city is nestled at the foot of the mountains, about 312 miles from Portland and 9 miles from the California line, in the
    After partaking of the sumptuous breakfast the citizens had prepared we met Mr. Atkins and wife (the latter is a daughter of J. T. Mott) and Mr. Taylor and his estimable lady, who is a sister to Postmaster Prescott, of this place. They are all more than pleased with the country. Mr. Atkins is draying over the mountains, with horses, to points in Northern California and Mr. Taylor is pursuing agriculture farther down the valley. We also met a young gentleman from Elkader, whose name is Carter, and his father is interested in a bank at Ashland. Of this valley we can but speak in a general way. The climate is very similar to that of California, the thermometer rarely getting as low as 20 degrees, nor higher than 40 degrees. The rainfall is not so heavy as that of the Willamette. Contracted in size as it is, there is considerable arable land, which produces fine crops of all kinds, especially of fruits. There is very little government land, and that is not desirable, for it is on the foothills. Cultivated land ranges in price about the same as in Iowa. Not only are the mountains of Southern Oregon covered with forests of pine, fir and cedar, but rich veins of the precious and the rougher ores are found in their depths. This valley probably presents more reasons for being one of the most beautiful places in which to spend one's life than any other on the continent. While on our way down the valley we had a taste of the way western trains are run. The track runs along the foot of a mountain and on the other side is a rocky, rapid, narrow stream, and beyond more mountains. The little valley describes some very abrupt curves, making the R.R. somewhat resemble a snake's trail. Here our train ran as swiftly as they do on the level prairies of our native state.
"The North-West Aftermath," Postville Weekly Review, Postville, Iowa, July 17, 1885, page 2

Strolls at Crescent City--A Visit to Pebble Beach--
Interesting Stage Ride--Salmon Canning--Etc.

Kerbyville, Or.,
    October 24, 1885.
    Eds. Record-Union: Have you ever been in Oregon? I have, am here now, and will tell you how I came here. I left Sacramento--where I have resided for the last year--a few months since, taking the early train for San Francisco. Now, a good many will tell you that they take the early train so that they can have a few more hours in the city. I took it because I could save $1.50. This train landed me in San Francisco in time for dinner, a call on a few friends, and to take the steamer Crescent City at 4 p.m. This steamer is owned by Hobbs, Wall & Co., plying between San Francisco and Crescent City, where the company have large lumber interests. There were thirty-five passengers, a good number of whom were ladies. As we steamed out of the bay and through the Golden Gate, the passengers were all on deck, all feeling happy, and I flattered myself that I would have a splendid time, but I was doomed to disappointment. The steamer Crescent City is a very different affair from the Queen of the Pacific, with her 300 feet of deck, elegant social hall and library and easy chairs, piano, etc. The Crescent City was built expressly for the lumber trade, and only carries passengers for accommodation, at $12.50 per head. Captain Stockfleth is every inch a gentleman, but he cannot prevent his boat from rolling and pitching, especially when he has the deck loaded with railroad iron and only two crates of cabbage in the hold for ballast. The railroad iron belonged to the company, and was taken up to build a track from the wharf at Crescent City to the redwoods; the cabbage for the good people of Crescent City. Owing to so much iron on top and so few cabbage in the hold,
    Just after getting out of the "Gate" and into the sea, supper was called. The dining room is in the bow of the boat, and seats nine people--four on a side, and the Captain at the head of the table. On entering the dining room, I found six passengers seated with the Captain--five gentlemen and one lady. The balance of the passengers had either lost their appetites or had brought their provisions aboard and were eating in their rooms. After supper and smoking a "Tansel's Punch" [cigar], I turned in. I had the lower berth, and liking plenty of air, I left the door of my room open. I soon dropped to sleep, but sometime in the night I awoke suddenly--I thought for a second or two that I had fallen overboard, for I was in the water. I soon discovered, however, that the boat was rolling, so that a big wave had struck the deck and almost deluged me. I climbed to the upper berth and let her roll and wash. At 7:30 the steward called us to breakfast. On entering the dining room I found the Captain, engineer and one lady--no more. We had a splendid breakfast--the best of meats and all the delicacies in the market. The steward is a good caterer and the cook a chef. After breakfast, putting on my overcoat and taking a "Tansel," I stretched myself upon the deck and enjoyed myself and by myself, for there were no other passengers in sight. I had just opened a Saturday's Record-Union, which I had brought with me, when a gentleman came out of his room and looked over the side of the boat. He seemed to be very much interested in something or somebody below. I heard him say something; seemed to be talking with someone that I could not see. All at once he rose up, very pale, and went into his room. Soon another came out, and he went and
and talked to that man down on the outside of the boat. He rose up pale and went inside. Then a woman came out of a room on the other side of the boat, and she had a talk, rose up pale, and she went in. I began to ask myself and wonder what or who they were talking to, and why they all looked so pale. Were they all angry with the man over on the side of the boat? Good manners prevented me from asking them, and it remained a mystery for the time. I read the Record-Union and smoked until dinner. What a dinner--a twenty-pound roast of beef, boiled mutton, roast ham, lots of side dishes and pastry without end, but no one to eat but the Captain, engineer, the lady and myself. I will here state that the lady never missed a meal. When I came out of the dining room I took a cigar out of my pocket, but I did not light it. I thought I would wait until I reached Crescent City, for fear I might not get any there, and then I wanted to go and look over the side of the boat. Mr. Editor, have you ever been on the water in a gale, when the boat would go up, up, up, and then go down, down, down, and then your stomach would drop out and go down into the hold? Well, I've been there. I could not see the man that the rest of the passengers were so mad at, and I went into my room. In passing the looking-glass I saw I was pale, but I was not mad, so the mystery was cleared up. There is one thing that I have noticed in traveling on a steamer in rough weather-everyone becomes so generous; they are willing to give up everything; I even gave up my dinner.
    We came in sight of Crescent City just at daylight on the second morning out, and steamed into the harbor about 9 o'clock, but it was so rough we did not succeed in getting off the steamer until 11 o'clock. We then walked down the long wharf belonging to Assemblyman Johnson--for which privilege you must pay fifty cents. Hobbs, Wall & Co. are building a wharf of their own, so Mr. Johnson will soon lose that revenue. The wharf leads up to the main street. Crescent City, as its name implies, is situated on a crescent-shaped bay, a pretty site for a town. But the founders of the city made a great mistake in locating their first street so near the beach. It does very well in summer, but in winter during the heavy gales from the south the water is driven up to the very door of the buildings, and for their protection they have built barricades of heavy timbers. The beach is covered with great quantities of driftwood, and supplies the town with their year's firewood. From the large number of buildings, many now unoccupied--I imagine Crescent City was once a very flourishing place. I was told by an old settler that some years ago, before railroads were known on this coast, all the supplies for Southern Oregon were landed at Crescent City, and packed over the mountains over 150 miles to Jacksonville and vicinity. Sometimes one thousand pack animals left during a week.
a small one, now engaged in the business, carrying goods to "Happy Camp," a mining town on the Klamath River, some 120 miles away. Crescent City has three hotels, but the favorite is the Del Norte, kept by Ned Yates. Ned is an Englishman, but the most Americanized one I ever met. It is told that he went to Crescent City and engaged in the hotel as a waiter in the dining room, where he made himself so useful that on the death of the former landlord, the widow, after a four months' mourning, married Ned. Be that as it may, Ned Yates knows how to keep a hotel. They now claim 350 inhabitants in the town. Hobbs, Wall & Co. have two large sawmills and turn out a vast amount of lumber, and employ nearly all the male inhabitants of the town. There are several large stores, but I believe the one owned by Hobbs, Wall & Co. gets the cream of the trade, as they oblige their hands employed at the mill to trade with them. There are several little valleys a few miles out and quite a farming community. There are to be seen all the different little stores and shops generally found in a village, and eighteen saloons. Just think of it! Three hundred and fifty inhabitants and eighteen saloons. I was told that during court week anyone going to the door of the courthouse and holding up his hand, no matter how important a case might be on the docket, the judge would adjourn court for fifteen minutes, which meant a visit to the nearest saloon. But Judge Murphy is a good fellow, if he did vote for Cleveland, and so is postmaster Woodbury, his brother-in-law, who didn't. I suppose Woodbury will soon have to take a walk, being an "offensive partisan." The stage for Jacksonville leaves three times a week, and getting in on an off night, I had twenty-four hours to take in all the sights in the vicinity of Crescent City.
    The lighthouse, which twelve years ago, when I first visited the place, stood on a point of the mainland, is now an island at high tide, the constant beating of the surf having cut its way through. Taking the road up the coast, passing a rough and rocky point one and a half miles brings you to
    This beach extends down three miles to another point, and during the winter months some very pretty and valuable stones are found, which, after passing through the hands of the lapidary, become very beautiful. In going from the bluff down to the beach you will pass an Indian rancheria. There are half a dozen families living here, including an old Indian doctor. I was told before leaving the village that I would find him very uncommunicative, as he hates the whites. I asked an old squaw who was cooking mussels where the doctor lived. She pointed to a slab-house just above. I asked her how old the doctor was. She answered: "Doctor heap old--I think thousand years." I found the old fellow in full dress. He had covered his naked body with a red blanket fastened around his neck, three feathers in a band around his neck, and a piece of white shell, some four inches long and the size of a lead pencil, stuck through his nose. He was sitting on a log in the sun, and as I approached him he rose up and said, with a grin, "White man no good. Heap kill Injun." I gave him a bright two-bit piece, which had a magical effect. He smiled, made room for me on the log, took me by the hand and said, "Good friend." He spoke very broken English, but with that and many signs I conversed with him for an hour. Among the many things he told me was of a time when the water was very high--
He said: "Long time, water heap high--so high (pointing to the marks some 70 feet above us); kill plenty Injun." I learned later that at the time he spoke of hundreds of Indians, old and young, were on the rocks gathering mussels, when the wave came in and nearly all were drowned. The doctor gave me some pretty pebbles and took me to a house where I found a squaw, some 25 years old. She was living quite American fashion. There was a rag carpet, a good bedstead covered with a blue counterpane, pillows covered with slips as white as soap and water could make them, four chairs, a lounge covered with bright calico, a looking-glass, etc. The woman was quite dark, neatly dressed in calico, and was at work making a dress for a little child four years old. Her husband was a carpenter, and had been to an Indian school. I found him quite intelligent. He said the doctor must be certainly 150 years old, for his grandmother, then living at 90 years of age, says the doctor was very old when she can first remember. The carpenter's wife showed me a book of sea mosses. The book was a large one, such as is used for a scrapbook. She had the book nearly full and very artistically arranged. She said she sold a book a year ago to some visitor for $25, but this one she would sell for $15. She said there was a quantity of moss on the beach, but very little as fine as hers and only one place where she could get it. I examined some of it with a strong glass, and found that it was like the finest thread lace. If you ever go to Crescent City do not fail to visit Pebble Beach, call on the doctor and ask to see the book of mosses.
    It was a few miles above Pebble Beach, Point St. George, where the ill-fated steamship Brother Jonathan went down over twenty years go, with nearly every soul on board lost. The wreck has never been found, but the wheel of the pilot house came ashore, and can be seen in one of the saloons in Crescent City. There is also hanging up in the office of the Del Norte Hotel the keyboard, showing the numbers of the staterooms.
    We left Crescent City at 9 p.m. for Smith's Run--better known up there as "The Corners"--distance sixteen miles. The road for the first eight miles runs through a magnificent belt of redwoods. This timber is mostly owned by Hobbs, Wall & Co. and furnishes logs for their great mills. If you pass through there by daylight you will see trees ten or fifteen feet in diameter, and one beside the road that is forty-five feet one way and twenty the other. About one hundred feet from the ground there are three distinct trees, showing that three trees have grown together, making this monster body. We crossed Smith's Run three miles below "The Corners," and down through many pretty little farms, all showing thrift and enterprise. "The Corners" has two hotels, one large store and four saloons. We stop over a day and take a ride up the valley to Chetco River, a few miles across the state line. This valley is some fourteen miles long and from one-quarter to two and one-half miles wide. Although a small valley, it supports hundreds of sheep and cows, and some of the finest butter on the coast is made here. There is no frost, and the fogs and dews keep the grass green all the year round. At the mouth of Smith's Run is an extensive salmon country. I made a short call, and while there they made a haul, and the foreman told me they had fourteen hundred, from five to forty pounds weight. The company employs whites, Chinese and squaws. It was rather a novel sight to see fifty or sixty squaws with their
jamming salmon into the cans. I never did like salmon very well, and I like it now less than ever. We left the "Corners" at 12 midnight for a night and day's ride over the mountains to Waldo, fifty miles, where we arrived at 7 p.m. About half way we stop for breakfast at the north fork of Smith's River. While the driver is getting ready I walked down to the bridge and looked into the clear, blue water seventy feet to the bottom, where I saw salmon three and one-half feet long. In coming to this stream we had been going down, down, down; then, after crossing the river, it was up, up, up; going around points where the road was but a few inches wider than the wagon, and here you could look down into the canyons for more than a thousand feet. I often found myself hugging the side of the coach farthest from the bank, and wondered, if the stage should tip over, whether my clothes would fit me by the time I reached the bottom. It must have required a good deal of courage on the part of the owners to have ever attempted a road over these mountains. Although the road is rough, and you get a great deal shook up, still it well pays one for the trouble just to get the splendid view. The road runs to the very top of the mountains, away above the timber line, and no vegetation, unless it is a stunted growth of manzanita. There have been some copper and chrome iron found, and there is no doubt but mineral of some kind will eventually be found in paying quantity. There are no settlements between Smith River Corners and Waldo, there being but
and these are stage stations. In fact, there is nothing to settle. I do not believe you could make your coffee settle. I found but one thing that you can settle, and that is your hotel bills.
    We reached Waldo (known for a good many years as "Sailor Diggins") about 7 p.m. This is another of the "has been" towns, where thirty years ago more than a thousand men could be seen on Sundays, gambling houses and hurdy-gurdys running in full blast, and a man every morning for breakfast. Now there are a dozen houses, two hotels--I do not see how one can live--one store, owned by Weimer & Sons, owners of the toll road. These gentlemen are also operating a large hydraulic mine in the vicinity. Here begins the pack trail for Happy Camp, thirty miles away on the Klamath. After supper, being very tired, I go to bed. It seemed to me that I hardly lost myself in sleep before the landlord raps at my door and says: "Stage ready for Kerbyville." On going down to the office, I see by the clock that it wants 15 minutes to 2. I climb into the stage but half awake, and in two hours' time I am at "Uncle Jack's," where I go to bed again and sleep until noon. But I am making this letter too long. As I intend to spend some time here, looking after mining interests, I will at a future time tell you what I know about Southern Oregon.
Record-Union, Sacramento, October 31, 1885, page 2

    In company with Jacob Wagner, the Tidings editor took a ride through a good portion of the central part of the valley last Saturday, stopping at all the towns and budding cities on the route. At nearly every town the citizens appeared to think that every other town in the valley was on its last legs, and that theirs was to be the chief city of the county. Having seen them all within a very short time, we can report that none are yet buried as completely as Pompeii and Herculaneum, and at every place there was signs of life and hope. At Talent several new buildings give the village an air of improvement and prosperity. At Phoenix little improvement is to be seen, but the town has its flourishing mills and its steady, modest business and is apparently undisturbed by dreams of any mushroom growth in the immediate future.
    The building boom which has made the place so lively during the summer still continues. The fine large brick buildings erected by Geo. W. Williams and J. S. Howard are about ready for the plasterers. The block is two stories in height, and the lower part will contain four fine store rooms. Mr. Howard will occupy his own building--his store in the lower part and a fine dwelling fitted up above. D. H. Miller & Co. will occupy the largest of the other three stores with their hardware and drug business, and the post office. One of the others will be a bakery, and other a jewelry store, it is said. The Byers & Jacobs brick is being fitted up for a hotel and will have 27 fine lodging rooms and a parlor on the second floor. Angle & Plymale, who carry a large stock of general merchandise, are preparing to build a substantial brick store immediately east of the wooden building now occupied by them. The foundation is already laid. A. L. Johnson has just moved into his new brick dwelling, at the front of which is his banking room, fitted up with a fireproof vault of the most approved design. A number of fine dwellings about the town have recently been completed, and two or three wooden business houses are being finished up. I. A. Webb, the contractor and builder, has the contract for several new buildings, among them being a dwelling for Mr. Dorson, in Howard's addition, and A. P. Talent is preparing to put up a dwelling upon his lot. The main business street has been greatly improved by a line of sidewalk on each side within the past two months, and altogether the town looks more businesslike and settled than at the last visit of the writer. D. W. Matthews, formerly of this place, has his drug store in faultless condition and appears to be doing a good business. W. H. Mayfield is landlord of the Central Hotel, R. F. High has a barber shop here, Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert keep a restaurant, and Chas. Hosley, of Ashland, is one of the proprietors of the handsome new meat market recently opened.
    The regular recurrence of circuit court sessions brings life and business to the county seat, but the citizens cannot, of course, view with perfect equanimity the growth of the new towns on the railroad which claim they will cut off generous slices of the profitable trade so long enjoyed by the pioneer town of the valley. In proof of the fact that they still hold a heavy business, however, the merchants of Jacksonville complacently point to the large quantities of merchandise which they receive from the railroad stations--and this is a style of argument not to be disputed. The fire which burned out the old hotel building and adjacent stores has been a real benefit to the appearance of the main street. Just now the citizens are rather enjoying a railroad rumor to the effect that the track is likely to be changed through the valley, so as to leave Ashland, Medford and Central Point all off the line. The origin of the rumor is rather obscure, but as it is the first comfort of the kind Jacksonville has had since the railroad passed her by, she is making the most of it.
    After a discouraging struggle against heavy odds in the opposition of the railroad company, the townsite owners of Central Point feel that they have gained a victory, and are content to rest for the present upon the results thus far attained and the prospective growth of the place which must before long, they believe, compel the railroad to grant them full depot facilities. Their warehouse has already done considerable business. They have a wheat cleaner in operation which has already prepared a good many carloads of wheat for shipment to Portland, and which they intend to have fitted up with more conveniences for the large trade to which they look forward when next season's crop shall be ready for market. They have only a stub switch, which makes it inconvenient to load cars at the cleaner, and they are trying to induce the railroad to lengthen it out. That a strong confidence exists in the location as one favorably situated for a good business center is attested by the start already made in the little town. Besides the completed buildings, sixteen new ones are now in course of construction, the largest one being the new store of C. Magruder, who will move over from his old Central Point store as soon as this is completed. Lack of time prevented an opportunity to learn the ownership and object of the rest of the buildings, but such items will be furnished from there in the future.
Ashland Tidings, October 30, 1885, page 3

Deserted Industries--Old-Time and New Mining--Siskiyou Mountains--Peculiar People--Etc.
(Correspondence of the Record-Union)
Kerbyville, Josephine County, Or.,
    November 19, 1885.
    I wrote you a few weeks since an account of my trip to Oregon by the coast and Crescent City route, and will now give you a few items regarding Southern Oregon. I wrote you in my last letter that I arrived at "Uncle Jack's" pretty well used up. After a week's good rest I began to look about. "Uncle Jack," as everyone here calls A. J. Henderson, is one of the oldtimers, having located here in 1855, and took a hand in the Indian war of '56, being burned out of house and home. Uncle Jack, hearing that the Indians were about to make an attack, decided to defend and protect his home, while the other settlers left their homes and took refuge some six miles off in a log house, which they had strengthened by digging a trench and standing up large logs on end. This fort proved a safe refuge for the settlers, but Uncle Jack, after keeping off the red devils for three days, his wife melting up everything that would make bullets, his ammunition giving out, he finally succeeded in escaping to the fort, when the Indians burned his house, barn and crops. At this time General Smith was encamped on Rogue River with a small force of regulars. The Indians surrounded him, Smith throwing up entrenchments, digging rifle pits, etc., but the Indians were out in great force, and as soon as a soldier showed his head above the works he was picked off by
General Smith would have been captured, and all massacred, had not volunteers come up from Ellensburg, at the mouth of Rogue River, and attacked the Indians in such force that they were obliged to retire. [Smith was reinforced and rescued by regulars, not volunteers.] The Ellensburg volunteers then came on to Kerbyville and assisted the settlers in driving the Indians from the country. [Almost all the Rogue Rivers surrendered and were removed to reservations immediately after Smith's rescue at Big Bend.] A treaty was soon after formed, and the Indians placed on reservations, and quiet again reigned. Kerbyville is, and has been, the county seat of Josephine County ever since the county was settled and the county set off from Jackson County. This sleepy little town, like so many other old mining camps, is situated on the Illinois River, a tributary of Rogue River. Years ago, during the prosperous mining days, Kerby was a lively place, but now it is very dead, there being but fifteen or twenty families. There are two hotels, two stores, blacksmith shop, and two saloons, or was, but one closed up a few days since. I have said that Kerbyville has been the county seat for many years, but will be so no more, for at the last election the county seat was voted to be changed to Grants Pass, a new town on the California and Oregon Railroad. The people here, like the town, are half asleep, or they might have kept the county seat here. But they thought it had been here so long, there was no danger of its ever being moved. But they awoke one day to find it had been moved. If they had bestirred themselves and built a decent courthouse to meet in, instead of the old, dilapidated barn of a thing they now have, they would have kept the county seat. The
people have got the county seat, and still they are not happy, for they are now at war with each other regarding the location of the building. Sol Abrams and a Mr. Bourne, two moneyed men of the "Pass," both want the building on their ground. Abrams lives in a part of the town called "Jerusalem," and Bourne in the part called "Jericho." Jerusalem and Jericho having fought long and well, and it being a drawn battle, the district judge has taken the matter under advisement and will soon settle it. The last session of court was held here a few days since, and the little village presented quite a lively appearance, people coming in from different parts of the county, and there were so many lawyers, jurors and witnesses that the two hotels were filled to their utmost capacity, and many had to seek quarters with private families. There were several cases disposed of, the most interesting being three divorce cases, a Chinaman's case of robbing sluice boxes (he got three years), an indictment for an assault with attempt to kill (shot a man in the leg), and another the case of a man who branded a steer belonging to another party. The lawyers, the jurors, the witnesses and the people have all gone home, and the little town of Kerby has gone to sleep again. But they were wide awake here once--years ago. The Illinois River has been one of the rich streams of the country. Samuel Sawyer, formerly of this place, later of Oakland, California, and recently deceased, once did a large mercantile business here. It is said that Mr. Sawyer has exchanged coin for
in gold dust. The miners used to bring the dust in by the mule load. I know your readers will say I am "away off," but did they know the hundreds of streams and gulches coming from the Siskiyous and tributaries of the Illinois, they would not think this statement an exaggeration. The two main tributaries of the Illinois are the Sucker and Althouse. These streams find their source away up in the Siskiyous, and have been mined from one end to the other, with wonderful success. At one place on the left-hand fork of the Althouse, some 20 miles above here, pieces have been taken out varying from a "color" to nuggets weighing seventeen pounds. So your readers can, by a mere mental calculation, see that a man would not have to work very long to get a mule load. Years ago these streams were thickly settled, and hundreds of cabins were built upon them or in the gulches near, and today, in riding up the streams and going through the mountains, you can see evidences of a once-prosperous mining camp. But most of them are deserted now, although one occasionally comes across a cabin that is inhabited. A few days since, taking a trip into the Siskiyous, almost up to the line that separates Oregon from California, I found night approaching and began to look out for quarters for myself and mule, and had the good fortune to find a cabin inhabited by two old miners. When I say "old miners," I mean it, for these men told me they had lived there twenty-seven years. They have been rich and poor half a dozen times, and are now worse off than ever. I found these gentlemen intelligent and well posted in the affairs of the outside world, and well they might be, for after a good supper of codfish and potatoes with drawn butter gravy, hot biscuit and butter and a good cup of coffee, we took our pipes and, sitting in front of a big fire in a broad fireplace, we talked of the Sharon-Hill case, the gift of Mrs. Crocker of her art gallery, Mexican news, etc. My surprise at their intelligence, and being so well posted in outside matters, soon vanished as they laid before me late leading newspapers from East and West. These men have almost impoverished themselves, hunting for a quartz mine for the last six years, for about that time pieces of quartz and gold were found in the "diggins'" below, that sold to the lapidaries for $300. But I fear the poor fellows will never find it, for, if I am any judge of the "lay of the land," they are working in the wrong direction. Like all the old miners of early days in California and other lands, the early miners here did not look for gold except in the rivers and on the bars, and when these creeks and bars were worked out, the miner looked for new diggings. Now the miner, having become educated in mining matters, knows that
is in the old or back channels. But the miners generally are too poor to handle such extensive enterprises. It requires a large amount of capital. Since my arrival here I have explored the country for some thirty miles along the Illinois and its tributaries, which took me pretty well up into the Siskiyou Mountains. These mountains are the great feeders for the country lying north of them, as they are the feeders for the mines lying south, such as Shasta and Yreka, Trinity and Klamath rivers. In my travels I have found the great main channel, lying in places hundreds of feet above any present river. Evidently there was, in ages past, an immense river flowed through this section, or some great ocean current may have deposited these great banks of gravel. At any rate they are here, and if the same ground was in Placer County, Cal., or any other county, they would have been washed away long ago. As it is, there is a great chance for capitalists here, and as the "slickens" question has closed up, or will eventually close up, many California  mines, the miners and capitalists must hunt for new fields, and here is the place for them. There has always been a Southern Oregon, but little has been known of this section, it having until recently been a good deal isolated. But now the people here begin to feel that they are a little nearer civilization, as they have a railroad but twenty-eight miles away. When the gap between Delta and Ashland--130 miles--shall have been covered by railroad, then this section will be quite easy of access. The settlers here talk of "Grants Pass" as nearby, as their nearest railroad depot has been for many years at Roseburg, to the north, and Redding much further south. There are a good many
in the country, and could be a good many more if the people had the enterprise and push of the Eastern farmer. Oregon was originally settled by people from Missouri and Arkansas, the United States government giving each settler a whole section of land, and as each married woman was entitled to the same, many girls were married at the age of 11 years. The surprisingly slow development of such a region can only be accounted for by the method of settlement, the first comers getting title to nearly all the good land. The new settlers eagerly seize on every chance for improvement, and are doing considerable, but it is complained that these old fellows "hold on to the land like burrs, and die mighty slow." And from longer experience with the "first families" I am driven to the painful conclusion that about a hundred
would prove of great advantage to Oregon. The rural "webfoot," as the residents are called, an ironical allusion to the climate, is sui generis; there is a distinctively Oregonian look about all the natives and old residents which is hard to describe. Certainly they are not an enterprising people. They drifted in here all along from 1835 to 1855, and some of them at an even earlier period, when many Western and Southern people came to the Pacific Coast to engage in cattle-raising, not considering the country fit for much else. They left Missouri and Arkansas--most of them--because those states were even then "too crowded" for them, and they wanted to get away where "there was plenty o' range and plenty o' game," and have a good, easy time. With one team to each family (time being no object to such people) it costs them nothing to move, and the peculiar land laws applied to Oregon at that time gave them every advantage, and have been a serious hindrance to settlement ever since. The result was, as I have said, that hundreds of girls, from 11 to 13 years, were married so as to acquire more land, and a further result is that all this fine land is owned in vast bodies by these old families, many of whom will neither sell, improve, nor hire anyone else to improve. They acknowledge their own laziness, and talk about it so good-humoredly that one is compelled to sympathize with them. The immense timber through which the roads and trails run is a constant astonishment to the traveler. During my trip to the Siskiyous I passed through miles and miles of vast forests of firs and pines of every diameter, from one to ten feet. Here is inexhaustible wealth in lumber. The fir is harder to work than the pine, but more durable. With good facilities for shipping every acre of this forest would be worth $200. But I much doubt that this will be in my time. Perhaps, when the timber now easy of access shall have been exhausted, then the lumberman must go farther back, and will probably find some way of getting it to market.
in this vicinity can be purchased at the mills for from $10 to $12 per thousand; they always charge extra for delivering. There are several mills in the mountains, and as they can work only in winter, or after the rains begin, they make up the loss of the summer months by running day and night. As we have had two weeks of almost constant rain, the streams are running bank-full, the sawmills are in operation, and the miner is happy. One great drawback to successful or profitable farming in this vicinity is the long, dry spell in the summer. Although a great deal of rain falls during the winter, the soil is of such a porous nature that crops must necessarily suffer during the hot summer months. The land is strong and fertile, and only needs water to produce good results. An irrigating ditch would be of inestimable value to the rancher, and there are great hopes among them that they will soon have one, for I am told that a Sacramento company, having secured some 800 acres of valuable mining ground, it will necessitate the bringing in a ditch some fifteen miles long, which, before it reaches the gravel deposits, must pass through hundreds of acres of farming land, and at an altitude that will easily furnish water for the farms below. From what I have seen I honestly believe that the Sacramento company have the biggest thing on the coast.
    For the benefit of your readers who are fond of hunting, I will inform them that the country abounds in game, such as bear, deer, grouse and all the small game, such as hare, squirrels and quail. During the last month several bears have passed along the road in front of the house, and some of them in broad daylight. As we were at lunch a few days since, the county judge, on his travels through the county, halted at the gate and called for everyone to come out, as there was
and two cubs right in front of the house. Two of the men dropped knives and forks and, each taking a rifle, called the dogs and made for the bush. As I had "lost no bears," I climbed to the roof of the house to see the fun. The boys soon came back, saying the brush was so thick and the dogs "no good," not having been trained to track bear, that they could not find them. The woods are full of deer, and at almost any hour of the day one can see them feeding with the cattle on the hillside, and the quail? why, they eat with the chickens, and some two dozen that were hatched near the house came into the yard, and during the storm of last week they crowded onto the porch, even on the door sill, and would look in at us so innocently that I could not bear to kill them. So when I want a quail dinner I go to the fields for them.
are very stringent, but anyone is allowed to kill what they want for their own use. I had almost forgotten to mention one rather interesting item regarding the county. They have a most novel way here of disposing of their paupers. When a man becomes so poor as to be liable to be thrown on the county, the people call an election and elect the man to some office, generally a school superintendent. At least this has been the case for the last four years. The present incumbent a year ago was bedridden, and the teachers had to go to his room for their examination.
Record-Union, Sacramento, December 5, 1885, page 2

Last revised April 13, 2022